COOKING INGREDIENTS

Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]

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Taxonomy
Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]

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Uses
Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

Safety
A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Cultivation
Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]

Gallery

Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.

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Thyme

Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

History
Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]

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soups and stews. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. Libyan. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs.a little less if it is ground. Dried. assume that it means fresh. Thyme.com http://www. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. and of herbes de Provence. and in those derived from them. Persian. It can be propagated by seed. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. Leaves are often chopped.net/ .[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient.g. in a bouquet garni). Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. Lebanese. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). It tolerates drought well. and Turkish cuisines. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. the whole sprig may be used (e. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. In some Levantine countries. While summer-seasonal. Spanish. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. Italian. tomatoes and eggs. Greek. As a rule of thumb. while flavourful. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Albanian.crazychefs. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. fresh thyme is often available year-round. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is due to its content of thymol. Syrian. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. cuttings. Portuguese. Depending on how it is used in a dish. In French cuisine. storage life is rarely more than a week. or by the sprig. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Thyme is sold both fresh and dried.

thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. it was used to medicate bandages.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. etc.net/ . All thyme species are nectar sources. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. an antiseptic.[5] As with bay. tisane. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed].estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. hybrid T. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. The dried equivalent is 1:3.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. but is grown as a ground cover.com http://www. Because it is antiseptic. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash.crazychefs. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. pulegioides × T. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. salve. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. It also has medicinal uses. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days.[6] Thymol.

com http://www.crazychefs. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity.net/ .Variegated lemon thyme. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

crazychefs.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .com http://www.

B1) 0.com http://www.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1. and American cooking.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. often used as spice.0 mg Iron 6. European. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb. although parsley has a milder flavor.8 g 3.2 mg Magnesium 50. B2) 0.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 μg Calcium 138.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .net/ . Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro). B3) 1.9 g .4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.1 mg Folate (Vit. It is common in Middle Eastern.1 mg recommendations for adults. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.1 mg 6.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.crazychefs.0 mg Phosphorus 58.Dietary fiber 3.3 g 0.Sugars 0.

it attracts predatory insects. it is not related to real turnips.com http://www. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. which helps accommodate the long taproot. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. not blooming until its second year. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. However.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. or flat leaf (P. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Although little known in Britain and the United States. While parsley is biennial. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. For example.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots.net/ . The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. reducing pest attraction. which then tend to protect plants nearby. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. Like many other umbellifers. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination.crazychefs. neapolitanum). as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). used in soups and stews. tuberosum).Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens.

and lemon zest. In Southern and Central Europe.net/ . where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads.com/npc/parsley. Jett. 2. parsley is part of bouquet garni.crazychefs. with fish. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks.aspx?id=1075&s=4.com http://www.70% by mass. "That Devilish Parsley. e. Ossobuco alla milanese. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. In addition.g. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. root.plucodes. 4. leaf. [1]) in oxalic acid. a mixture of parsley. http://www.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). 2007.com". Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines.. fried chicken.[3] Parsley is high (1. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. or 4900. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon).html. soups. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. http://www. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. lamb or goose.com/PLUdetails. garlic.com". chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Last retrieved April 26." West Virginia University Extension Service. References 1. ^ a b c John W. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3.drugs. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. Parsley as an oil. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. "Parsley on plucodes. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. steaks. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. and sauces.

com http://www.net/ .crazychefs.Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

crazychefs.net/ .Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.

The flowers are purple. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. fried vegetables. Together with basil. 3-4 mm long. capers.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . and to add a nice.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food.g.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. and grilled meat. Varieties There are a number of subspecies.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. which is popular in southern Italy.net/ . It is particularly widely used in Turkish. Oregano is an important culinary herb. and lovage leaves. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). each with distinct flavours. spicy flavor.com http://www. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. growing to 20-80 cm tall. Oregano growing in a field. e. Greek. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. native to Europe. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. It is the leaves that are used in cooking.crazychefs. It is a perennial herb. O vulgare gracile. produced in erect spikes. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. Unlike most Italian herbs. of the mint family. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. as well as cultivars. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh.

[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat.net/ . which. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. In Turkish Cuisine.[5][6] Additionally. together with paprika. Asia Minor) and O. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. warm and slightly bitter taste. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. The influence of climate. useful for relieving children's coughs. Balkan peninsula.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. In the Philippines. especially for mutton and lambs meat. It has an aromatic. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. it can be usually found on table. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. Oregano growing in a pot. differs significantly in taste.com http://www. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. West Asia) have similar flavors. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. heracleoticum (Italy. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil.crazychefs. salt and pepper. It varies in intensity. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. however. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries.

It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. also called Cuban oregano. stomach upsets.[12] References 1. Plectranthus amboinicus. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. cholagogue. Used topically. expectorant. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον.at/~katzer/engl/Orig_vul. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. especially in the United States. stimulant. enteric parasites. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses.html. capsules. A Cretan oregano (O. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments.com http://www. limonene. influenza. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. stomachic and mildly tonic. Aqueous extracts. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs.crazychefs.[8] Hippocrates. pinene. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. but is usually stronger. ^ http://www. thymol. including Poliomintha longiflora.Main constituents include carvacrol. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. diaphoretic.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Lippia berlandieri. ocimene. indigestion. oregano. carminative. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. this substitution would not work the other way round. and caryophyllene. In the Philippines. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat.uni-graz. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. mild fevers. antispasmodic.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. fungal infections. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. the father of medicine.net/ . Coleus aromaticus). It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. emmenagogue. ^ Organic Gardening 2. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum.[7] and painful menstruation. useful for relieving children's coughs.

(2005). Medical News Today.org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286.". Retrieved 2008-11-26. ^ Epikouria Magazine.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4.1021/jf0510079. 28. J Nutr. Steinar.ac. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. doi:10. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID 16218659. draft revision for "organum". et al. 11. ^ Epikouria Magazine. http://www. J. 133 (5): 1286–1290.com http://www.3. 6. University of the West of England.uk/news/UWENews/article. Food Chem.com/articles/130620. 24 November 2008. Draft revision for "oregano". et al.co. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". PMID 12730411.uk/wild-oregano-oil-carvacrol. Fall/Spring 2007 5.nutrition. March 2009.crazychefs.net/ .asp?item=1374&year=2008.php. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". 53 (21): 8162–8168. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". (01 May 2003). http://info.medicalnewstoday. ^ ["http://www. (Cav. ^ a b Faleiro. draft revision for "origanum". Agric. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. http://jn. June 2008. Fall/Winter 2007 10.uwe.dmannose. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. Retrieved 200811-26. 12.) and Origanum vulgare L. Leonor.2008. 7. ^ Dragland.10.

In Ancient Greek. It is a hardy. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now".[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] In Greek mythology. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. it was from the giant fennel. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). recorded in the 10th century. it seems.com http://www. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. however. Ferula communis. umbelliferous herb. perennial. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Also.net/ . The Latin word for the plant was ferula. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. meaning "hay".Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). This came from the Old English fenol or finol. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists).crazychefs. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly.

) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.Dietary fiber 3. half as wide or less. and grows to heights of up to 2.crazychefs.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. they are finely dissected.20 g 1. B2) 0.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . B3) 0.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.net/ .64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. It is erect.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. glaucous green. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). and grooved.29 g 0.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. about 0. bulb. but thinner. B1) 0.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0. with hollow stems.com http://www.5 m.5 mm wide.047 mg Folate (Vit.01 mg 7.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0.

both raw and cooked.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. notably the Italian name finocchio. which is also known by several other names. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. including northern Europe. in pastures. F.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. both in its native range and elsewhere. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. but is more aromatic and sweeter. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. syn. It is of cultivated origin.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. "bronze-leaved" fennel. and in other open sites in many regions. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. it is often mislabelled as "anise". a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. the United States. It propagates well by seed. vulgare var.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. though usually not as strong. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. In North American supermarkets.com http://www.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. by the late 19th century.net/ . for its edible. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0.crazychefs.20 mg Manganese 0. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type.

For cooking. sompu in Telugu. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. Many egg. green seeds are optimal. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. often tossed with chicory and avocado. The bulb is a crisp. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. brown or green in colour when fresh. grilled. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. fish. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine.Fennel. or cooked in risotto.net/ . variyali in Gujarati.com http://www. pastas.crazychefs. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and risottos. badesoppu in Kannada. anise-flavoured spice. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. where bulbs and fronds are used. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. or eaten raw. stewed. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. though smaller. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. both raw and cooked. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. in side dishes. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. which are very similar in taste and appearance. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. It may be blanched or marinated. mouri in Bengali. but also the most expensive. foliage. salads. braised. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay.

these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. although not supported by direct evidence.com http://www. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche.net/ . act as phytoestrogens. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. Fennel tea. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. This use. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties.[12] For adults.crazychefs. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. or its polymers. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. as it is said to improve eyesight. used to ease flatulence in infants. also employed as a carminative. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. sometimes with some sweetener.

verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. which promote growth of breast tissue. badian (star anise). and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.net/ .[17] However.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child.crazychefs. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs.com http://www. followed by India.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fennel and coriander. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.

native to Sri Lanka. In Urdu.[5] In Malayalam. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. it is called darchin (‫. In Bengali.[2] In Marathi. Ceylon. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. the "real' cassia. synonym C. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[3] In Sri Lanka. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. it is known as "DalChini ( )". zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. In Telugu.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra.net/ . zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. itself ultimately from Phoenician. Chakka meaning bark or wood. which are often called cinnamon too.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. Hindi. and in Gujarati taj.crazychefs. it is called "Darchini" ( ).[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. it is called Dalchina Chakka. cinnamon is known as kurundu. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera.com http://www. In Farsi (Persian).C. in the original Sinhala. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫.

Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. in Proverbs. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon.net/ . aloe and cinnamon. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear.com http://www.crazychefs. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew .[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. and in Song of Solomon. to protect their monopoly as suppliers.

The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and coffee.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. tea. although in the first century.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers.8–49. have a greenish color. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. 7–18 cm (2. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. and have a distinct odor. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. They established a trading post in 1638. took control of the factories by 1640." (Braudel 1984. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese.1 inches) long. which are arranged in panicles. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe.crazychefs. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32.Ages. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. "The shores of the island are full of it". sugar. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. and used them to construct their nests. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire.2 feet) tall.net/ .literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. p. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. The flowers. However.com http://www. a Dutch captain reported. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. in a letter of about 1292. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining.75–7.

Zanzibar. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. verum). eg. According to the International Herald Tribune. Madagascar.com http://www.crazychefs. Sumatra. the West Indies. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. and Egypt. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. Bangladesh. and Vietnam.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. which is left to dry. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. Java. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying.net/ . the outer woody portion is removed. The next year.[15] According to the FAO. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. Vietnam. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. Only the thin (0. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. followed by China. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. India. Brazil. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. Chips are trimmings of quills.5 mm) inner bark is used. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia.

(Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu.com http://www. or "Indonesian cinnamon". and is considered to be less strong than cassia. zeylanicum). and thicker (2–3 mm thick). and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. less dense. as all of the layers of bark are used.[16] Ceylon cinnamon. However.crazychefs.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). is generally a medium to light reddish brown. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia.net/ . and more crumbly texture. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). many websites.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. using only the thin inner bark. the related species. hard and woody in texture. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. has a finer. for example. "Vietnamese cinnamon".

True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. True cinnamon. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. rather than cassia.5% to 1% of its composition. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia.com http://www. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is the main importer of true cinnamon.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). bread-based dishes. such as apple pie. It is of a golden-yellow color. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. tea. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. and then quickly distilling the whole. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark.crazychefs. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. hot cocoa. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). especially apples. In the United States. especially in Mexico. and liqueurs. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. drinks. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations.net/ . used in a variety of thick soups. ‫. and fruits. In the Middle East. but when cassia is present. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. a deep-blue tint is produced. The two barks.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. are easily distinguished. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. when whole. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. macerating it in seawater. and sweets. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.

2008.and a very hot aromatic taste. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. Encyclopaedia Britannica.crazychefs.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). and anethole. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits).[34] Notes 1.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. although it remains untested. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. and Myanmar (Burma). eugenol.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves).[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. In Hoodoo. beta-caryophyllene.com http://www. who failed. love. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. and money. luck. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. cassia. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. ^ a b "Cinnamon".[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.0. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. The Cinnamon Challenge. linalool. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. cinnamaldehyde. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.net/ .[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. cinnamyl acetate. few seem able to succeed.

http://www. Agric. Torres RP (December 1998).ac. J. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour. p.1021/jf051513y. 437 7. ^ Shan B. ^ "Cassia.437.org/tennent/v1_p5_c02. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. 23. Sánchez C. Anthea Bell.theepicentre. retrieved 2008-07-15 12.jstor. ^ Yule. Food Chem.thespicehouse.0. 53 (20): 7749–59. ^ The Epicentre.CO%3B2-N 15.php?storyId=6672644. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009.co. Sir James Emerson.org/docrep/007/ae017e/ae017e12. retrieved 2008-07-15 11. 2009. ^ http://www.com/eclectic/kings/cinnamomum.com/Spices/cinnamon. doi:10.htm 20. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents".com/spices/vietnamese-cassia-saigon-cinnamon-wholecracked-ground thespicehouse.htm.jp/toyobunko/III-2F-b-2/V-1/page/0487. Sun M. 10. 8. ^ http://news.—Cinnamon. Agric. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon.com 17.org/sici?sici=00754358(1970)60%3C222%3ATSTOTR%3E2. The History of Food. PMID 10077878.fao.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/south_asia_sri_lanka0s_spice _of_life/html/1. ^ [2] 18.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_June/ai_3289703 13.html.za/index. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. Van-Koiij A. Robert. http://www. ^ http://links. PMID 16190627. J. ^ Harris. Mancini DA.com http://www.stm 3.1021/jf050709v. p. http://www. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID 16104824. Cozzolino FF. Harvey.co.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. Henry. http://lakdiva.bbc. 53 (17): 6939–46.html#pg598. ^ Felter.iol.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". "Solid.html.2.. http://www. p. retrieved 2007-05-01 19.en.com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. Emily. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. ^ Mancini-Filho J. Account of the Island of Ceylon. 4. Food Chem. Cai YZ. Cinnamomum.ihaystack. ^ Knox. retrieved 200705-01 21. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. ^ http://www. ^ Tennent. Breyne) extracts". ^ [1] 16." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. Encyclopedia of Spices. 9. Nerín C (August 2005). ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ http://www. doi:10. retrieved 200807-15 6. 437f.html.nii. Corke H (October 2005).npr. ^ López P. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. p. p. tr. Cathay and the Way Thither. 22. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum.henriettesherbal. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. revised ed. ^ http://findarticles. Batlle R. Col. 437).net/ . Cinnamon.org/templates/story/story. http://dsr.crazychefs.

http://www. Kristof et al. Ali Khan MM. July 2000.1002/ptr. a publication now in the public domain.com/news/health/803646/chillies_are_the_spice_of_life__pepper s_have_been/index.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68.com/genpage.nutrition.2217/14750708. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. Fernand (1984). 29.3. Retrieved 2008-05-11. Braudel.com/doi/abs/10.113. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 30. Charles (1998). Eleventh Edition. http://www. doi:10. Safdar M. Retrieved 200805-11. ^ Khan A. Agricultural Research magazine. Retrieved 2007-12-17.utm.com.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14633804.2337/diacare. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro".3. Retrieved 2008-05-11. ^ Beck. et al.sciencedaily. ^ [3]. http://www. www. Cinnamon. ^ Taher.crazychefs. ^ Ranjbar. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000).pdf. http://www. doi:10. Leslie. Research: Thalido. Akram et al. 33.luckymojo.htm. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography".diabetesjournals. Corn.sciencedaily. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). ^ George Mateljan Foundation. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". 27. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study".my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH.1643..redorbit.. Khattak KN. doi:10.24. Retrieved 200808-05. Muhammad et al.com..html?source=r_health.113. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. ^ Vanschoonbeek. http://eprints.1016/00219673(88)90035-0. Eugen J.. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. (2005). 28.2217/14750708. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism.net/ . Archer (1988). Alan W. http://www.futuremedicine. Anderson RA (December 2003).com/releases/2004/07/040716081706. retrieved 200705-01 32. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes". 26. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients".lesliebeck.com http://www. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food.. New York: Kodansha International. ^ Yronwode. http://www.1.com/ingredient_index. Cat. doi:10.php?featured_food=80.12. http://jn.1. 34. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. retrieved 200705-01 25. retrieved 2007-12-12 31.3215. Medicinal Seasonings. The Perspective of the World.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/977. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. ground.26.. ^ Verspohl. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". PMID 14633804.whfoods. http://care. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade.

[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia.M. powdered. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.net/ . and dehydrated forms. pickled.Department of Export Agriculture. which it is not. used without qualifiers. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. They are known by the common name "onion" but. frozen. it usually refers to Allium cepa. Fritsch & Matin from Iran.com http://www. chopped. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. one of the oldest vegetables."[3] Uses Onions. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber.crazychefs. and Allium asarense R. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. Onions can be used. canned. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. They are now available in fresh.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop.

[5] However. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. due to toxicity during digestion. In ancient Greece. Depending on the variety. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.crazychefs. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. and also to relieve headaches.[5] The onion is easily propagated. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. snakebite and hair loss. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. coughs. transported and stored. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. In Bronze Age settlements. spicy. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. cats. and other animals should not be given onions in any form.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life.chopped or sliced.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. an onion can be sharp.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. recent evidence has shown that dogs. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. However. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions".net/ . Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola.

Dietary fiber 1.monounsaturated 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.02 mg Vitamin K 0.com http://www.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit. 0 μg 9.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.34 g 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 4.net/ .4 mg Vitamin E 0. B1) 0.polyunsaturated 0.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.crazychefs.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.013 g .7 g Fat .24 g .1 g 89.12 mg Folate (Vit.042 g .21 mg Magnesium 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.saturated 0.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.1 g 1.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. B3) 0. B2) 0.

[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. followed by Western Yellow.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. Western White. and Vidalia. Imperial Valley Sweet. For all varieties of onions. Western White.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. Peruvian Sweet. Peruvian Sweet.[10] In many parts of the world. Mexico. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. Empire Sweet.com http://www. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. Imperial Valley Sweet. Empire Sweet. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. If you are allergic to onions. some studies have found their action to be ineffective.crazychefs. Mexico. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. Empire Sweet. Texas 1015. anticholesterol.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. Texas 1015. Northern Red. Texas 1015. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. Western Yellow. Imperial Valley Sweet. diabetes. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Shallots have the most phenols. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. eleven times the amount found in Western White. and Vidalia. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. osteoporosis. Peruvian Sweet. However. Northern Red. onions are used to heal blisters and boils.net/ .[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. anticancer.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. In general. pungent yellow (New York Bold). then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies).[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. Mexico. and other diseases. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. In the United States.

Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. differs among Allium species. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. breathing difficulties. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). shallots. As onions are sliced or eaten. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. cells are broken. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. limiting the amount of gas generated. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. and the irritation effect. mouth and throat ulcerations. ginger. diarrhea. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. On January 31. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. allylmercaptan and allicin.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. Eye irritation can.net/ . Symptoms can include irritable bowel.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant.com http://www.crazychefs. all present in garlic. garden lilies. creating a stinging sensation. where it binds to sensory neurons. and bananas.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. chives. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. it can lead to an allergic reaction.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. 2008. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. nausea. leeks. therefore. allylpropyldisulfide. garlic. The volume of sulfenic acids released.include reactions to onions.

which can be planted directly in the ground.net/ .Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. which have been developed in more recent times. more commonly today. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions.com http://www. from sets started from seed the previous year. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. "short-day" onions. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year.crazychefs. Allium fistulosum. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. Finally. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. the Welsh onion. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types.

a hybrid of Allium cepas. Vale.750 South Korea 1.764 Pakistan 1.crazychefs.637 Japan Egypt 1. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.149 Spain World Total 64. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.220 Turkey 1.com http://www. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .758 Russia 1. each of which forms a bulb.Produce bulblets in the flower head.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion. Oregon (USA).500 China United States 3.793 India 5. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.346 2.302 1. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.

after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. It remains in effect as of 2009.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. passed in 1958. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.The Onion Futures Act.crazychefs. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.com http://www.net/ .

[1] A bulb of garlic. Allium sativum.crazychefs. known as garlic. It has a characteristic pungent. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. 1793. shallot. Medical Botany. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. from William Woodville. Its close relatives include the onion. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and chive. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. commonly known as garlic. the most commonly used part of the plant. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L.com http://www. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. leek.net/ .

Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). The leaves. The papery. Garlic is grown globally. "crow garlic". Garlic plants can be grown close together.[6] One of the best-known "garlics".crazychefs. In cold climates. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005.Yunnan province of China. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red.com http://www. and for medicinal purposes. with Russia (1. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". respectively. according to Zohary and Hopf. are common weeds in fields. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive.net/ . with approximately 10. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. They can suffer from pink root. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. The cloves are used as seed.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. the so-called elephant garlic. and Allium oleraceum. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. India (4. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. Allium vineale. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. accounting for over 77% of world output. stems (scape). for consumption (raw or cooked). Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised.[5] The "wild garlic". Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. In North America. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature.

coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. Southeast Asia. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world".crazychefs. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. semiofficial.4%). A = aggregate (may include official. south Asia. northern Africa.net/ .com http://www. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy.Alaska) in fifth place (1.088.000 325.000 15. or ginger.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.400 140. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods.810 168. California. southern Europe. or estimates).000 142. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.000 128. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press.000 125.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output.686. F = FAO estimate. It is often paired with onion.000 221.000 254. tomato. P = official figure. including eastern Asia.000 645. C = calculated figure. and parts of South and Central America. the Middle East. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.

Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. cleaned. the resulting product.crazychefs. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. crostini and canapé. In Japan and Korea. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. "stems". or vegetables. meat. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. In eastern Europe. garlic toast. oil.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. almond. and spices. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and roast them in an oven. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. breads and pasta. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. The leaves are cut. Immature scapes are tender and edible. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. salt. oil. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. and a chunky base produce skordalia. In some cuisine. is sweet and syrupy. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. bruschetta. meats. and then stir-fried with eggs. called black garlic. and is now being sold in the United States. Garlic.net/ . or "tops". Blending garlic. They are also known as "garlic spears".com http://www. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. United Kingdom and Australia.

Storage

Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—theheart.org, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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crazychefs. werewolves. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic.[50] In Europe.[48] Due to its strong odor. The herb is. and worms from eating the plant. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. all present in garlic.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. persillade. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. such as pistou. usually enjoy these sensations.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day.[51] To ward off vampires. insects. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. deterring animals like birds. leeks. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. garden lilies. Humans.in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. ginger. and release of AMS several hours more. garlic. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. chives. shallots. included in many garlic recipes. making garlic much more potent than onions. hung in windows. forming allyl methyl sulfide. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. or leeks. allylmercaptan and allicin. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. allylpropyldisulfide. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose.com http://www. However. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. and bananas.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". where it is excreted. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. shallots. Among the members of the onion family.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. however. When eaten in quantity.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. Since digestion takes several hours. However. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. and vampires. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. including onions. garlic could be worn. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. thus mellowing its spiciness.net/ . or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. therefore. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine.

saquinavir. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events.net/ . (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). sweating. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects.com http://www. similar to the effect of aspirin. and menstrual irregularities. Garlic can thin the blood.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. minimal risks to normal individuals. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. if appropriate. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. are largely unknown. indicated Muhammad.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". dizziness. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. at worst. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. as well as other medications. Editing help is available. emesis. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". indigestion.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats.crazychefs.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. nausea.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. antiplatelets. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. if any exist. bleeding. However. antiparasitic value of garlic. allergic reactions.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. You can help by converting this article to prose.In Daoism mythology. and hypoglycemic drugs.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. and diarrhea. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. calcium channel blockers. antihypertensives.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth.

including burns to children. http://www. 2.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. 3. 2000).org/Vol79/79_6/8. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. ^ McGee p.com/alternative-therapies/herbs-for-health/medicinal-garlic/ 9. (2004). Retrieved 2007-08-28. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.net/ . http://hdl.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. garlick)".ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. ^ http://www. 112 7. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. ^ a b Lee. Domestication of plants in the Old World. et al.com/warrenreporter/index. 197 5. Ethiopia". third edition (Oxford: University Press. In particular. is discouraged. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. Retrieved 5 June. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23).crazychefs. J.com http://www.html 8. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities.natural-holistic-health.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns.nj. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. Notes 1. p. 397 6.htm. Retrieved 5 June 2009.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. topical use of raw garlic. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.html.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". split. A bulb of garlic. ^ a b c d Tabor. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum.net/10113/877.at/~katzer/engl/Alli_sat.unigraz. bigger. http://www. 4. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L.jhortscib.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. et al.handle. ^ http://www. (2005). G. one the bulbs will grow peeled.

30. Arch. 18.A. ^ Borrelli F. PMID 17325291. Intern. ^ Mader FH (October 1990).. doi:10. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. ^ a b Steiner M. http://personalpages. Chao WJ (March 2007). U. ^ Durak I. Daryn (2003). (Mrs. 19..University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman.1002/mnfr. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial".1001/archinte. "Tropes. Biochem. ^ Gardner CD. Proc. Mills RW. 34.200700072.200700058. Acad. (p.uk/staff/daryn. PMID 2291748. ^ Durak I. July 1. 29.167. J. 5. A.). Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. doi:10.A 400 Year History.ama-assn. Oztürk HS. Sartoratto. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. doi:10. Squadrito GL.1016/j. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. Natl. [2] ^ Hamel.ama-assn. J. J. Vosoughi AR.01. 17. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. McFerren M (February 2007). 31. F.4. Hyg. A Modern Herbal. Med. 15.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". 2005 ^ Groppo.4. Accessed: December 18. doi:10. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health .. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". Aytaç B.lehoux/Tropes.crazychefs. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology".net/ . 20. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. ^ Charlson M. 14. PMID 17325296. Facts. Med. doi:10. Motta.1073/pnas. doi:10. 23. Akrami M (March 2007).346. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. Lin RS (June 1998). 25.S. doi:10. 27.005. Herald Publishing Co. http://archinte. PMID 17951430. 26. PMID 9641475. PMID 15218732. PMID 15157944. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". Maud. Olcay E. Sci.pdf. Sova P (May 2004). Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. Nutr.325. 28. Intern. doi:10. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. PMID 15277094. N. PMID 17966136. Sylva." Int.com 54 | P a g e http://www. Garlic. 167 (4): 346–53. ^ Kojuri J. Ramacciato. PMID 17328819.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. et al (November 2007). Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . 33. ^ Chan KC. 13. P.org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346. 12. Izzo AA (November 2007).10. Arch..org/cgi/content/extract/167/4/325. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. Better Nutrition. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. PMID 17918162. 167 (4): 325–6. 22. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech).1002/mnfr. and Empiricism" (PDF). 15 (6): 373–7. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. and Mary U. 32. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. R. et al (June 2004). 5:109–115. PMID 17123684. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. doi:10. Paul B. 21. 24. Güven C (2002). "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". 35.C.manchester. 104 (46): 17977–82.1001/archinte. Lawson LD. 16. http://archinte. Capasso R. Block E. Ferraresi.jnutbio. Yin MC.2004.1186/1476-511X-6-5. et al (February 2007).0705710104.ac.1162/106361403773062678. Kavutcu M. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007).. Dent.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". ^ Goodbye. ^ Benavides GA. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32.167. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. 11. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. 2006. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats".

1. (2001). Jennifer (2002-12-13). http://mic. http://www. Teel R.html 46.. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. ^ a b c Yamasaki T.473. 41. Iwai K.. section "Conclusion" 48. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. ISBN 0-30436561-0. ^ a b Mayo Clinic.. http://linkinghub.com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic. "Effect of allixin. Imafuku M. Raymond T (1994). PMID 8644128. 122.. 49 (1): 473. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats". PMID 8441577. Slattery M. National Health Service. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. Steckelberg JM. ^ http://washokufood. Yoshida S. http://aac.Vol 9 No. Lett. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. (1991-08-01).Garlic-in-Oil 61. 65.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ^ a b c d Hogg. Patel R (January 2005). ^ John S.36. UK Medicines Information. ^ Fareed G. PMID 15616341. doi:10. 211. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". H. 49. NLM Gateway.1128/AAC. doi:10. Thomson M. Retrieved December 7. James. Nishino H. W. PMID 11481410.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60.elsevier.sgmjournals. Summer 2005 . ^ Garlic . Engl. PMID 11600262.ch. Complementary Medicines Summary. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. a stress compound from garlic. Aon MA. 66.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. Retrieved 2009-01-30. http://joi. 39. ^ Alnaqeeb MA.org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257.28095-0. Sanders N. ^ McNally p. 049 .org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. Lau B. ^ Oi Y.jst. ^ McGee p. et al (October 2005). ^ Macpherson et al.jp/JST. "Allixin. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9.it/didattica/infochimica/2006_aglio/pagine/agronomy. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. Sagi A. PMC: 538912.go. 58. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. Fuwa T. Kominato Y. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans".pdf. ^ Shuford JA.com/a/Garlic. "Garlic burns".com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390.jlc.crazychefs. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. Retrieved 2007-0707. David (2003). 2007. 120. In Search of Dracula. Retrieved December 7. ^ Kodera Y.unito. Shishido C. 85 (3): 157–64. p. Toxicol. ^ http://www. ^ Macpherson et al. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). 310–311 47.goldbamboo. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65. 1988. 37. Itakura Y. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. Sterling Publishing. p. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L.49. Volume 7.. Agents Chemother. ^ Health Canada . ^ Lemar KM.go. 53. 43.com/topic-t6335-a1-6Allium_sativum.January 29.asm. 211 51. garlic advisory 63. 42.net/ .".com http://www.2005. Ronen M (November 2001). ^ a b McNally. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. http://joi. Antimicrob. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). 52. 2007. ^ http://www. Bordia T. Scolaro M.economicexpert. ^ Baruchin AM.com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582. Nishimura S. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. "Garlic burns". AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No.htm 44. 4 .html 54. Ali M (June 1996). Sumida T. on mutagenesis.elsevier. Book 65 57. 40. Matuura H.blogspot. 38. Castro C.nhs. Pickering p.1099/mic. http://linkinghub.ukmi. Microbiology (Reading. Houghton Mifflin.) 62. Yoffe B. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". 64.jp/JST.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. Long D. ^ http://lem. Jordan W.. ^ Bukhari. Chesson C. ^ Pickering..0.html 45.jst.jlc. (1989-01-30). Passa O. PMID 16207909."..

Shan. http://circ. Hile. Am. Boudoulas H. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. E. Belz GG (October 1997). 50. Hort. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. The chemistry of garlic and onions. H.. PMID 9355906. (2000). Breithaupt-Grögler K. http://linkinghub. Lemar. J... Kraemer.. Gardner..com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6. L. 94 (6): 632–5.. PMID 8441577. M. Block. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent.P. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. PMID 9247357..jp[青森県産]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353.. Jain AK. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. [4] Lawson. Selfsufficientish . Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. (1985). Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. D. A. K. L. 129: 144–151. Lawson.net/ . Barzilay. Sci. D.Garlic. Naoki Kashimoto. Simmons DL. Lloyd. L. Med. Ling M. C. P. Am.. Pharm. Garlic. A.. Kozue Ogasawara. Hamilton. S.elsevier. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". [3] Yukihiro Kodera.. 354-363 (2002). Block. and H. J. (2004).. "Garlic burns". L.. 3rd ed. Chem. Vol.References Japanese garlic. and Related Species (Second Edition). Vargas R. Naoto Uda. Retrieved 1 May 2005.crazychefs.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Campbell JH (July 1997). Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. Masanori Ayabe.com http://www. Chem.ahajournals. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. P. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. Vol. Williams & Wilkens. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. R. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.-Z. Campbell GR. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. 50. Z. Isao Sumioka. Gotzkowsky S. Zemah. Jiro Yoshida. R. H. Koch.. Susumu Yoshida. D. Bull. I. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. Yukihiro Kodera. M. Block. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203.M. H. E. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Pharm. Z. Makoto Ichikawa. Kiazand. 405-407 (2002). (2001). Turner. Soc. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". McMahon FG (June 1993). Block. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". Lawson. E. R. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (1992). A. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. D. Efendy JL. (1996). Shafir. Balch. G. Wang. 'Kyolic'.. Kamenetsky. C. Andy (2004). A. D. PMID 8506890. J. E. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Chatterjee. Balise. Garty BZ (March 1993). New York: Avery. Rabinowitch (2004). D. L. Bull.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9355906. Zhang. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L.

310–3. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. Garlic. Scribner. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". J. Leeks". Eid. Harold (2004). Yeh. http://aac. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". H. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Pharmacol. Veena Viswanath.S. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Bernhard H. D. Steiner M. (1998). Yeh. (1999). Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. Y-Y. PMID 2291748.. pp. Lin RS (June 1998).12. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. In: Ohigashi. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Michael Bandell. S.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005).com http://www. (1997).2005. SunWook Hwang. Geierstanger. Marcel Dekker. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology.. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Cardiovasc. doi:10. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Y-Y.crazychefs. McGee. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. Steckelberg JM.49. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. PMC: 538912. PMID 15616341. 49 (1): 473.. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis".net/ .com/pt/pt-core/templatejournal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.. (eds). Salunkhe. Neil A (1994). http://meta. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4.asm.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. Agents Chemother. Kadam. Patel R (January 2005). et al.wkhealth. PMID 8169881. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". et al. 31 (6): 904–8. et al. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. Mader FH (October 1990).1. Shuford JA. Abstract. "The Onion Family: Onions. PMID 9641475. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets.K. Silagy C. Samer R. Antimicrob.473. Macpherson.Lindsey J.1128/AAC.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. Pakistan. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. and consist of a long calyx. In Vietnam. Madagascar.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m.crazychefs. and Sri Lanka. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green.5-2 cm long. after which they develop into a bright red. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. syn.net/ . Cloves are harvested when 1.com http://www. terminating in four spreading sepals. Zanzibar. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. when they are ready for collecting. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is called đinh hương.

often in combination with cumin. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. In south Indian cuisine. During Christmas. but as they are extremely strong. along with other spices. especially for digestive problems. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed.000 tonnes). which sells Djarum Black. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf.net/ . Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. it is used in almost all dishes.[1] In north Indian cuisine.com http://www. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. but with the addition of other spices). Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. In Vietnamese cuisine. entering the kidney.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Cloves are used in cheeses. cloves are often used to season pho broth. spleen and stomach meridians. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Cloves are used as a carminative. they are used sparingly. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. warm and aromatic. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom.

or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. RH (AHG). Makian. Ternate.P. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. and Tidore. were highly prized in Roman times. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century.[5] In West Africa. vomiting and diarrhea. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. Ayurvedic herbalist K. pimples etc. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. mainly from the Maluku Islands.[6] History Until modern times. Subsequently.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. and Zanzibar.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. including for multiple sclerosis. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. along with nutmeg and pepper. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. Khalsa. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands).net/ . In the late fifteenth century. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). including Bacan. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana.crazychefs." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. including cloves. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency.[7] Nevertheless.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus).direct stomach qi downward. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD.com http://www. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. Brazil. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. Moti. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. It is also used in severe burns.[7] Cloves. most of the West Indies. a kg costing around 7 g of gold.

http://www. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. Alan. kaempferol. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. Steven Clavey.[8] Notes and references 1. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. ^ http://www. Karen. Medicine Plus. Erich Stoger.net/ . crategolic acid.squarespace. ^ http://oneearthherbs. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves.. tannins. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. Phyllis and Balch. pp. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Special Diets for Illness 6. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol.htm. Prescription for Nutritional Healing.nlm. ^ Dorenburg. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. comprising 72-90%. ©2003. and eugenitin. 2. due to the high price of importing them. Jack (2004). 94. ^ Balch.html National Institutes of Health. pg. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 3. Spice: The History of a Temptation. Avery Publishing. Vintage Books. ^ a b Turner.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves.. xv.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.tibetmed. Steven Clavey. gallotannic acid. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. Andrew and Page. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. James. ^ "TibetMed .org/questions/question_44. stigmasterol and campesterol. Erich Stoger.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-clove.com/diseases/special-diets-for-illness. 5.html Tilotson. rhamnetin. the flavonoids eugenin. ©2000.com http://www. 3rd ed. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. and Andrew Gamble. and several sesquiterpenes.crazychefs. methyl salicylate (painkiller). Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol.Question: Multiple Sclerosis".nih. 8.

Shallot
Shallot

Shallots

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Details
Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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Cardamom
Cardamom

True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

Varieties
There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]

Uses

Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.

Gallery

Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

Notes
1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer. Rediff.com, 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

Bibliography
1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum
Hook.f.

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Usages
Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Identification
Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. http://www. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography".[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 .com/BZ-shuju/standshow. Retrieved 10 November. f. 18 May 2009 2. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. 4. 5. doi:10.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357.atypon-link. (2005).iso. (2006).88. NPR. f. http://www. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise".a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 .org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. 6.) -.1542/peds. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. Retrieved 8 June 2009.2004-0058.1021/jf058156b. http://www. ^ International Organization for Standardization. 3.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1.net/ . Retrieved 8 June 2009. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species.crazychefs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974.htm?csnumber=19183. while Lederer et al. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods.com/AOAC/doi/abs/10.3. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn.iso.703.2005. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. ^ Joshi. PMID 15492355. Vaishali C. ^ Louisa Lim.Specification". ^ International Organization for Standardization. Ines et al. http://www. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. et al.Botanical nomenclature". employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS.com http://www. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.chinaios. doi:10. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角".org/iso/catalogue_detail.5555/jaoi. ^ Lederer. Retrieved 8 June 2009.htm?csnumber =4844.

cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. native from the east Mediterranean to East India. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.net/ .crazychefs.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.com http://www.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.

in Iran and Central Asia. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route.net/ . longitudinally ridged. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. In Northern India and Nepal. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. including kamūnu in Akkadian. locally called "Kermun". Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ .com http://www. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". a member of the parsley family. and yellow-brown in colour.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. parsley and dill. cumin is known as zireh. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. in Turkey. Kerman.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. being oblong in shape.crazychefs. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . cumin is known as kimyon. the story goes. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. In Arabic. maduru. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). in northwestern China.

Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der.com http://www. Morocco. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. India. and this practice continues in Morocco. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. In South Asia. Uzbekistan. In Sri Lanka. Turkey.net/ . have been dated to the second millennium BC. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. and Chile. Syria.crazychefs. Tajikistan. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. when added to hot milk and consumed. today it is mostly grown in Iran. Mexico. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. Seeds. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. Egypt. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today).

Cuban and Mexican-style foods. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. Northern Mexican cuisines. It is traditionally added to chili. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine.net/ . containing a single seed. and borne in umbels. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content.com http://www.crazychefs. and in some traditional breads from France. either ground or as whole seeds. North African. and bahaarat. Sri Lankan. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. tacos. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. curry powder. Indian. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. Pakistani. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. white or pink. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. and is found in achiote blends. popular in Indian. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). curries. Contrary to popular belief in the US. but are smaller and darker in colour. pinnate or bipinnate. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. Cuban. garam masala. It is an herbaceous annual plant. enchiladas. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. sofrito. Today. and other Middle-Eastern. Middle Eastern.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. The flowers are small. thread-like leaflets. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. adobos.

com http://www. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F). Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. B2) 0. 64 μg 44. it is drought-tolerant.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. well-drained soil.Sugars 2.33 mg Vitamin K 5.435 mg Folate (Vit.net/ .24 g 22.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.27 g 17.25 g .06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.crazychefs.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.7 mg Vitamin E 3.very common in Mexican cuisine. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine.5 g Fat . and needs fertile.81 g 8. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. It is grown from seed. Cultivation of cumin requires a long.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.Dietary fiber 10.saturated 1. hot summer of 3–4 months. B3) 4. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. sown in spring.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. However. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.

while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. In Polish the difference is even less significant.net/ .a cat and 'kotek' .[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q.a small cat). Not related to curcumin. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it.). and larger than caraway (Carum carvi).com http://www. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'.Zinc 4. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. lighter in colour. to eat. from the Swedish word "spisa". a chemical found in turmeric. as in 'kot' . Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. In Swedish. For example. However.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.v. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin).crazychefs.

doi:10. doi:10. et al. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. from China". Essential Oils". Domestication of plants in the Old World.gov. ^ http://www.313. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1.77.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. www.2009.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.ars-grin. Lu et al. ^ a b c Li." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 .arsgrin. Retrieved 2008-03-13. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. p." premiumwanadoo.foodreference.crazychefs.1021/jf0487351.html 6. 2. 3.". ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". Nicola S.1002/ffj. Rong.com/html/fcumin. 4.1302.030. doi:10. 9. 206 5.com. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. ^ "KMN. 2000. ^ Growingtaste. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. http://www. (2009). (2005). and Carum carvi L.aca. 2000). third edition (Oxford: University Press.com 7.pl?12617.05.com http://www. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. 8.1016/j. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b Iacobellis. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). ^ "Kamūnu.net/ . ^ a b Wang.

net/ .Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.com http://www. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

net/ . Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. West Africa and the Caribbean. or spice. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae).com http://www. cineol.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. shogaols and gingerols. sedative. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. medicine. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene.crazychefs. and galangal. cardamom. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. and citral) have also been identified. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. In laboratory animals.

the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. cookies.com http://www. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Aduwa in Nepali. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. to which honey is often added. salt. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. [edit] Regional use In India. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. Alay in Marathi. Allam ( ) in Telugu. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. and tender green chili peppers.crazychefs. ghee. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. crackers and cake. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. or frozen for longer term storage. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. Inji in Tamil. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. ginger ale. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. Adrak. For storage. Ginger is also made into candy. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. especially in the Tanjore belt. in Gujarati. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. in Tamil Nadu. which makes swallowing easier. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. Additionally. particularly gingerols and shogaols.net/ . and ginger beer. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Ginger has a sialagogue action. nuts. and sugar. stimulating the production of saliva. In South India. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. enchi in Malayalam.

In the Caribbean. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. In the traditional Korean kimchi. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. In China. gingerbread. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. and a variety of nuts and seeds. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. ginger snaps. On the island of Corfu. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process.net/ . ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. In the Ivory Coast. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. a type of ginger beer.com http://www. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. In Arabic.crazychefs. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. and making drinks such as sorrel. during their occupation of the islands. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. ginger is called gyin. Greece. In Burma. In Japan. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. In Western cuisine. is made. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. In Vietnam. parkin and ginger biscuits. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. However. France. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. ginger is a popular spice for cooking.

net/ . Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. though it does interact with some medications. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including warfarin.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion.com http://www. which several scientific studies support. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds.crazychefs. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. though studies been inconsistent.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. cough and cold. morning sickness and chemotherapy. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries.

powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. ginger is included in several traditional preparations.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In India. particularly if taken in powdered form. in food etc. ginger can cause heartburn. people use ginger for making tea. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. belching and nausea. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar.com http://www. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. In the United States. clotting. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. and although it's generally recognized as safe.[14] In Congo. it is considered good for a sore throat.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. In Indonesia. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice.crazychefs. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. bloating. reducing "winds" in the blood. gas. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. which is considered a panacea. In China. and individuals who have had ulcers. and heart rhythms.net/ . In Burma.

000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. washing and scraping gives white ginger. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. Traditionally. followed by Indonesia(~12. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. or washed and scraped.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. which has slipped to the second position (~20.5%).com http://www. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff.crazychefs. Production trends India. but this generally reduces its value. now leads in global production of ginger. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming.7%). Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. it is immediately scalded.000 F 177. Scalding.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. produces black ginger.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). Nepal(~11.000 158. replacing China.net/ . with over 30% of the global share. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes.

000 34.gov. galangal. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. Retrieved 2008-03-03.com http://www. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).net/ . or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. is also known as "wild ginger". 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure.crazychefs. is used in cooking and medicine. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. Also referred to as galangal. A = Aggregate(may include official. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family.000 57.pl?42254.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. semiofficial or estimates). Asarum canadense.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine.000 28.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan .387. F = FAO estimate. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . http://www. a carcinogenic compound. www.contains ginger material References 1. the flower buds are the part eaten. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".ars-grin.000 42.arsgrin. and its root has similar aromatic properties. Galangal is also called Thai ginger.270 1. but it is not related to true ginger.000 8.

(2006). & Pittler.com http://www. ^ Al-Achi.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772.2.com 5.com/health/ginger/NS_patient-ginger. ^ Afshari.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2.com/oldformat.523. doi:10. 8. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. Harold (2004). 14. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. http://www. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.library. Shih-Lu Wu. http://bja. Retrieved 2006-09-06. ^ MD O' Hara. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007).oxfordjournals. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. Mary. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.com 12. 15.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716. "Beverage of Champions". (2007). This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice".amaassn. 6.net/ . Retrieved 2007-08-02. Retrieved 2007-08-02. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397.. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". E. 3.umm. 425-426. 10. 11. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. doi:10. PMID 9821826. http://www.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25).html. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153.edu/biomed/spice/index.1001/archfami. Retrieved 2007-08-02. et al. http://www.H. M. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". http://journals. PMID 10793599.org/cgi/content/full/7/6/523. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). Li-Jiau Huang. (01 Mar 2000). Antoine. ^ Al-Amin. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Ali Taghizadeh et al. Sheng-Chu Kuo.2006. ^ Chen.).1021/jf071460f.com/china_blog/2007/01/the_beverage_of_champions_1.crazychefs. & MSt. MD.com 7.013.mayoclinic. 13. http://timeblog.cambridge.org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367. http://archfami.1016/j.edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch. "Ginger".cfm?displayID=15. Zainab M.7. http://unitproj. doi:10. ^ McGee. Kim Farrell. Tin-Yun Ho. MD. Retrieved 5 November. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536.ucla. Retrieved 2007-0808.6. Kathi Kemper.html. doi:10. ^ Ernst. Susan (2007-01-15). 4.uspharmacist. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. 9. Retrieved 2007-08-06.foodchem. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". MPH (1998). ^ Jakes. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". Jaw-Chyun. David Kiefer. New York: Scribner pp. MD. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF).01.

is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. for dyeing. and to impart color to mustard condiments. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. Erode.com http://www. In medieval Europe. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy.net/ . slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. slightly bitter. Zingiberaceae.crazychefs. For these reasons.

rendang. and many more. Although usually used in its dried.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. yellow cakes. and mustard.[citation needed] Sangli. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. dairy products. sauces. Over-coloring. sweets. orange juice. but also in masak lemak. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. yogurt. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. cake icings. Turmeric City. or Textile City. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. etc. powdered form. such as in pickles. In non-South Asian recipes. cereals.Yellow City. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. relishes. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. not only in curry. much like ginger. gelatins. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. turmeric is also used fresh.crazychefs. popcorn color. custardlike yellow color. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). is sometimes used to compensate for fading.com http://www. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. biscuits.net/ . ice cream.

It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. are spiced with turmeric. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). a traditional dish in South Asia. Within one week of using turmeric. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. is also treated with turmeric powder.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. burns and bruises. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. an uncurable and debilitating disease.crazychefs. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices.[4] cancer. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. Japan. turmeric has been used to color cheeses.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is unknown why it works. Indians. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. and other digestive disorders. yogurt.In combination with annatto (E160b).com http://www. dry mixes. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth.net/ . turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. salad dressings. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. winter butter and margarine.

S. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. or BDNF. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. research activity into curcumin is exploding. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.net/ . improves the absorption of turmeric.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. In 1998 researchers at St. and the U. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. with no adverse effects. multiple myeloma.crazychefs. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. and Pakistan. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. and colorectal cancer. Alzheimer's. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. Bangladesh. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens.com http://www.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. Snake Bite Anti venin. found in black pepper. Bangalore. which supports nerve growth. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. John‘s Medical College.

particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. such as saris. Also. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. In southern India.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). During the south Indian festival Pongal. jaggery. and it is used for power and purification rites. and coconut and cooked in steam.net/ . In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state.crazychefs. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. However.com http://www. This happens in economically lower situations. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. part of the Bengali wedding. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. as a part of the marriage ritual. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures.

Srinivas PS.ars-grin.uk/1/hi/health/1668932. Judy] (June 2009).I. www.com http://www. doi:10. keto and enol.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms.co.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance.gov. or Natural Yellow 3.net/ .2008.172. ^ [|Ketteler.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1. 64(4):353-6.ars-grin.bbc. ^ http://news.thieme-connect. 1998 May. (2009). Retrieved June 2009.stm 5. a polyphenol.de Shoba G.aolhealth. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". et al. Majeed M. 2. 75300.W.07. The systematic chemical name is (1E. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Notes 1. http://www. Rajendran R. ^ http://www. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". E.crazychefs. http://www. Planta Med. ^ Chan.6-heptadiene3.de/DOI/DOI?10.1016/j.5-dione. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 .com/condition-center/heart-disease/surviving-a-heart-attack.090. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". Joy D. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4.pl?12676. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect.foodchem.6E)-1. 6.C. Joseph T. AOL Health. Retrieved 2008-03-04.

) Willd. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. flowers. 10–20 centimetres (3.9–7. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.4 in) in diameter. The leaves are pale green.6–2. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. hence its name. is a flowering tree in the spurge family.crazychefs. Euphorbiaceae. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana).com http://www. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. simple and ovate. with wide spreading or pendulous branches.9 in) long. 4–6 centimetres (1. Indian walnut. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. with an acute apex.net/ . Kemiri. which allows its use as a candle (see below). The nut is round. also known as Candleberry.

One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. named kukui were burned to provide light. pounded seeds. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona.com http://www. This led to their use as a measure of time. The flavor. On the island of Java in Indonesia. are applied around the navel for costiveness. giving them greater underwater visibility.net/ . and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. and gonorrhea. including: leis from the shells. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. as the candlenut is much more bitter. lit one end.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. burned with charcoal. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. however. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. In Java. In Malaya. ulcers. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. they are mildly toxic when raw. swollen joints. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. In Sumatra. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. the nuts. In Hawaiʻi. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. leaves and flowers. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. fevers. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery.crazychefs. is quite different. a varnish with the oil. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. Outside of Southeast Asia.

used as soap or shampoo. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. despite her best efforts to please her husband. 122.com/books?id=WOdrGIP3zksC&client=firefox-a. Betty. Being a kind and just woman. Honda. One of the legends told of a woman who. pp. In plantations. Finally. p. ISBN 9780824822514. http://canoeplants. (1993).html. was routinely beaten. University of Hawaii Press. and the husband was eventually killed. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the god of agriculture. 2. ^ Dunford.net/ . named tuitui are pounded into a paste. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). http://books.[citation needed] References 1. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii.com/kukui. http://books. Lilinoe Andrews. University of Hawaii Press. http://books. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). still nowadays. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). Plants in Hawaiian Culture. tukilamulamu. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. Craig Thomas (2000). Mikiala Ayau. Bess Press. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. "Chapter 4: Canoes". Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. Susan. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. p. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. protection and peace.com http://www.google. ISBN 9781573061377.com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a. 5.crazychefs.com/books?id=PpKyFZXO_jEC. ^ "Kukui".google. Liana I. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. Retrieved 2009-03-06.google. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. 26. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. 4. ^ Krauss.). ripe nuts. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. Beatrice H. This larva is eaten by some people. 50-51. ^ Scott.[5] In Tonga. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. she was given new life.

Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. green pepper. However. unrelated plants.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae.crazychefs. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. may be described as black pepper.com http://www.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. containing a single seed. Peppercorns.net/ . Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. . Kannada:meNasu. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. dark red when fully mature. cultivated for its fruit. The fruit. Telugu:miriyam. The terms pink peppercorns. Konkani:miriya konu. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. . known as a peppercorn when dried. and very often simply pepper. red pepper (as in bell or chile). which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. Malayalam:kurumulaku. white pepper. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. . . Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them.

Dutch peper. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. French poivre. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. wrinkled black layer. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. and other similar forms. including decortication. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed.. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. the spice is called black peppercorn.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor.crazychefs. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. White pepper consists of the seed only.S. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. In the 16th century. Once dried.net/ .com http://www. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. with the skin of the pepper removed. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. often alongside table salt. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. in the early 20th century. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. and the naked seed is dried. chemical or biological methods. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. this was shortened to pep. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying.[4] In the U.

com http://www. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. made from the largest. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. green. Fresh.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. is made from the unripe berries. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. Schinus terebinthifolius.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper.crazychefs.net/ .[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. largely unknown in the West.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar.Black. Pickled peppercorns. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. unpreserved green pepper berries. with a bright aroma. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. like black. also green. from Bangka Island. are used in some Asian cuisines. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). Schinus molle.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. which is mostly no longer an issue. the Peruvian pepper tree. particularly Thai cuisine. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns.

moist. It is a spreading vine. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. entire. poles. The cuttings are usually cultivars. and ultimately fall off and are lost. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years.net/ . The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. but when full grown and still hard.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. and before the fruit is mature. or trellises. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. The leaves are alternate. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. the berries lose pungency. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation.com http://www. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. Competing plants are cleared away.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. The flowers are small.crazychefs. well-drained and rich in organic matter.[11] Black pepper is native to India. if allowed to ripen.

The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. in what is now the state of Kerala. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. In fact. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined.[14] J. its most important source was India. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. particularly the Malabar Coast. Chile peppers.crazychefs.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money.net/ .com http://www. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper".History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times.

Black pepper.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. Long pepper. pepper was also being grown in Java. or used the pepper locally. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. nor how it reached the Nile from India. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. Sumatra. this trade advantage. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire.net/ . as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. Trade routes of the time were by land. growing in the north-western part of India. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. the Middle East. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. Returning from India. changed the course of world history.com http://www.crazychefs. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. barged to Alexandria. Sunda. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. By the 16th century. Madagascar. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. but these areas traded mainly with China. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River.Until well after the Middle Ages. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. Malaysia.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

But you will find in me no quality of any worth. and the prices reflected it. After the fall of Rome. 12.. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery".H. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. the banquets of kings.com http://www. is fifteen denarii per pound.crazychefs. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". and of black.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. who travelled east to India. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. first the Persians and then the Arabs.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. There is no evidence to support this claim. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. Similarly. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. I wonder. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. Apicius' De re coquinaria. Edward Gibbon wrote. while that of white pepper is seven. clad in a wrinkled cover. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. pepper was a luxury item. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . I season delicacies. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. seeing that in other substances which we use. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. if expensive. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. especially Venice and Genoa. whereas. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. four. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion.. affordable only to the wealthy.net/ . it is sometimes their sweetness. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. Once into the Mediterranean. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. seasoning in the Roman Empire. and the luxuries of the table. Yet within I bear a burning marrow.[22] In addition. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry.

the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. In the 17th century. his representative replied. the effect is small.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pepper. Pepper harvested for the European trader. especially in winter. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. A depiction of Calicut. In 1498. and salt-cured meats were common fare. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. However. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long.com http://www. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). "we seek Christians and spices. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas.crazychefs. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English.net/ . pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. as well as around Africa. Today. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. has some antimicrobial properties.

but if this estimated 10. but both were used. Note the cook's pepper mill.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful.. being stronger. as well as she could for sneezing. Long pepper. each load being equal to 223 lbs. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time.[25] In the 3rd century CE. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. joint pain. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper.net/ . The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. diarrhea. heart disease.crazychefs. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. insect bites. lung disease. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). indigestion. liver problems. as hujiao or "foreign pepper".com http://www. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. either long or black. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. insomnia. Like many eastern spices. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. hernia. earache.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda.. oral abscesses. was often the preferred medication. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. however. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. including long pepper. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. gangrene. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): "."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China.000 pounds (4. hoarseness. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant).[26] By the 12th century. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border.

which is stripped of the fruit layer.net/ . chapter five.com http://www. vitamin B. limonene. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Some sources say that piperine. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed.[31] Also. The outer fruit layer. a substance present in black pepper. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. sabinene. and linalool.sunburn. milligram-for-milligram. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. Refined piperine. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. left on black pepper.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole.crazychefs. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. irritates the nostrils. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. woody. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. tooth decay. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. Few. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. caryophyllene. causing the sneezing. which give citrusy. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. a mildly carcinogenic compound. if any. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. and toothaches.[31] As a medicine. and floral notes.

Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). for example.crazychefs. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. are used for this. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. The price of pepper can be volatile. As of 2008. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine.net/ . by monetary value. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer.[35] By weight. Malaysia (8%). accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. Brazil (13%). Thailand (4%). India (19%).[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but has fallen to just over 271. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns.com http://www. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. Sri Lanka (6%). and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year.[33] Once ground. India.000 short tons). Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998.000 t (299. the most widely traded spice in the world.000 t (391. dispensers of pre-ground pepper.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. and China (6%). sometimes instead of pepper shakers.

Retrieved 17 October 2006. Retrieved 13 November 2005.000 t (99.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. 13. ^ Ochef. 83 21. Gernot (2006).efloras. 5. 6.thehindubusinessline. Egyptian Pharaoh.2307/2657072.com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24.ph/wps/wcm/resources/file/ebb81841763712b/black%20pepper.ars-grin.com/2008/03/27/stories/2008032751741300. 200803-27. doi:10. using almost none of its production domestically. www. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). 93. 80 16. ^ Peppercorns. 2006-1120. 19.arsgrin.org/florataxon. Random House. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. The Spice Trade. from Penzey's Spices.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581.000 short tons).gov. p 94. Text online. Spice. 1969).htm. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. ISBN 0375407219. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). Innes Miller.google.[36] Notes 1.M1. http://www. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper.com 9. PMID 11302858. Flora of China. p. Using fresh green peppercorns. 88. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. Retrieved 2009-01-29. The Philippine Department of Agriculture.da. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". ^ Dalby p.gov. Compass Point Books. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 2. ^ J. 18. M. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. Warrior. The Hindu Business line. 8. Retrieved 6 November 2005.poor crop management. 3. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. p. 4. 12. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. ^ a b Jaramillo. http://books. ^ Translation from Turner. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. 11.org/cgi/content/full/88/4/706 14. Pepper. 10. ISBN 075653836X.net/ . Ramses II. http://www. disease and weather. ^ Innes Miller. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary.pl?28589. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Retrieved 12 August 2006.crazychefs. Vietnam dominates the export market. ^ Katzer. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. http://www. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.amjbot. p. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Black pepper is marica. http://www. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. Retrieved 6 November 2005.pd f. 20. Alejandra (2001). 17. 7.com http://www. http://www. and Builder.

com/books?id=tg7R4hU8hkC&pg=PA395&lpg=PA395&dq=Pepper+safrole&source=web&ots=38F TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result.com/books?id=7IHcZ21dyjwC.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". p. Steven (2004). pp. Jaffee. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. 10. Dorman and S. Retrieved November 12. J. Davidson. p. 12. table 2. Duke (1993-08-16). Hamlyn. CRC Press. also Turner pp.worldbank.pdf. 171. Alan (2002).1365-2672. Dangerous Tastes.crazychefs.2000. "Mill". 25. ^ Turner p..S. 395.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2/bmc2.net/ . Cambridge University Press. ^ Dalby pp. ISBN 0849336201. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. http://www. 31. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). 26. Buddhist Monastic Code II. ISBN 0520236742. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). purchase required. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. ISBN 0600-60235-4. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". Dover. References Dalby. 29. ISBN 9781580084178. D. 32. Full text at Blackwell website. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. http://www. doi:10. 33. 160.ch05.pdf. "Spices. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 28. 30. http://books. Deans (2000).22. ^ Montagne. ISBN 0521367085. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. 428.accesstoinsight. ^ Jaffee p. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . 2005. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. Andrew (2002).org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition.x. 27. 726.html.karvycomtrade.google. Karvy Comtrade Limited. 34. ^ Dalby p. 2008-05-15. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. 35. http://siteresources.google. 2. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han.com http://www. ^ Turner p. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. Prosper (2001). Why does pepper make you sneeze?. ^ Jaffee p. 156. 108–109. ^ a b James A. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 77.1046/j. Larousse Gastronomique. G. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". Retrieved 2009-01-29. Vol. 23.00969.com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01. 204. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). ^ Dalby p. http://books. ^ U. ^ a b McGee p. 74–75. 36." 24. ^ H.

London: Vintage Books.com http://www.crazychefs. pp. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Scribner. ISBN 0375707050. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Spice: The History of a Temptation. OCLC 56590708.net/ . OCLC 61213802. 427–429. Harold (2004). ISBN 0-684-80001-2. "Black Pepper and Relatives". Jack (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition).McGee. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Turner. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red.

7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.224 mg Folate (Vit. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. Peppers are native to Mexico.net/ . Today.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world. B1) 0.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".crazychefs.64 g 0.Pepper. yellow.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.40 g . B3) 0.057 mg 4.Dietary fiber 1. Central America and northern South America. sweet. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B2) 0. including red. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. green and orange.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.Sugars 2.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.17 g 0.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.

and Pennsylvania. the term "paprika". In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. Sweden. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. respectively). "gele paprika". Indiana. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. In British English. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani".Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. the word ピーマン ("pîman. the fruit of Piper nigrum. "green pepper"). called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. which has its roots in the word for pepper. In parts of Ohio. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". Bell peppers are botanically fruits. At that time peppercorns." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). Malaysia and New Zealand. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. In Norway. " In Japan. which are green and yellow. or "piment.g. Grilled. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". "Miris" is Chilli. "red pepper". like pasta. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. meaning Big pepper.com http://www. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). were a highly prized condiment. India. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. meaning Bulgarian pepper..crazychefs. in Dutch. an unrelated plant. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. such as Australia. g. It is eaten with fried noodles. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. they are called "capsicum". instead of using as a spice. meaning pepper-fruit. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. Across Europe. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients.net/ . When cut off. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. With the similar meaning. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. "groene paprika". the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". In the United States and Canada. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. regardless of their color. In France it is called "poivron". which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable.

while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. yellow. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment.crazychefs. maroon. in various soups and stews. red. aqua. violet. orange and. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is eaten as a raw snack. white.net/ . Varieties The color can be green. pink.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". blue. more rarely.com http://www. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. yellow or orange peppers. purple. black and brown. in salads. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. rainbow. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green.

foodreference. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). It is found wild occasionally with its parent species.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. also known as M.crazychefs. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. indigenous to Europe.com http://www. ^ http://www.com/html/fmango. The plant. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita.net/ . balsamea Willd. [1]) is a hybrid mint.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

it can grow anywhere.24– 0.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. The flowers are purple. forming thick.59–1. including stream sides and drainage ditches. and bare fibrous roots. If placed.20 in) diameter.crazychefs. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England.31 in) long.net/ . and 120 recorded. with a few exceptions. 84. with 2n counts of 66. it is usually sterile. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. noted since 1843[8]. dark green with reddish veins. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. with smooth stems.com http://www.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Being a hybrid. 72.6 in) cm broad. he treated it as a species. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. square in cross section. fleshy.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid.5 in) long and 1. 6–8 mm (0. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. The chromosome number is variable. spreading by its rhizomes.6–3. Flowering is from mid to late summer.5–4 cm (0. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. blunt spikes.

which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. chewing gum.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. and is often used as a flavouring in tea.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.1. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo.[10] Similarly. particularly menthyl acetate. confectionery. ice cream.crazychefs. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. and toothpaste.net/ . thus promoting belching.

as a natural insecticide. which they then call "after-dinner mints.net/ . and contribute only their own spearmint genes. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. [21]. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. Leaves wrinkled. A mild. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. hairless. If you choose to grow peppermint. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant.com http://www. the Galápagos Islands. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. it is advisable to plant it in a container. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. New Zealand. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content.crazychefs. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'.[12] Outside of its native range.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons.[13] and in the United States. [16]. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. Foliage lime-scented. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. Leaves aromatic. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. and it is considered invasive in Australia. It needs a good water supply.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. [18]. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. Stems reddish." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. In addition to that. Eau De Cologne Mint).

1016/j. R. 2. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2".2007. ^ a b Blamey.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. 9. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. ed. (1975). Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. et al. ^ Cappello. & Grey-Wilson. C. a popular confection. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". Retrieved 3 June 2009. M. ^ Linnaeus.int/publications/2002/9241545372. ^ Harley. Mentha L. Mehmet (2004). (1992). Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. 4th Edition. (2007).02. doi:10. 7. ^ a b Akdogan. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. page 640.dld.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. Thomson Healthcare. (1989).. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. ^ World Health Organization. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 .who.glu. http://www. 6.net/ .org/en/node/199. ^ a b Huxley.006. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". (1753).pdf.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . G.. http://whqlibdoc. M. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. Flowers open from bottom up. 5. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. A.. C. ed. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 11. ISBN 978-1563636783 10.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . Retrieved 2009-02-07.com http://www. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577.crazychefs. C. In: Stace. A. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8.

com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 .28.htm.htm?csnumber=32041. http://www. doi:10. ^ International Organization for Standardization.E. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . 27. http://tih. on kidney tissue in rats". "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. Retrieved 3 June.org/books/249/249_8. http://www. Ambika et al. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. Retrieved 3 June. 20.)". D. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . Frédéric et al. Retrieved 6 June 2009.crazychefs. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature".Specification".htm.1002/jsfa.. ^ International Organization for Standardization.1151. ^ a b c Jullien. Retrieved 8 June 2009.sagepub. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. http://www3. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .wiley. F.sagepub.org/books/629/629_21. Derek R.htm?csnumber=11633.16.iso. (2007).org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.S.10): 119 . (2004). ^ Akdogan.159. http://het. Mehmet (2003).com/journal/118500486/abstract. http://het. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . paraquat. http://www. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". ^ Adamovic. 17. Zheljazkov.. V. Australia". ^ International Organization for Standardization.1071/AP99036. http://www. Retrieved 7 June 2009. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.htm?csnumber=4844.iso. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. populations. 22.122. Bienvenu (1998). doi:10.org/iso/catalogue_detail.actahort. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 .257. Retrieved 7 June 2009.E.224. 26.com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213. Mehmet et al. J.iso. Retrieved 6 June 2009.)". ^ Sharma. 18. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. F. Bienvenu (1999). 24. Valerie Howland (2006). ^ Edwards. http://www. and Mentha spicata L.actahort. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice".sagepub. Retrieved 3 June. 21. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". 23. et al. ^ Akdogan.D. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .com http://www. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L.1023/A:1006185103897. doi:10. ^ Farley. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. S. Retrieved 3 June.com/cgi/content/abstract/23/1/21..2740311104.net/ . Plant Cell. 19. 25. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria.219.interscience...org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.

is a vegetable which belongs. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .Gay The leek. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. Allium ampeloprasum var.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.com http://www. porrum (L. ampeloprasum var. the elephant garlic and kurrat. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A.).crazychefs. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. although different in their uses as food. along with the onion and garlic. Two related vegetables.) J. also sometimes known as Allium porrum. to the Alliaceae family. porrum (L.

Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. Once established in the garden. and they have few pest or disease problems. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). intended for harvest in the season when planted.crazychefs. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. and overwintering leeks.com http://www. to be planted out as weather permits. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses.net/ . leeks are hardy.

In its raw state. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. carrots and potatoes and different meats. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. which can be used in salads.crazychefs. although less bitter than scallion. Lamb is the most popular. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. due to the layered structure of the leek. The onion-like layers form around a core. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede.com http://www.net/ . The tender core may be eaten. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk.Cuisine Leeks for sale. along with leek soup. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. Fried. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. as the leek ages. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). but. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. which turns it soft and mild in taste. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. Raw.

5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.polyunsaturated 0.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.E.3 g 1.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .C. as well as other recipes with leeks.004 g .9 g .04 g .C. In her book.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.15 g 0. as well as wall carvings and drawings.Dietary fiber 1.8 g Fat . led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B. who consumed it most often in soup. onwards.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.E. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.net/ .crazychefs. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.233 mg Folate (Vit.Sugars 3. B2) 0.com http://www. 83 μg 14.saturated 0.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. B3) 0. B1) 0. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.monounsaturated 0.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.

In the play. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet.crazychefs. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. you know.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2.com http://www. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field.net/ . According to one legend. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. for example. representing Wales.12 mg recommendations for adults. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Vitamin E 0. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. good countryman. Shakespeare. David‘s Day.

3. French Women Don't Get Fat. Knopf. third edition (Oxford: University Press.crazychefs.net/ . ^ Guiliano.. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book.Notes 1. 2000). 1978. Domestication of plants in the Old World. (Penguin Books.p. ^ Jane Grigson. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. Mireille.

com http://www. Celery.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 2 g 3g .6 g Fat Protein Water 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.net/ . either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.Dietary fibre 1. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.crazychefs. with fewer than 100 individuals left. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable.2 g 0. dulce) or celeriac (var.

horses. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. Celery. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. dogs.net/ . and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. onions. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. onions. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. often used as a base for sauces and soups. and in Old Bay Seasoning.In temperate countries. and small rodents. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. birds. squirrels.com http://www. Celery. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. celery is also grown for its seeds. on the Chicago-style hot dog. as celery salt.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. 30 AD.crazychefs. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. Actually very small fruit. Celery is a staple in many soups. such as chicken noodle soup. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails).

they note "since A. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. Lemnos and Thebes. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos.com http://www.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace.net/ . however. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. have to be clearly marked as such. for people with celery allergy." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. foods that contain or may contain celery.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. However.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content.[8] In the European Union. In Homer's Iliad. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. M. making avoiding such foods difficult. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). at Kastanas. father of the Cabeiri.crazychefs. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. even in trace amounts.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. Celery contains androstenone.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos.

and its seeds are those sold as a spice. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. white and red.net/ . due to extremely uniform crop growth.com http://www. from the Latin selinon. produced in dense compound umbels. insect damage and rot).. fields are harvested only once. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose.[14] With cultivation and blanching. The flowers are creamy-white. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. They are ranged under two classes.crazychefs. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). at our Great Mens tables. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. seleri.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. and the most crisp and tender. splits. earthy taste.5–2 mm long and wide. Under optimal conditions. borrowed from Greek. The plants are raised from seed. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. 2–3 mm diameter. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. shape. many of which differ little from the wild species. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. cracks. In North America. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. apium Italicum.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. sweetish. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. as the Grace of the whole Board". and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. straightness and thickness of petiole. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. In the past.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. and a distinctive smell. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. and Praetors feasts. but the leaves may be used in salads. 1. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. the whole plant having a coarse. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm.

Post-harvest technology research and information center. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. Western Journal of Medicine 158. T. 12.com/edible. 8. Retrieved 2009-05-03. (2005).17:1697-1699.practicallyedible. M. Retrieved 2008-03-04. http://www.com: Celery and Negative Calories 6. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. ^ "Smallage". ^ D. ^ Bublin M. Ko SN. Scheiner O. and proper sanitation. M. ^ Celestin J.. 9. Suslow. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". 2. West J. ^ R. Wilson IBH. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. ^ a b Fragiska. Kraft D. Radauer C. Thayer translation [1] 4. ^ snopes. p. ^ Teng CM. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. P.. (3rd ed.ucdavis. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. Hopf. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). ^ Pliny. 14. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82.[16] References 1. 1920). Natural History XIX.edu/Produce/ProduceFacts/Veg/celery. et al.L.202. ^ Cantwell. 10.6 (June 1993): 610-611. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. 2000) p. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. 16. 227. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed.. 2003. C (1753).between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). s.46.com http://www. "Celery". Holmiae. ^ Celsus. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus.net/ . Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. Heiner DC. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. http://postharvest. ^ OED. 15. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. gentle handling. (2002-06-10). ^ Calcium sources 7. 3.nsf/pages/smallage. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity".crazychefs. Zohary and M. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". (Laurentii Salvii). Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. de Medicina. 11. ^ William Robinson and W. 13.v. Lee LG. Thomson.shtml.

see Sugar (disambiguation).33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Magnification of grains of sugar. For the common table sugar.98 g 0g 0g 0. B2) 0. Sugar.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. (Discuss) For other uses.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Sugars 96. see sucrose. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars.Sugars 99.net/ .91 g .21 g .com http://www.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.crazychefs.

008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. but also appears in fruit.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. honey.com http://www. sorghum. It forms the main ingredient in candy. B3) 0.Water 1.net/ .18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. lactose. sugar maple (in maple syrup). Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. obesity and tooth decay.026 mg Folate (Vit.crazychefs. mainly sucrose.77 g Thiamine (Vit. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. and in many other sources. B2) 0. B1) 0. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. and fructose.

"dextrose". which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars").net/ . In this informal sense. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. such as glucose. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre).Popular In non-scientific use.) The Greek word for "sugar". The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. molasses or treacle. Scientific Scientifically. means "pebble". the Spanish word azúcar. Etymology In the case of sugar. In a list of ingredients. the Italian word zucchero. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. and texture) of beverages and food. Generically known as "syrups". the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity.com http://www. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. including palm sugar and fructose.) will likely denote a sugar. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. zahari. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. Spanish and/or Italian. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy.[4] It came to English by way of French. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. "fructose". Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. etc. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. preservation. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose".crazychefs. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). (Compare the OED. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Natural sugars come in fruit. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates.Culinary sugars Grainier. 3.com http://www. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). disaccharides. syrups and fruit juices. important molecules in the body. 2.net/ . The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . deoxyribose.containing 1. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. as its name suggests. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). cook or consumer.crazychefs. raw sugar. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Sugars include monosaccharides. This includes all the sugars referred to above. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. A notable exception. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. has a "missing" oxygen atom. making the sugars reactive. plus sugars naturally present in honey. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars.

sweeter than the original sucrose. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. which form part of nucleic acids. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. If combined with fine ash. After digestion and absorption.net/ . As well as using classifications based on their reactive group.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. This resulting syrup. lactose (milk sugar . sugar will burn with a blue flame. galactose and mannose. which is made of glucose. fructose.made from one glucose and one fructose). Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides.crazychefs. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. proteins connected to one or more sugars. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. or DNA. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose.com http://www. In these closed-chain forms. Monosaccharides include fructose. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch).water (H2O) per bond. with less than 0.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. glucose. producing invert sugar. including NADH and ATP. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). and galactose. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. Note for example glycoproteins. which has the formula C6H12O6.

70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. ^ Wuebben. ^ International sugar statistics http://www.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0.crazychefs. Michael (January 2001). James. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. OCLC 44493265.com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7.com http://www.net/ . Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Sugar Blues. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4.illovosugar. 4. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. Sugarcane. A C Hannah. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.80 g/ml Notes 1.com/features/sugar-what-kinds-eat-when 2. Joseph and Mike Carlson. Temple University Press. OCLC 51837990 84251137. Blackwell Publishing." Powder and Bulk References Adas. ISBN 1566398320. The International Sugar Trade. ISBN 063205476X. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries.com/worldofsugar/internationalSugarStats. 1996. 5.Bulk Density Chart. History of Science and Technology in Islam.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. ^ "Engineering Resources .62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When.webmd.htm 3." http://men. Glyn (2004). ^ scientificpsychic.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. Cambridge: Woodhead.

g. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. Products for industrial use (e.crazychefs. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals.25% of the total volume). between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. It is. Although in some areas. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. Brown sugar contains from 3. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. without mixing them separately. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar.net/ ." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. sugar beet molasses is used.35 mm.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). for light brown sugar. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses.com http://www. however. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. especially in the Netherlands.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products.

though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. in his studies (cited in "Pure.net/ . The effort was so successful that by 1900.[1] However. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified.crazychefs. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. Nutritionally.com http://www. apart from pure carbohydrate. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. as opposed to white sugar. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. White and Deadly" .[2] John Yudkin. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. History In the late 1800s. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. In other applications. much like adding molasses would do. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar.

32-33 5.3 fao. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. Retrieved 2008-09-20. Retrieved 2008-09-20.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07.php?id=3026. crystals. Muscovado.com/PressRelease.com/brands/Wholesome_Sweeteners/Organic_Tur binado_Sugar. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. but most is now produced in Mauritius. 6. 2003. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. 2.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). light brown. http://www. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. ^ New Scientist. centrifuged. giving it a higher mineral content. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. or Demerara sugar. which is then crystallized.htm#sugarmade.fao. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice.htm#bm07. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. an island off Africa. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice.html.1.wholesomesweeteners. http://www. largecrystalled.wildernessfamilynaturals.csrwire.net/ . http://www. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. 3. Demerara is another unrefined. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar.com/muscovado_sugar. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. Harvey. Retrieved 2008-09-20.crazychefs. resulting in the characteristic large. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. 4. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www.com http://www. References 1. 7. light brown. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.". cane sugar. where sugar cane was grown. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar.org ^ Levenstein.

and iodized salt. including humans. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). It is a crystalline solid.[citation needed] Conversely. Chloride and sodium ions.com http://www. refined salt (table salt). the two major components of salt. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. pale pink or light gray in color. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. white. which some use to prevent caking. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. including high blood pressure. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself.net/ . but toxic to most land plants.

glass. and the dye Tyrian purple.crazychefs. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). In 1960.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. especially for meat.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2]:44 Along the Sahara.000 tons of salt. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. however.net/ . in the millennia before then. salt provided the best-known food preservative. as were salted birds and salt fish. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.com http://www. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. the caravans still transported some 15.

) In the Sermon on the Mount. In many Pagan religions esp. and Egyptian.net/ .also gave us Gaul. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. the Roman exonym for the Celts. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha".fire. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. which was illegal under British rule. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth".[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. began open pan salt making. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin.[1] It is widely. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. During the first millennium BC. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt.Salzburg. (Judges 9:45.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork".[citation needed] The root hal(l). Halych in Ukraine. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. the Hallstatt Celts. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. taking their names from hal(l)-." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). though incorrectly.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. Greek. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres.com http://www. who had heretofore mined for salt. Hallstatt. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology.crazychefs. salz. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. water. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. God sent down four blessings from the sky . Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. a root for salt found in Celtic. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife.

Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. such as in Sumo Wrestling.net/ .In the native Japanese religion Shinto.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal.crazychefs. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. Halite. In Aztec mythology.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith.[9] The Ancient Egyptians.com http://www.

Fleur de sel. After the raw salt is obtained.net/ . completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. food uses account for 17. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. and thus is rarely eaten.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt.com http://www. is mainly sodium chloride. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. One example are bath salts. Purification usually involves recrystallization. and the making of soaps and detergents.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. which is most widely used presently.Different natural salts have different mineralities. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. In recrystallization. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. giving each one a unique flavor. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. natural sea salt harvested by hand. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Today. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. Refined salt. which are kiln-dried. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. Injected water dissolves the salt.5% of salt production.crazychefs.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases.[12] However.

and a bulk density (dry.net/ . this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. calcium or magnesium carbonates. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. however. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. Single-serving salt packets.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. sodium aluminosilicate. silicon dioxide. calcium silicate. condiments such as soy sauce. and calcium aluminosilicate. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution.154 g/cm3.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity.165 g/cm3. but was determined to be unnecessary. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. fatty acid salts (acid salts).[29] However.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide.crazychefs.com http://www. magnesium oxide. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. Table salt has a particle density of 2.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. Some people also add a desiccant. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] .

[33] Drinking too much water.net/ . Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. In Canada. magnesium.[31] Today. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. sodium iodide. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. especially important for pregnant women. fluorinated table salt is available.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). which can cause goitre. with insufficient salt intake.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. specifically endemic goiter. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. dizziness. even fatal. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. potassium. which can cause severe. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. or even an electrolyte disturbance. and myxedema in adults. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. cretinism in children. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. or sodium iodate.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. In the United States. iodized salt is more common in the United States. The reason for this is unclear.[32] Another additive.com http://www.crazychefs. which gives the table salt a yellow color. neurological problems. In France. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function.

and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. can cause hypernatremia. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal." ([44]. combined with an inadequate intake of water. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years." ([41] p3).[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). such as in treatment of dysautonomia. p18) However. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium.[38] heartburn.net/ . 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. forced salt intake." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid." ([41].[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality.com http://www. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease." ([41].[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. in Japan. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. independently of blood pressure effects.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions.crazychefs.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. It can exacerbate renal disease. since salt was quite valuable). Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. salt consumption is higher. the risks have been exaggerated for most people.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death.

In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand.crazychefs. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. SACN states. A salt mill for sea salt.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns.net/ ."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. have been found to consume little salt.[50]. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. Some isolated cultures.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1.com http://www.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). such as the Yanomami in South America. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but achievable population goals. However. for a typical adult.

The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. low in fat.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free".3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. When other health claims are made about a food (e.1g sodium). Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride.crazychefs.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.g.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). "low".3 g sodium = 5. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. LoSalt.300 mg of sodium (= 2. Australia.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).'[55] Campaigns In 2004. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt.5g salt per 100g (or 0.). or Green (Low). Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.6g sodium). which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. One manufacturer. Low is 0. then that is a medium level of salt. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania.net/ . These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet." In the UK. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. Amber (Medium).8 g salt) per day. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it".com http://www.[51] In the United States.[57] In March 2007.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. which will increase potassium intake. etc. without recourse to salt substitutes. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. calories. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. Those who have kidney failure.

[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. and by mining rock salt. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). http://en.com http://www.wikisource. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/salary.net/ . The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. India (14.7). Notes 1.3 million tonnes). the top five producers being the United States (40. and Canada (12.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride.com. Costs can reach staggering amounts. 4. http://www. 1913.9). Eplerenone and Inspra. 4th edition". Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone).org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Salt. Catholic Encyclopedia. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. and Hall in Austria. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. 6. such as brine wells and salt lakes. New York: Robert Appleton Company. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. China (32. 5. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. In 2002. Triamterene.5). called halite. 8. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. Retrieved 2008-12-14. 7. 2. 3. Dytac. ^ "Salt".crazychefs.in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Germany (17.3). Answers.answers.

google. ^ a b http://news.fr/Ftp/Afssa/26447-26448.htm 15. salt manufacture. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. ^ Iodized Salt 31. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. http://www. Fall/Winter 2006 10. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". ^ Nauticus .co.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/393201. ^ Salt made the world go round 17.com http://www. 11. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pp. salt history. Mason (2006-12-19). no. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36.crazychefs.com/reports/salt 16.net/ . 281. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. Victoria) Salt 34. Salt Institute. 898 .co. 10.saltsense. 14.gov/askasci/gen01/gen01420. ^ What is Salt?. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. 5379. ^ David A.com/index3. J. 2008 29. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www.roskill.newton.eu-salt. Vol. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22.afssa. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. p. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt.stm 38. 28. 14 August 1998. Ask a Scientist. ^ Table 27.com/journal/114028130/abstract.uk/aboutsaltwhat01. ^ http://www. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. ^ Iodized Salt 32. salt uses. ^ Gary Taubes. Retrieved 200907-08.htm. salt history. http://www3.Weather Curriculum 18.pdf 33. Retrieved 2009-0708. 12. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. Transportation Research Board. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23.htm 19. Epikouria Magazine.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. http://books.9.wiley. salt uses. Science.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). Kuemmel (1994).interscience. Retrieved 2008-07-29. "The (Political) Science of Salt".dep. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20.907 37. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. ISBN 9780309056663. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26.bbc. Salt Institute. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. sodium. ^ B. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39.anl.9% sodium chloride 25. ^ References on food salt & health issues. ^ HE-620 24.com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effe ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. salt manufacture. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. sodium.

06. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk.guardian.pub2 References Kurlansky.crazychefs. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. Norton & Co.ac. ^ Susan R. ^ Understanding labels 55. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). D. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. The Mummies of Ürümchi. ^ Salt TV ads 59. Elizabeth Wayland (1999).healthandwellbeing. ^ Cook NR.a01. Further reading Kurlansky. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values.uk/cash/. http://www. Friedrich Schulz. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. Putnam's Sons. 2007. and S. Mark (2002). Mark. Sodium chloride. Sodium 52. Published online 2005. OCLC 48426519. doi:10. 47-50. New York: W. Schindler.1915040902051820. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. doi:10. NY: G. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos.1016/j. Legal Medicine 2005. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. http://www. BMJ. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54.334(7599):885. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. 28 January 2008. Cutler JA.1002/0471238961. S. Inc. ^ U. 62.net/ . 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2006.005 48.2004. John Wiley & Sons... OCLC 48573453. Obarzanek E et al.40. (accessed13 January 2007) 49.uk/society/2008/jan/28/foodanddrink. Feldman. ^ Salt Matters 60. Erwin Koops.com http://www. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York: Walker & Co. Salt: A World History. Barber. ISBN 0393320197.P. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42.hyp. 61. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. New York.W. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. ISBN 0802713734. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. The Story of Salt.legalmed. 7. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods".co.

Department of Health. Arts and traditions of the table. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Salt: Grain of Life.net/ . Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy .Laszlo.com http://www. New York: Columbia University Press. Pierre. The Stationery Office.crazychefs. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. 2001.talk by Dr Trevor Beard.

mainly Kerala.com http://www. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. phrik thai. Malaysia. Vietnam. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). such as Cambodia. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: .net/ . as well as in neighbouring countries. the Philippines and Singapore. Indonesia. phrik khi nu(lit.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. found commonly in Thailand. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper.crazychefs. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. It can also be found in India.

crazychefs. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant.com http://www." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili.net/ .Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones.000 to 100. "Big things come in small packages." which can best be described by the English equivalent. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries.

It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. orange.com http://www. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). Siling Labuyo (Filipino).As well as the Malay word. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). and among the group of capsicum annuum. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. creating a rainbow effect. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental.crazychefs. but slightly less pungent variety. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. phrik khii nuu ( . Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. Thai).wikipedia. and go from green to yellow.org/wiki/Thai_pepper" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ladâ. The more decorative. Thai hot. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C.net/ . and then red. has peppers that point upward on the plant. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C.

' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. It has a tough. Celeriac has a celery flavour. Unlike other root vegetables. or used in casseroles. which store a large amount of starch. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. it can also be used on its own.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. gratins and baked dishes. about the size of a large potato. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. furrowed.com http://www. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel.net/ . celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. It is a kind of celery. usually mashed.crazychefs.

Dietary fiber 1.net/ .2 g .The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out.com http://www.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. Celeriac soup. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.crazychefs. rinsed. Celeriac.3 g 1. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. Among them are 'Prinz'. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6 g 9. There are a number of cultivars available. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. especially in Europe.Sugars 1. 'Diamant'. and 'Kojak'. 'Ibis'.

Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. The flowers are white to purple. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad.crazychefs. As a nightshade. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. The stem is often spiny. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. aubergine. It bears a fruit of the same name. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. and see text The eggplant.net/ . is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. or brinjal (Solanum melongena).com http://www. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. soft seeds.net/ . but much larger in cultivated forms. flower The plant is native to India. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). The name eggplant. History Solanum melongena. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia." Aubergine and brinjal. which is used in British English. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". used in the United States. which are edible. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. The fruit is fleshy.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. Australia. In the Caribbean Trinidad. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. In Indian and South African English. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. and contains numerous small. 1500 CE. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. New Zealand. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. from Arabic al-badinjan.com http://www. The name aubergine.

A much wider range of shapes. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Black Magic. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. whiteskinned. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. or white. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. Dusky.crazychefs. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. Pingtung Long. in white skin Dourga. slightly pendulous cucumber. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Classic. and Black Beauty.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred.net/ . The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. and Tycoon.com http://www. Traditional. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. Some cultivars have a color gradient. Burpee Hybrid. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. There are even orange varieties. especially purple. green. Ichiban. shape and color. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. curries. it is called Begun ( ). then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. as in the French ratatouille. as in the related tomato. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. and masala and then cooked in oil. peanuts. or other fillings and then baked. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. chutney. In some parts of India. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. As a native plant. In Bangladesh. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. rice. and deep-fried. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. The thin skin is also edible. and achaar. allowing for very rich dishes. tomatoes. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. for example. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. In the Caucasus. along with the fish Hilsa. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It can be sliced. It is often stewed. braised (紅燒茄子). It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. The fruit flesh is smooth. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. the Arabian moussaka. for example in sambhar. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. complex flavor. or Eggplant Parmesan. In Iranian cuisine. or tamarind. It. tahini. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. In one dish. battered. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. and garlic. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat.net/ . stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). so that peeling is not required. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. as they are far less bitter. tahini. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular.com http://www. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred.crazychefs.

and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. are also troublesome to eggplants. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. aphids.net/ . Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. containing both female and male structures. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates.) to 60 cm (24 in. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives.) between rows.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. Flowers are complete. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. This is called Beguni ( ). the most serious of which is Verticillium. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit.crazychefs. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. (Adults can be removed by hand. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. and spider mites.) between plants. pepper (capsicum). such as tomato. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. depending on cultivar. showing the inside. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. and potato.com http://www. flea beetle. For this reason. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. Egypt. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated.

039 mg 5.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5] In the United States.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.com http://www. semi-official or estimates). raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.043.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .Dietary fiber 3. New Jersey is the largest producing state. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.Sugars 2.35 g .crazychefs. P = official figure.(2. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. F = FAO estimate. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant. B1) 0.19 g 1.net/ . B2) 0.7 g 0.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.

25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.crazychefs. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.[8] On average. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. B3) 0. while 1.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed].24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.com http://www. However. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University. Brazil. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0.Niacin (Vit. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.16 mg Manganese 0.01 mg/100g).net/ .084 mg Folate (Vit.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.

Solanum oviferum Salisb. oblongo-cylindricum.net/ . ovigerum and S.C. trongum. aethiopicum. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). giganteum. multifidum. But this is not correct. aethiopicum. Similarly. ruber.crazychefs. insanum. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. Scopoli's S.Varieties Solanum melongena var. inerme and subinerme at that time. capsicoides). that of Blanco to S. racemosum. mainly by Dikii. rumphii. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. esculentum. violaceum and viride. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. globosi. Names for various eggplant types. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. album. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. which used to include Dunal's S. edule. On the other hand. esculentum. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. such as agreste.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. tongdongense. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. luteum. lasiocarpum.com http://www. Dunal. There is an actual S. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. divaricatum. brownii. stenoleucum. Solanum longum Roxb. variegatum.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. subrepandum.-Lag. sinuatorepandum. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. H. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. inerme. leucoum. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. S. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. racemiflorum. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. ovigera. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work.F. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. and (invalidly) by Sweet. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. violaceum.

Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Footnotes 1. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). S. ^ Doijode.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. common. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Technology. (2001). 2.com http://www.crazychefs. ISBN 1574445510. CRC Press. Hui (2006). Handbook of Food Science.net/ . D. and Engineering by Yiu H.

Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. Miyachi Y. ^ Health24.50(2):101-102 11. ^ Edward F.net/ . Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.pdf.caes. 273-6. Arq Bras Cardiol. Domino.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables.com . 7. Dieges PH. Vol.) reveals female predominance. P. Robert (2008-11-14). 6. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. ^ "FAOSTAT". J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. 202 4. pp. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). Volume 329:437 August 5. Tsenge Demana.com http://www. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. ^ B. 1993 Number 6 9. ^ SN Pramod. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". ^ Westerfield. Retrieved 2009-07-01.uga.133(42):2081-3 12.fao. Mahesh † and Y. FAO. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. http://pubs. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2008-11-11.Aubergine 8. http://faostat. Toorenenbergen AW. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. Retrieved 2007-04-24. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14.* YP Venkatesh. Bruno Caramelli. ^ Solanum melongena var. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena.3. A. 18(1): 59-62 13. N. Harish Babu * . Andréa Thomaz. 5.edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/C934. Ebury Press. P. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. 2008 10. ^ Kabashima K. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. volume 82 (nº 3). Erich Hornbach. 2004.crazychefs.

Solanum lycopersicum. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. It is a perennial. yellow. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. with a serrated margin. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. One species.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. The tomato is native to South America. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. woody stem that often vines over other plants. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous.4–0. see section Fruit or vegetable below). and have a weak. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0.net/ . with five pointed lobes on the corolla. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. syn.com http://www. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color.8 in) across.crazychefs. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. odd pinnate. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru.

The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. earlier in 1493. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. an Italian physician and botanist. golden apple. smaller vegetable . Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. means "wolf-peach". Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. according to Smith. now Mexico City in 1521. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. the other by currant tomatoes. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. However. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a barber-surgeon. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. lumpy tomato. who named it pomo d‘oro.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans.[6] Gerard's Herbal. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. in certain areas of Italy.[4] The large. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. likely to be the original salsa recipe. and cultivation began in the 1540s. They also took it to the Philippines. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. ancestor of L. meaning plump thing with a navel. corn and salt. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed].net/ . Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. The exact date of domestication is not known. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli.crazychefs. a mutation from a smoother. was the first European to take back the tomato.com http://www. lycopersicum. such as Florence. The specific name. cerasiforme. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. However. tomatl. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain.

largely plagiarized from continental sources. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. Currently. The C. Charles M. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. Gerard's views were influential. Paella. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. sent some seeds back to America. California. The Spanish tomato dish. and in general. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. 1799 – c. most famously in Worthing. ―within the last forty years. The University of California.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. broths. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. In Victorian times. Rick. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). particularly Florida and California.crazychefs. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. Over the past 15 years.M. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region.net/ . One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. and before the end of that century.[6] Nonetheless.[6] But by the mid-1700s. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. British consul in Aleppo c. By the mid-18th century. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. and as a garnish. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. who ate tomatoes in Paris. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). but the fruit is safe). Thomas Jefferson. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr.com http://www. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations.

Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. For processing tomatoes. green. It may be deleted after Friday. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. pink.com http://www. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. black. China. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types.0 in) diameter. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. production and 35% of world production. purple. but a number of cultivars with yellow.4 in) diameter range. orange. about 5mm in diameter. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. through cherry tomatoes. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking.4–0. Most cultivars produce red fruit. they are known as plum tomatoes. California accounts for 90% of U.S.6–2. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. and have a lower water content. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits.crazychefs. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. the largest producer. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. or white fruit are also available. 18 September 2009. followed by United States and Turkey.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008.[12] According to FAOSTAT.8 in) size as the wild tomato.net/ .0–2.

[19] Hybrid plants remain common. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre.crazychefs. based mostly on shape and size. and are shaped like large strawberries. along with zucchini. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating.net/ . oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life.[18] and productivity. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed].[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. plum tomatoes. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes).[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. but unlike commercial hybrids. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. as well as heirloom tomatoes. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. As in most sectors of agriculture. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular.com http://www.

[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. etc. low acidity. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. pink. some tomato cultivars . but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing.net/ . there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate".[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. Lucky Cross). Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. Burracker's Favorite. but are smaller than plum tomato. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. including Brandywine (biggest red). hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. Determinate. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. et cetera. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height.cherry tomatoes are small and round. although some determinate heirlooms exist. ivory. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. disease and pest resistance. and purple. Black Krim (lower left corner). orange.especially heirlooms . black. or bush. but must be bought as seed. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads.produce fruit in colors other than red. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop.com http://www. Red Boar).crazychefs. including yellow. A variety of specific cultivars. As an intermediate form. brown. often via mail-order. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. multiple colors (Hillbilly. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). Green Zebra (top right). which usually discourages fruit set. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. or home growers interested in canning. and lack of mealiness. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. they are often good choices for container growing. white.

cutworms. but manure or compost work well. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. and remain.crazychefs. aphids. whiteflies.fusarium wilt strain I & II. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. and A . which interrupts the lifecycle. In the wild. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them.com http://www.fusarium wilt strain I. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant.alternaria. red spider mite. N nematodes. T . which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. tomatoes required cross-pollination. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. their traditional pollinators. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. carried by the beet leafhopper. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. The most common letters are: V .net/ .verticillium wilt. F . ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. too. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. FF . As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. tomato fruitworms. As a floral device to reduce selfing. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. slugs. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. original state. flea beetles. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes.tobacco mosaic virus. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. cabbage loopers. The stamens were. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. As the name implies. entirely within the closed corolla.

the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red.crazychefs. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. This is not the same as self-pollination. depending on variety. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface.net/ . In more temperate climates. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. Unripe tomatoes are firm. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). or more often today. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. In an outside setting. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. by cultured bumblebees. They may be recognized by their color. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. However. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing.com http://www. as with most species.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait.

Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. In some studies lycopene. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below).Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. anthocyanin. carotene.crazychefs. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce.net/ .Sugars 2. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.com http://www. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as tomato sauce.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). a subset of fruit. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). Though it is botanically a berry. The tomato is acidic. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. and other antioxidants. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". in pieces. especially in cooked tomatoes. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. or paste. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage.6 g 4g . They contain lycopene.Recently.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines.

vines. When that tip eventually stops growing. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. These hairs facilitate the vining process. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. whether because of pruning or flowering.[28] In October 1965. Embracing it for this protest connotation. initially decumbent. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12.[citation needed] Once fully ripe.5 °F). and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). They are bred to continue ripening. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. it will not continue to ripen. Known for its tomato growth and production. The fruit is also preserved by drying. Tomato plants are dicots. lateral buds take over and grow into other.crazychefs. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). Spain. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin.5 °C (54.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. Of regular leaves. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight.net/ . and grow as a series of branching stems. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. often by sun. such as rugose leaves. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. or pickled. fully functional. generally three feet tall or shorter. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. although erect bush varieties have been bred. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. meaning covered with fine short hairs. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. Determinate types are annual in all climates. annually celebrates La Tomatina. there are variations. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines.make salsa. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials.com http://www.

its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. according to type.e. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. However. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. "wolf-peach"). called locular cavities. very small cavities. butterflies. wolf. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing.) H.crazychefs. variegated.deeply grooved. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. chili peppers. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination.. Therefore. would be more correct. genetic evidence (e. peach. 'lyco'. plus 'persicum'. (derivation. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. However. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. i. with both names found in the literature. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five.. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). making the Linnaean name correct. and be dried/fermented before germination. These vary. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. or other external forces that present in the Americas. Despite this. tobacco. which frequently used it and still do). Similarly.g. among cultivated species.com http://www.net/ . other insects.Karst. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. have the anthers fused along the edges. Technically. moths. As a true fruit. angora leaves. This is because they are native to the Americas. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum.[31] Their flowers. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. Other species in that family are potatoes. while paste tomatoes have very few. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). appearing on the apical meristem. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come.

of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit.S. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. In 2006. U. pest tolerance. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. disease tolerance. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. North Carolina. Oregon. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications.net/ . 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide.S. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. Bejoseed.com http://www. Hedden (149 U. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. Ohio. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. corporations. 1883. color.S. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. The U. AVRDC. universities. Livingston. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965.crazychefs. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. and organizations. as are vegetables.W. size. nutritional value. U. As noted above. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. BHNSeed. New York. A. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. However. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. In 1887. Corporations including Heinz.S. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. from a culinary standpoint. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. of Reynoldsburg. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. together with its seeds. However. Monsanto. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. flavor. and numerous other traits. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. 304)). cucumbers. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. University breeding programs are active in Florida. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. etc. shape. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. a tomato is the ovary.

Ohio. Minnesota. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. Maine.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. On October 30. which is toxic to humans and animals. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). harmless.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). North Carolina. Indiana. New Hampshire. stems. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . Georgia. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Tennessee. 2006.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. Vermont and Wisconsin. The fresh fruit is. Kentucky. Virginia. Connecticut. Rhode Island. Speakers from the British Isles. the U. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /.S.com http://www.net/ . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states.crazychefs. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. contain the poison Solanine. Pennsylvania. however."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Michigan. Massachusetts. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me.

Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. Lancashire. China.84 pounds (522 kg).[38] As of July 8. and Arizona (49).[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19.crazychefs. fresh jalapeño pepper.com http://www. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. 2007. such as raw tomato. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. the U. respectively." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. New Mexico (98). in 2000. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. Illinois (100).[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far. and Canada. one would arrive at an estimated 40.151. and fresh cilantro. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. 2008. fresh serrano pepper. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada.6:1). As of July 2008. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). Oklahoma in 1986.273 illnesses from this outbreak.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. 40. On August 30. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States.1 reported cases per million. French and Germans.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. with a harvest of more than 32. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. Lake Buena Vista. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa.net/ . 2008.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). Yong Huang.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. it caused at least one death.000 kilograms (250.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. from April 10. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. with 49. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. UK.8 m (65 ft) length.S. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. the District of Columbia. Florida.7 and 16.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.

[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. Fusarium.com http://www.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink.net/ .S.crazychefs. indeterminate.S. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. Derived from Cherokee Purple. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W.

Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. in Korea.net/ . various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato plants in the garden. Tomato Flower. Young tomato plant.com http://www.crazychefs. Tomato fruit. pickling. good for Tomatoes on a vine. Tomato slices.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak.

com http://www.net/ .crazychefs.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

html.ucdavis. Appleton and Co.Smith. ISBN 0252-07009-7. 3.gov. 11.html". T.ucdavis. During the three months of the local harvest.Food & Wine".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. A. section Lycopersicon Mill.. University of Illinois Press. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. and Cookery. http://www. 1994. ^ "http://www. Columbia.com. Tgrc. & Spooner.uk. Peralta. http://yourarchives. F.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.fao. Culture. Normania. Smith. 2008. Yourarchives. Footnotes 1. ^ Acquaah.smithsonianmag.smithsonianmag. (2002). The tomato in America: early history. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. D. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . Retrieved 2009-04-02. (1994). 12. G.17.gov. ^ a b Hartz. 5. ISBN 1-57003000-6.net/ . UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. (2002-0508)". 1881.. Retrieved December 11 2009. 8. 223 10. p.com http://www. Processing Tomato Production in California. Andrew F. Easthamptonstar. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.edu. 2.five tons to the acre. http://www. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. Universityofcalifornia. 2002-05-08. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. I. (2001). page 57: ". 1876.html.easthamptonstar." See: Natural History Museum.uk/index. ^ The Friend.aspx. et al. ^ "UC Newsroom. Retrieved 2008-10-27.crazychefs.. Wettst. it handles more than 1. http://tgrc. Retrieved December 11 2009. The Tomato in America. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.M. p.html". 13. p.edu. Cyphomandra. 6.edu/news/article/4319. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 2009-04-02. ^ a b Smith. USA: University of South Carolina Press. E.edu/. 7. http://www.smithsonianmag. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. ^ http://faostat. Appletons' journal Published by D.C.com/dnn/Archive/Home20080814/FoodWine/Seasons/ta bid/6280/Default.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". 2009-01-26. 519 [1] 9.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. Subsection Lycopersicon)." 15. ^ "http://www.universityofcalifornia. S. October 26.nationalarchives. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. Retrieved 2009-04-02.The East Hampton Star . M. and cookery.Your Archives".nationalarchives. Andrew F (1994). culture.smithsonianmag. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). ^ Tomato history 4. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . ^ "C.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour.aspx?PageID=567 14. webpage: books-google-TTp17. http://www.

net/ . ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. "Tomato genome project gets $1.ucdavis.com http://www. 2006.umn.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 200810-27. ^ "Crop Profiles . Retrieved 2008-10-27.eurekalert." 20.cornell. 2006. ^ http://www. Retrieved 200705-24.com. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Ohioline.co. Smithsonianmag. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips.html. 32. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". http://www. ^ "http://www. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes.com/genpage.com/All-About-Tomatoes_a6fd3933f91c4.html 23.whfoods. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes".cornell. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).smithsonianmag. News.osu.php.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. 29. 27. Retrieved December 11 2009. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once.Tomato". http://faq. http://www. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens.news. Ncsu.edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome.stm.sinaloa.edu. Retrieved June 30.am/wiki/Tomato#Novelty_tomatoes 22.html. 28.plants.smithsonianmag." 19.uk/2/hi/health/7370759. Plb. Faq.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.html.edu.html". ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".edu.smithsonianmag. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa".ufseeds. HYG-5532-93".gob.crazychefs.html".edu.8M".ucdavis. http://www. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt.edu.bbc.smithsonianmag.osu. Retrieved July 14.edu/sustainable/profiles/bot_tom.html. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention".html. http://www.com/faq/lists/tomato/2004111539004321. Retrieved 2008-10-27.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5532. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'". 31.ncsu. 30. Retrieved December 11 2009. http://www.16.gardenweb. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. http://ohioline.kr.html.smithsonianmag. http://www. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.gardenweb. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. 26. Retrieved December 11 2009.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.com/science-nature/passion-fortomatoes. http://wwwplb. 25.html.html.com.gob.mx. ^ "http://www.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Retrieved 2007-05-24. http://www. 17.am/wiki/Tomato#Early_tomatoes 21. Retrieved 2008-10-27.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. 24. ^ "Selecting. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. which are carried in the wind. http://www. ^ "http://www.mx.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". page 57: "The plants are still growing.umn.plants. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre." 18. ^ http://www.smithsonianmag. http://news. Sinaloa. 33.edu/stories/Jan07/SolanacaeNSF.html". ^ http://www. Retrieved 2009-04-02.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. http://www.edu. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague.org/pub_releases/2007-05/aafc-nmt051607.

by state". 39.co. California Master Gardener Handbook. http://www.co. p. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005". 643. 36.com.com/highestperch8. Retrieved 2009-0402. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html.com. Retrieved 200904-02.vegparadise. 9781879906549. ISBN 1879906546. 41. Tomato Nutrition.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/map.com/news/canada/story.CBS News". 2004. 35. Cdc. ^ a b Pittenger.google. Vegparadise.uk. http://www. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. Tomato Recipe". 38:S3. 2007-08-30.shtml. http://www. ^ "August 8. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 40.uk. Retrieved 2008-1027.uk/news/9a5a1671ceba4f43741dc008f237c1ea. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". United States. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-27. http://itn. Nationalpost.gov.crazychefs.ca/en/article-details.html?id=585498.ca.html. et al.1086/381578. 42. http://www. 38. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History.34. Cbsnews. http://www. (2002). http://www. ^ Voetsch.cdc.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/. Retrieved 2009-0721. Dennis R. 37.com http://www. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC".uchicago.foodsafetynetwork. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus".html.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953.cdc.edu/doi/full/10. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. (2004-04-15). http://www. Itn.com.com/books?id=WhWjHB1Zjf8C&pg=PA643. Foodsafetynetwork.cbsnews. ^ "ITN.co.journals.com/stories/2006/10/30/national/main2138331.nationalpost. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States".net/ . ANR Publications. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce .

4 oz) dried. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed.crazychefs. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M.2 and 0.net/ . roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia.6 to 0. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. and Bombay Nutmeg M. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. It also grows in Kerala. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. Species About 100 species. fragrans products.7 in) wide. extracted oleoresins. both are used as adulterants of M.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. malabarica from India. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a state in the south part of India. argentea from New Guinea. called Jaiphal in Hindi. called selei buah pala. In Indonesia.com http://www. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). the fruit is also made into jam. or Spice Islands. nutmeg and mace.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. including essential oils. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. especially in Grenada. and nutmeg butter (see below). or sliced finely.

Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and eggnog. cauliflower. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). "Lau Hau Peng". In Arabic. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. mulled wine. sauces. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. they are also used in soups.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala.net/ . nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker.com http://www. green. In the Caribbean. Painkiller. In Penang cuisine. and Barbados rum punch. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. In Indian cuisine.crazychefs. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. and baked goods. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. and string beans. saffronlike hue it imparts. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. In European cuisine. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular.

medicines. in toothpaste. It is semi-solid.net/ . used as flavourings. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. although this is disputed. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. 758 – ca. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. which can be turned into myristic acid. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. The oil is colourless or light yellow. beverages. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries.com http://www. reddish brown in colour. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. and sweets. syrups. preserving agents.crazychefs. for instance. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation
needed]

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

Footnotes
1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". http://emj.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/22/3/223. 5. ^ "Erowid". http://www.erowid.org/plants/nutmeg/. 6. ^ "MDMA". http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=5469. 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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References
Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

Commercialization
The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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based on anecdotal reports. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. being an amino acid. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. soy extracts. it also said that. and protein isolate.net/ . Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. autolyzed yeast. Canned. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. frozen.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. and were not observed when MSG was given with food.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. with 4% annual growth expected.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly processed foods. yeast extract. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. or molasses. steak sauce. About 1.com http://www. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001.crazychefs. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. However. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. Fermented products such as soy sauce. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature." However.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. sugar beets. hydrolyzed yeast. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. not reproducible. sugar cane.

In the 2004 version of his book. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. pp. [monosodium glutamate]. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. In the hydrolysis method. 621.html 2. New York: Wiley. such as hydrolyzed protein. flavour enhancer)..g.crazychefs.celiac.com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1. acidification.". followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. (2) synthesis. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. Drugs. concentration. 373-375. For this reason. even in large amounts. MSG. and converted to its monosodium salt. References 1. or its International Numbering System (INS) number." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture.7% women). Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. dextrose or citrate). and Cosmetics (2nd ed. On Food and Cooking. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and (3) microbial fermentation.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. ^ http://www. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). and mineral ions and growth factors. "Monosodium Glutamate". purified. age 40–59 years.2.net/ . Albert Y. In 1993.).[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. Foster. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration.com http://www.g. ^ Leung. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. followed by either the name of the food additive. and crystallization. Steven (August 2003). The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture.. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes.

Anjimoto Co. Shioya.2006.html 12. Zhu. PMID 8282275. Daviglus. Tetsuya. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ^ http://www. doi:10.2008. ^ Freeman M. Stamler. Garside. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". PMID 16999713.2005. Zhou. ^ Moskin. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. Yangfeng.pdf 9. Toxicol. ^ Walker R (October 1999).co. ^ "Production process". "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". http://www. ^ a b Rundlett.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10736382. Chirality 6 (4): pp. 14. Guo.3. Jeremiah (August 2008). 10. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. ^ Sand. 277–282.fda.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. http://jn. J. 31 (12): 1019–1035. 1875–1880. 38–49. Pharmacol. Daniel W (1994).1999. Case study: monosodium glutamate". Alan R. Food Chem. Zhao.jstor. "Yes.1525/gfc. New York Times. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.ncbi. doi:10. 6.html 4.17457599.ca/Articles/Fall1990-1. ^ a b Tarasoff L. http://www. Regul. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study".com/amino/eng/product. (April 2000). Chiaki. Armstrong.html?_r=1&oref=slogin.jp/ajinomoto/ACompany/company/zaimu/pdf/fact/food_biz. Takehara.5.nlm. PMID 10597625. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6.celiac. ^ http://www. doi:10. Yamaguchi.1006/rtph. Inc. ^ Kawakita. 11.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. Linguang.38. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.00160. Beiser A. 7.1337.1038/oby. "Monosodium Glutamate". (1993).gov/entrez/query. ^ He.274. Liancheng.html.ajinomoto.com http://www. Ka. PMID 10736382. Daniel. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. PMID 18497735. http://www. ^ http://www. Van Horn. Toxicol. Wu. Jordan (2005). 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 16. et al. doi:10.nutrition. Martha L. "A Short History of MSG". Julia (2008-03-05).x.ajinomoto. doi:10.1002/chir. Sano. Ren C.. doi:10. ^ a b Geha RS. doi:10. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study".gov/~lrd/msg.530060410.cfsan.1002/14356007. 13. Kelly M.F. Linda. Kimber L. Shigeru. 8.1111/j. MSG. Dongshuang. Nutr.a16 711.net/ . Dyer.org/stable/3421360 5.nih. the Secret Behind the Savor".4. Beifan. ^ http://vm. Masahiro.. 15.com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute. (October 2006).nytimes. Shizuko (2005).

豆油 3. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce.com http://www. 荳油 3. 酱油 2. 醬油 2.net/ .

Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. Soy sauce was invented in China.[3] In the 18th century. In its various forms.500 years. and salt.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. [4] By the mid-19th century.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version.crazychefs. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia.net/ . water. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2.

all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. Although there are many types of soy sauce. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. Today.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. such as in giant urns and under the sun.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1.crazychefs. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). literally "delicious taste").com http://www. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. sojae) and other related microorganisms.net/ . and are popular in Southeast Asia and China.

since it is saltier. with relatively low amounts of other grains. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. shuānghuáng (雙璜). the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. consistency. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. In traditional Chinese cooking. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. Since it is lighter in color. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. Despite their rather similar appearance. fragrance and saltiness. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. traditional Chinese: 醬油. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish.net/ . This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. slightly sweeter. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. or a mixture of both. Thai. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. one of the two types.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. like extra virgin olive oil. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. ): A thin (nonviscous). soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour.3-DCP (1. traditional Chinese: 頭抽).crazychefs.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. pinyin: jiàngyóu. An additional classification of light soy sauce. lighter brown soy sauce. but it also adds flavour. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It has a richer. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. Another type. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce.com http://www. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. opaque. and Chinese cuisine. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. Korean.

Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. for example sashimi. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. It contains little or no wheat. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. Shiro (白?.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste.com http://www. where it is known as "shōyu". Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. Technically. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. that is used in its production. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. Usukuchi (淡口?. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China.crazychefs. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food.net/ . or 醤油). They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor.

Saishikomi (再仕込?. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman.net/ . not pasteurized. Amakuchi (甘口?. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. 1 litre bottles. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?.com http://www. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process.crazychefs. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. Consequently.

soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. in a pinch. In Indonesia. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses.crazychefs. It is a unique variety. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce.com http://www. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which has a thick.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. usually implies limited quantity. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet.net/ . powder.

Founded in 1909. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭).4% of soy sauce purchases. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin.crazychefs. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. lit. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce.com http://www. thin and dark brown in color. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. Later. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant.net/ .Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. Joseon ganjang. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. is made entirely of soy and brine. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. (called Joseon ganjang. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. O'Long(黑龍). 조선간장. WanJaShan(萬家香).[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Malaysia.

The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand.com http://www. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. nước tương. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans.crazychefs. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. pronounced SOO-kah). Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. wheat. or sometimes simply tương.net/ . much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. it is also a table condiment.3-DCP (1. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. and caramel.[6] Furthermore. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. salt. It can also be very salty. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). China. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

6. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. No. 2. 6. ^ Jung. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). 2 (January 2000).com. Press release. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce.[1] Notes 1.tcoc.gov.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. Isaac. Seong-Gook (2002). Celiac disease. Jammy Chai.crazychefs. marinades and other types of sauces. Golden Mark. OCLC 9752305 5.htm. Tung Chun and Wanjasham.uk/news/pressreleases/2001/jun/soysaucerecall. ^ http://www. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. 4. that affected the brands Golden Mountain.Kong and Taiwan. 2nd edition. Vol. p.gmp. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. Lee Kum Kee.org.[citation needed] In Vietnam.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Tanaka. Sinsin.co. pp.tw/60anniversary/century-gofun. Despite these being small in number in the UK. http://www. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). Retrieved 200801-07.) In March 2008. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". 8. Kimlan."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. King Imperial. 7. III. ^ http://www. including six samples with up to 11. 3. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce").[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce.000 to 18.tw/newsdetail.miyajimasoy. Norio. XXVII.com http://www. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. ^ http://www. Golden Swan. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations.asp?id=7598 10.org.food.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. ^ Titsingh.jp/science/kouenkai/kouenkai. p. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". (1781). p.smartfood.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. 7. Pearl River Bridge.tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. an increase over 23 to 5.317 2.net/ . has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. Individuals with a wheat allergy. http://www. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. ^ Tanaka." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. Soon Teck• and Kang. Retrieved 2008-01-07. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. ^ Tanaka.

11.net/ . 13. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. fermentation and micro-organisms.48. Naczk. Makio (2005-04-18). "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". ISBN 0632059877. PMID 12469319. Fereidoon.2323/jgam.201. Retrieved 2008-01-07. ^ Toxic soy sauce.nutraingredients.google. doi:10. chemical veggies -. 18. et al. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". ^ Shahidi. 12. Florence. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. Charles W (2005). Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology.com http://www. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. 186. 16. ^ Tanasupawat. doi:10. Marian (2003). ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. p.crazychefs.1263/jbb. Somboon (2002-06-18).food scares hit Vietnam 20.com. Stephen (2006-06-06). ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 1587161389.com/news/ng. p. ^ Bamford. Kentucky: CRC Press. Food. Hoboken. ^ Daniells. 14. http://books.com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15.144. PMID 16198255. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce".100. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. Edition 2. ^ Kobayashi. nutraingredients. http://www. 103.

5–21.net/ .9180 (@ 15.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.3% Myristic acid: <0.com 211 | P a g e http://www.4677–1.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.0–83.0% Arachidic acid: <0.5–20.3–3.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.5–5.5 °C) 84 cP 1.0% Stearic acid: 0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.5% Linoleic acid: 3.8% Behenic acid: <0.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9150–0.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.crazychefs.

The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. World production in 2002 was 2. family Oleaceae).4680–1. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. Koroneiki. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. Japan and China. but especially in the Mediterranean. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. principally Italy. Olive oil is used throughout the world. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. Picholine. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. which produce approximately 350.crazychefs. and Manzanilla de Jaén. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. In 2006. Alberquina.net/ .6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. in France. Australia. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives.000 tons of olive oil annually. 93% comes from Spain.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. as well as in Crete. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. Italy and Greece.[3] Of the European production. cosmetics. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Moraiolo. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. Hojiblanca. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities.com http://www. pharmaceuticals. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. in Greece. which receives about three-quarters of total exports.6 million tonnes. Leccino Pendolino.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. North Africa and the Near East.6 (refined and pomace) 0.[1] It is commonly used in cooking.

Mission. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known.com http://www. a private trade group. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. The US imported 47. After extraction the remnant solid substance. called pomace. In North America.net/ . and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. Spain. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy.000 US gallons (131. IOOC terminology is precise. The California Olive Oil Council.California. and by its flavor. with production increasing to meet demand.800.crazychefs. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. Oblica and Leccino.000 m3) came from Italy.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. often in "prestige" packaging.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. and monitoring authenticity. Spain. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). of which 34. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. Spain. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). still contains a small quantity of oil.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). in Portugal.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Galega. and Turkey. defining quality standards. with 23 member states. in Croatia.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. The USDA uses a different system.000 US gallons (181. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. by its chemistry.600.

for blended oils.com http://www." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. it is believed. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. and by heat. This practice makes it difficult for high quality.[12] In some cases. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.[14] In February 2008.[15] Under EU rules.net/ . 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. mostly hexane. product as superior olive oil. measured by weight.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. of free oleic acid it contains. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids).[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. defined as the percent. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. 25. however.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior.crazychefs. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. EU officials took issue with the new law. but safe. Almost 700 people died. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. particularly in Italy. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant.[16] In April 2008. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced.[14] In March 2008. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. both in Italy and abroad. is extremely lax and corrupt. but there are no guarantees.

Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. The U. expressed as oleic acid.crazychefs. and are based on acidity. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. contains no more than 0. has an acidity less than 2%. The US is not a member. Used on salads. It is fit for consumption.8% acidity. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. but may not be described simply as olive oil.3 grams per 100 grams (0. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. In order to classify it by taste. These grades were established in 1948. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity.net/ . added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries.com http://www. of not more than 0. This is also called its organoleptic quality. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level.S. Pure olive oil. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. absence of defects. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member.the oil degrades. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. It has a free acidity. and is judged to have a superior taste. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. another cause of rancidity. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. of no more than 1. and is judged to have a good taste. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade.5% acidity.

Grade A or U. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp. Grade D or U. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated.S.crazychefs. Grade C or U.com http://www. with less flavour.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.S.S.0% and is "fairly free from defects". U.4% and is "free from defects". Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. Grade C".[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled.S. "cold" does not define any precise temperature. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. This is incorrect.S. which may be as low as 10-15 °C.S. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. U. (34 kJ/ml). Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.net/ . First of all.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. Grade B or U.S. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means.U.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.S. U.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.5% and is "reasonably free from defects".[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.S. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.pressed".35 23. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil.com http://www.1 0.8 7.net/ . around 0. Portugal and Lebanon.1 1.62 12. Spain and Italy.crazychefs. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. Tunisia. around 8 l.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. around 14 l.7 11.2 7 1. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. so the term "first press" is meaningless.7 l. over 26 liters per year. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13.

4. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. Green olives produce bitter oil.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. 3. then placed into the press. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened.net/ . the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. 1. After grinding. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. If ground with mill stones.com http://www. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). not in the oil mills. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". and overripe olives produce rancid oil. After grinding.crazychefs. which is much faster and more accurate. suggesting a different taste. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. This is done in specialised chemical plants. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. which are stacked on top of each other in a column.34 1. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. 2. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. no or very little organoleptic defects).France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1.

polyunsaturated 11 g . most notably oleic acid. altitude.2% phytosterol and tocosterols).omega-6 fat 3. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.net/ . and extraction process.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat .crazychefs. region. The composition varies by cultivar. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. In the United States.com http://www.5 g . along with traces of squalene (up to 0. including oleocanthal and oleuropein. To achieve this possible benefit.monounsaturated 73 g .[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g . time of harvest. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.omega-3 fat <1. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.7%) and sterols (about 0.

During the first stage. This could. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. It is theorized that. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke.com http://www.crazychefs. The study was conducted in two stages. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. 2004. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. in the long term. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. antithrombotic. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. at least in part. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. During the second phase. and oleuropein. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.This decision was announced November 1. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. rather than its fatty acid profile.net/ . For example.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. This way. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.

blenders. Also. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. Used cold. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. In time.com http://www. etc.crazychefs. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. For example. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. oils deteriorate and become stale. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold.[citation needed].net/ . but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. not for foods to be eaten cold. as available in an oil producing region. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. Also. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. A very fresh oil. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. cookware.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). like salads. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders.

Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. It does have demulcent properties. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen.net/ . History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and mild laxative properties.crazychefs.com http://www. It is also good for the management of pain. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. acting as a stool softener.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin.

crazychefs.. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. drawn and engraved by J. medicines. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. magical.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. from O. Homer called it "liquid gold. oleum "oil. elaion "olive tree". olive oil has been used for religious rituals. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. soap-making. and skin care application.Fr.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". olive oil" (cf. from Anglo-Fr. huile). olie. from L. olio). olive oil." In ancient Greece. oile (12c.N. Besides food.Fr. It.Fr.net/ .com http://www. Mod. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. and O. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. 1175. as a fuel in oil lamps. from Gk. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c.

though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). Bodrum. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen.crazychefs. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. olive presses became common.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. In the centuries that followed.com http://www.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete.net/ .[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.

The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. According to legend. he maintained. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. stored in special containers. when the oil had risen to the top. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates.000 and 3. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. where it is thought to have represented wealth.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. during the 13th century BC. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan.crazychefs.[46] Until 1500 BC.net/ . Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. Lebanon.. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and.over 4. Sinuhe. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. According to the historian Pliny. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. "the best in the Mediterranean". These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC).com http://www. drained the water from the bottom. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah.000 tons of olive oil per season. oil containers are preferred.[dubious – discuss] During this time. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. and area consisting of present day Palestine. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. and Israel. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. together with naked appearance of athletes. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. wrote of abundant olive trees. allowing more time for more oil to be made. the fertile crescent. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense.[citation needed].

the tourch is in a glass bulb. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. ^ USDA. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. ^ USDA.gov/nass/pubs/agr05/05_ch3. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). ANR Publications. and.PDF. in the consecration of altars and churches. In Islam. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil.net/ .imitate the original Menorah. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. ^ "findarticles. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. originating from King David. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. Margaret Lindstrand (2005). neither Eastern nor Western. 4. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. Retrieved 2007-05-25.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. Joann L Coviello. its oil almost glows. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). p.crazychefs.com http://www. traditionally. even without fire touching it.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047. and the Mount of Sinai. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. "The Olive Tree. and this secure city. light upon light. 5. Olive Production Manual. References 1. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. Louise Ferguson. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree".gourmetretailer." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. Retrieved 2008-07-04. http://www. http://findarticles. 3. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. ^ G." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. http://www. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. 158. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". Retrieved 2007-05-25. To douse the flame.org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047". The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed.usda.com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display.internationaloliveoil. http://www. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree.html. Steven Sibbett. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). 2. ^ International Olive Oil Council.

^ a b McGee. 11.htm.southafrica.htm". ^ Durant.html".net/ . http://news.html.usda.46. (December 1986). 23. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil".telegraph.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini. and Maurizio La Guardia. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. Am. Giammanco. ^ New York Times. http://www.uk/news/main. 25. Menotti A. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. http://aje.ams. Di Majo. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".phrs. 124 (6): 903–15.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9.crazychefs. Dennis. ^ "Eubusiness. Alan (1989-05-21).scotsman.com http://www. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".co. 2004.Scotsman.Telegraph". M. http://oliveoilonly. ^ "www.010.23/.2007. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam .4005000.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889.com/gst/fullpage. US Customs Department.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institutionini.com/world/Forty-arrested-in-new-39fake39. United States Department of Agriculture. J. S. ^ Keys A. http://www.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07.com News". et al. J. 20.htm.eubusiness. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). 14. Tabacchi.com/news-eu/1204304521.jp.co. Retrieved 2008-11-09. ^ Riding.1016/j. 7.23/. 19. 2007-08-13. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. doi:10.com/news-eu/1204304521. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705.1079/NRR200495 24. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.xml. Tripoli. Res. ^ "EUbusiness. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. PMID 3776973. G. Raymond & Co. John. http://www.eubusiness. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E.com". 55 (3): 175–86. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . 10. http://www. 17. ^ a b "Telegraph article".southafrica. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. Slippery Business The New Yorker.gov/AMSv1. Pharmacol. ^ "www. 12. PMID 17321749. Tom.). http://www. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)".org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil.oxfordjournals. 19 CFR 134.01. 15. The New York Times (H.nytimes.com". Retrieved 2008-11-16. 16. http://query.xml. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. 21.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3776973.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260.internationaloliveoil. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. ^ Mueller. 13.internationaloliveoil. D.6.telegraph. http://www. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. Retrieved 2008-11-16. Karvonen MJ. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 18. http://www. November 2. Giammanco.uk/news/main. Epidemiol.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study".

p. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". says the 6th millennium in Jericho. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. Guida L. Nov. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. 45. Catherine Breton. ^ Mayo Clinic. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). M : Ahmed. An Wu. ^ Guillaume Besnarda.net/ . "[19 INSERT TITLE]". ^ "Quite Interesting .06-6328com. 37.v. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. T : Ueda. Vol.ama-assn.org 31. Faseb J. "New Year's Resolution No. 35. ^ Ehud Galili et al. 2000. 10. ^ "www. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". "olive" and "oil" 40.. Olives 41. Israel".. doi:10.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. et al." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. doi:10.". JDermatol-Sci. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). Olea europaea L. J Agric Food Chem. A : Bito. 21 (1): 45–52.61. s. Carcinogenesis.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. No. 2000.uk/portal/main. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. N U : Budiyanto. ^ [2] Ichihashi.75. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70.html". M : Osawa. ^ http://www. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". ^ Machowetz A. Toshihiko Osawa. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé.com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36.28. André Bervillé. http://www. PMID 17263460. 23. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". (January 2005). Pagnol. 43.1. ^ a b Davidson. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. Mar.com http://www. Raimondi AS. et al. Masamitsu Ichihashi. (January 2007). 34. d'Episcopo L. Nazim U. 39.xml.co. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. Suppl. De Castro A (February 2007). ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. ^ Turner R. 2085-2090. 11. ^ Rosenblum. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. 29. http://www.1021/jf0630217. Vargas J. ^ Pagnol. Medina E.crazychefs." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. Alonso MG. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. 21. Ahmed." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. A : Wu. Masato Ueda. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. 44.telegraph. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42.html. ssp. PMID 17110467. Etienne N.1024/0300-9831. 19 November 2007 30. Osamu Nikaido. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". PMID 10737284.1096/fj. 19. pp.v. Gruendel S. p. ^ Romero C. Poulsen HE.videojug. but cites no source.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". PMID 15830923.Telegraph". Marotta T. p. Vol.tchain. Toshinori Bito. 55 (3): 680–6. Dello Russo A. 1: Prevent Cancer. (27 March 2000). Brenes M. doi:10. 19. ^ Ferrara LA.tchain. s. T. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". 1S45-50. Use Olive Oil. 38. ".

reshafim. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ F. Scanlon. Provencal.youngmuslims. Kennell.il/ad/egypt/texts/sinuhe.htm.46. Harrington Park Press. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. ^ Thomas F. http://www. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. ^ Nigel M.youngmuslims.net/ . 2005 49.crazychefs.R. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil".).ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95.htm". 2001.com http://www. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". B. Processing methods.org. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece".htm. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. 47. ed. http://www. Riley. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. C. pp119–33 50. ^ "www. Verstraete and V. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95.

for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. sativus flower bears three stigmas. Saffron. each the distal end of a carpel. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles.com http://www. ən] / [ˈsæf. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L.crazychefs.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). crocin.Saffron Saffron crocus C. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. Saffron has further medicinal applications.or hay-like fragrance. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A C. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C.net/ .

Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. broken apart. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. which means "yellow. purple buds appear. Being sterile." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ).[11] Upon flowering. A corm survives for one season. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C.2 in) in length. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. in Central Asia.crazychefs.98–1.com http://www.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. and replanted. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Only in October. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ).net/ . cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. as was once generally believed. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. must be dug up. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. In autumn.5 centimetres (1.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. It is a sterile triploid form.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower.

Saffron crocuses grow best in friable.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. where annual rainfall averages 1. and corm rot pose other threats. well-watered. Greek. leaf rusts. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2.e. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. they fare poorly in shady conditions.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. low-density. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. Moroccan. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. are critical factors affecting yields. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. Nematodes. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. Planting depth and corm spacing. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn.[16] Furthermore.9 in) deep.500 mm (39–59 in). flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks.8–5. and birds. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. in concert with climate. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5.000–1.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. rats. loose. maximizing sun exposure.. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. where hot.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content.com http://www. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i.crazychefs.net/ . Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir.

11 gr) of dried saffron.crazychefs. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.[19] Meanwhile.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.2 oz of dried saffron). This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. However. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). It also has many nonvolatile active components. including zeaxanthin.and β-carotenes. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.[19] many of which are carotenoids. a product results that is itself water-soluble.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. and various α. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.8-carotenoic acid).com http://www. and thus oil-soluble. lycopene.8-diapo-8.0. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.

0–14.0–8.0 6.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 6.5 40.0 9.0 11.0–7.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 10.0 2.0 6.0–1.0 8.0–15.crazychefs.0 1.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0 3.0 12.0 12.0 1.net/ .com http://www.5 10.0 4.0–13.0 6.0 1.0 0.

The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri.4. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. the scent of which has been described as "saffron. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. p. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.6.Fiber (crude) 5. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is.6. incidentally. the heat.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. dried hay like". systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. Significantly. a volatile oil.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.crazychefs.net/ .[18] Safranal. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. When saffron is dried after its harvest.6-trimethyl-2. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6. combined with enzymatic action.com http://www. Santorini.3-diene-1.0 Source: Goyns 1999.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal.

[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.crazychefs. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. C. and in the mithridatium. a sterile mutant form of C. colic.000 years. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. ointments. sativus.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. and medical treatments. cough. divine offerings. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug.[33] potpourris.[28][29] Later.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. townspeople in Rhodes. Thus.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. Since then. physicians in Gaza.com http://www. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest.net/ . In late Hellenistic Egypt.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. There.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. mascaras. and scabies. cartwrightianus.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.

[42] ritually offered to divinities. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict.[51] However. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. and body washes.net/ . the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. a less expensive dye.com http://www. At such sites. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance.[44] From there. dating to 978–993 AD. rice.crazychefs.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50.[43] Thus. and used in dyes. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy.[39][40] Later. Wan Zhen.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".[44] During his Asian campaigns. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. a Chinese medical expert. and baths as a curative for battle wounds.[53] On the other hand. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. medicines. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. For example.[46][47][48] Meanwhile.Asia The 17.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. perfumes. or jackfruit.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. Isfahan. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. saffron threads were woven into textiles.

Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. imprisoned.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. indeed. In Europe. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. France. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed.[59][60] Only in southern France. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". and then the saffron is obtained. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. It can be used to aromatise wine.net/ . under which saffron adulterators were fined. and executed. However.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. tea.[58] Soon after. The Essex town of Saffron Walden.crazychefs. and Italy.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. named for its new specialty crop. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour.saffron is in Kashmir. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.com http://www. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. which grew prosperous. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. did significant cultivation endure. Italy. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. and Spain. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. coffee.[62] By 1730.[55] During the 14th century Black Death.

Medicinally. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. European. immunomodulating. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa).[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. and Cornish cuisines.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes.com http://www. and chicken or trout dishes. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. Indian. Turkish. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring.crazychefs. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius.net/ .[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly in China and India. noodles.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. and antioxidantlike properties. Arab. Pennsylvania. and in perfumery.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). Central Asian.

000-170. For example. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. and aroma. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. Annually. and Italy. Spain. Switzerland. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. the average retail price is $1. Azerbaijan. they are graded by government-imposed standards.com http://www. India. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. flavour. In Western countries.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). the United States.500/€7.100/€1.[5] Iran.100–11. Aside from these.000 flowers. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. are generally mellower in colour. Vivid crimson colouring. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. Greece.200/£1.crazychefs.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150.500 per kilogram. England.000 and 200. elasticity. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] A pound comprises between 70.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5. are the major producers of saffron. Spain's varieties. France.net/ .000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.000 threads. in decreasing order of production.000–75. Morocco.000 per pound (US$1. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide.550 per kilogram). slight moistness. and other countries. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.000 flowers.

and safranal (fragrance) content. There. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. it also has very high crocin. aroma. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. for quality and quantity. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. Repeated droughts. Sardinia. picrocrocin (taste).net/ .S. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). is in San Gavino Monreale. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. and crop failures in Kashmir.. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. and colourative effect. unusually pungent aroma.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the U. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities.com http://www. picrocrocin.some organically grown. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. contribute to its high prices. shape. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). combined with an Indian export ban. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus').crazychefs. near L'Aquila. and safranal content. blights.79 in). among the world's darkest.

Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0).[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. However. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration.[77] However. aroma.[80] Thus. pomegranate fibers.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. II.crazychefs. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. III. with turmeric.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. red-dyed silk fibers. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. paprika. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. many growers. and consumers reject such lab test numbers.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages.net/ . and I (finest quality). absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. and other powders used as diluting fillers. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. traders. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. and thus a greater colourative intensity. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. in India.national standards bodies. pliability. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide.com http://www.

12.Saffron reproductive biology 11. p.net/ . ^ Grigg 1974. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. ^ Harper 2001.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). p. 103. 3–4.google. 2–3. Retrieved 2007-12-01. ^ Willard 2001. ^ McGee 2004. p. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. 2. pp.com http://www. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 5. pp. 1. p. 18. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. Sterling. Kansai. 14.org/google/abstract. p. 3. 422. 272. 423. p. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. 1. Honshū. p. ^ DPIWE 2005.crazychefs. 16. 9. 15. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. 3. 20.cababstractsplus. ^ a b Deo 2003. ^ Rau 1969.com/books?id=AaTpWEIlgNwC. ^ Willard 2001.cababstractsplus. ^ Willard 2001. p. 22. ^ a b Deo 2003. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 6. 19. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002.asp?AcNo=20043148643. 13. Grilli Caiola . ^ Willard 2001. 53. p. ^ a b c Hill 2004. p. stigma extracts and their constituents. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. ^ Deo 2003. ^ Dharmananda 2005. 24. p. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. http://www. 7. 4. 23. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ M. ^ Kumar V (2006). ^ a b McGee 2004. 8.". 21.org. www. 4. 287. crocin and safranal. 1. 4. 3. pp. 2. p. http://books. 3. 17. in mice. p. p.

^ Deo 2003. 2. ^ Willard 2001. 1935 [1] 38. 99. 72. Random House. 59. 54–55. 2. p. ^ Hill 2004. transl. ^ Willard 2001. p. 41. 60. 17–18. ^ Rau 1969. ^ Dalby 2002. pp. 65. 63. 35. 1. p. ^ Willard 2001. 64. 67. p. pp. pp.com http://www. 41. p. ^ http://vision. 55. pp. 26. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. 58. 41. 2. 30. 61. ^ Honan 2004. p. 51. ^ Lak 1998b. 117. 31. Loeb Classical Library Edition. pp. ^ Willard 2001. 138–139. p. 42.crazychefs. ^ a b Willard 2001. ^ Honan 2004. ^ Willard 2001. p. 66. ca. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. p. 1. 45. ^ Willard 2001. 6. ^ http://www. p. 68. 142–146. p. p. ^ Hayes 2001. 224. 56. 256.vision. ^ Willard 2001.pdf 70. ^ Willard 2001. p. 39. ^ Willard 2001. 50.org/cgi/content/abstract/49/3/1254 69. ^ Humphries 1998. ^ a b Willard 2001. 20.iovs. p. 28. 36. 34–35. p. 52. p. ^ Fletcher 2005. p. 46. p. ^ Celsus. ^ Willard 2001. 33. 138. ^ McGee 2004. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Willard 2001. ^ a b Dalby 2002. p. 58. p. p. 44. p. 422. ^ Willard 2001. ^ http://www. ^ Willard 2001.edu. 143. ^ Willard 2001. p. 11. 101. 95. 128. 133. 55. pp. 47. ^ Finlay. p.pdf 71. p. 37. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Goyns 1999. p. 73. ^ Ferrence 2004. 273. ^ Chang. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. ^ Willard 2001. pp. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. ^ Willard 2001. p. 30 AD. 132–133.edu. ^ Dalby 2003. 48. 34.au/AnnualReports/ACEVS%20Report%202007. Kuo & Wang 1964. 57. pp. p. ^ Willard 2001. 1. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 27. ^ Willard 2001. p. de Medicina.net/ . 1.25. p. ^ Willard 2001. 63. 103–104. p. 2–3. ^ Willard 2001. 138. Victoria (30 December 2002). 1. 43. 29. 70. ^ a b c Willard 2001. 49. 40. p. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. 62. p.au/news/acevs%20saffron. 35. 12. 59. 54. 32.

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247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved on January 10. Willard. <http://www. H (2004). Tarvand Saffron Company. Tarvand Saffron Company. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". <http://www. Pearce. Retrieved on January 10.com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>. 2006.McGann. "Saffron". "Grading and Classification".tarvandsaffron. 2006.htm>. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. Cancer Letters 57 (2).com/channel/earth/mg18524831. P (2001).reconstructinghistory. 2006.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>. JB (2005). Rau. Reconstructing History. Time Life Education.000. "What is Saffron?". Nair. The Cooking of India. <http://books. <http://www. Tarvand (2005b). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Retrieved on January 10. McGee. Retrieved on January 10. PMID 2025883 Park. <http://www. Beacon Press.htm>. Retrieved on January 10. SR (1969).com/irish/saffron.".com/classification.html>. New Scientist.html>.gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b.tarvandsaffron. K (2003). 2006. 2006[dead link].barc.newscientist.com http://www. SC.cfm?chemic al_id=140>. Scribner. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www.google. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. USDA Phytochemical Database. 2006. 2006. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus).com/saffron. F (2005). <http://books.crazychefs.net/ . Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005).pl.google.usda. Retrieved on January 10.

net/ .Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea.com http://www. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O. Dead Sea.crazychefs.

referring to their wooden material. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. ca 170 AD.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures.crazychefs. endives."[7] indeed.(XVII. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. Though. the olive suckers readily from the stump. In Homer's Odyssey. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. called xoana.[9]. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. by a spring. The small white flowers.net/ .[1] and in the Iliad.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it.5 cm long.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. two stamens and bifid stigma. olives."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. Theophrastus. Its fruit. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. they were reverently preserved for centuries.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. the olive. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. are borne generally on the last year's wood. from Lebanon.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted.com http://www. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. It is short and squat. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. Asia and parts of Africa. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years.

they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. power and pureness. Chile and Argentina. kotinos.[12] After the 16th century. The Book of Jacob 5. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today.net/ .16. in both the New and Old Testaments.com http://www.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. and its cultivation began in Mexico. and then in the 18th century in California. Theophrastus. in On the Nature of Plants.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. Peru. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. The olive tree itself.The leafy branches of the olive tree . wisdom. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. Today. olives were grown commercially in Crete. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. for which the Greeks had a separate name. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games.crazychefs. Over the years.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As far back as 3000 BC. the olive has been the symbol of peace. fertility.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. the pits give rise to thorny. but he makes clear (in 1. wild-type olives. glory and peace . play an important role in the Bible. spread far and wide by birds. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. and one of the most significant. For example. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. glory. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. as well as olive oil and olives. As emblems of benediction and purification. indeed.

Istria in Croatia.net/ . and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. The older an olive tree is.[16] An olive tree in west Athens.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times.000 years old.and fire-resistant. The age of an olive tree in Crete. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is made into top quality olive oil. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. One olive tree in Bar. Montenegro. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis.600 years old. and can live for very long. named "Plato's Olive Tree". disease. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed.crazychefs. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar.com http://www. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. claimed to be over 2. drought-. has been calculated to be about 1. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus.

com http://www. called the "Peisistratos Tree".[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. All seven trees continue to produce olives. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. In the same natural garden. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. and. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975.6 km) as the limit. According to a recent scientific survey.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. fine wood. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic.2.crazychefs. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. Modern experience does not always confirm this. see Olive (fruit). there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. a few other millenary trees can be admired. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. though showing a preference for the coast.net/ .400 years ago. both in Galilee region. Specifically. olive leaf. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. and the olive fruit. Italy. 1600-2000 years old. A supposedly even older tree.

crazychefs. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. Argentina. Australia. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. Chile.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Sudan. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. the Mediterranean Basin.net/ . northwest Africa) where winters are mild. Israel. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). Olive plantation in Andalucia.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as South Africa. Niger. laperrinei (Algeria. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates.com http://www.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand.

crazychefs.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .com http://www.

com http://www. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.net/ .crazychefs.

efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. which consists of 1. stuffed (with pickled pimento. often after being pitted.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape.200. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . 'Manzanilla'. Rich taste and thick pulp.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. anchovies.com http://www. A prolific bearer. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. 'Bosana'. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. It is used mostly for oils.crazychefs.net/ . though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. grown around the world. The olive grove of Amfissa. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. a large.Cailletier cultivar. in southern Spain. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. In recent times. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. rounded-oval fruit. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. originating in Dos Hermanas. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. Seville. but only a few are grown to a large extent. with purple-green skin.

[21] 'Koroneiki'. They grow in any light soil. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. originating from the southern Peloponese. It is green. It is mainly used for oil. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. Spain. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. 'Empeltre'. Greece. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. used as a table olive. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. good for eating and for oil. brown olive grown in Catalonia. Spain. even on clay if well drained. Spain. 'Kalamata'. though difficult to cultivate. Due to their highly valued flavour. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste.net/ . is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. and elongated. 'Nabali'. a large. Moreover. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. 'Cornicabra'. The olive is medium sized. originating in the south of France (Aude département). it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. It has a strong but sweet flavour. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. and elongated. Their flavour is mild and nutty. large. They are green. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. and coastal climate conditions.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. medium size. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. disease-resistant.[23] 'Barnea'. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour.crazychefs. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. 'Arbequina'.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. a small. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. originating in the south of France. another modern Israeli. good for eating and for oil. named after the city of Kalamata. It is used both for oil and for table olives. 'Picual'. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece.com http://www. originating in Toledo. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). The flavour is mild and nutty. 'Hojiblanca'. originating in the province of Córdoba. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. This small olive. They are black and generally used for table consumption. 'Souri'. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. round. which.

poorer soil. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees.) Olives like hot weather. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. up to several centuries. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. 114). Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. as in Languedoc and Provence. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. P. In southern Europe. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. In Italy. where they soon form a vigorous shoot.net/ . grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. embryonic buds.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. However. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. Olives are propagated in various ways. to facilitate germination. the trees are regularly pruned. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. A. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. Occasionally. In some places in Italy and Greece. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. removing fruit from the tree. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. More specifically. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. Olives grow very slowly. In Greece. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. and with the season and the cultivar. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. This method is used for olives used for oil. the oliviera. but the time varies in each country. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. and can remain productive for as long. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil.com http://www. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. which form small swellings on the stems. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used.crazychefs. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. it is valued by woodworkers. They tolerate drought well. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. Another method uses an electric tool. being very hard and close-grained. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. soon vegetate. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting.

com http://www. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green.net/ . the fruit is not bruised. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. which is a natural preservative. which can be eaten fresh. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. Olives can be used green..g. After some weeks. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines.5-2. The olives are soaked in water to wash. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. large fruit (e. Typical yields are 1. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. then drained. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. through to full purple black ripeness. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. Fresh are often sold at markets. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. or green with hints of colour). 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. a bitter carbohydrate.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit.2 kg of oil per tree per year. which is healthy for future production. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. The method also involves sawing off branches. which leads to a superior finished product.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. As a result. ripe green (a yellower shade of green.crazychefs. the creation of lactic acid.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. which is why they taste milder than green olives. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process.

lemon juice. wine.com http://www. diseases. Sometimes. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. chili. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olives suffer occasionally from frost. Popular flavourings are herbs.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives.crazychefs. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. salt-curing. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. vinegar. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. In France and north-central Italy. causing great damage to plantations. garlic cloves. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. of which the water is changed daily. spices.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. induces tumour growth in the shoots. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage.net/ . Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. juniper berries and anchovies. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. oleae[27]. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. A species of bacterium. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. capsicum (pimento). and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. and weather A fungus. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. but can be left to cure for up to three months. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. The ten largest producing countries. their main predators are wasps. especially to young trees. Pests.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. lemon zest. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. Lye-curing. or removing the pit and stuffing them. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. feta. leaving sawtooth damage. an unnatural method. Cycloconium oleaginum. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. olive oil.6 to 8. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor.

7 27. Description of Greece 1..1 25.3 20. Ancient Greek Agriculture. most notably South Australia. ^ ".crazychefs. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees.000 8. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.5 63.0 3.8 16.. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves. 38." (Herodotus. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures. book 5". 4." (Diodorus Siculus. 27.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.500. 1992. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.000 20. Bibliotheke. An introduction.888 178. 5. and to cultivate olive-trees.000 280.000 550.3 8.339 300.317.000 1. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.149. Odyssey. ^ Pausanias.064 2. 5. 82. p.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication. ^ Theophrastus.000 250.9 6.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced. 4.5 6. 6.300.800. 3.000 275.5.com http://www. On the Causes of Plants.000 318.000 498. ^ Homer.000 49..981 1. 1.000 998.988 500.000 470.140. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.000 430. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.597.13.1).830 2.000 594.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.400.100 3.net/ .. 1 ).160. 1). Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants. 4. to make bee-hives. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. 3. 2.089 6.14.[31] References 1. 7. 81.6 31.685 765.000 1.4 30.

Retrieved 2009-05-18. http://apps3. 28. nom.fao. Leshonenu (Hebrew). 1779. http://www. Retrieved 2007-08-31. ^ [1] 21.pasoroblesolivefestival. Bacteriol. N. Elena "Unusual Olives". (1999) Ancient Trees. 1996. pp 110–113. Australian Olives. rev. 4th edition.cit. 105. 1999. Retrieved 2007-03-10.crazychefs. 29. J. http://www. 30.jsp. ^ Burr. J. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.W.31. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". D. 1982. 17. (September 2002). p. J. AGRISCIENTA.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA".com/ 25. ^ Lewington. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil".Near the Old Bar in Tombi. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. Retrieved 2007-08-31. ^ Muncipality Bar. Brijuni National Park. 69. Madrid.hr/Home. Processing methods. John Hutton. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. Y. Syst. Zatoun. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. & Ouazzani. 23. ^ http://www. ^ Riley.org/wiews/olive/intro. Kislew. Volume 18:27-35 20." Horace.. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares.springerlink. 24. Int. & Parker. Masuelli. 27.com/study. ^ O. Epikouria Magazine. M. Fall/Spring (2005) 12.htm. ^ Balfour. Simhoni. ^ "Old Olive Tree". Ellen. Apps3. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. vol. nov. Riley (2002). and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. 1981. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. ^ Belaj et al. R. London: Collins & Brown Ltd.zatoun.net/ ..aspx?PageID=151. Spring/Summer 2006 26. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. EspasaCalpe S. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading.15.fao. 32:166–169. 35. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. ^ Fotiadi. Cavagnaro P. E. ^ Gooch. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol.brijuni. 2004". ^ "Me pascunt olivae. 13. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. Epikouria Magazine. Juárez. R. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. ^ "FAO. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. p.org. Number 4). (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Tabak & O. ^ a b M.. Moody. 29 April. Rackham. A. ^ Lumaret. 2001.A. J. me cichorea levesque malvae. M Bauza & R. Volume 15.. ca 30 BC 9.. op. Odes 1. http://www.279 18. cited in F.com/content/dlb533pw9cbwc59e/. Available through Google Books 11. ^ Janse.8. "Plants of the Bible" 1885.

com http://www. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. glossy green. (French tarragon. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A.crazychefs. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. L. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. with an entire margin. seldom produces flowers. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. The leaves are lanceolate. and south to northern Mexico.31. however. western North America.net/ ." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter.R. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. with slender branched stems. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. Corresponding to its species name.

[1] It likes a hot. but cannot be grown from seed. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. Georgia and. and particularly suitable for chicken. Persian and Russian word for . it normally goes dormant in winter. Fresh. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. A perennial.[1] However. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. fish and egg dishes. by extension.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. due to the presence of estragole. Russia and Ukraine. without excessive watering. which is the Armenian. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. Spreading plant can be divided easily. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. sunny spot.net/ . It is normally purchased as a plant. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. dracunculoides L.[1] Russian tarragon (A. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer.com http://www.crazychefs. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall.

265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Gatfield IL. Horst. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring.Cis-Pellitorin. 3. Machinek A. Properties and Uses. Stuckey.crazychefs. 2. ^ Surburg. The Bountiful Container. Ley JP. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Rose Marie Nichols. Johannes Panten (2006).com http://www. 233. ISBN 9783527607891. ^ a b c d McGee. pp. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S.net/ . References 1. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Maggie (2002).[3] In Slovenia. Workman Publishing. Foerstner J. Wiley-VCH. Krammer G.

cheeses (Sage Derby). The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. In the United States.Salvia officinalis (Sage. Common sage. though other species. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. In French cuisine.com http://www. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. It is a member of the mint family. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. it is used when roasting mutton. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. Lamiaceae. Purple sage. Dalmatian sage. with woody stems. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Garden sage. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Broadleaf sage. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. Culinary sage. grayish leaves. and some drinks. sage has a slight peppery flavor. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. Kitchen sage. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. In Western cooking. Britain and Flanders. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. In the Balkans and the Middle East.net/ . and blue to purplish flowers.crazychefs.

[1] In a double blind. chlorogenic acid. niacin. and estrogenic substances. fumaric acid. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. antispasmodic. caffeic acid. cornsole. antifungal.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil.net/ . salvia. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. The underside of a sage leaf . it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. ursonic acid.trichomes are visible. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. nicotinamide. antibiotic. The Latin name for sage.more trichomes are visible on this side. means ―to heal". and tonic. and thujone.crazychefs. borneol. cornsolic acid. oleic acid. astringent. ursolic acid. which contains cineole. flavones.com http://www.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. flavonoid glycosides. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. hypoglycemic. estrogenic.

and for low ground cover. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. and used as a diuretic. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. References 1.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. and for other uses. 'Icterina'. 'Extrakta'. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans.00463. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. Mohammadi M. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages.appliedhealth.1365-2710. especially in sunny dry environments.net/ .[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. 'Berggarten'.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages.crazychefs. Pliny. Applied Health. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. increasing women's fertility. a cultivar with large leaves. yellow and green variegated leaves. a small leaved cultivar.1046/j. a white-flowered cultivar.com http://www.php. Dioscorides. hemostatic. a purple-leafed cultivar. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. and more. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. and tonic. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". OBeWise Nutriceutica. Ohadinia S.[4] It was sometimes called S. PMID 12605619. emmenagogue. Khani M. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. snakebites. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. a local anesthetic for the skin. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. 'Lavandulaefolia'. Jamshidi AH. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. 'Tricolor'. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. a styptic. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. Retrieved 2008-02-04. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus.2003. (2003). doi:10. http://www. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. 'Alba'. a cultivar with white.com/nutri/page8453.x. ^ Akhondzadeh S. ^ a b c "Sage". 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. Noroozian M. 2.

4. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses.net/ .crazychefs. Sage: The Genus Salvia.com http://www. Spiridon E. p.3. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 10-11. ISBN 9789058230058. Deni Bown (New York: DK. (2000). CRC Press. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. ^ a b Kintzios. pp.

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