COOKING INGREDIENTS

Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]

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Taxonomy
Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]

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Uses
Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

Safety
A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Cultivation
Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]

Gallery

Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.

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Thyme

Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

History
Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]

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Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. Portuguese. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. the whole sprig may be used (e. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Syrian.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. Dried. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. storage life is rarely more than a week. It can be propagated by seed. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. It tolerates drought well.g. and in those derived from them. while flavourful. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. Italian. which is due to its content of thymol. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. In French cuisine. Lebanese. As a rule of thumb. Albanian. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. cuttings. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. or by the sprig. Thyme. in a bouquet garni).Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. Libyan. soups and stews. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient.crazychefs. Persian. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. assume that it means fresh. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. While summer-seasonal. Depending on how it is used in a dish. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands.com http://www. Greek. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof).a little less if it is ground. and of herbes de Provence. Leaves are often chopped. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. and Turkish cuisines. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. Spanish. In some Levantine countries. fresh thyme is often available year-round. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant.net/ . tomatoes and eggs. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe.

[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. salve. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis.[6] Thymol. but is grown as a ground cover. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. All thyme species are nectar sources. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. Because it is antiseptic. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. pulegioides × T. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. it was used to medicate bandages.crazychefs. It also has medicinal uses. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover.[5] As with bay.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. an antiseptic. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves.net/ . The dried equivalent is 1:3. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. tisane.com http://www. etc. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. hybrid T. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty.

good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.com http://www. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .crazychefs. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing.Variegated lemon thyme. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme.

Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.crazychefs.net/ .

crazychefs. often used as spice. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is common in Middle Eastern.1 mg recommendations for adults.3 g 0.Sugars 0.9 g .0 μg Calcium 138. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro). B3) 1.Dietary fiber 3.net/ . B2) 0.0 mg Phosphorus 58.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. although parsley has a milder flavor. European. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.0 mg Iron 6.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.1 mg 6.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.1 mg Folate (Vit.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.com http://www. B1) 0.2 mg Magnesium 50.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates . and American cooking.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.8 g 3.

Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. or flat leaf (P. it attracts predatory insects.crazychefs. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. neapolitanum). tuberosum). Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. used in soups and stews. it is not related to real turnips. Like many other umbellifers. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". which helps accommodate the long taproot.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. Although little known in Britain and the United States. not blooming until its second year. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens.com http://www. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. reducing pest attraction. which then tend to protect plants nearby. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. However. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant.net/ .Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. For example. While parsley is biennial.

on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles.com". meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. Jett. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. http://www. In addition.drugs. root. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). ^ a b c John W. 2007.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. a mixture of parsley.com/PLUdetails.com/npc/parsley. or 4900.g.html. and lemon zest.net/ . ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. fried chicken. In Southern and Central Europe. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew." West Virginia University Extension Service. http://www. [1]) in oxalic acid.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries.70% by mass. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. e. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). parsley is part of bouquet garni. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. soups.. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. and sauces. with fish. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. lamb or goose. "Parsley on plucodes. 4.com". tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon).[3] Parsley is high (1. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines.plucodes. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ossobuco alla milanese.com http://www. Last retrieved April 26. garlic.crazychefs. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. References 1. Parsley as an oil. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath.aspx?id=1075&s=4. leaf. 2. steaks. "That Devilish Parsley. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup.

Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .crazychefs.com http://www.

vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.crazychefs.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .com http://www.

British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. and to add a nice.g.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. O vulgare gracile.com http://www. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. Greek. as well as cultivars.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food.net/ . fried vegetables. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. The flowers are purple. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. capers. 3-4 mm long. of the mint family. Oregano is an important culinary herb. and lovage leaves. Unlike most Italian herbs. Together with basil.crazychefs. which is popular in southern Italy. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. each with distinct flavours. Oregano growing in a field.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno .[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. e. spicy flavor. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. growing to 20-80 cm tall. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. native to Europe. and grilled meat. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. It is a perennial herb. produced in erect spikes. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano).

which. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. In the Philippines. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. The influence of climate. Asia Minor) and O. West Asia) have similar flavors.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity.crazychefs.com http://www. heracleoticum (Italy.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. It varies in intensity. warm and slightly bitter taste. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. It has an aromatic. it can be usually found on table. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. together with paprika. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. useful for relieving children's coughs. however.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. Balkan peninsula.[5][6] Additionally. salt and pepper. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. Oregano growing in a pot. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes.net/ . because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. In Turkish Cuisine. differs significantly in taste. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. especially for mutton and lambs meat. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant.

Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. stomachic and mildly tonic. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. especially in the United States. expectorant. Plectranthus amboinicus. Used topically. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. emmenagogue.html. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. oregano. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. influenza. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. Aqueous extracts. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. this substitution would not work the other way round. indigestion. mild fevers. fungal infections. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. but is usually stronger. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. the father of medicine. useful for relieving children's coughs. In the Philippines. carminative. cholagogue. including Poliomintha longiflora. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. enteric parasites.net/ . ^ http://www. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum.com http://www. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον.crazychefs. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. Coleus aromaticus). or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. stimulant. diaphoretic. limonene. and caryophyllene.[8] Hippocrates.[12] References 1. capsules. pinene.[7] and painful menstruation. thymol. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". also called Cuban oregano. ocimene. stomach upsets. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. A Cretan oregano (O. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. Lippia berlandieri. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language.at/~katzer/engl/Orig_vul.uni-graz.Main constituents include carvacrol. ^ Organic Gardening 2. antispasmodic.

6. Food Chem.) and Origanum vulgare L. 24 November 2008. J.uk/news/UWENews/article. http://www. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. (Cav.asp?item=1374&year=2008. http://jn.3.com http://www. ^ ["http://www. Retrieved 2008-11-26. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L.medicalnewstoday. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".crazychefs. 28. Leonor. et al.nutrition.uk/wild-oregano-oil-carvacrol. 11. June 2008. ^ Epikouria Magazine.10.uwe.com/articles/130620. (2005). vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID 16218659. draft revision for "organum". draft revision for "origanum".php. Medical News Today. March 2009. University of the West of England. J Nutr.net/ . Fall/Winter 2007 10. 7. Fall/Spring 2007 5. doi:10. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. ^ a b Faleiro. Steinar.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. 53 (21): 8162–8168. et al.1021/jf0510079.2008. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. 133 (5): 1286–1290.ac. (01 May 2003).". PMID 12730411.dmannose. Draft revision for "oregano". Agric. http://info. ^ Dragland. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8.co. 12. ^ Epikouria Magazine. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". Retrieved 200811-26.org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286.

John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). umbelliferous herb. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. Also.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. recorded in the 10th century. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl.com http://www. Ferula communis. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. meaning "hay". however. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. In Ancient Greek. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. it seems. the diminutive of fenum or faenum.net/ . and is pronounced finocchio in Italian.crazychefs. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. it was from the giant fennel. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. It is a hardy. perennial. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). The Latin word for the plant was ferula. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae).Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen.[2] In Greek mythology.

It is erect.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. glaucous green.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.crazychefs.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. half as wide or less.Dietary fiber 3. they are finely dissected. B2) 0.net/ .032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. and grows to heights of up to 2.29 g 0.20 g 1. but thinner. and grooved.5 mm wide.047 mg Folate (Vit. bulb. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.com http://www. B3) 0. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. with hollow stems. about 0. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.01 mg 7.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel.5 m.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). B1) 0. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.

and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. syn.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. and in other open sites in many regions.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. both raw and cooked. in pastures. F. It propagates well by seed. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. by the late 19th century. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type.20 mg Manganese 0. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island).crazychefs. it is often mislabelled as "anise".com http://www.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. "bronze-leaved" fennel. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. both in its native range and elsewhere. It is of cultivated origin. vulgare var. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. the United States. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. though usually not as strong. for its edible. but is more aromatic and sweeter. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. In North American supermarkets. notably the Italian name finocchio.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. including northern Europe. which is also known by several other names.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group.net/ . an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure.

hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. or cooked in risotto. and risottos. green seeds are optimal. anise-flavoured spice.net/ . braised. though smaller. grilled. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. badesoppu in Kannada. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. where bulbs and fronds are used. salads. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. variyali in Gujarati. stewed. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish.Fennel. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. It may be blanched or marinated. fish. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. Many egg. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. brown or green in colour when fresh. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. sompu in Telugu. both raw and cooked. often tossed with chicory and avocado. The bulb is a crisp. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads.com http://www. foliage. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). which are very similar in taste and appearance. pastas. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. For cooking. but also the most expensive. mouri in Bengali. or eaten raw. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. in side dishes.crazychefs. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages.

[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension.crazychefs.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[12] For adults.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. or its polymers. used to ease flatulence in infants. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. which can explain some of its medical effects: it.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. as it is said to improve eyesight. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. also employed as a carminative. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. Fennel tea.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue.com http://www. This use. act as phytoestrogens.net/ . applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. although not supported by direct evidence. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. sometimes with some sweetener.

crazychefs.[17] However. badian (star anise).[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. which promote growth of breast tissue. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. fennel and coriander. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments.net/ .com http://www. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. followed by India.

In Urdu. In Farsi (Persian). Ceylon. it is called Dalchina Chakka. which are often called cinnamon too.com http://www. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. in the original Sinhala. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. it is called "Darchini" ( ). and in Gujarati taj. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā.[2] In Marathi.C. In Bengali.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. Chakka meaning bark or wood. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cinnamon is known as kurundu. native to Sri Lanka.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. it is called darchin (‫.net/ . it is known as "DalChini ( )".[3] In Sri Lanka. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. itself ultimately from Phoenician. synonym C.crazychefs. In Telugu.[5] In Malayalam. Hindi. the "real' cassia.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia.

It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear.com http://www. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. in Proverbs.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum.net/ .[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. aloe and cinnamon. and in Song of Solomon.crazychefs.

have a greenish color. 7–18 cm (2. They established a trading post in 1638.2 feet) tall. "The shores of the island are full of it". although in the first century. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. and used them to construct their nests.1 inches) long. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta.8–49. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. p. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. took control of the factories by 1640.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. a Dutch captain reported. and have a distinct odor.com http://www. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon." (Braudel 1984. which are arranged in panicles.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape.Ages. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. in a letter of about 1292. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. However. The flowers. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. and coffee. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. tea.crazychefs. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy.[9] In Herodotus and other authors.net/ . sugar.75–7. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe.

Java. the West Indies. Zanzibar. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. Madagascar. and Vietnam. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. eg. Bangladesh. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. India. According to the International Herald Tribune. which is left to dry. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. followed by China. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India.com http://www. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. Brazil. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. Vietnam. and Egypt. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg.net/ .crazychefs. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades.5 mm) inner bark is used.[15] According to the FAO. Chips are trimmings of quills. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Sumatra. the outer woody portion is removed. The next year. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. Only the thin (0. verum).

Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon".crazychefs. or "Indonesian cinnamon". hard and woody in texture. is generally a medium to light reddish brown. using only the thin inner bark.net/ . However. the related species. and is considered to be less strong than cassia.com http://www. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. many websites. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum).rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. as all of the layers of bark are used. and more crumbly texture. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). zeylanicum). and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia.[16] Ceylon cinnamon. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . for example. less dense. "Vietnamese cinnamon".[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). has a finer.

capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. and fruits.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content.net/ . is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. used in a variety of thick soups. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. The two barks. True cinnamon. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. hot cocoa. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. macerating it in seawater. when whole. but when cassia is present. tea. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). It is of a golden-yellow color. and liqueurs. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. especially apples. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. ‫. In the United States. rather than cassia. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct.com http://www. and then quickly distilling the whole. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia.crazychefs.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes.5% to 1% of its composition. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. and sweets. drinks. such as apple pie. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. bread-based dishes. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. are easily distinguished. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. a deep-blue tint is produced. In the Middle East. especially in Mexico. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

and a very hot aromatic taste. love. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. Encyclopaedia Britannica. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves).[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. cinnamyl acetate. beta-caryophyllene. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. and anethole. luck. cassia. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. although it remains untested.[34] Notes 1.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits).[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. linalool. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. who failed. The Cinnamon Challenge. few seem able to succeed. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. and Myanmar (Burma). according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. cinnamaldehyde. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. ^ a b "Cinnamon". by the absorption of oxygen as it ages.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.crazychefs.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion.com http://www. eugenol. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. However. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). the neighboring Malabar Coast of India.0. and money. In Hoodoo.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations.net/ . 2008. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system.

2009. 23. PMID 10077878.iol.com 17. Batlle R. 10.html. 53 (17): 6939–46. Henry.co. PMID 16104824.. Cinnamomum. Sir James Emerson.ac. ^ Harris. tr. Anthea Bell.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. 437). ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009. p. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour. Cinnamon. Corke H (October 2005). http://www. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. ^ [1] 16. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ "Cassia. Nerín C (August 2005). PMID 16190627. "Solid.htm. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". Mancini DA.—Cinnamon. retrieved 200807-15 6. 8. http://dsr.za/index.html#pg598.jstor. Harvey.php?storyId=6672644. Food Chem. retrieved 200705-01 21. Sun M. retrieved 2008-07-15 11.org/tennent/v1_p5_c02. retrieved 2007-05-01 19.org/sici?sici=00754358(1970)60%3C222%3ATSTOTR%3E2.henriettesherbal. ^ Shan B.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/south_asia_sri_lanka0s_spice _of_life/html/1. J. ^ Mancini-Filho J.437.nii.co. http://lakdiva.com http://www. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. doi:10.org/docrep/007/ae017e/ae017e12.stm 3.net/ .crazychefs. Robert. Sánchez C." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. Food Chem.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". ^ http://findarticles. http://www. ^ http://www. Breyne) extracts".htm 20. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ Knox.com/eclectic/kings/cinnamomum.com/Spices/cinnamon.bbc. 22.html.CO%3B2-N 15. 4. ^ The Epicentre. ^ Tennent. revised ed. ^ López P. http://www.en. ^ http://www.org/templates/story/story.theepicentre. doi:10. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. 437 7. Emily. Cathay and the Way Thither.1021/jf051513y. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. 53 (20): 7749–59. 437f. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger.ihaystack.html. p. http://www. Cai YZ. The History of Food.npr. ^ [2] 18. Account of the Island of Ceylon.com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. Agric. Col. Agric. Van-Koiij A.thespicehouse. Encyclopedia of Spices.jp/toyobunko/III-2F-b-2/V-1/page/0487.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_June/ai_3289703 13. 9. Torres RP (December 1998). ^ http://www. p. ^ Yule.fao. p.2. ^ http://news.com/spices/vietnamese-cassia-saigon-cinnamon-wholecracked-ground thespicehouse. J. ^ Felter. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. p. Cozzolino FF. ^ http://links.0.1021/jf050709v.

"Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007).php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. doi:10. ^ Khan A. ^ Vanschoonbeek.htm.nutrition.24.113. Retrieved 2008-05-11. doi:10. Alan W. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8.3215. ground.3.2217/14750708. ^ George Mateljan Foundation.1.. Braudel. a publication now in the public domain.3. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. Akram et al. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). Kristof et al. ^ Beck. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. Cat.com. Agricultural Research magazine. July 2000. 26.sciencedaily.2337/diacare. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica.sciencedaily. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). New York: Kodansha International. (2005). Khattak KN.whfoods. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. Research: Thalido. Corn. http://www. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. Muhammad et al. http://www. 33.1643.diabetesjournals. http://jn.. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. 28.. http://www..1002/ptr.26. 27. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Eleventh Edition. ^ Taher. Cinnamon. doi:10. Retrieved 200805-11. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". Retrieved 2008-05-11.lesliebeck. http://www.crazychefs. http://www. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".com.113. Retrieved 2007-12-17.1. Medicinal Seasonings.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14633804.1016/00219673(88)90035-0. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde.net/ . http://eprints. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients".. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". The Perspective of the World.com/releases/2004/07/040716081706.luckymojo. ^ Yronwode. ^ Verspohl. 29. Charles (1998).redorbit.pdf. ^ Ranjbar. et al.html?source=r_health. http://www. Anderson RA (December 2003). "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food.com http://www. 34.my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH. Eugen J. Leslie. ^ [3]. Retrieved 200808-05.com/genpage.utm. 30. http://care. doi:10.com/ingredient_index..org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/977.2217/14750708. www.12. Safdar M. Archer (1988). retrieved 200705-01 32. Fernand (1984). PMID 14633804.com/news/health/803646/chillies_are_the_spice_of_life__pepper s_have_been/index. Ali Khan MM.futuremedicine.php?featured_food=80.com/doi/abs/10. retrieved 200705-01 25.

are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. chopped. and dehydrated forms. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. canned. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. powdered.crazychefs. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion.Department of Export Agriculture. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved."[3] Uses Onions.M. used without qualifiers. and Allium asarense R. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. one of the oldest vegetables. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. which it is not. Onions can be used. pickled.com http://www. They are now available in fresh. frozen.net/ .[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. it usually refers to Allium cepa. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. They are known by the common name "onion" but.

Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack.chopped or sliced.[5] The onion is easily propagated. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. In Bronze Age settlements.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . an onion can be sharp. However. recent evidence has shown that dogs.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. and also to relieve headaches. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. coughs.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life.com http://www. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. transported and stored. snakebite and hair loss. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. In ancient Greece. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles.[5] However. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. Depending on the variety. cats. due to toxicity during digestion. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. spicy. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet.crazychefs. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage.

21 mg Magnesium 0.4 mg Vitamin E 0.Sugars 4.042 g . B2) 0. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B1) 0.Dietary fiber 1.34 g 0. 0 μg 9.013 g .02 mg Vitamin K 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.com http://www.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.1 g 1.7 g Fat .crazychefs.24 g . B3) 0.net/ .polyunsaturated 0.1 g 89.monounsaturated 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.saturated 0.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.

the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. If you are allergic to onions. anticancer. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). and Vidalia. pungent yellow (New York Bold). Mexico. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. Western White. diabetes. However.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. Peruvian Sweet. Imperial Valley Sweet. and other diseases.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. Imperial Valley Sweet. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids.com http://www. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. Western Yellow. Shallots have the most phenols. and Vidalia. Texas 1015. anticholesterol. Texas 1015. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In general. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. Northern Red. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. eleven times the amount found in Western White. Empire Sweet. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. followed by Western Yellow. In the United States. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. Empire Sweet. the variety with the lowest phenolic content.[10] In many parts of the world.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). Imperial Valley Sweet. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. Western White.crazychefs. Mexico. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. Empire Sweet. Mexico. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. Northern Red. Peruvian Sweet.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. Peruvian Sweet. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins.net/ . Texas 1015. osteoporosis. For all varieties of onions. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity.

the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. it can lead to an allergic reaction. nausea. differs among Allium species. The volume of sulfenic acids released. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. On January 31.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. Eye irritation can. all present in garlic. 2008.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. and the irritation effect. creating a stinging sensation. therefore. leeks. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. mouth and throat ulcerations. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. allylpropyldisulfide. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). and in rare cases anaphylaxis. diarrhea. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. ginger. and bananas. garlic. allylmercaptan and allicin. chives.com http://www. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. garden lilies.include reactions to onions. shallots. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide.crazychefs. As onions are sliced or eaten. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. cells are broken. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. breathing difficulties.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. limiting the amount of gas generated.net/ . Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. where it binds to sensory neurons. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut.

which can be planted directly in the ground. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Allium fistulosum. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. the Welsh onion.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions.crazychefs. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. "short-day" onions. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. from sets started from seed the previous year. Finally. more commonly today. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. which is said not to produce dry bulbs.com http://www. which have been developed in more recent times.net/ . are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring.

com http://www.750 South Korea 1.346 2. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.220 Turkey 1. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.637 Japan Egypt 1.758 Russia 1.500 China United States 3.793 India 5.net/ . Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.crazychefs. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat. Vale. a hybrid of Allium cepas. each of which forms a bulb.764 Pakistan 1. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Oregon (USA).Produce bulblets in the flower head. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).149 Spain World Total 64.302 1.

after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. It remains in effect as of 2009.net/ .crazychefs. passed in 1958.The Onion Futures Act. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices.

commonly known as garlic. Medical Botany. Its close relatives include the onion. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. It has a characteristic pungent. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. the most commonly used part of the plant. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. 1793.[1] A bulb of garlic. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. shallot. Allium sativum. from William Woodville. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. known as garlic. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves.crazychefs.net/ . and chive. leek.

and Allium oleraceum.com http://www. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. are common weeds in fields. The papery. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender.Yunnan province of China. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic.[5] The "wild garlic".6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In cold climates. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. India (4. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. the so-called elephant garlic. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. The cloves are used as seed. and for medicinal purposes. accounting for over 77% of world output. Garlic is grown globally. The leaves.net/ . with approximately 10. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. In North America. according to Zohary and Hopf. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. stems (scape).crazychefs.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". respectively. They can suffer from pink root. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. Allium vineale.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. with Russia (1. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. Garlic plants can be grown close together. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. for consumption (raw or cooked). known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. "crow garlic"."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised.

000 128. or ginger. Southeast Asia.4%). * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods.000 15. southern Europe. C = calculated figure.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure. or estimates).400 140. including eastern Asia.Alaska) in fifth place (1. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". A = aggregate (may include official. northern Africa.000 221.000 142.000 645. tomato. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. It is often paired with onion.000 325.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form.686. and parts of South and Central America.000 125. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12.810 168.crazychefs. P = official figure.net/ . semiofficial. F = FAO estimate. California. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press.000 254.088. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. south Asia. the Middle East.

and roast them in an oven. oil. Garlic. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. United Kingdom and Australia. breads and pasta. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. and is now being sold in the United States. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. crostini and canapé. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. called black garlic. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. Blending garlic. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. The leaves are cut.net/ . heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. garlic toast. In some cuisine. meats. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. or vegetables. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They are also known as "garlic spears". In eastern Europe. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. cleaned. and a chunky base produce skordalia.crazychefs. almond. Immature scapes are tender and edible. oil. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. the resulting product. "stems". is sweet and syrupy. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. In Japan and Korea. meat. or "tops". and spices. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. bruschetta.com http://www.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. salt. and then stir-fried with eggs.

Storage

Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—theheart.org, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. and bananas. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time.[51] To ward off vampires. shallots. making garlic much more potent than onions. such as pistou. Humans. When eaten in quantity. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. allylmercaptan and allicin. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. usually enjoy these sensations. therefore. allylpropyldisulfide. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. leeks. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. deterring animals like birds. garlic. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". hung in windows. thus mellowing its spiciness. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. Among the members of the onion family. ginger. including onions. and worms from eating the plant. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. persillade.[48] Due to its strong odor. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. The herb is. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking.[50] In Europe. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. included in many garlic recipes. garden lilies. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread.com http://www. or leeks.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. chives. werewolves. all present in garlic. however.in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. However. However. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. garlic could be worn. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. Since digestion takes several hours. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). insects. and release of AMS several hours more. and vampires. where it is excreted. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons.net/ . forming allyl methyl sulfide. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. shallots.crazychefs. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood.

if any exist.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. saquinavir.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. Editing help is available. dizziness. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose.crazychefs. and no FDA-approved study has been performed.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. as well as other medications. emesis.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In connection with the odor associated with garlic.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. at worst. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. You can help by converting this article to prose. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. similar to the effect of aspirin.In Daoism mythology. are largely unknown. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. Garlic can thin the blood. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. sweating.com http://www. minimal risks to normal individuals. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). antihypertensives.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. allergic reactions. if appropriate. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects.net/ . such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". and diarrhea.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. antiplatelets. calcium channel blockers. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. bleeding. antiparasitic value of garlic. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. However. and menstrual irregularities. and hypoglycemic drugs. indicated Muhammad. nausea.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". indigestion.

ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. split. ^ http://www. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. topical use of raw garlic. ^ a b Lee. Retrieved 5 June. 197 5. Ethiopia". et al. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities.) cultivars at Debre Zeit.com http://www.nj.html. G.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection".at/~katzer/engl/Alli_sat.unigraz. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. 112 7. bigger. In particular.net/10113/877. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. http://www. A bulb of garlic.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container.crazychefs. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable.natural-holistic-health.jhortscib. one the bulbs will grow peeled. garlick)". 397 6. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). is discouraged.com/warrenreporter/index. et al.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. third edition (Oxford: University Press. Domestication of plants in the Old World. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. 3.com/alternative-therapies/herbs-for-health/medicinal-garlic/ 9.html 8. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. 2000). ^ http://www.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (2005). p. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. http://hdl. 2. Retrieved 5 June 2009. ^ a b c d Tabor.htm. J. including burns to children. ^ McGee p. Notes 1. Retrieved 2007-08-28. (2004).net/ . 4.handle. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876.org/Vol79/79_6/8. http://www.

PMID 17966136. Capasso R. 104 (46): 17977–82.A. Med. 13.1001/archinte.ac. F. doi:10. and Empiricism" (PDF).manchester. http://personalpages. ^ Durak I. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve.1073/pnas. McFerren M (February 2007). Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. Maud. J. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. R. PMID 15157944. U. July 1. 12.com 54 | P a g e http://www. Better Nutrition. 28. PMID 15277094. Natl. doi:10. Intern. 27. Ferraresi. Oztürk HS.org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346. http://archinte. Aytaç B. 167 (4): 346–53. Arch.net/ .167.pdf. Sartoratto. PMID 17325296. Chao WJ (March 2007).C. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M.uk/staff/daryn. Ramacciato. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. ^ Chan KC. Dent.4. Vosoughi AR. 21. Akrami M (March 2007).10. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5.01. PMID 9641475. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. Arch. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know".346. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits".org/cgi/content/extract/167/4/325. ^ Charlson M. Yin MC. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology".005. ^ Kojuri J. Güven C (2002).S. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. et al (June 2004). 25. A. doi:10. 15. Kavutcu M. 11.. doi:10. J. 22. "Tropes. and Mary U.jnutbio. Daryn (2003).1016/j. et al (February 2007). "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L.1186/1476-511X-6-5. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. 20.). Lin RS (June 1998). PMID 17328819.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). ^ Borrelli F. ^ a b Steiner M. 35. ^ Mader FH (October 1990). 29. (p. PMID 17325291. Nutr. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients".. PMID 17918162. PMID 17951430. J. 31. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition.1001/archinte. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. 5.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. Intern. Block E. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats".ama-assn. 34. Motta. Garlic. doi:10. 2006. 14. 17. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic".1002/mnfr. 24. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". 15 (6): 373–7. A Modern Herbal. Herald Publishing Co. 19. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". (Mrs.1162/106361403773062678.A 400 Year History. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. 30. Squadrito GL. ^ Durak I. 33. 18.ama-assn. Acad.325. Facts. Sylva. PMID 15218732. PMID 2291748. 2005 ^ Groppo. doi:10. 32. ^ Goodbye. 167 (4): 325–6. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . 26. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. Olcay E. Med.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. Hyg. [2] ^ Hamel. Biochem. ^ Benavides GA.. doi:10.200700072.167. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8.. 16. N. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech).2004. ^ Gardner CD. PMID 17123684. et al (November 2007). Lawson LD.lehoux/Tropes. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. doi:10.. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. Proc. Accessed: December 18. Paul B." Int. http://archinte. Izzo AA (November 2007). 5:109–115. doi:10.crazychefs. Mills RW.4.1002/mnfr.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". Sova P (May 2004). Sci. 23.0705710104.200700058. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". P.

Retrieved December 7. 37. doi:10. 38. PMID 16207909. ^ Health Canada . Houghton Mifflin. Lett. Nishimura S. ^ http://www. http://linkinghub. http://linkinghub.". 41. Jennifer (2002-12-13). http://mic. ^ Shuford JA.36.". ^ a b c d Hogg. ^ Pickering. ^ Garlic .go. David (2003). Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6.. Microbiology (Reading.html 45.0.. Yoffe B.ukmi. Jordan W.elsevier. W. Teel R. Itakura Y.nhs. Toxicol. Complementary Medicines Summary. ^ http://www. Slattery M. ^ a b McNally.com http://www. ^ Macpherson et al.. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. Book 65 57. Antimicrob. ^ http://lem. 52. 2007.com/topic-t6335-a1-6Allium_sativum. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. p. 310–311 47. UK Medicines Information. Retrieved December 7. 2007. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L.pdf. ^ Oi Y. 66. PMID 8644128. Lau B.2005. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". ISBN 0-395-65783-0.html 54. Ronen M (November 2001). et al (October 2005). p.com/a/Garlic. Iwai K. 40. Thomson M. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. Patel R (January 2005). ^ Bukhari.blogspot. (2001).jst. Long D. a stress compound from garlic. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. Fuwa T. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". 58. 49. ISBN 0-30436561-0. 53. 120. http://aac. on mutagenesis. section "Conclusion" 48. 211.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65. Sterling Publishing. Matuura H.com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390. Scolaro M. 64.1. Pickering p.html 46. (1989-01-30). 049 . 65. Summer 2005 . Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.) 62..JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. 39. Imafuku M. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. National Health Service.49.org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257. PMID 11600262.unito. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. ^ Fareed G. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. Nishino H. ^ Macpherson et al. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. H. 85 (3): 157–64. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). Sanders N.uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2.com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic. Sagi A. PMID 15616341. "Effect of allixin.jp/JST. Chesson C. http://www. ^ Kodera Y.com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582.go. "Garlic burns".. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. PMID 11481410.Garlic-in-Oil 61. Yoshida S.sgmjournals.ch.28095-0. Engl. http://joi. Passa O. Aon MA.elsevier.January 29. 1988. Agents Chemother.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. http://joi.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9.1128/AAC. NLM Gateway. Steckelberg JM.jlc. Retrieved 2007-0707.. Sumida T. James.jst. doi:10. Raymond T (1994). Volume 7. ^ Lemar KM. Ali M (June 1996). ^ http://washokufood.economicexpert.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. ^ a b Mayo Clinic.jp/JST. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".crazychefs. 42. "Allixin.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. 43. In Search of Dracula. Retrieved 2009-01-30. ^ McNally p. 4 ..asm.goldbamboo. ^ McGee p. 49 (1): 473. PMC: 538912. Shishido C. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. Bordia T. (1991-08-01). garlic advisory 63. ^ Baruchin AM..473. ^ John S. 211 51.htm 44. "Garlic burns".1099/mic. Kominato Y.jlc. Castro C.it/didattica/infochimica/2006_aglio/pagine/agronomy. 122.net/ . "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".Vol 9 No. PMID 8441577.

―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. H.. Pharm. J.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. A. Andy (2004). ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Susumu Yoshida. Barzilay. PMID 8441577. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. Chatterjee. Jiro Yoshida. R. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. Masanori Ayabe. Wang. Naoto Uda. K. 50. Balch. 50. Efendy JL. D. The chemistry of garlic and onions. G. Vol. A. Kozue Ogasawara. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L.References Japanese garlic. M... "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". E. Z. Hile. P. Block. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Zemah. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. PMID 9247357. Lloyd. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. R. Gardner. L.crazychefs. A. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9.M. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. Breithaupt-Grögler K.. Jain AK. Hamilton. 3rd ed. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. and Related Species (Second Edition). Koch.com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6. Retrieved 1 May 2005. D... garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. (2000). Naoki Kashimoto. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Vargas R. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. L.ahajournals. Block. Am. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. D. 'Kyolic'. Soc. P. Am. "Garlic burns". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Selfsufficientish .P. J. Williams & Wilkens. (1992). Bull. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. 129: 144–151.com http://www. and H. H. I. Yukihiro Kodera... L. E.. Simmons DL. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs.Garlic. Boudoulas H. E. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. D. Lawson. A. R.. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203.. Kamenetsky. PMID 9355906. Zhang.net/ . C. 354-363 (2002).. Hort. J. Block.. Chem. (1996). Shafir. D. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study".elsevier. Chem. Lawson. 94 (6): 632–5. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Kiazand. [4] Lawson. Z. Ling M. Sci. Isao Sumioka. D. (2001). Campbell GR. Bull. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Makoto Ichikawa. 405-407 (2002). Campbell JH (July 1997). Balise. Turner.. PMID 8506890.. Belz GG (October 1997). http://linkinghub. Gotzkowsky S. (2004).jp[青森県産]. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. L. Rabinowitch (2004). (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. McMahon FG (June 1993).org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9355906. L. Vol. Kraemer. E. (1985). Lemar. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Block. M. New York: Avery. C. Med. Shan.-Z. Garlic. S. http://circ. Pharm. H. Garty BZ (March 1993).

K. Neil A (1994). Geierstanger. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". et al.. Samer R. Y-Y. http://aac.2005.. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. D. 310–3. In: Ohigashi.crazychefs. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. Agents Chemother. Harold (2004). Lin RS (June 1998). pp. (eds). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Yeh. Y-Y. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Yeh. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Steiner M. http://meta. Veena Viswanath. Antimicrob..49. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Leeks".net/ ..S. Cardiovasc. Michael Bandell. PMID 15616341. Garlic. H. Bernhard H. J. Eid.1. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis".12. Shuford JA.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. 31 (6): 904–8. (1997). PMID 8169881. Abstract. et al.1128/AAC. Macpherson. PMID 9641475. Marcel Dekker. Patel R (January 2005). McGee. PMC: 538912. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Silagy C. Kadam. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Scribner.473.com/pt/pt-core/templatejournal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage. Steckelberg JM. doi:10. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". "The Onion Family: Onions.wkhealth.asm. SunWook Hwang. Mader FH (October 1990).com http://www. Salunkhe. 49 (1): 473. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. (1999). PMID 2291748. et al. (1998).Lindsey J. S. Pharmacol.

Madagascar.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang.5-2 cm long. and consist of a long calyx.net/ . The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. syn. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. Cloves are harvested when 1. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. Pakistan. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. terminating in four spreading sepals. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. Zanzibar. it is called đinh hương. after which they develop into a bright red. In Vietnam. and Sri Lanka.crazychefs. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. when they are ready for collecting.

During Christmas. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. In south Indian cuisine. Cloves are used as a carminative. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. Cloves are used in cheeses. which sells Djarum Black. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. cloves are often used to season pho broth. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. spleen and stomach meridians. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. In Vietnamese cuisine. along with other spices.com http://www. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. but as they are extremely strong. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract.000 tonnes). but with the addition of other spices). warm and aromatic. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. they are used sparingly. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas.net/ . Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. especially for digestive problems.crazychefs. often in combination with cumin. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form.[1] In north Indian cuisine. it is used in almost all dishes. entering the kidney. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies.

vomiting and diarrhea.direct stomach qi downward. mainly from the Maluku Islands. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. including cloves. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices.[6] History Until modern times. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death.com http://www. most of the West Indies.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. including Bacan.[7] Cloves. Brazil. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. In the late fifteenth century. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. RH (AHG). for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. including for multiple sclerosis." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade.net/ . Makian. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation.[5] In West Africa. Subsequently. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana.[7] Nevertheless. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). pimples etc. Moti. along with nutmeg and pepper. Ayurvedic herbalist K. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands).The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. Ternate. It is also used in severe burns. and Tidore.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne.crazychefs. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. and Zanzibar. Khalsa. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. were highly prized in Roman times.P. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency.

nih. Erich Stoger. tannins. ^ Balch. crategolic acid. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. ISBN 0-375-70705-0.tibetmed. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. 3. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. Karen.net/ . and eugenitin. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. 2. 5. ^ Dorenburg. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold.. Steven Clavey. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. Avery Publishing. James. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. the flavonoids eugenin. 8.squarespace. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. Erich Stoger. ^ a b Turner. Spice: The History of a Temptation. Phyllis and Balch. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7.com/diseases/special-diets-for-illness. due to the high price of importing them. and Andrew Gamble. rhamnetin. 3rd ed.htm. methyl salicylate (painkiller).[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. Andrew and Page. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. xv.Question: Multiple Sclerosis".[8] Notes and references 1. and several sesquiterpenes. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. Alan. stigmasterol and campesterol. ©2000.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Medicine Plus. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. pg.org/questions/question_44.nlm. ^ "TibetMed . Jack (2004). http://www. ©2003.com http://www.crazychefs. pp. ^ http://oneearthherbs. Special Diets for Illness 6. 94..gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-clove. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World".html Tilotson. gallotannic acid. ^ http://www. kaempferol. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. John Wiley and Sons Inc. comprising 72-90%. Vintage Books.html National Institutes of Health. Steven Clavey.

Shallot
Shallot

Shallots

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Details
Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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Cardamom
Cardamom

True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

Varieties
There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]

Uses

Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.

Gallery

Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

Notes
1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer. Rediff.com, 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

Bibliography
1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum
Hook.f.

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Usages
Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Identification
Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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com/BZ-shuju/standshow. (2005).2005. 3. NPR. ^ Lederer. while Lederer et al.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 .3. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. http://www.iso. 18 May 2009 2. (2006).) -. Retrieved 8 June 2009.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. ^ International Organization for Standardization.88. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. http://www.htm?csnumber=19183. f. Retrieved 8 June 2009. http://www.com http://www.iso. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". ^ International Organization for Standardization. PMID 15492355.crazychefs. f.atypon-link. Ines et al. 4.2004-0058.chinaios. 6.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974.org/iso/catalogue_detail. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook.htm?csnumber =4844. et al. doi:10. Vaishali C. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Botanical nomenclature".net/ . Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise".1542/peds.Specification". http://www.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. Retrieved 8 June 2009. Retrieved 10 November.com/AOAC/doi/abs/10. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". doi:10.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357.1021/jf058156b. ^ Louisa Lim.5555/jaoi. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods.703. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. ^ Joshi. 5.

cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.net/ . and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.crazychefs. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.com http://www. native from the east Mediterranean to East India.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C.

parsley and dill. In Arabic. cumin is known as zireh. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic.com http://www. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. cumin is known as kimyon. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle".)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. the story goes. Kerman. longitudinally ridged. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where.net/ . Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). in Iran and Central Asia.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". cumin is known as ziran (孜然).[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. In Northern India and Nepal. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. maduru. locally called "Kermun". The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. in Turkey. a member of the parsley family. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. being oblong in shape. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. including kamūnu in Akkadian. and yellow-brown in colour. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. in northwestern China. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages.

com http://www. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe.crazychefs. today it is mostly grown in Iran. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). when added to hot milk and consumed.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today).net/ .History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. In Sri Lanka. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. In South Asia. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. Syria. Uzbekistan. and this practice continues in Morocco. Turkey. Seeds. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Tajikistan. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. Egypt. Mexico. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. and Chile. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. India. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. Morocco. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der.

Cumin can be used to season many dishes. popular in Indian.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. adobos. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Today. containing a single seed. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. It is an herbaceous annual plant. Cuban.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. Contrary to popular belief in the US. Indian. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. and borne in umbels. and in some traditional breads from France. curry powder. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. and bahaarat. Northern Mexican cuisines. garam masala. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. tacos.crazychefs. white or pink. curries.com http://www. thread-like leaflets. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. North African. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). Middle Eastern. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. pinnate or bipinnate. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. and is found in achiote blends. The flowers are small. either ground or as whole seeds. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. enchiladas. but are smaller and darker in colour. and other Middle-Eastern. sofrito. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses.net/ . It is traditionally added to chili. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Pakistani. Sri Lankan.

the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3. It is grown from seed. hot summer of 3–4 months.81 g 8. well-drained soil.Sugars 2. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66. Cultivation of cumin requires a long. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. sown in spring. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.579 mg Vitamin B6 0.very common in Mexican cuisine.saturated 1.33 mg Vitamin K 5.com http://www. it is drought-tolerant.25 g .435 mg Folate (Vit. B3) 4.27 g 17.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.24 g 22.5 g Fat . B2) 0. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).net/ .06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However.Dietary fiber 10.crazychefs. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. 64 μg 44.7 mg Vitamin E 3. and needs fertile.

in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. However. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it.com http://www. from the Swedish word "spisa".net/ . caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin".a cat and 'kotek' . For example.Zinc 4. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. to eat. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day.crazychefs. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin).). Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. In Swedish. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. lighter in colour. as in 'kot' .8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. In Polish the difference is even less significant. a chemical found in turmeric. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.v. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix.a small cat). Not related to curcumin. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'.

1002/ffj." premiumwanadoo. Essential Oils". Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . (2009). 9. ^ "Kamūnu. Nicola S. ^ http://www. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004).313.pl?12617. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 .1016/j.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.com.com http://www.030. ^ a b Wang.foodreference. from China". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. http://www.com/html/fcumin. doi:10.gov.arsgrin.77. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. p. 8.ars-grin. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 206 5. ^ a b Iacobellis. 3.1302. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. Domestication of plants in the Old World. 4. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). Rong. ^ Growingtaste. Lu et al.2009. doi:10.1021/jf0487351.net/ . doi:10. 2000). ^ a b c Li. et al.05.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. and Carum carvi L. (2005).aca. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". ^ "KMN. 2.crazychefs.".html 6. Retrieved 2008-03-13. www. third edition (Oxford: University Press.com 7. 2000.

Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.com http://www.net/ . Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. and citral) have also been identified. shogaols and gingerols.net/ . the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. In laboratory animals.com http://www. sedative. West Africa and the Caribbean.crazychefs. and galangal. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. medicine. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. cineol.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. cardamom. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. or spice.

[edit] Regional use In India. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. Ginger is also made into candy. and Aduwa in Nepali. Adrak. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. salt. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. Additionally. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. In South India. cookies.crazychefs. Allam ( ) in Telugu. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. in Tamil Nadu.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste.net/ . Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. nuts. Inji in Tamil. Alay in Marathi. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. particularly gingerols and shogaols. which makes swallowing easier. ghee. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. ginger ale. in Gujarati. and sugar. enchi in Malayalam. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. Ginger has a sialagogue action. and ginger beer. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. and tender green chili peppers.com http://www. For storage. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. to which honey is often added. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. especially in the Tanjore belt. crackers and cake. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. stimulating the production of saliva. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. or frozen for longer term storage.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella.

Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. In Western cuisine. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. In the Caribbean. In Burma. In Vietnam. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. during their occupation of the islands. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is made. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. In Japan. In Arabic. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. In China. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. and making drinks such as sorrel. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. Greece. parkin and ginger biscuits. However. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. On the island of Corfu. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. gingerbread. and a variety of nuts and seeds. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. ginger snaps. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger.com http://www. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. France. In the Ivory Coast. ginger is called gyin.net/ . ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. a type of ginger beer. In the traditional Korean kimchi. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh.crazychefs.

and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11].com http://www.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. cough and cold.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. including warfarin.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. which several scientific studies support. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. though studies been inconsistent.net/ .[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.crazychefs.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. morning sickness and chemotherapy.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though it does interact with some medications.

ginger can cause heartburn.[14] In Congo. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. and individuals who have had ulcers. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. and heart rhythms.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. In Burma.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. gas. clotting. which is considered a panacea. in food etc. In India. In the United States. people use ginger for making tea. it is considered good for a sore throat.com http://www. particularly if taken in powdered form. bloating. belching and nausea. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar.net/ . ginger is included in several traditional preparations. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. reducing "winds" in the blood. In Indonesia. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. In China.crazychefs. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. and although it's generally recognized as safe.

5%) and Nigeria(~10%). applied generally to the older and poorer roots. with over 30% of the global share.net/ .Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. produces black ginger. Nepal(~11. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. replacing China. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. or washed and scraped. washing and scraping gives white ginger. it is immediately scalded.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming.000 158.5%). followed by Indonesia(~12. Traditionally. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. but this generally reduces its value. which has slipped to the second position (~20. Scalding.000 F 177. Production trends India.7%).905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. now leads in global production of ginger.com http://www.crazychefs.

000 8. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai.000 42. Galangal is also called Thai ginger.000 57. www.pl?42254. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.000 34.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. is used in cooking and medicine.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . The plant also contains aristolochic acid. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. the flower buds are the part eaten. galangal. a carcinogenic compound. http://www. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). semiofficial or estimates). F = FAO estimate. Also referred to as galangal.arsgrin.387. A = Aggregate(may include official.net/ . Asarum canadense. but it is not related to true ginger. and its root has similar aromatic properties.270 1.com http://www.gov. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. Retrieved 2008-03-03.000 28. is also known as "wild ginger".gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.ars-grin. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family.contains ginger material References 1.

html.2006.com/china_blog/2007/01/the_beverage_of_champions_1. doi:10. ^ MD O' Hara. Retrieved 2007-0808. MPH (1998). 6. "A Current Look at Ginger Use".7. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. 8. New York: Scribner pp.edu/biomed/spice/index. ^ Chen.org/cgi/content/full/7/6/523.com/health/ginger/NS_patient-ginger. Kathi Kemper. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). "Ginger". ^ Ernst. M.1016/j. et al.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. Retrieved 2006-09-06. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007)..org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371.013. http://archfami. ^ Al-Achi.edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch.1001/archfami. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)".H. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". http://bja.523.com/oldformat.com 12. David Kiefer. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666.com 5. ^ Afshari.ucla. 15.html. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 9. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".mayoclinic. Mary. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. http://www. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). Ali Taghizadeh et al.cfm?displayID=15. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. Kim Farrell. Antoine. MD. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (2006).library. http://timeblog. (2007). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. PMID 9821826.01. 4.oxfordjournals. Tin-Yun Ho. (01 Mar 2000). Susan (2007-01-15). Retrieved 2007-08-02.2. 425-426. PMID 10793599. Zainab M. Li-Jiau Huang. Retrieved 2007-08-02.umm. MD.foodchem.1021/jf071460f. & MSt. http://journals.com http://www. & Pittler.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). Retrieved 2007-08-02.). Harold (2004). ^ Jakes.net/ .6. doi:10.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. 11. Sheng-Chu Kuo. E. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger".org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367. "Beverage of Champions". http://www. ^ Al-Amin.uspharmacist. Retrieved 2007-08-06. 10. Jaw-Chyun. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.com 7. 13. 14. 3. Retrieved 5 November. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy.cambridge. ^ McGee.amaassn. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.crazychefs. http://www. Shih-Lu Wu. MD. doi:10. http://unitproj. doi:10. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats".

For these reasons. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. for dyeing. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. and to impart color to mustard condiments.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. Erode. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. In medieval Europe.com http://www. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. slightly bitter.crazychefs. Zingiberaceae. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.net/ .

Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. not only in curry. Turmeric City. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. biscuits. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. yogurt. but also in masak lemak. yellow cakes. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). and many more. and mustard. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. Over-coloring. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. such as in pickles.Yellow City.net/ . much like ginger. etc. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. rendang. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. In non-South Asian recipes. or Textile City. cake icings. ice cream. popcorn color. sauces. sweets. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. orange juice.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders.crazychefs. relishes. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. Although usually used in its dried. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. cereals. powdered form.com http://www. gelatins. dairy products. turmeric is also used fresh.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. custardlike yellow color. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products.[citation needed] Sangli.

Within one week of using turmeric. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts.com http://www. Indians. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. salad dressings. and other digestive disorders. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent.In combination with annatto (E160b). which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. are spiced with turmeric. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. Japan. burns and bruises. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings).[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. winter butter and margarine. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. dry mixes.[4] cancer. a traditional dish in South Asia. is also treated with turmeric powder. yogurt.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. arthritis [5] and liver disorders.crazychefs.net/ . and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. an uncurable and debilitating disease. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. It is unknown why it works. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa.

THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. and the U.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. Alzheimer's. In 1998 researchers at St. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%.net/ . and Pakistan. John‘s Medical College. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. and colorectal cancer. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens.S. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . improves the absorption of turmeric. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. Bangladesh. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. found in black pepper. research activity into curcumin is exploding. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. Bangalore. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.com http://www. multiple myeloma. with no adverse effects. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. which supports nerve growth. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India.crazychefs. or BDNF.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. Snake Bite Anti venin.

a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. such as saris. In southern India. During the south Indian festival Pongal. Also. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works.crazychefs. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. This happens in economically lower situations. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. part of the Bengali wedding. However. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state.net/ . and it is used for power and purification rites. jaggery. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. and coconut and cooked in steam.com http://www. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. as a part of the marriage ritual.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau.

Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.C. 2.6E)-1. Planta Med.6-heptadiene3. Notes 1.net/ . See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.I.pl?12676.ars-grin.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. Judy] (June 2009).W. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution.ars-grin.co.2008.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. doi:10. (2009). Joy D.thieme-connect.stm 5.aolhealth. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". a polyphenol. or Natural Yellow 3. Rajendran R. | accessyear = 2009}} 3.com/condition-center/heart-disease/surviving-a-heart-attack. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.gov. www.com http://www. AOL Health.bbc. http://www. The systematic chemical name is (1E.1016/j. ^ http://www. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain".7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1.foodchem. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".de/DOI/DOI?10.07. ^ [|Ketteler. 1998 May.de Shoba G. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . 64(4):353-6. E. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. Joseph T.crazychefs. Majeed M. et al. Retrieved 2008-03-04. ^ http://news.5-dione. Retrieved June 2009. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance.090.uk/1/hi/health/1668932. keto and enol. ^ Chan. 6.172. Srinivas PS. http://www. 75300.

hence its name. Indian walnut. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L.6–2. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. 10–20 centimetres (3. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content.9 in) long.crazychefs. simple and ovate.com http://www. also known as Candleberry.) Willd. Kemiri. The leaves are pale green.9–7.net/ . which allows its use as a candle (see below). and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. The nut is round. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana).Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with an acute apex. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. flowers. Euphorbiaceae. 4–6 centimetres (1.4 in) in diameter. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans.

are applied around the navel for costiveness. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded.crazychefs. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. fevers. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. the nuts. In Malaya. giving them greater underwater visibility. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. named kukui were burned to provide light. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. and gonorrhea. This led to their use as a measure of time.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. however. In Java. is quite different.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. In Sumatra. In Hawaiʻi. including: leis from the shells. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. ulcers.net/ . On the island of Java in Indonesia. pounded seeds. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. swollen joints. a varnish with the oil. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. The flavor. Outside of Southeast Asia. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. leaves and flowers. as the candlenut is much more bitter. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. burned with charcoal. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. they are mildly toxic when raw. lit one end. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache.com http://www.

The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. Mikiala Ayau. Beatrice H.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. http://books.google. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. Retrieved 2009-03-06. ISBN 9780824822514. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. University of Hawaii Press. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. ISBN 9781573061377.).com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a.google. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. http://books. ^ Dunford. Honda. still nowadays.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). http://books. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). One of the legends told of a woman who. "Chapter 4: Canoes". 50-51.html. and the husband was eventually killed. ^ "Kukui".com/books?id=PpKyFZXO_jEC. Lilinoe Andrews. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Finally.[citation needed] References 1. Being a kind and just woman. ^ Krauss. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Liana I. Bess Press.google. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil.net/ . Craig Thomas (2000). In plantations. Betty. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono.crazychefs. University of Hawaii Press. 2. http://canoeplants. she was given new life. despite her best efforts to please her husband. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. was routinely beaten.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). protection and peace. used as soap or shampoo. ^ Scott. (1993).com/kukui.com http://www. Susan. This larva is eaten by some people. pp. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. p. 122. 5.[5] In Tonga. ripe nuts. the god of agriculture. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. tukilamulamu. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. p. 26. 4. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets).com/books?id=WOdrGIP3zksC&client=firefox-a.

crazychefs. unrelated plants. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. white pepper. . dark red when fully mature.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. The terms pink peppercorns. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other.net/ .[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. . Kannada:meNasu. containing a single seed. Malayalam:kurumulaku. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. red pepper (as in bell or chile).com http://www. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit. known as a peppercorn when dried. and very often simply pepper. However. Telugu:miriyam. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. green pepper. cultivated for its fruit. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Konkani:miriya konu. may be described as black pepper. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. . . Peppercorns.

during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. in the early 20th century.S. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. White pepper consists of the seed only. In the 16th century. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. including decortication. Once dried. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world.[4] In the U..net/ .crazychefs. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. Dutch peper. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. the spice is called black peppercorn. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. chemical or biological methods. French poivre. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. and the naked seed is dried. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. with the skin of the pepper removed. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. wrinkled black layer. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. this was shortened to pep. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants.com http://www. and other similar forms. often alongside table salt.

are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper.net/ . the Peruvian pepper tree. Pickled peppercorns. Schinus molle. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Black. Fresh. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper.crazychefs. Schinus terebinthifolius. with a bright aroma. from Bangka Island.com http://www. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. which is mostly no longer an issue. are used in some Asian cuisines. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. unpreserved green pepper berries. green. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. made from the largest. particularly Thai cuisine. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. largely unknown in the West. like black. is made from the unripe berries. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. also green.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns".

leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. and ultimately fall off and are lost. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun.[11] Black pepper is native to India.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure.[12][13] Within the genus Piper.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. if allowed to ripen. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. poles. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. the berries lose pungency. It is a spreading vine. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. but when full grown and still hard. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. moist. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. The cuttings are usually cultivars. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long.crazychefs.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. or trellises. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. Competing plants are cleared away. The flowers are small.net/ . well-drained and rich in organic matter. and before the fruit is mature. The leaves are alternate. entire. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum.com http://www.

crazychefs. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". in what is now the state of Kerala. particularly the Malabar Coast. In fact. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times.net/ . The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today.com http://www. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe.[14] J. its most important source was India. Chile peppers. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good.

Sunda. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. Malaysia.Until well after the Middle Ages. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. Long pepper. or used the pepper locally. nor how it reached the Nile from India. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. changed the course of world history. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. Trade routes of the time were by land. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Sumatra.com http://www. but these areas traded mainly with China. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. Returning from India. this trade advantage. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. Madagascar. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. growing in the north-western part of India. Black pepper. By the 16th century. barged to Alexandria.net/ . pepper was also being grown in Java.crazychefs. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Middle East. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. along with other spices from India and lands farther east.

the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. who travelled east to India.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper.com http://www. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. Edward Gibbon wrote. Similarly. it is sometimes their sweetness.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages.. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". After the fall of Rome. Apicius' De re coquinaria. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. is fifteen denarii per pound. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. seasoning in the Roman Empire. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. especially Venice and Genoa. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine.. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. seeing that in other substances which we use. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. 12. if expensive. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. There is no evidence to support this claim.crazychefs. I season delicacies. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. and the luxuries of the table.net/ . the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. affordable only to the wealthy. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. clad in a wrinkled cover. the banquets of kings. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the prices reflected it. four. Once into the Mediterranean. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. I wonder. whereas.[22] In addition. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade.H. while that of white pepper is seven. first the Persians and then the Arabs. and of black. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". pepper was a luxury item. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread.

"we seek Christians and spices. Pepper.crazychefs. and salt-cured meats were common fare. the effect is small. In 1498. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success.net/ . from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. his representative replied. However. A depiction of Calicut. especially in winter. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. In the 17th century. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. as well as around Africa. has some antimicrobial properties. Today.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long.com http://www. Pepper harvested for the European trader. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not).

each load being equal to 223 lbs. including long pepper. oral abscesses.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. Like many eastern spices. joint pain. as well as she could for sneezing. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. an area in what is now the Sichuan province.com http://www. heart disease. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. hoarseness. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. indigestion. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. insect bites.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. earache. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). Long pepper. lung disease. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. hernia. diarrhea.net/ . pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine.. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". liver problems.crazychefs. Note the cook's pepper mill. insomnia.[25] In the 3rd century CE. was often the preferred medication.. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border.000 pounds (4. either long or black. but both were used. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. however.[26] By the 12th century. but if this estimated 10. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". gangrene. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. being stronger. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself.

It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. Some sources say that piperine. and linalool.net/ . and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. a mildly carcinogenic compound. vitamin B. chapter five.[31] Also. irritates the nostrils. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. limonene. which is stripped of the fruit layer. left on black pepper. tooth decay. The outer fruit layer. woody.[31] As a medicine.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. which give citrusy. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. milligram-for-milligram.com http://www. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. and floral notes. and toothaches.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a substance present in black pepper. sabinene. causing the sneezing. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question.crazychefs. caryophyllene. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene.sunburn. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. if any. Refined piperine. Few.

[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. India (19%). Thailand (4%). are used for this. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. by monetary value. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. Brazil (13%). The price of pepper can be volatile. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. Malaysia (8%). but has fallen to just over 271. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. for example. Sri Lanka (6%). the most widely traded spice in the world.net/ . Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns.000 t (299. As of 2008. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason.000 t (391.[35] By weight. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. and China (6%). dispensers of pre-ground pepper. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. sometimes instead of pepper shakers.com http://www.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India.crazychefs.000 short tons). accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008.[33] Once ground. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. India.

Retrieved 12 August 2006. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Pepper. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". http://www. ISBN 075653836X.crazychefs. 7. ^ Katzer. 83 21. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. p. ^ a b Jaramillo. Spice.com 9. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. Ramses II. ^ Dalby p. 18. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. www. Gernot (2006).amjbot.com http://www. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://www. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90.pd f.gov. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Flora of China.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. 2006-1120. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. doi:10.pl?28589. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. The Hindu Business line. Text online.net/ . ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation.arsgrin. 20.poor crop management.M1. p. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production".htm. Compass Point Books. Egyptian Pharaoh.000 t (99. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. Innes Miller. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10).000 short tons). 1969). disease and weather. using almost none of its production domestically.thehindubusinessline. 19. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". from Penzey's Spices. The Spice Trade. ^ Ochef. 11. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. p 94. 93. Using fresh green peppercorns. http://www.com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. 8.gov.org/cgi/content/full/88/4/706 14. Random House. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. 2. http://www.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. M. http://books. 5. Retrieved 2008-01-29.com/2008/03/27/stories/2008032751741300. ^ J. Warrior. Black pepper is marica.ars-grin. ^ Innes Miller. ISBN 0375407219.ph/wps/wcm/resources/file/ebb81841763712b/black%20pepper. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 12. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". Retrieved 13 November 2005. http://www.google. 200803-27. p. 13. 88. Retrieved 17 October 2006.org/florataxon.da. PMID 11302858. Retrieved 2009-01-29. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. 3. 4. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). ^ Translation from Turner.[36] Notes 1. 17.efloras. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep.2307/2657072. 80 16. ^ Peppercorns. Alejandra (2001). Retrieved 2008-03-02. Vietnam dominates the export market. and Builder. 10. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. 6.

"Mill". p. Deans (2000). doi:10. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Retrieved November 12. Berkeley: University of California Press. Dorman and S. 27. Full text at Blackwell website. Alan (2002). Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. "Spices. 2005.x. Steven (2004). 428. http://siteresources. 26. Jaffee. ^ Dalby p.1046/j. 156. ^ Montagne.com/books?id=7IHcZ21dyjwC. 77. ^ Dalby pp. 25. http://www. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). Duke (1993-08-16).com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. 171. 33. 32. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). 160. 108–109. Davidson. ^ Jaffee p. D. 2008-05-15.karvycomtrade. 726. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1365-2672. Buddhist Monastic Code II. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". Prosper (2001). CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. ^ Jaffee p. Dover. CRC Press.. ^ a b McGee p. 36. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. 31.pdf.com http://www. ^ Dalby p. 35. G. pp. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods.crazychefs. Hamlyn.com/books?id=tg7R4hU8hkC&pg=PA395&lpg=PA395&dq=Pepper+safrole&source=web&ots=38F TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result.accesstoinsight. Karvy Comtrade Limited. ^ U. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". http://books.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". 2. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. ^ Turner p. also Turner pp. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2/bmc2.S. 395. 34. Retrieved 2008-01-29.net/ . ^ H. References Dalby. 74–75.google.00969. p. http://books. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. ISBN 0600-60235-4. Retrieved 2009-01-29.22. ISBN 0849336201. purchase required.html.2000. ISBN 9781580084178. Larousse Gastronomique. 204. http://www. Andrew (2002). 23. table 2. 12. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). 28. ^ a b James A.google. 10. ISBN 0521367085. Dangerous Tastes. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. ^ Turner p. 30." 24. ^ "Karvy's special Reports .ch05. J.worldbank. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0520236742. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. 29. Vol.pdf.

com http://www. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 0375707050. "Black Pepper and Relatives". yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Harold (2004).net/ . Scribner. 427–429. pp.crazychefs. OCLC 56590708. Turner. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Jack (2004).McGee. OCLC 61213802. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. Spice: The History of a Temptation. London: Vintage Books.

Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. green and orange.17 g 0. yellow.crazychefs.224 mg Folate (Vit.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.Dietary fiber 1. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Sugars 2. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". B3) 0.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.64 g 0.057 mg 4.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . B1) 0. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. Central America and northern South America. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B2) 0. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Pepper.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.net/ .com http://www. sweet. Peppers are native to Mexico. Today. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.40 g . including red.

" In Japan. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". g. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. meaning pepper-fruit. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). meaning Big pepper. like pasta. Indiana. "groene paprika". Across Europe. In Norway. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors.g. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. the fruit of Piper nigrum. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. and Pennsylvania. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". When cut off. an unrelated plant. regardless of their color. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. were a highly prized condiment. or "piment. "green pepper"). the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. the word ピーマン ("pîman. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. instead of using as a spice. which are green and yellow. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. It is eaten with fried noodles. Sweden. In the United States and Canada. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable..crazychefs. In British English.net/ . 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they are called "capsicum". the term "paprika". Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. such as Australia. With the similar meaning. "Miris" is Chilli. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. In France it is called "poivron". although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. "red pepper". which has its roots in the word for pepper. in Dutch.com http://www. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. Malaysia and New Zealand. Grilled. respectively). meaning Bulgarian pepper. "gele paprika". they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). In parts of Ohio. India. At that time peppercorns. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language.

purple. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. yellow or orange peppers. rainbow. Varieties The color can be green. aqua. black and brown. more rarely. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. maroon. pink. violet. orange and.com http://www. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". blue. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling.net/ . Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. in various soups and stews.crazychefs. white. in salads. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. yellow. red. It is eaten as a raw snack.

com http://www. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).net/ . [1]) is a hybrid mint. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.foodreference. ^ http://www.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . indigenous to Europe. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita.com/html/fmango. The plant. also known as M. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. balsamea Willd.crazychefs.

59–1.crazychefs. Flowering is from mid to late summer. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. 84. dark green with reddish veins. square in cross section. 6–8 mm (0. The flowers are purple. spreading by its rhizomes. fleshy. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. it can grow anywhere. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. forming thick. If placed.20 in) diameter. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. Being a hybrid.6 in) cm broad. 72. it is usually sterile.5–4 cm (0. with smooth stems.net/ .6–3. noted since 1843[8]. blunt spikes.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The rhizomes are wide-spreading.31 in) long. with a few exceptions.5 in) long and 1.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. The chromosome number is variable. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively.24– 0. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. with 2n counts of 66. and 120 recorded.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. he treated it as a species. including stream sides and drainage ditches. and bare fibrous roots.com http://www.

The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. particularly menthyl acetate.net/ .[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content.com http://www. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. and is often used as a flavouring in tea. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. chewing gum.[10] Similarly.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. thus promoting belching. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. and toothpaste. confectionery. ice cream. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms.1.crazychefs. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007.

otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. which they then call "after-dinner mints. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. New Zealand.[12] Outside of its native range. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. In addition to that. A mild. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. it is advisable to plant it in a container. hairless. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants.com http://www. as a natural insecticide. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [18]. If you choose to grow peppermint. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'.crazychefs. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. It needs a good water supply. Leaves aromatic.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. Foliage lime-scented. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. Stems reddish.[13] and in the United States. and it is considered invasive in Australia. [21]. the Galápagos Islands. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow.net/ .taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. Leaves wrinkled. [16]. Eau De Cologne Mint).

int/publications/2002/9241545372.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8.glu. (1975). (1992). (1989). Retrieved 3 June 2009. M. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . & Grey-Wilson. doi:10. ^ Linnaeus. C. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. R.org/en/node/199.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1.006. 7. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ^ World Health Organization.dld. http://whqlibdoc. Mehmet (2004).[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . ISBN 978-1563636783 10. In: Stace. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. 9. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. ^ Cappello. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial".. 2. 5. C. http://www. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. ed. Mentha L.com http://www. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. M. et al. ^ a b Blamey. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. ^ a b Akdogan. ed.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. (1753)... a popular confection.who. (2007). 6. Thomson Healthcare. A.pdf. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.net/ . A.1016/j. ^ a b Huxley. Flowers open from bottom up. 4th Edition. ^ Harley.2007. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 11. page 640. C. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". G. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.02.crazychefs.

com/journal/118500486/abstract.257.iso. Retrieved 3 June. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. 25. doi:10.2740311104. ^ International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 3 June. http://het. 21. Mehmet et al. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .1023/A:1006185103897.10): 119 . Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .com/cgi/content/abstract/23/1/21.28. 19. ^ Edwards.htm. F. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . http://www. D.sagepub. http://www.iso.1002/jsfa. ^ Farley. Retrieved 8 June 2009.htm?csnumber=32041. ^ Akdogan.D.com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213. on kidney tissue in rats".net/ .org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice".org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.1151. Retrieved 3 June. 20. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L.actahort. 18. Retrieved 3 June. and Mentha spicata L. (2004). and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". 23.Specification". et al. 24. Retrieved 6 June 2009.sagepub. (2007). ^ Sharma. 27. http://www.E. populations.iso. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. doi:10. Retrieved 7 June 2009. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. ^ Adamovic. 22.S. Australia". S. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L.crazychefs. Retrieved 7 June 2009. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. F. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)".actahort.htm. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. Mehmet (2003). Zheljazkov. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. paraquat. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 . Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 .wiley.interscience. Bienvenu (1999). Valerie Howland (2006).16. ^ a b c Jullien.sagepub. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. ^ International Organization for Standardization. 17. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . Retrieved 6 June 2009..org/books/629/629_21. http://www3. Bienvenu (1998). http://tih.. ^ International Organization for Standardization.1071/AP99036.. http://het.219. doi:10.. http://www. ^ Akdogan. Plant Cell.htm?csnumber=11633.htm?csnumber=4844. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". 26.com http://www.E. Derek R. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. Frédéric et al.org/iso/catalogue_detail.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119.)".159. J.224.)".122. V. Ambika et al..org/books/249/249_8.

crazychefs. Two related vegetables. although different in their uses as food.net/ . to the Alliaceae family. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. porrum (L. porrum (L. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allium ampeloprasum var.) J. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. is a vegetable which belongs. ampeloprasum var. along with the onion and garlic.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.Gay The leek. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. the elephant garlic and kurrat.com http://www. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. also sometimes known as Allium porrum.).

Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. intended for harvest in the season when planted. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. to be planted out as weather permits.net/ . Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion.crazychefs. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. and overwintering leeks. and they have few pest or disease problems. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Growing Leek field in Houthulst.com http://www. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. leeks are hardy. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. Once established in the garden.

leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled.crazychefs. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. carrots and potatoes and different meats. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk.com http://www. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. Fried. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. as the leek ages.Cuisine Leeks for sale.net/ . Leek has a mild onion-like taste. Lamb is the most popular. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. but. In its raw state. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. although less bitter than scallion. The onion-like layers form around a core. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. The tender core may be eaten. which turns it soft and mild in taste. along with leek soup. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. which can be used in salads. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. Raw. due to the layered structure of the leek.

crazychefs. who consumed it most often in soup. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.04 g .polyunsaturated 0.net/ . Cultural significance Raw Leeks.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.8 g Fat .saturated 0.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .com http://www.004 g .E. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. B1) 0. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3. In her book.4 mg Vitamin B6 0. onwards. as well as other recipes with leeks. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Dietary fiber 1. as well as wall carvings and drawings. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet. B2) 0.E.15 g 0.C. 83 μg 14.C. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.233 mg Folate (Vit.9 g . providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.monounsaturated 0.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.3 g 1. B3) 0.Sugars 3.

Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton.net/ . Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh.12 mg recommendations for adults. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time.com http://www.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the play. representing Wales.crazychefs. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. you know.Vitamin E 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. Shakespeare. for example. David‘s Day. good countryman. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. According to one legend.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V.

net/ . third edition (Oxford: University Press. ^ Guiliano.crazychefs. Mireille. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. (Penguin Books. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book.p. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Domestication of plants in the Old World. French Women Don't Get Fat. 2000).Notes 1.. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. ^ Jane Grigson. 3.com http://www. Knopf. 1978.

Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. Celery. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.net/ . Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.crazychefs.Dietary fibre 1. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. dulce) or celeriac (var.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A.2 g 0.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates . raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. with fewer than 100 individuals left. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.6 g Fat Protein Water 0.com http://www. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.Sugars 2 g 3g .

horses. and in Old Bay Seasoning. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. 30 AD. often used as a base for sauces and soups.net/ . dogs. Celery. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots.In temperate countries. and small rodents. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. celery is also grown for its seeds. as celery salt. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. on the Chicago-style hot dog. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. onions. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed].com http://www. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). Actually very small fruit. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. such as chicken noodle soup. birds. Celery is a staple in many soups.crazychefs. onions. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. Celery. squirrels. Celery salt is used as a seasoning.

[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. M.net/ . where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. making avoiding such foods difficult. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US.crazychefs. they note "since A. even in trace amounts. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. Celery contains androstenone. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. at Kastanas. father of the Cabeiri.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. In Homer's Iliad. Lemnos and Thebes. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. However. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. for people with celery allergy. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. have to be clearly marked as such. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. foods that contain or may contain celery. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. however.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest.[8] In the European Union.com http://www.

By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. 1. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall.com http://www. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. and Praetors feasts.net/ .. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. The wild form of celery is known as smallage.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. cracks. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine).5–2 mm long and wide. many of which differ little from the wild species. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. Under optimal conditions. seleri. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. earthy taste. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars.. 2–3 mm diameter. white and red. the whole plant having a coarse. and the most crisp and tender. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. produced in dense compound umbels. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. They are ranged under two classes. from the Latin selinon. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. The flowers are creamy-white.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. but the leaves may be used in salads. sweetish. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. In the past. straightness and thickness of petiole.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. as the Grace of the whole Board".crazychefs. due to extremely uniform crop growth. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. borrowed from Greek. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In North America. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. insect damage and rot). The plants are raised from seed. shape. apium Italicum.[14] With cultivation and blanching. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. at our Great Mens tables. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. fields are harvested only once. and a distinctive smell. splits. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic.

T. 3. 11. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. Lee LG. ^ William Robinson and W. Natural History XIX. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". Wilson IBH.. ^ Bublin M. Retrieved 2008-03-04. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". ^ a b Fragiska. Heiner DC. Thomson.. ^ Cantwell. Zohary and M. Ko SN. Suslow. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. et al. Thayer translation [1] 4. and proper sanitation. Kraft D. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. s. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". P. 14. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay.net/ . Western Journal of Medicine 158. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Hopf. 12. ^ D. 13. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. ^ Calcium sources 7.v. ^ OED.practicallyedible. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". http://www. 8.com http://www. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. Scheiner O.ucdavis. ^ snopes.[16] References 1. gentle handling. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. 2000) p.com: Celery and Negative Calories 6. 15. ^ "Smallage". ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. Radauer C. West J. 2003. 2.edu/Produce/ProduceFacts/Veg/celery.crazychefs. ^ Celestin J. 9. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5.shtml. de Medicina. http://postharvest. 227. Holmiae. M. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. ^ R. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal.L. ^ Pliny. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41.nsf/pages/smallage. Retrieved 2009-05-03.6 (June 1993): 610-611. (2005).com/edible. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. (Laurentii Salvii). M.17:1697-1699. C (1753). (3rd ed. p. ^ Teng CM. (2002-06-10). 10.. 1920).between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F).46. ^ Celsus.202. "Celery". Post-harvest technology research and information center. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). 16.

Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Sugars 96.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0. Sugar.98 g 0g 0g 0. see sucrose.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99.crazychefs. For the common table sugar.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates . B2) 0.net/ .Sugars 99. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97. see Sugar (disambiguation).21 g .91 g . Magnification of grains of sugar.com http://www.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose. (Discuss) For other uses. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.

honey. but also appears in fruit. sorghum. sugar maple (in maple syrup). B2) 0. and in many other sources. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes.com http://www.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. B3) 0. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. obesity and tooth decay. It forms the main ingredient in candy.77 g Thiamine (Vit.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances.026 mg Folate (Vit. B1) 0.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. and fructose. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit.net/ . B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. mainly sucrose. lactose.crazychefs.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.Water 1.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. and texture) of beverages and food. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). (Compare the OED. etc. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Generically known as "syrups".net/ . any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". Scientific Scientifically. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet.com http://www. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. preservation. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. Etymology In the case of sugar. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Italian word zucchero. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). "fructose". Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit.Popular In non-scientific use. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel.) will likely denote a sugar. In this informal sense. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). molasses or treacle. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs.[4] It came to English by way of French. the Spanish word azúcar. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide.) The Greek word for "sugar". Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). "dextrose". including palm sugar and fructose. means "pebble". Spanish and/or Italian. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. zahari.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara.crazychefs. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. In a list of ingredients. such as glucose. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar.

cook or consumer. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.containing 1. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7.com http://www. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. raw sugar. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Natural sugars come in fruit. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. as its name suggests. Sugars include monosaccharides. making the sugars reactive.crazychefs. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. syrups and fruit juices.net/ . 2. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). deoxyribose. has a "missing" oxygen atom. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. A notable exception.Culinary sugars Grainier. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. important molecules in the body. This includes all the sugars referred to above. disaccharides. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). plus sugars naturally present in honey. 3.

Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . or DNA. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. In these closed-chain forms. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.made from one glucose and one fructose). proteins connected to one or more sugars. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. which is made of glucose. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. glucose. sweeter than the original sucrose. Monosaccharides include fructose. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. If combined with fine ash. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. and galactose. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. producing invert sugar. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone.water (H2O) per bond. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. galactose and mannose. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. fructose. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. including NADH and ATP. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. Note for example glycoproteins. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. which form part of nucleic acids. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch.com http://www. which has the formula C6H12O6. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. lactose (milk sugar . This resulting syrup.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. sugar will burn with a blue flame.crazychefs. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. with less than 0.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). After digestion and absorption.net/ . Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11.

Bulk Density Chart.com/worldofsugar/internationalSugarStats. James. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. Blackwell Publishing. Sugar Blues. 1996. ISBN 1566398320.webmd.com http://www.com/features/sugar-what-kinds-eat-when 2.net/ . Joseph and Mike Carlson. ISBN 063205476X. ^ International sugar statistics http://www.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. Michael (January 2001). The International Sugar Trade.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. 4. OCLC 51837990 84251137.com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. History of Science and Technology in Islam. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. A C Hannah. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. ^ Wuebben.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0." http://men.illovosugar. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. ^ "Engineering Resources . Cambridge: Woodhead. 5." Powder and Bulk References Adas.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7.htm 3. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. Glyn (2004). OCLC 44493265. Sugarcane. ^ scientificpsychic.80 g/ml Notes 1. Temple University Press.

Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. Although in some areas. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking.35 mm.25% of the total volume). The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. for light brown sugar.net/ . It is. without mixing them separately. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. Products for industrial use (e. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead.crazychefs. Brown sugar contains from 3. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. especially in the Netherlands.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6.g. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. however. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar.com http://www. sugar beet molasses is used. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane.

UK title) that rats fed brown sugar.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar.[2] John Yudkin. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. The effort was so successful that by 1900. History In the late 1800s.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. apart from pure carbohydrate. in his studies (cited in "Pure. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. White and Deadly" . suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar.net/ . much like adding molasses would do.[1] However. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar.crazychefs. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. In other applications.com http://www. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. as opposed to white sugar. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. Nutritionally.

which is then crystallized.htm#bm07. but most is now produced in Mauritius. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals.csrwire. light brown. largecrystalled. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. giving it a higher mineral content. Retrieved 2008-09-20. light brown. an island off Africa. 3. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. Demerara is another unrefined. 2.html. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. 7. http://www. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. http://www. resulting in the characteristic large.com http://www.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined.com/PressRelease. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics.net/ . on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. crystals. Harvey.com/brands/Wholesome_Sweeteners/Organic_Tur binado_Sugar. 6. Retrieved 2008-09-20. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. ^ New Scientist. 32-33 5.1.wholesomesweeteners. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice.org ^ Levenstein.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). Muscovado. cane sugar. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar".".crazychefs.wildernessfamilynaturals. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. or Demerara sugar.php?id=3026.3 fao. where sugar cane was grown. Retrieved 2008-09-20.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07. References 1. http://www.htm#sugarmade. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. centrifuged.fao.com/muscovado_sugar. 2003. 4. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made.

Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). but toxic to most land plants. including humans. It is a crystalline solid. and iodized salt.crazychefs. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. white. the two major components of salt. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself.com http://www. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. which some use to prevent caking. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). pale pink or light gray in color. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. Chloride and sodium ions. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits.[citation needed] Conversely. refined salt (table salt). 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . including high blood pressure. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice.

the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). salt provided the best-known food preservative. glass. China dates back to at least 6000 BC.com http://www. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.crazychefs. In 1960.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.[2]:44 Along the Sahara.net/ . however.000 tons of salt. and the dye Tyrian purple. as were salted birds and salt fish. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. especially for meat. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. in the millennia before then. the caravans still transported some 15.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.

which was illegal under British rule.[1] It is widely.also gave us Gaul. During the first millennium BC. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace.net/ . In many Pagan religions esp. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. who had heretofore mined for salt. salz. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth".Salzburg. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space.[citation needed] The root hal(l). began open pan salt making. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea.com http://www. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). the Roman exonym for the Celts. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6)." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. Greek. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. Hallstatt. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife.) In the Sermon on the Mount. and Egyptian. though incorrectly. Halych in Ukraine.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. (Judges 9:45.fire. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. the Hallstatt Celts. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. God sent down four blessings from the sky . a root for salt found in Celtic. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". water. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. taking their names from hal(l)-. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food.crazychefs.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf.

Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people.crazychefs. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations.net/ . Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. Halite.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. such as in Sumo Wrestling. In Aztec mythology.com http://www.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts.[9] The Ancient Egyptians.

[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. Fleur de sel. and the making of soaps and detergents. Injected water dissolves the salt. food uses account for 17. natural sea salt harvested by hand.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use.net/ . The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. After the raw salt is obtained. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. and thus is rarely eaten. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. In recrystallization. which are kiln-dried. giving each one a unique flavor.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. Today. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. is mainly sodium chloride. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. Purification usually involves recrystallization. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics.Different natural salts have different mineralities.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. Refined salt.[12] However. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt.5% of salt production. which is most widely used presently.com http://www. has a unique flavor varying from region to region.crazychefs. One example are bath salts.

Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. Table salt has a particle density of 2.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. condiments such as soy sauce.net/ . calcium silicate. fatty acid salts (acid salts). Some people also add a desiccant. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. but was determined to be unnecessary. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. however.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate.crazychefs.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. magnesium oxide. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. sodium aluminosilicate.154 g/cm3.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity.165 g/cm3. and calcium aluminosilicate. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals.[29] However. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. Single-serving salt packets. calcium or magnesium carbonates. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . silicon dioxide. and a bulk density (dry. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1.com http://www.

Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body.[33] Drinking too much water. In France. In the United States. cretinism in children. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. iodized salt is more common in the United States. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt.com http://www.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. magnesium. The reason for this is unclear. with insufficient salt intake. which gives the table salt a yellow color. which can cause severe.crazychefs. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm.[32] Another additive. neurological problems. or sodium iodate.[31] Today. fluorinated table salt is available. even fatal. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). and myxedema in adults. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. or even an electrolyte disturbance. sodium iodide. especially important for pregnant women. potassium. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. which can cause goitre. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Canada. dizziness. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. specifically endemic goiter.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101.net/ . The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country.

Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility.[38] heartburn.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years.com http://www.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. It can exacerbate renal disease. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products." ([44]. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. the risks have been exaggerated for most people.net/ . the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process." ([41].[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. in Japan.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. p18) However.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. combined with an inadequate intake of water.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real. since salt was quite valuable).[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. forced salt intake. can cause hypernatremia. salt consumption is higher." ([41] p3).person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia).crazychefs. such as in treatment of dysautonomia. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%." ([41]. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. independently of blood pressure effects.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium.

[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels.crazychefs."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.[50]. SACN states. such as the Yanomami in South America.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. but achievable population goals. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. However.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. have been found to consume little salt. Some isolated cultures. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. A salt mill for sea salt.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand.com http://www. for a typical adult.net/ . 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

then that is a medium level of salt. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. without recourse to salt substitutes.com http://www. Those who have kidney failure.6g sodium).[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. One manufacturer. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. etc.[57] In March 2007.). "low"." In the UK. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children.net/ . a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.5g salt per 100g (or 0.3 g sodium = 5.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Amber (Medium). Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. calories. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet.1g sodium). Low is 0.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). LoSalt. which will increase potassium intake. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. or Green (Low).[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation. Australia.300 mg of sodium (= 2. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium.[51] In the United States.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. low in fat. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it".[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day.'[55] Campaigns In 2004. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High).g.crazychefs. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0.8 g salt) per day. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. When other health claims are made about a food (e.

2.answers. Germany (17. 5.com/salary. New York: Robert Appleton Company. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. Costs can reach staggering amounts. http://en. 8. Eplerenone and Inspra.com http://www. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. China (32. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. 4.3 million tonnes). Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources.wikisource. Triamterene.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. In 2002. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Salt. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). and by mining rock salt. and Hall in Austria. Retrieved 2008-12-14. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. the top five producers being the United States (40.7). India (14. 3.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. Dytac. called halite. 1913. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). such as brine wells and salt lakes. Answers. Notes 1.com. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. 7.in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. 4th edition". These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application.3).crazychefs. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. 6. Catholic Encyclopedia.9). and Canada (12.net/ .5). ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. ^ "Salt".

^ a b http://news. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. Retrieved 2008-07-29. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. sodium.net/ . sodium. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. salt manufacture.gov/askasci/gen01/gen01420.saltsense. http://www3. 281. Transportation Research Board. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. J.anl. ^ HE-620 24. ^ References on food salt & health issues. http://www.uk/aboutsaltwhat01. ^ Table 27. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23.htm. salt uses. salt manufacture. ^ What is Salt?.9. ^ David A. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. p.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/393201. salt history.com/index3. Salt Institute.co. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. Retrieved 2009-0708. ^ Gary Taubes. no. 5379.interscience. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www.bbc.pdf 33.com/journal/114028130/abstract. ^ B. 14. ^ Iodized Salt 32. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www.roskill.co. 28.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36.com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effe ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. http://books. 2008 29. Mason (2006-12-19). Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21.htm 15.dep. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www.fr/Ftp/Afssa/26447-26448. Salt Institute. ^ Iodized Salt 31. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. Retrieved 200907-08.9% sodium chloride 25. "The (Political) Science of Salt". salt uses.wiley. Victoria) Salt 34. 12. Fall/Winter 2006 10. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22.Weather Curriculum 18.907 37. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt".eu-salt.newton. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers".stm 38.google. Science. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. Ask a Scientist. 898 . ^ Nauticus .5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt).com/reports/salt 16. ^ http://www. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. 10. Kuemmel (1994). 14 August 1998. Vol. 11. ISBN 9780309056663. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032.com http://www.crazychefs. salt history. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30.afssa.htm 19. pp. Epikouria Magazine. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13.

^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. Schindler. Inc.co. OCLC 48573453.005 48. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54.com http://www.pub2 References Kurlansky. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. John Wiley & Sons. Norton & Co. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50.. 47-50. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. 61. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. ^ Cook NR. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. 62.uk/society/2008/jan/28/foodanddrink. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. Further reading Kurlansky.net/ . Mark. New York: W.2004. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk.1002/0471238961. Barber. ^ Salt Matters 60. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. BMJ.40. Salt: A World History. New York. Published online 2005.W. http://www. ^ U. New York: Walker & Co. doi:10.P. ^ Susan R. 2006. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. ISBN 0393320197. http://www. Elizabeth Wayland (1999).. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. Sodium 52. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44.hyp. (accessed13 January 2007) 49.guardian. Erwin Koops.uk/cash/.334(7599):885. Friedrich Schulz.a01. ^ Understanding labels 55. 2007. The Mummies of Ürümchi.1016/j. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. D. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63.1915040902051820.crazychefs. 28 January 2008. Feldman. Mark (2002). S. Putnam's Sons. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Story of Salt. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. NY: G. Cutler JA. 7.legalmed. ^ Salt TV ads 59.healthandwellbeing. Obarzanek E et al. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. doi:10.06. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. Legal Medicine 2005. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). and S. ISBN 0802713734. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". Sodium chloride. OCLC 48426519.ac.

Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch.talk by Dr Trevor Beard. Department of Health. Salt: Grain of Life. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. New York: Columbia University Press. 2001.net/ .crazychefs. Arts and traditions of the table. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. Pierre. The Stationery Office.Laszlo.com http://www. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy .

It can also be found in India. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. such as Cambodia. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Indonesia.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. found commonly in Thailand. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . as well as in neighbouring countries.crazychefs. phrik khi nu(lit.net/ . where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). the Philippines and Singapore. Vietnam. phrik thai. Malaysia. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. mainly Kerala. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers.

com http://www. Although small in size compared to other types of chili.000 to 100. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant.crazychefs. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries." which can best be described by the English equivalent.net/ .000 on the Scoville pungency scale.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. "Big things come in small packages. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili.

has peppers that point upward on the plant. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian).com http://www.As well as the Malay word. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. phrik khii nuu ( . orange. Ladâ. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. creating a rainbow effect.crazychefs. and among the group of capsicum annuum. and then red. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). and go from green to yellow. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thai_pepper" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. The more decorative. Thai). It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. but slightly less pungent variety.net/ . Thai hot. Siling Labuyo (Filipino).

Celeriac may be used raw or cooked.com http://www.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. usually mashed.net/ . Celeriac has a celery flavour. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. Unlike other root vegetables. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. about the size of a large potato. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. gratins and baked dishes. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. which store a large amount of starch.crazychefs. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. it can also be used on its own. It is a kind of celery. It has a tough. or used in casseroles. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. furrowed.

Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean.2 g .crazychefs.6 g 9.3 g 1.com http://www. Among them are 'Prinz'. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . Celeriac. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables.net/ . rinsed.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. 'Diamant'. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk.Dietary fiber 1. especially in Europe.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths.Sugars 1. 'Ibis'. and 'Kojak'. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. Celeriac soup.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. There are a number of cultivars available.

Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. aubergine. The flowers are white to purple.net/ .Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. The stem is often spiny. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. As a nightshade.crazychefs. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad.com http://www. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. It bears a fruit of the same name. and see text The eggplant. or brinjal (Solanum melongena).

com http://www. The name aubergine. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. which is used in British English. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. from Persian bad'en-j'aan.net/ . is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". In the Caribbean Trinidad. which are edible. but much larger in cultivated forms. 1500 CE. History Solanum melongena. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. derive from Persian and Sanskrit.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. Australia. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). The fruit is fleshy.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety.crazychefs. used in the United States. The name eggplant. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. from Arabic al-badinjan. New Zealand. soft seeds." Aubergine and brinjal. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. flower The plant is native to India. In Indian and South African English. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and contains numerous small.

crazychefs. and Tycoon. Dusky. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin.net/ . whiteskinned. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. green. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg.com http://www. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. A much wider range of shapes. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. shape and color. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. in white skin Dourga. Traditional. especially purple. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Black Magic. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. and Black Beauty. or white.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. There are even orange varieties. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Ichiban. Classic. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. slightly pendulous cucumber. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. Some cultivars have a color gradient. Pingtung Long. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Burpee Hybrid. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze.

Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. and deep-fried.net/ . braised (紅燒茄子). Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. It can be sliced. complex flavor. battered. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste.crazychefs. for example in sambhar. as in the related tomato. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. so that peeling is not required. It. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. The thin skin is also edible. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. allowing for very rich dishes. or tamarind. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). In Bangladesh. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. along with the fish Hilsa. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. and garlic. It is often stewed. tahini. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. the Arabian moussaka. tahini. for example. As a native plant. and achaar.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. In one dish. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. In some parts of India. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. In Iranian cuisine. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. and masala and then cooked in oil. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. curries. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. or Eggplant Parmesan. as they are far less bitter. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. or other fillings and then baked. as in the French ratatouille.com http://www. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. chutney. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. it is called Begun ( ). rice. peanuts. In the Caucasus. tomatoes. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. The fruit flesh is smooth.

China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms.com http://www. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. the most serious of which is Verticillium. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables.net/ . and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated.) between rows.) between plants. depending on cultivar. Egypt.crazychefs. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). such as tomato. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. containing both female and male structures. (Adults can be removed by hand. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. Flowers are complete. flea beetle. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. pepper (capsicum). This is called Beguni ( ). and potato. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants.) to 60 cm (24 in. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. aphids. For this reason. are also troublesome to eggplants. showing the inside. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. and spider mites. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated.

35 g .7 g 0. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.crazychefs. P = official figure.com http://www. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. semi-official or estimates).Sugars 2.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .(2. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.[5] In the United States. B2) 0.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world. New Jersey is the largest producing state. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant. F = FAO estimate.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Dietary fiber 3.039 mg 5.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.net/ .043.19 g 1. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. B1) 0.

A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant. B3) 0. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed].crazychefs. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines. while 1.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.com http://www.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0. However.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking.084 mg Folate (Vit. Brazil.01 mg/100g). Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium.16 mg Manganese 0. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Niacin (Vit. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.[8] On average.net/ .25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

ruber.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. globosi. multifidum. mainly by Dikii. and (invalidly) by Sweet. oblongo-cylindricum. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). esculentum. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. Names for various eggplant types. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. divaricatum. rumphii. subrepandum. inerme.Varieties Solanum melongena var. Scopoli's S. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. racemosum. lasiocarpum. ovigera. insanum. But this is not correct. trongum. violaceum and viride. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. racemiflorum. edule. sinuatorepandum. On the other hand. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. Solanum longum Roxb. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. Dunal. such as agreste. luteum.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. tongdongense. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S.-Lag. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. capsicoides). aethiopicum. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. inerme and subinerme at that time. Similarly.net/ . are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. brownii. that of Blanco to S. leucoum. ovigerum and S. H.F. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. esculentum. He also recognized varieties aculeatum.com http://www. giganteum. aethiopicum. stenoleucum. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. There is an actual S.crazychefs. variegatum. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. Solanum oviferum Salisb. violaceum.C. album. S. which used to include Dunal's S.

net/ . Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Engineering by Yiu H. Hui (2006). ^ Doijode. 2. (2001). Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157).crazychefs. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". common. ISBN 1574445510. D.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. CRC Press. S.com http://www. Handbook of Food Science. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. Footnotes 1. Technology.

J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. Ebury Press. pp.fao. 2008-11-11. ^ SN Pramod.uga.net/ .pdf. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". ^ B. Domino. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf).edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/C934. ^ Westerfield. 2008 10. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. 273-6. FAO. ^ Kabashima K. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2004. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. ^ "FAOSTAT".3. Retrieved 2007-04-24. Bruno Caramelli. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. Dieges PH. http://faostat. Miyachi Y. Harish Babu * .caes. P. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989.133(42):2081-3 12. 5.crazychefs.com . P. Tsenge Demana. http://pubs. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. Volume 329:437 August 5. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. ^ Edward F.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. 1993 Number 6 9. N. Toorenenbergen AW. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. Retrieved 2009-07-01.50(2):101-102 11.Aubergine 8. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. Vol. Arq Bras Cardiol. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004.) reveals female predominance. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802.com http://www. ^ Gerth van Wijk R.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. Mahesh † and Y. A. 7. 18(1): 59-62 13. ^ Solanum melongena var.* YP Venkatesh. 202 4. Erich Hornbach. Robert (2008-11-14). ^ Health24. 6. Andréa Thomaz. volume 82 (nº 3). ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006).

crazychefs. with a serrated margin. and have a weak.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. It is a perennial. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy.4–0. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height.com http://www.net/ .Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. syn. see section Fruit or vegetable below). Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. The tomato is native to South America. woody stem that often vines over other plants. Solanum lycopersicum. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. yellow. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. odd pinnate.8 in) across. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. One species. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L.

The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. was the first European to take back the tomato. now Mexico City in 1521.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. who named it pomo d‘oro.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. an Italian physician and botanist. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. tomatl.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. likely to be the original salsa recipe. They also took it to the Philippines. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. and cultivation began in the 1540s. in certain areas of Italy. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed].was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans.[6] Gerard's Herbal. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. means "wolf-peach".[4] The large. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. such as Florence. lumpy tomato. The exact date of domestication is not known. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. according to Smith. lycopersicum. golden apple.crazychefs. cerasiforme.net/ . a mutation from a smoother. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. the other by currant tomatoes. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s.com http://www. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. ancestor of L. However. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. meaning plump thing with a navel. corn and salt. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. earlier in 1493. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. smaller vegetable . It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. a barber-surgeon. However. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. The specific name. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates.

the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). The C. and as a garnish. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant).largely plagiarized from continental sources.[6] But by the mid-1700s. most famously in Worthing. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. particularly Florida and California. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710.[6] Nonetheless.M. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well.net/ . 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. The Spanish tomato dish. British consul in Aleppo c. Paella. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. California. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. Currently. Rick. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. and before the end of that century. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1799 – c. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. Thomas Jefferson.crazychefs. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. By the mid-18th century.com http://www. Gerard's views were influential. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. and in general. Charles M. Over the past 15 years. but the fruit is safe).[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. broths.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. The University of California. In Victorian times. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. ―within the last forty years. sent some seeds back to America. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. who ate tomatoes in Paris. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets.

18 September 2009. and have a lower water content. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. the largest producer. For processing tomatoes. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated.S. It may be deleted after Friday.6–2.net/ . Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pink. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. they are known as plum tomatoes. China. black. California accounts for 90% of U.8 in) size as the wild tomato.0–2.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008.4 in) diameter range. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. about 5mm in diameter. purple. green. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. or white fruit are also available. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion.[12] According to FAOSTAT. production and 35% of world production. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions.crazychefs.4–0. through cherry tomatoes. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. followed by United States and Turkey. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. but a number of cultivars with yellow.0 in) diameter. Most cultivars produce red fruit. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. orange.com http://www.

are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. as well as heirloom tomatoes. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications .[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life.com http://www. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1.net/ . pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. plum tomatoes. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. and are shaped like large strawberries. along with zucchini. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes.[18] and productivity. As in most sectors of agriculture. based mostly on shape and size. but unlike commercial hybrids.crazychefs. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed].

black. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. Green Zebra (top right). campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. but are smaller than plum tomato. or bush. and purple. disease and pest resistance. Red Boar). types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. Burracker's Favorite.cherry tomatoes are small and round. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. low acidity. Lucky Cross). There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. they are often good choices for container growing. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. orange. which usually discourages fruit set. often via mail-order. Black Krim (lower left corner).com http://www. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. although some determinate heirlooms exist. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. Determinate. some tomato cultivars . there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. et cetera. white. and lack of mealiness. brown. multiple colors (Hillbilly. including Brandywine (biggest red).produce fruit in colors other than red.net/ . and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. A variety of specific cultivars. or home growers interested in canning. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage.especially heirlooms . including yellow. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost.crazychefs. ivory. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). etc. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. but must be bought as seed. pink. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. As an intermediate form.

whiteflies. As the name implies. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10.fusarium wilt strain I. T . As a floral device to reduce selfing.net/ . aphids. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants.fusarium wilt strain I & II. original state.[24] and Colorado potato beetles.verticillium wilt. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars.alternaria. N nematodes. but manure or compost work well. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. entirely within the closed corolla.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. tomatoes required cross-pollination. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. and A . flea beetles. slugs. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars.com http://www. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. which interrupts the lifecycle. red spider mite. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. The stamens were.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions.tobacco mosaic virus. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. FF . F . As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease.crazychefs. cutworms. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. their traditional pollinators. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. cabbage loopers. In the wild. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. carried by the beet leafhopper. tomato fruitworms. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. and remain. The most common letters are: V . which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. too.

starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. by cultured bumblebees. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. In more temperate climates. as with most species. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually).crazychefs. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. or more often today. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. However.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. depending on variety. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. This is not the same as self-pollination. Unripe tomatoes are firm. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube.com http://www. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red.net/ . In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. They may be recognized by their color. In an outside setting. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997.

Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term.Sugars 2.net/ .6 g 4g . carotene.crazychefs. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). anthocyanin. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. especially in cooked tomatoes. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97).2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. a subset of fruit. Though it is botanically a berry. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. and other antioxidants. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium).Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. In some studies lycopene. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. or paste.Recently. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue).com http://www. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). as tomato sauce. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. They contain lycopene. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. The tomato is acidic.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. in pieces. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes.

dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands).net/ . and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. there are variations. such as rugose leaves. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. meaning covered with fine short hairs. When that tip eventually stops growing. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. it will not continue to ripen. lateral buds take over and grow into other.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. annually celebrates La Tomatina.5 °C (54. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened.crazychefs.com http://www. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. initially decumbent.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin.5 °F). typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. Embracing it for this protest connotation. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Spain. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. generally three feet tall or shorter. fully functional.[28] In October 1965. or pickled. Tomato plants are dicots. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. although erect bush varieties have been bred. Of regular leaves. often by sun. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. These hairs facilitate the vining process. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. Known for its tomato growth and production. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. vines. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. Determinate types are annual in all climates.make salsa. The fruit is also preserved by drying. They are bred to continue ripening. and grow as a series of branching stems. whether because of pruning or flowering.

genetic evidence (e. while paste tomatoes have very few. variegated. according to type.[31] Their flowers. However. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato).com http://www. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. tobacco. "wolf-peach"). Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. angora leaves. plus 'persicum'. (derivation. butterflies. Other species in that family are potatoes. moths. Technically. Some smaller varieties have two cavities.. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. However. As a true fruit. or other external forces that present in the Americas. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna.Karst. have the anthers fused along the edges. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing.deeply grooved.. with both names found in the literature. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. called locular cavities. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum.net/ . appearing on the apical meristem. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. i. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). wolf. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. peach. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. Despite this. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. 'lyco'. This is because they are native to the Americas. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. very small cavities. which frequently used it and still do). Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. Therefore.e.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. and be dried/fermented before germination.) H.crazychefs. among cultivated species. other insects. These vary. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. would be more correct.g. making the Linnaean name correct. chili peppers. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. Similarly. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization.

Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. Livingston.com http://www. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. Monsanto. However. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals.S. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs.net/ . Ohio. AVRDC. and organizations. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. Bejoseed. 304)). 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. nutritional value. size. A. As noted above.W. 1883. In 2006. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. New York. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. of Reynoldsburg. from a culinary standpoint. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. In 1887. Corporations including Heinz.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. and numerous other traits. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices.crazychefs. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey.S. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. U. North Carolina. together with its seeds. a tomato is the ovary. pest tolerance. Hedden (149 U. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. universities. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. Oregon. University breeding programs are active in Florida. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. cucumbers.S. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. The U. color. etc. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. BHNSeed. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results.S. as are vegetables. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. U. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. disease tolerance. shape. flavor. However. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. corporations.

In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . The fresh fruit is.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /.com http://www.S. Ohio. harmless. Georgia. Speakers from the British Isles. On October 30. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. Indiana. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network).crazychefs. Minnesota. Kentucky. Massachusetts. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). Vermont and Wisconsin. North Carolina. Michigan. Tennessee. Pennsylvania.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. contain the poison Solanine. 2006. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. which is toxic to humans and animals. Virginia. stems.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. the U. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Maine.net/ . Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. however. New Hampshire. Rhode Island. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. Connecticut.

and fresh cilantro. 40. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. the U. Florida. French and Germans. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. respectively. Lake Buena Vista. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. Lancashire. it caused at least one death. fresh serrano pepper. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.7 and 16. fresh jalapeño pepper.S.com http://www. UK. and Canada.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19.[38] As of July 8. the District of Columbia. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. in 2000. Oklahoma in 1986." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. Illinois (100). from April 10. 2007. China.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. 2008.151. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. such as raw tomato.8 m (65 ft) length. one would arrive at an estimated 40. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. Yong Huang. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz).[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985.1 reported cases per million. New Mexico (98).6:1).crazychefs.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. 2008. with a harvest of more than 32.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot.84 pounds (522 kg). and Arizona (49). On August 30.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista.000 kilograms (250. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases).000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. with 49.net/ . The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot.273 illnesses from this outbreak. As of July 2008.

but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.net/ . as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. Fusarium. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak.S.com http://www. Derived from Cherokee Purple.crazychefs. indeterminate.S.

good for Tomatoes on a vine.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak.crazychefs. Tomato slices.net/ . Tomato Flower. pickling. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. in Korea. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. Young tomato plant. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Tomato plants in the garden. Tomato fruit.

crazychefs.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.net/ .

ucdavis. http://www. Footnotes 1. (1994). 5.com. ^ "C. During the three months of the local harvest. 11. 223 10. 7. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. p.aspx. I.nationalarchives. 519 [1] 9. http://tgrc. Normania.html.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.edu.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.nationalarchives. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo .Food & Wine".html. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Universityofcalifornia. G. Yourarchives. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. The Tomato in America.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.smithsonianmag. M. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . ISBN 0252-07009-7.Smith. Appletons' journal Published by D. Easthamptonstar. 13. et al. 2002-05-08. USA: University of South Carolina Press. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center.. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. D. and Cookery. http://yourarchives. University of Illinois Press.edu/. Columbia. Retrieved 2008-10-27.edu/news/article/4319. 2009-01-26. Tgrc." See: Natural History Museum. ISBN 1-57003000-6." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. F. 1876.uk/index.C. 6. ^ Acquaah.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Andrew F.smithsonianmag.crazychefs. October 26. webpage: books-google-TTp17.smithsonianmag. The tomato in America: early history.net/ .fao.17.universityofcalifornia.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). Retrieved December 11 2009.easthamptonstar. A.html". & Spooner. 1994. E. p.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ^ http://faostat. 1881. Retrieved 2009-04-02. ^ "UC Newsroom. Processing Tomato Production in California. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. (2001). (2002). or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.gov.Your Archives". ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon.M.. Retrieved 2009-04-02. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. 2. ^ a b Hartz. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world.edu. it handles more than 1.uk.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. and cookery. http://www. (2002-0508)". Appleton and Co. Smith. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History.smithsonianmag. 8.com http://www. p. Culture. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.five tons to the acre. http://www. 3." 15. Retrieved December 11 2009.com/dnn/Archive/Home20080814/FoodWine/Seasons/ta bid/6280/Default. S. ^ "http://www. ^ a b Smith. section Lycopersicon Mill. Andrew F (1994).html". Peralta.aspx?PageID=567 14. 2008. 12. ^ Tomato history 4. culture. Cyphomandra. http://www. Subsection Lycopersicon).ucdavis. ^ "http://www. Wettst. page 57: ".. T.The East Hampton Star . ^ The Friend.gov.

29. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like.am/wiki/Tomato#Novelty_tomatoes 22.mx. http://www. ^ "Crop Profiles .edu/sustainable/profiles/bot_tom. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. http://www. Retrieved 2009-04-02.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5532. http://www.gob. 31." 19. 25. http://www. 2006. Retrieved June 30. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).16.com/faq/lists/tomato/2004111539004321. 17.net/ . ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".html".html. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. http://faq. 24. http://www.com/science-nature/passion-fortomatoes. Retrieved December 11 2009.smithsonianmag.osu. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes.Tomato".gardenweb.com http://www. Sinaloa.html.uk/2/hi/health/7370759.edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". ^ http://www. 26." 18.whfoods. http://www. http://www. Retrieved 200810-27. 32.edu.am/wiki/Tomato#Early_tomatoes 21. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention". Smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27.news.com.html.ufseeds.umn. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.umn. Retrieved 2008-10-27." 20.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.html 23.html.html". ^ http://www. Faq.smithsonianmag.edu/stories/Jan07/SolanacaeNSF.edu.html".bbc.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.edu. 33.plants.gardenweb.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html.plants. ^ "http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27.com. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.com/genpage.co. http://wwwplb.html. http://ohioline. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips.eurekalert. which are carried in the wind. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre.stm. ^ "http://www.kr. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.ncsu. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes.smithsonianmag. 2006.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.sinaloa. News.php.cornell.osu.html. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?".8M".com/All-About-Tomatoes_a6fd3933f91c4. Retrieved December 11 2009. Retrieved December 11 2009. 27. ^ "Selecting. Retrieved 2008-10-27. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens.smithsonianmag.ucdavis. Ohioline.cornell.edu. "Tomato genome project gets $1. Ncsu.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ^ "http://www.mx. http://www. Plb. 30. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine". ^ http://www. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension.gob. page 57: "The plants are still growing. Retrieved 2007-05-24. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. Retrieved 200705-24. 28.ucdavis.org/pub_releases/2007-05/aafc-nmt051607.crazychefs. Retrieved July 14. HYG-5532-93". http://www.edu. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.smithsonianmag.html. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague.smithsonianmag. http://news.smithsonianmag.edu.

34. ^ "August 8. Dennis R.com.foodsafetynetwork.gov. Itn. Retrieved 2009-0402. 35.1086/381578. Cbsnews. ^ a b Pittenger. 41. 38.com/books?id=WhWjHB1Zjf8C&pg=PA643. 36. 42. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul.CBS News".ca. et al.uchicago. 40. p. http://www. Vegparadise. Cdc.com/news/canada/story. Tomato Recipe". Retrieved 2008-1027.html?id=585498. 2007-08-30.edu/doi/full/10.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/map. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". 2004.html. http://www. ANR Publications. http://www.uk.uk/news/9a5a1671ceba4f43741dc008f237c1ea. United States. (2002).nationalpost.vegparadise. ^ "ITN. ^ Voetsch.cdc. 9781879906549. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce .com.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953.uk. 39. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". Retrieved 200904-02.html.html.journals. Nationalpost. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History.com http://www. http://itn.co.google. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". (2004-04-15).crazychefs. ISBN 1879906546. by state". http://www. Retrieved 2009-0721. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". Foodsafetynetwork. California Master Gardener Handbook. Retrieved 2008-10-27.net/ . 38:S3.co.com/highestperch8. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/. http://www. 37.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/10/30/national/main2138331.shtml.cdc.com. 643. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".ca/en/article-details. http://www.co. Tomato Nutrition. http://www. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. Retrieved 2008-10-27. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27.

[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. or sliced finely. or Spice Islands. both are used as adulterants of M. extracted oleoresins. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. malabarica from India. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.net/ . argentea from New Guinea. In Indonesia.6 to 0. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia.4 oz) dried. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit.com http://www. including essential oils. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. a state in the south part of India. called selei buah pala. It also grows in Kerala.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". fragrans products.crazychefs. especially in Grenada. nutmeg and mace. and nutmeg butter (see below). called Jaiphal in Hindi. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. the fruit is also made into jam.2 and 0. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. Species About 100 species.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov.7 in) wide. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. and Bombay Nutmeg M.

and baked goods. Painkiller. saffronlike hue it imparts. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang.com http://www. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. they are also used in soups. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. cauliflower. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. In Arabic. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. sauces. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. and eggnog. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Penang cuisine. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. In European cuisine. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala.crazychefs.net/ . "Lau Hau Peng". and string beans.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. In Indian cuisine. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. green. and Barbados rum punch.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. mulled wine. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). In the Caribbean.

The oil is colourless or light yellow. for instance. used as flavourings.net/ . History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. although this is disputed. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. reddish brown in colour. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. syrups. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin.com http://www. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. preserving agents. which can be turned into myristic acid. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. It is semi-solid. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. 758 – ca. in toothpaste.crazychefs. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. beverages. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. and sweets. medicines. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation
needed]

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

Footnotes
1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". http://emj.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/22/3/223. 5. ^ "Erowid". http://www.erowid.org/plants/nutmeg/. 6. ^ "MDMA". http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=5469. 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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References
Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

Commercialization
The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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yeast extract. it also said that.net/ . or molasses.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. and protein isolate.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. autolyzed yeast." However. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. particularly processed foods. with 4% annual growth expected. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. steak sauce. being an amino acid. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. sugar beets. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. However. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. based on anecdotal reports. Canned.com http://www. sugar cane. frozen. not reproducible.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. hydrolyzed yeast. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. soy extracts. About 1. Fermented products such as soy sauce. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels.crazychefs.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch.

Steven (August 2003). and Cosmetics (2nd ed. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. flavour enhancer). acidification. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. The label must bear the food additive class name (e.g. followed by either the name of the food additive. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. Albert Y. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. "Monosodium Glutamate". and converted to its monosodium salt. In 1993. On Food and Cooking. pp.. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as hydrolyzed protein.celiac. In the 2004 version of his book. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. concentration.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. For this reason.".com http://www. even in large amounts.com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1.crazychefs. and crystallization. Foster. (2) synthesis. MSG.. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. References 1. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. ^ http://www. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. [monosodium glutamate]. 373-375.html 2. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids.2.7% women). and (3) microbial fermentation. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). ^ Leung. In the hydrolysis method. dextrose or citrate). The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. and mineral ions and growth factors. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. 621.net/ . followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. New York: Wiley. purified. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture.).g. age 40–59 years. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. Drugs.

2006. et al. 13. http://www. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. Yangfeng. Liancheng.fda. ^ Kawakita. ^ http://vm.00160. 10. doi:10.gov/~lrd/msg. PMID 10597625. 11. 277–282. Food Chem. ^ "Production process". Garside. Kimber L. http://www. ^ http://www. doi:10. 6. (October 2006). "A Short History of MSG". Ka. 1875–1880. Takehara.1006/rtph. Armstrong. Nutr. Jeremiah (August 2008). 14.. Linguang.jstor.nih. ^ He.530060410. J. Shioya. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. Inc. http://www. ^ http://www. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ren C. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". Toxicol. http://jn. ^ Walker R (October 1999). (April 2000). Kelly M.nytimes. Shizuko (2005).html.1337. ^ a b Rundlett. 7.nlm. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". PMID 16999713.co. New York Times.ca/Articles/Fall1990-1. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. ^ Sand.ajinomoto. Linda. Regul. Pharmacol. 31 (12): 1019–1035. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". 16. Beiser A. doi:10.17457599. ^ a b Tarasoff L.com/amino/eng/product. Zhou. the Secret Behind the Savor".cfsan.1002/14356007. Martha L.. 38–49.F. PMID 18497735. ^ a b Geha RS.net/ . Shigeru.1999. PMID 10736382. Case study: monosodium glutamate".38. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp. Toxicol. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.1111/j.ajinomoto. Tetsuya. Yamaguchi. doi:10.html 12. "Monosodium Glutamate". Zhao. Van Horn. (1993). Wu. "The significance of excursions above the ADI.ncbi. Beifan.1525/gfc.gov/entrez/query.crazychefs. ^ Moskin. Daniel W (1994). "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". Masahiro. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Stamler. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study".x.1002/chir.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. 8. Dyer. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. Jordan (2005).celiac. Sano. 15.2005.com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute. ^ Freeman M.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. Anjimoto Co. Dongshuang. PMID 8282275. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S.pdf 9. Chiaki. doi:10.org/stable/3421360 5. MSG.5. Zhu.1038/oby. doi:10.2008. Julia (2008-03-05).fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract.com http://www. "Yes. ^ http://www. Alan R.274. Daviglus. Guo.nutrition. doi:10. Daniel.3.jp/ajinomoto/ACompany/company/zaimu/pdf/fact/food_biz.a16 711. Chirality 6 (4): pp.4.html 4.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10736382.

荳油 3. 豆油 3.crazychefs. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1.com http://www.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 醬油 2.net/ . 酱油 2.

The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. water.500 years. In its various forms. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. [4] By the mid-19th century. and salt.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2.[3] In the 18th century. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. Soy sauce was invented in China. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain.com http://www. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia.net/ . Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java.

These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring.com http://www. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University.crazychefs. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures.net/ . Although there are many types of soy sauce. sojae) and other related microorganisms. Today. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. literally "delicious taste"). but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. such as in giant urns and under the sun. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed].2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans.

the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Korean. and Chinese cuisine. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. pinyin: jiàngyóu. but it also adds flavour. like extra virgin olive oil. one of the two types. An additional classification of light soy sauce. Since it is lighter in color. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. In traditional Chinese cooking. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. or 酱清 "jiàng qing".came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). shuānghuáng (雙璜). ): A thin (nonviscous).net/ . soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. Another type. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. or a mixture of both. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. slightly sweeter.3-DCP (1. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. consistency. with relatively low amounts of other grains. fragrance and saltiness. Despite their rather similar appearance. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. lighter brown soy sauce. It has a richer. traditional Chinese: 醬油.com http://www. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping.crazychefs. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. Thai. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. since it is saltier. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. opaque.

Not all soy sauces are interchangeable.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. where it is known as "shōyu". "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. for example sashimi. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. that is used in its production. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?.crazychefs. Technically. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Shiro (白?. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. Usukuchi (淡口?. or 醤油). tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. It contains little or no wheat. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts.net/ .com http://www. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り).[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi.

it is much darker and more strongly flavored.Saishikomi (再仕込?. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman.com http://www. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. Consequently. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". Amakuchi (甘口?. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol.crazychefs. not pasteurized. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality.net/ . 1 litre bottles.

Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. usually implies limited quantity. powder.net/ . soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. In Indonesia. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality.crazychefs. which has a thick. in a pinch. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet.com http://www. It is a unique variety. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best.

which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. (called Joseon ganjang. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). is made entirely of soy and brine. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). Joseon ganjang. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste).com http://www. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. Malaysia. 조선간장.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Founded in 1909. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. thin and dark brown in color.4% of soy sauce purchases. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. WanJaShan(萬家香). and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. lit. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). Later. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). O'Long(黑龍). A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair.net/ . Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油).

3-DCP (1. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh).com http://www. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. it is also a table condiment. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. wheat. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). and caramel. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. or sometimes simply tương. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. nước tương.[6] Furthermore. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. pronounced SOO-kah). The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. salt. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. China. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar.crazychefs. It can also be very salty. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt.

htm. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). ^ http://www.gov. OCLC 9752305 5. including six samples with up to 11. No.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat.tw/newsdetail. Individuals with a wheat allergy. 3. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. pp. Retrieved 200801-07. ^ Jung. ^ http://www. Golden Swan. an increase over 23 to 5. Golden Mark. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. ^ Tanaka. Despite these being small in number in the UK. the leaflet does include oyster sauce.smartfood. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). http://www. Vol. Sinsin. 6.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted.net/ . 8.[1] Notes 1. marinades and other types of sauces. III. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p.[citation needed] In Vietnam. 4.317 2. ^ Tanaka. ^ Titsingh. Norio. Pearl River Bridge. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". Press release. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. 6. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations.) In March 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-07. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20).tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9.uk/news/pressreleases/2001/jun/soysaucerecall.org.asp?id=7598 10. Jammy Chai. XXVII. 7. http://www.co. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. p.tcoc. Soon Teck• and Kang.food."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare.tw/60anniversary/century-gofun. Kimlan.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. 7.crazychefs.com http://www. ^ http://www. Celiac disease. Isaac. p.org. 2nd edition.miyajimasoy.000 to 18.gmp. 2.jp/science/kouenkai/kouenkai. (1781). A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce.com. 2 (January 2000). some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. ^ Tanaka. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce.Kong and Taiwan. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. Seong-Gook (2002). Lee Kum Kee. King Imperial.

http://www.com http://www. PMID 16198255.1263/jbb. Charles W (2005).nutraingredients.food scares hit Vietnam 20.crazychefs.100.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. doi:10. Retrieved 2008-01-07. Hoboken. chemical veggies -. p. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. ^ Bamford. Somboon (2002-06-18).com. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". Florence. ISBN 0632059877.google. doi:10. Food.48. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". http://books. ^ Kobayashi. ISBN 1587161389.2323/jgam. PMID 12469319. 103. 12. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. p. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. 14.144. 18. ^ Toxic soy sauce. Stephen (2006-06-06). 13. ^ Tanasupawat.net/ .com/news/ng. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19.201. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. Fereidoon. Marian (2003). fermentation and micro-organisms. Edition 2. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. Kentucky: CRC Press. Makio (2005-04-18). Naczk.11. 16.com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15. nutraingredients. 186. ^ Shahidi. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Daniells. et al.

4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.8% Behenic acid: <0.0–83.5–5.3–3.0% Stearic acid: 0.3% Myristic acid: <0.5 °C) 84 cP 1.4677–1.9180 (@ 15.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.net/ .5% Linoleic acid: 3.5–21.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.crazychefs.9150–0.5–20.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.com 211 | P a g e http://www.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.0% Arachidic acid: <0.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.

as well as in Crete. which produce approximately 350. Japan and China. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. World production in 2002 was 2. cosmetics. in Greece. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. Koroneiki. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). family Oleaceae). in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.000 tons of olive oil annually.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea.6 (refined and pomace) 0.[3] Of the European production. Olive oil is used throughout the world.6 million tonnes. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide.4680–1. principally Italy. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. Leccino Pendolino. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. In 2006. Alberquina. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. Italy and Greece. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. Hojiblanca.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield.[1] It is commonly used in cooking.crazychefs. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. in France.net/ . originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. pharmaceuticals.com http://www. North Africa and the Near East. and Manzanilla de Jaén. but especially in the Mediterranean. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. Australia. and Moraiolo. Picholine. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. 93% comes from Spain. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production.

000 US gallons (181. Spain. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. of which 34. called pomace.800.000 US gallons (131. In North America. The US imported 47. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. Spain. in Portugal.net/ . More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. defining quality standards. Oblica and Leccino. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. still contains a small quantity of oil.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. by its chemistry. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). IOOC terminology is precise. with 23 member states. Mission. Spain.California. with production increasing to meet demand.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. After extraction the remnant solid substance.crazychefs. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Turkey. The USDA uses a different system. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. a private trade group. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil).[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil.com http://www. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. in Croatia. and by its flavor. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). often in "prestige" packaging. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. Galega. The California Olive Oil Council. and monitoring authenticity. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices.600. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules.000 m3) came from Italy. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils.

" arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). 25.[14] In March 2008. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. both in Italy and abroad.[15] Under EU rules. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. defined as the percent. particularly in Italy. mostly hexane.[16] In April 2008. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity.[12] In some cases. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. but safe. Almost 700 people died.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. measured by weight. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. of free oleic acid it contains. for blended oils. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. This practice makes it difficult for high quality.net/ . colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. however.crazychefs. product as superior olive oil.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. but there are no guarantees. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. EU officials took issue with the new law. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. it is believed. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. and for genuine Italian producers to compete.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. is extremely lax and corrupt.[14] In February 2008. and by heat.com http://www.

the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. This is also called its organoleptic quality. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. but may not be described simply as olive oil. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides.3 grams per 100 grams (0. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. The U. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. absence of defects. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. It commonly lacks a strong flavor.5% acidity. Pure olive oil. expressed as oleic acid. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. has an acidity less than 2%. and is judged to have a superior taste. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. In order to classify it by taste. These grades were established in 1948. and are based on acidity. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. The US is not a member.the oil degrades. of no more than 1. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. another cause of rancidity. and is judged to have a good taste. Used on salads. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. contains no more than 0. of not more than 0.net/ .S.8% acidity. It is fit for consumption. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product.com http://www. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. It has a free acidity.crazychefs.

[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. which may be as low as 10-15 °C. First of all.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. Grade B or U.S. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. Grade C".crazychefs.S. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.0% and is "fairly free from defects". Grade D or U. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled.S.S. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp. Grade C or U. with less flavour.S. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. (34 kJ/ml). Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. U.U.com http://www. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. "cold" does not define any precise temperature.S. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.net/ . U. U.S. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.S. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed".S.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.5% and is "reasonably free from defects". Grade A or U. This is incorrect.4% and is "free from defects".[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Spain and Italy.net/ . Northern Europe and North America consume far less.8 7.7 l. Portugal and Lebanon.62 12. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. around 8 l.crazychefs.pressed". Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil.com http://www.35 23.1 1.2 7 1.7 11. Tunisia. around 0. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label.1 0. over 26 liters per year. around 14 l. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. so the term "first press" is meaningless.

This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. Green olives produce bitter oil. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered.net/ . This is done in specialised chemical plants. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened.crazychefs. then placed into the press. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. suggesting a different taste. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). not in the oil mills. 3.com http://www. After grinding. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. 4. After grinding. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. 1. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. which is much faster and more accurate. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means.34 1. If ground with mill stones. no or very little organoleptic defects). 2.

The composition varies by cultivar. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. In the United States. time of harvest.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.omega-3 fat <1.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. region.7%) and sterols (about 0. most notably oleic acid.5 g .net/ .[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. along with traces of squalene (up to 0. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.monounsaturated 73 g .saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .crazychefs.omega-6 fat 3. including oleocanthal and oleuropein. and extraction process. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids.polyunsaturated 11 g .com http://www. altitude. To achieve this possible benefit.2% phytosterol and tocosterols).5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat .

olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. at least in part.This decision was announced November 1. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers.net/ . extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil.crazychefs. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. During the second phase.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. It is theorized that. antithrombotic.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. rather than its fatty acid profile. in the long term. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol. and oleuropein. This way. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. For example. 2004. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. The study was conducted in two stages. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. This could.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). During the first stage. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants.com http://www.

The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. Also. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders.[citation needed]. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. A very fresh oil. etc.crazychefs. oils deteriorate and become stale. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. not for foods to be eaten cold.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F).net/ . like salads. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. as available in an oil producing region. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. For example. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. Used cold. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. cookware. blenders. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. In time. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. Also.

[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM).[36][37] Jeanne Calment.com http://www. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. It does have demulcent properties. It is also good for the management of pain. and mild laxative properties. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent.net/ .[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. acting as a stool softener. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil.crazychefs. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin.

from O. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. and skin care application.. 1175.N. olie. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. Besides food. medicines.crazychefs. elaion "olive tree". probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. oleum "oil.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. and O. soap-making. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oile (12c. from Anglo-Fr.com http://www.Fr. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. olive oil. Homer called it "liquid gold. as a fuel in oil lamps. from L. drawn and engraved by J. Mod.Fr.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. olio). from Gk. It. olive oil" (cf." In ancient Greece.net/ . magical. huile). Amman in the Sixteenth Century.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior".Fr.

[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey.com http://www.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC.net/ . In the centuries that followed. olive presses became common. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.crazychefs. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. Bodrum.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete.

"the best in the Mediterranean". and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. the fertile crescent. Lebanon. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. stored in special containers.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff).[citation needed]. he maintained. during the 13th century BC. when the oil had risen to the top. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. According to legend.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). drained the water from the bottom. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. where it is thought to have represented wealth. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and.. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. oil containers are preferred. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete.com http://www. wrote of abundant olive trees.crazychefs. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization.over 4. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. together with naked appearance of athletes. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt.000 and 3. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to.000 tons of olive oil per season. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD.[dubious – discuss] During this time.[46] Until 1500 BC. allowing more time for more oil to be made. and area consisting of present day Palestine.net/ . A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. and Israel. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. Sinuhe. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. According to the historian Pliny. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body.

com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. References 1.PDF. In Islam. ANR Publications."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. and. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table.internationaloliveoil.usda. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings.crazychefs. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. 158. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). http://www. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel.net/ . Retrieved 2007-05-25. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". 4. Olive Production Manual." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive.com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. To douse the flame. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. its oil almost glows. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick).com http://www. Retrieved 2007-05-25.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. 3. 2. traditionally. ^ USDA. p. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries.html.org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo. 5.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047". ^ G. Steven Sibbett. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. and this secure city. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. Louise Ferguson. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. ^ USDA. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "The Olive Tree. http://findarticles. light upon light. ^ "findarticles. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases.gourmetretailer. http://www. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. in the consecration of altars and churches. http://www. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. the tourch is in a glass bulb. Margaret Lindstrand (2005). "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. Joann L Coviello. Retrieved 2008-07-04. ^ International Olive Oil Council. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. and the Mount of Sinai. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. originating from King David. even without fire touching it. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. neither Eastern nor Western.imitate the original Menorah. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation.gov/nass/pubs/agr05/05_ch3.

http://query. November 2. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. http://www. and Maurizio La Guardia. 18. http://www. 16.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). (December 1986). 19. http://www.com".html. Am. http://www. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". ^ "Eubusiness. 17. 21. 55 (3): 175–86.010.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. Dennis.eubusiness. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Scotsman. 19 CFR 134. Menotti A.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. Nutrition Research Reviews 18.co. The New York Times (H.southafrica. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . Alan (1989-05-21).net/ .com/gst/fullpage. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05.01.internationaloliveoil. ^ "www.htm. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis. 25.uk/news/main. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".com http://www. et al.htm". 13.usda. Res. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". 23. http://oliveoilonly.internationaloliveoil. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. Di Majo.xml.1079/NRR200495 24.com". ^ "EUbusiness.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. 20.oxfordjournals.org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. PMID 3776973.xml. ^ Durant.46. Tripoli.gov/AMSv1. ^ Mueller. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".southafrica. Retrieved 2008-11-09. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". 7. 12.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institutionini.Telegraph". Karvonen MJ.23/. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . ^ New York Times. http://www. 10. M. http://www.uk/news/main.ams. Retrieved 2008-11-16.eubusiness. Retrieved 2008-11-16. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. United States Department of Agriculture. J.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. Giammanco. 15. Pharmacol. ^ Riding. PMID 17321749. Raymond & Co. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22.nytimes. Epidemiol.jp. S. D. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. ^ a b McGee.htm.scotsman.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3776973.html". 14.).4005000.co. http://www.telegraph.telegraph. Tabacchi. G. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8.com/news-eu/1204304521. ^ "www.2007. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. 2007-08-13. US Customs Department. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. John. 11. ^ Keys A. Giammanco. http://news. doi:10.crazychefs.1016/j. ^ a b "Telegraph article".phrs.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. Tom. Slippery Business The New Yorker.com/news-eu/1204304521. J.com News". 2004.com/world/Forty-arrested-in-new-39fake39.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini.6. 124 (6): 903–15. http://aje.23/.

^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. 1S45-50. ^ Mayo Clinic. Masamitsu Ichihashi. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. p. N U : Budiyanto. s. T : Ueda. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto.06-6328com. ^ Ferrara LA.tchain. 38. ^ Machowetz A. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. ^ Romero C. ^ http://www. (January 2005). Vol. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". ssp.net/ . 19.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. JDermatol-Sci. et al. Pagnol.html. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. Etienne N. pp.org 31. doi:10. Suppl. PMID 10737284. No.1.v. PMID 17263460. ^ Rosenblum. but cites no source." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. 37. d'Episcopo L. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1021/jf0630217. http://www. http://www. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". p. 21.61. ^ "www. ^ Pagnol. 23. s. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". 55 (3): 680–6. Vol.xml. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. Osamu Nikaido. Catherine Breton. ^ [2] Ichihashi.". "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. Olea europaea L. 19 November 2007 30. ^ Turner R.co. Marotta T.html". et al. 1: Prevent Cancer. Carcinogenesis.uk/portal/main. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. 10. Gruendel S.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2.28. Ahmed.ama-assn. doi:10. 45. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". T. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". Israel".com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". André Bervillé.tchain. Vargas J.75. 2000. Toshinori Bito. A : Wu. De Castro A (February 2007). 2000. (January 2007). Use Olive Oil. doi:10.. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. 21 (1): 45–52. Nazim U. Raimondi AS. PMID 15830923. ". ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. A : Bito. 2085-2090. M : Ahmed.crazychefs.Telegraph". Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. 35. 19. Mar. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842.1024/0300-9831. Poulsen HE.com http://www.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. Brenes M. Dello Russo A. Guida L. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). 44. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. Toshihiko Osawa. Nov. (27 March 2000). M : Osawa. J Agric Food Chem. 11. 39. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". 29. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. ^ Ehud Galili et al.telegraph. p. "New Year's Resolution No. ^ a b Davidson. Masato Ueda.v. Medina E. Faseb J. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). 43. Olives 41. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". PMID 17110467. ^ "Quite Interesting . 34.videojug.1096/fj. "olive" and "oil" 40. An Wu. ^ Guillaume Besnarda.. Alonso MG.

^ Nigel M.htm. Verstraete and V.reshafim. C. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed.net/ .ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95.46. 2001. http://www.org. ^ "www.htm.crazychefs. 47.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. 2005 49. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Scanlon. Harrington Park Press. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". ^ F. Riley.htm".R.il/ad/egypt/texts/sinuhe. Kennell. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland.com http://www. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. pp119–33 50. Processing methods. B. ed.youngmuslims. http://www. Provencal. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe".youngmuslims.). ^ Thomas F. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West.

or hay-like fragrance. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. Saffron. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. A C. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles.crazychefs. sativus flower bears three stigmas. crocin. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight.net/ .[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform.com http://www. ən] / [ˈsæf. each the distal end of a carpel.Saffron Saffron crocus C. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. Saffron has further medicinal applications.[4][5] A carotenoid dye.

[11] Upon flowering. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C.crazychefs. Only in October.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. as was once generally believed. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. Being sterile.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. in Central Asia.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ).8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.net/ .5 centimetres (1.2 in) in length. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. A corm survives for one season. It is a sterile triploid form. In autumn. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. purple buds appear.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. which means "yellow." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. and replanted. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height.com http://www. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve.98–1. broken apart.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. must be dug up. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants.

Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. they fare poorly in shady conditions. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. Greek. loose. where hot.[16] Furthermore. Moroccan. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere).000–1.035 oz) of dry saffron threads.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops.crazychefs.8–5. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. leaf rusts.com http://www. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. and birds. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. Nematodes..[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier.e. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. and corm rot pose other threats. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. low-density. maximizing sun exposure.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer.9 in) deep. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. are critical factors affecting yields. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i.net/ . though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5.500 mm (39–59 in). where annual rainfall averages 1. in concert with climate. Planting depth and corm spacing. rats. well-watered.

including zeaxanthin. and various α.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. It also has many nonvolatile active components. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.8-diapo-8.net/ .2 oz of dried saffron).[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.11 gr) of dried saffron.0. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. a product results that is itself water-soluble.and β-carotenes.8-carotenoic acid). This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin. lycopene. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. and thus oil-soluble.[19] Meanwhile.crazychefs. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes. However.[19] many of which are carotenoids.com http://www.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.

0 6.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0 6.0 12.0–1.0 9.0 2.0 11.0 10.0 1.0–8.0–15.0 1.0 8.5 40.0 6.net/ .0 0.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.com http://www.crazychefs.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0–13.5 10.0 3.0 6.0–7.0 1.0 4.0 12.0–14.

and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. dried hay like". Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.6.[18] Safranal. Significantly.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. combined with enzymatic action.4. incidentally.6.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.net/ . 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.Fiber (crude) 5. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. Santorini.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. the heat.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4. a volatile oil. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1.6.crazychefs.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. p.com http://www.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 Source: Goyns 1999.6-trimethyl-2. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.3-diene-1. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. When saffron is dried after its harvest. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri.

where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. mascaras.000 years. Thus. townspeople in Rhodes. There.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. sativus. and medical treatments.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3. ointments. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. colic. physicians in Gaza. and scabies.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.[28][29] Later.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments.net/ . documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4.[33] potpourris. cartwrightianus. cough. C.crazychefs. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. In late Hellenistic Egypt. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. and in the mithridatium. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. divine offerings. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia.com http://www.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Since then.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. a sterile mutant form of C. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas.

the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. saffron threads were woven into textiles. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.com http://www. rice.Asia The 17.[39][40] Later. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac.crazychefs.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia.net/ . a Chinese medical expert. or jackfruit. medicines. At such sites.[44] During his Asian campaigns.[42] ritually offered to divinities. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict.[53] On the other hand. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. For example.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.[44] From there. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. perfumes. and body washes. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. Isfahan. Wan Zhen.[51] However.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. dating to 978–993 AD. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia.[43] Thus. a less expensive dye. and baths as a curative for battle wounds.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. and used in dyes. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.

The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War".[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel.[58] Soon after. France. coffee. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania.[62] By 1730. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. did significant cultivation endure. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. under which saffron adulterators were fined. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain.net/ . which grew prosperous. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. named for its new specialty crop. imprisoned.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg.saffron is in Kashmir. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. tea. and executed.[59][60] Only in southern France. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. Italy. In Europe. However. and Italy.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall.com http://www. and then the saffron is obtained. indeed.crazychefs.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. It can be used to aromatise wine.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. The Essex town of Saffron Walden." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. and Spain."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts.

particularly in China and India. Turkish.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. Pennsylvania. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods.net/ . noodles. and in perfumery. European. Indian. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). and antioxidantlike properties. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. and Cornish cuisines.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. Medicinally. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. Arab.com http://www. Central Asian. and chicken or trout dishes. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing).[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. immunomodulating.

Greece. India. England.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. and aroma.550 per kilogram). Azerbaijan.crazychefs.000 threads. Spain's varieties.100/€1. flavour. Morocco. in decreasing order of production. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. A pound of dry saffron requires 50.[5] Iran.200/£1.com http://www. they are graded by government-imposed standards. In Western countries. and Italy. Annually.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). elasticity. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. slight moistness. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. and other countries. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad.000 flowers.000 per pound (US$1.[2] A pound comprises between 70.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. Spain.000–75. Aside from these. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.500/€7. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.net/ . the average retail price is $1. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India.000 and 200.000 flowers. For example. Switzerland. the United States. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.500 per kilogram. are the major producers of saffron. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide.100–11. Vivid crimson colouring.000-170. France. are generally mellower in colour.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.

It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. shape. and safranal (fragrance) content. and safranal content.net/ . picrocrocin. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. There. near L'Aquila. aroma. and crop failures in Kashmir.com http://www. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour).79 in). But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. blights.crazychefs. combined with an Indian export ban. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. Sardinia. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. contribute to its high prices. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. Repeated droughts. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. for quality and quantity. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. among the world's darkest. unusually pungent aroma.S. In the U. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). picrocrocin (taste).some organically grown. it also has very high crocin. is in San Gavino Monreale. and colourative effect..

[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. in India. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages.com http://www.crazychefs. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. pliability. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. and thus a greater colourative intensity. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. III. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. pomegranate fibers. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0).national standards bodies. traders.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. aroma. with turmeric. red-dyed silk fibers. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. However. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters.[77] However. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. II. many growers. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. and other powders used as diluting fillers. and I (finest quality).net/ . these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I).[80] Thus. paprika. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. and consumers reject such lab test numbers.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

23. 272. 2. 2–3. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 24. p. pp. 8. 13. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. stigma extracts and their constituents. p. p. 15. p. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ Harper 2001. 2. Kansai. 21. p. in mice. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 287. ^ Kumar V (2006). p. 20. www. http://books. p. ^ a b c Hill 2004. ^ a b c d Deo 2003.cababstractsplus. p.com http://www. 18. 53. 3–4. ^ M.net/ . 4. 3. p. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. pp. ^ a b McGee 2004. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 7.asp?AcNo=20043148643. Retrieved 2008-03-02. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Grigg 1974.org/google/abstract.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). 1. 103.com/books?id=AaTpWEIlgNwC. 19. ^ Deo 2003. 6. 9. http://www.cababstractsplus. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. 1. 5. ^ Rau 1969. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. Honshū.org. 12. ^ McGee 2004. 17. Grilli Caiola . 422.Saffron reproductive biology 11.google. 16. 1. 3. p.". 3. p. pp. ^ Willard 2001. 423. Sterling. ^ a b Deo 2003. crocin and safranal. ^ Dharmananda 2005. ^ DPIWE 2005. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. 4. p. 22. ^ a b Deo 2003. p. 4. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 14. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10.crazychefs. 3.

crazychefs. 1. p. 50. 1. 44. p. 27. 54. ^ Honan 2004. 55. ^ McGee 2004. 138. p. 142–146. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Dalby 2002. Loeb Classical Library Edition. 2. p. ^ Ferrence 2004. ^ Rau 1969. 95. p. 67. ^ a b Willard 2001.au/AnnualReports/ACEVS%20Report%202007. 30 AD.au/news/acevs%20saffron. p. ^ Willard 2001. 37. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. ^ Honan 2004. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. ^ Willard 2001. 422. p. 32. 30. p. 128. 17–18.net/ . 56. pp. 66. 31. 62. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. de Medicina. pp. ^ Willard 2001. 2–3. ^ Willard 2001. 28. ^ Willard 2001. 41. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53.25. p. 48.iovs. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Willard 2001. 256. ^ Willard 2001. 45. 273. 68. p. ^ Dalby 2003. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. Victoria (30 December 2002). 35. ^ Dalby 2002. 46. 11. 41. 99. p. ^ Chang. p. 138. ^ Willard 2001. 12. ^ Willard 2001. 224. 61. pp. 36. 2. ^ Willard 2001. p. 60. pp. 55. p. 52. 117. pp. 6. p. ^ Willard 2001. 59. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. 1. p. 132–133. 101. p. ^ Willard 2001. p. Random House. 103–104. 20. ^ Fletcher 2005. p. 73. ^ Deo 2003. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Willard 2001. p. 47. ^ Willard 2001. pp. ^ http://www. 41. 54–55. 1935 [1] 38. 58. 72. 2. ^ Finlay. 70. p. p. 39. 42. 29. p.vision. 34. transl. p. 35. p. ^ Lak 1998b. ^ http://www. Kuo & Wang 1964. ca. 65. ^ Celsus. ^ a b c Willard 2001. 51. p. 58.org/cgi/content/abstract/49/3/1254 69.edu. 26. p. 57. 143. ^ Hill 2004. p. ^ Hayes 2001.pdf 70. 49. 1. pp. 59. p. ^ Humphries 1998. pp. p. 138–139. 33. 63. 43. ^ Willard 2001. 64. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. 1. ^ Willard 2001. 40. p. 133. 63.pdf 71.com http://www. ^ Goyns 1999.edu. ^ http://vision. p. 34–35.

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barc.gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b.usda. 2006. JB (2005). Willard. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. <http://www.html>.html>. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991).tarvandsaffron. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". P (2001). Retrieved on January 10. 2006. SR (1969). ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). Time Life Education. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. K (2003). <http://books. Pearce.crazychefs. Retrieved on January 10.google. Beacon Press.google. 2006.com/classification. 2006.com http://www.tarvandsaffron. 2006. <http://www. Cancer Letters 57 (2).pl. Retrieved on January 10. <http://books. PMID 2025883 Park.htm>. Tarvand Saffron Company. Scribner. New Scientist.000. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen.com/irish/saffron. Rau. H (2004). Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. Reconstructing History.com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>.newscientist. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. <http://www.com/saffron. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity".cfm?chemic al_id=140>. <http://www. "What is Saffron?". The Cooking of India. Tarvand Saffron Company. Tarvand (2005b). "Saffron". Nair. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). Retrieved on January 10. SC.com/channel/earth/mg18524831. 2006.net/ . Retrieved on January 10. "Grading and Classification".reconstructinghistory. F (2005).McGann. USDA Phytochemical Database.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>. McGee. 2006[dead link].".htm>.

Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea.net/ . Dead Sea. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L.com http://www. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.crazychefs.

but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted.[9]. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. Its fruit. Asia and parts of Africa. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea.5 cm long. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. It is short and squat. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. Theophrastus. referring to their wooden material. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. the olive.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. olives. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. by a spring. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. The small white flowers.net/ . native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. endives. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. from Lebanon.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. the olive suckers readily from the stump.crazychefs. Though. are borne generally on the last year's wood.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature.[1] and in the Iliad. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. they were reverently preserved for centuries. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). In Homer's Odyssey."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide.com http://www.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea.(XVII. called xoana. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. ca 170 AD. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean."[7] indeed. two stamens and bifid stigma. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years.

compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees.net/ . and its cultivation began in Mexico.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over.com http://www. in both the New and Old Testaments.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. wisdom. the olive has been the symbol of peace. Today. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. play an important role in the Bible. Peru. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. and then in the 18th century in California. The Book of Jacob 5. but he makes clear (in 1. As emblems of benediction and purification.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. Over the years. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. the pits give rise to thorny. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. for which the Greeks had a separate name. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. As far back as 3000 BC. in On the Nature of Plants. For example. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. spread far and wide by birds. olives were grown commercially in Crete.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries.crazychefs. Chile and Argentina. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. glory and peace . indeed. glory. The olive tree itself.16. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. as well as olive oil and olives. fertility. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. Theophrastus. and one of the most significant.[12] After the 16th century. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. power and pureness. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago.The leafy branches of the olive tree .[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. kotinos. wild-type olives.

was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated.[16] An olive tree in west Athens.net/ .000 years old. One olive tree in Bar. drought-. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). has been calculated to be about 1. claimed to be over 2. which is made into top quality olive oil. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed.com http://www. Istria in Croatia. disease. The older an olive tree is.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. named "Plato's Olive Tree".600 years old. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis.crazychefs. Montenegro.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. and can live for very long. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically.and fire-resistant. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. The age of an olive tree in Crete.

Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. Italy. and the olive fruit. both in Galilee region. see Olive (fruit). and. According to a recent scientific survey.net/ . called the "Peisistratos Tree". 1600-2000 years old. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. All seven trees continue to produce olives. a few other millenary trees can be admired. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. though showing a preference for the coast. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. In the same natural garden. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil.2. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. have been determined to be over 3000 years old.6 km) as the limit. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia.com http://www. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel.crazychefs. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies.400 years ago. Modern experience does not always confirm this. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. A supposedly even older tree.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. Specifically. olive leaf. fine wood.

has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. Niger. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. such as South Africa. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp.crazychefs.com http://www. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. the Mediterranean Basin. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. Chile. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. laperrinei (Algeria. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. northwest Africa) where winters are mild.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics.net/ . Olive plantation in Andalucia. Israel. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). Sudan. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. Argentina. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. Australia. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source.

net/ .crazychefs.com http://www.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ .com http://www.crazychefs. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.

It is used mostly for oils. but only a few are grown to a large extent. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . rounded-oval fruit. 'Manzanilla'.200. anchovies. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. in southern Spain.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. grown around the world. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. originating in Dos Hermanas. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. 'Bosana'. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. Rich taste and thick pulp. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. a large. The olive grove of Amfissa.crazychefs.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. stuffed (with pickled pimento. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. often after being pitted. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. with purple-green skin. Seville. which consists of 1. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive.com http://www. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. A prolific bearer. In recent times.net/ .Cailletier cultivar.

black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. 'Arbequina'. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. round. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. 'Nabali'. The flavour is mild and nutty. 'Kalamata'. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. 'Hojiblanca'. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. medium size. The olive is medium sized. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. good for eating and for oil. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. even on clay if well drained. originating in the south of France (Aude département). These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany.[23] 'Barnea'. Greece.crazychefs. It is mainly used for oil. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. It is used both for oil and for table olives. 'Picual'. They are green. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. disease-resistant. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. large. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). Spain. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. a small. originating in Toledo. another modern Israeli.com http://www. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. Due to their highly valued flavour.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. and elongated. originating from the southern Peloponese. Moreover. named after the city of Kalamata.[21] 'Koroneiki'. 'Cornicabra'. good for eating and for oil. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. brown olive grown in Catalonia. though difficult to cultivate.net/ . a large. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. originating in the province of Córdoba. They are black and generally used for table consumption. This small olive. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. and elongated. and coastal climate conditions. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. 'Souri'. It has a strong but sweet flavour. used as a table olive. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. They grow in any light soil. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. which. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. It is green. Spain. Spain. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. 'Empeltre'. originating in the south of France. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. Their flavour is mild and nutty. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour.

it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. They tolerate drought well. 114). large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. In Greece. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. P. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. removing fruit from the tree. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. soon vegetate. which form small swellings on the stems. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. and can remain productive for as long. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. but the time varies in each country. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season.crazychefs. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. as in Languedoc and Provence. to facilitate germination. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. embryonic buds. up to several centuries. the trees are regularly pruned. This method is used for olives used for oil. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. and with the season and the cultivar. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter.com http://www. it is valued by woodworkers. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. the oliviera. Olives are propagated in various ways. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. Occasionally. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. In southern Europe. More specifically. However. In some places in Italy and Greece. Another method uses an electric tool.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit.net/ . harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. Olives grow very slowly. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution.poorer soil. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit.) Olives like hot weather. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. being very hard and close-grained. A. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. In Italy. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized.

g. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. which is why they taste milder than green olives. As a result. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. a bitter carbohydrate.net/ . 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. Olives can be used green.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. which leads to a superior finished product. which is healthy for future production. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. Typical yields are 1. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. The olives are soaked in water to wash. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. or green with hints of colour). the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. the fruit is not bruised. Fresh are often sold at markets. After some weeks. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife.crazychefs. then drained. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. which is a natural preservative. the creation of lactic acid. through to full purple black ripeness.5-2. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. The method also involves sawing off branches. large fruit (e.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. which can be eaten fresh..com http://www.2 kg of oil per tree per year.

an unnatural method. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. their main predators are wasps.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. Lye-curing. feta. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. olive oil. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. especially to young trees. spices. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. leaving sawtooth damage. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. lemon zest.crazychefs. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. lemon juice. Popular flavourings are herbs.com http://www. of which the water is changed daily. Pests.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. juniper berries and anchovies. oleae[27]. vinegar. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor.net/ . capsicum (pimento). Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. Cycloconium oleaginum. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. Sometimes.6 to 8.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. In France and north-central Italy. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. The ten largest producing countries. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. or removing the pit and stuffing them. A species of bacterium. chili. wine. and weather A fungus. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. causing great damage to plantations. olives suffer occasionally from frost. diseases. but can be left to cure for up to three months. induces tumour growth in the shoots. garlic cloves. salt-curing. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape.

1992. 2. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.13.000 318..000 594.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.7 27. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens. 4. ^ ".317.000 8.5.000 998.000 280. Bibliotheke.3 20. 1 ).6 31. 5.339 300. p.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.149. Ancient Greek Agriculture.000 250. book 5".crazychefs. On the Causes of Plants. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.988 500. 81. Odyssey. 27.8 16.089 6.500. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees." (Diodorus Siculus. ^ Homer. 4. 82. 3. most notably South Australia.000 49. and was the first to instruct men in these matters. 1.9 6. 5. 7.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.888 178.5 63. 38. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.800.597. 1).100 3. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants. 4.3 8. to make bee-hives.. 3. An introduction.400." (Herodotus. ^ Theophrastus.000 550.300..4 30. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.5 6.14.160.000 20..140.064 2.000 430.000 1.830 2.981 1. ^ Pausanias.000 470. and to cultivate olive-trees.1 25.[31] References 1. Description of Greece 1.1).com http://www. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.000 1.net/ .5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.000 275.0 3.000 498.685 765. 6.

A. ^ Muncipality Bar. EspasaCalpe S.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. 27. N. 23. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine".com/content/dlb533pw9cbwc59e/. me cichorea levesque malvae. http://www. pp 110–113. John Hutton. 69. R. 1779.crazychefs. ^ [1] 21. Ellen. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. ca 30 BC 9. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. ^ "Old Olive Tree". Apps3. vol. http://www.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. 28.org/wiews/olive/intro. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. Australian Olives.279 18.8. J. ^ Lumaret.W. Number 4). ^ Gooch. p. Rackham. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. nov. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. 30. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil".net/ . ^ O. nom.aspx?PageID=151. 24. Riley (2002). Moody. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp.pasoroblesolivefestival. Bacteriol. Y. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.com/study. ^ Burr. Madrid. cited in F. 13. Syst. M. ^ Fotiadi.. Processing methods. Odes 1. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. 105. Tabak & O. & Parker.31. http://apps3. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. ^ Balfour. (1999) Ancient Trees. Epikouria Magazine. Kislew. J. rev.jsp. Cavagnaro P. Masuelli. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Brijuni National Park.A. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina"... R. Leshonenu (Hebrew). Pseudomonas syringae subsp. p.. Spring/Summer 2006 26. 29 April. 1981." Horace. 1999. ^ a b M. Fall/Spring (2005) 12..com/ 25. AGRISCIENTA.springerlink. ^ Lewington. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. 2004". Int.htm.hr/Home.15. Retrieved 2007-08-31.fao. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. 32:166–169. 35. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. ^ "FAO.zatoun. 17. J. & Ouazzani. 1982. Epikouria Magazine. Zatoun. 29. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. Retrieved 2009-05-18.org. Volume 15. 4th edition.brijuni. Retrieved 2007-08-31. J. Retrieved 2007-03-10. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. ^ http://www.com http://www. Available through Google Books 11. Elena "Unusual Olives". D. op. Volume 18:27-35 20. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.fao. http://www. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. 1996. ^ Riley. ^ Janse. 2001. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. (September 2002). E. Juárez. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". ^ Belaj et al. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares.cit. M Bauza & R. Simhoni.

net/ . The leaves are lanceolate. however. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. and south to northern Mexico. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. (French tarragon. glossy green. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. with slender branched stems. western North America.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. L.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. with an entire margin. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall.31.crazychefs.com http://www. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L.R." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. Corresponding to its species name. seldom produces flowers.

but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food.crazychefs. Russia and Ukraine. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen.[1] Russian tarragon (A. by extension. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. Persian and Russian word for . it normally goes dormant in winter.[1] However. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. It is normally purchased as a plant. sunny spot. which is the Armenian. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. without excessive watering. A perennial.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. Fresh. Georgia and. but cannot be grown from seed.com http://www. dracunculoides L.[1] It likes a hot.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. fish and egg dishes. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն.net/ . The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. due to the presence of estragole. Spreading plant can be divided easily. and particularly suitable for chicken. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin.

crazychefs. Stuckey. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Maggie (2002). Workman Publishing. ^ Gatfield IL. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring.Cis-Pellitorin. 3. Wiley-VCH. Johannes Panten (2006). 2. Horst. The Bountiful Container. Foerstner J. ISBN 9783527607891. Rose Marie Nichols. Machinek A. ^ Surburg. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. Properties and Uses. Krammer G.com http://www. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. pp. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. ^ a b c d McGee.net/ .[3] In Slovenia. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ley JP. 233. References 1.

sage has a slight peppery flavor.crazychefs. In the Balkans and the Middle East. Lamiaceae. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. In Western cooking. cheeses (Sage Derby). Garden sage. Purple sage. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. it is used when roasting mutton. and blue to purplish flowers.net/ . grayish leaves. with woody stems. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. and some drinks. Dalmatian sage.com http://www. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. In the United States. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). Britain and Flanders. though other species. Broadleaf sage. Common sage. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. Kitchen sage. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. In French cuisine. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub.Salvia officinalis (Sage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. Culinary sage. It is a member of the mint family.

antibiotic. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate.more trichomes are visible on this side. means ―to heal". borneol. ursolic acid.com http://www.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . and thujone. chlorogenic acid.trichomes are visible. and estrogenic substances. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. salvia. antifungal. flavonoid glycosides. fumaric acid. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. oleic acid.crazychefs. hypoglycemic. astringent. antispasmodic. The underside of a sage leaf . nicotinamide. estrogenic. The Latin name for sage. which contains cineole. niacin. and tonic. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. flavones. cornsole.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. ursonic acid. cornsolic acid. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic.net/ .[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. caffeic acid.[1] In a double blind.

increasing women's fertility.com/nutri/page8453. ^ a b c "Sage". and for other uses. 'Extrakta'.1046/j. 'Alba'. PMID 12605619. Pliny.com http://www. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic.php. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. a white-flowered cultivar. doi:10.crazychefs. a local anesthetic for the skin. hemostatic. especially in sunny dry environments. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague.x. a cultivar with large leaves. http://www.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. Noroozian M.2003. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. Jamshidi AH. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. Retrieved 2008-02-04. Dioscorides. Ohadinia S. Mohammadi M. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. a purple-leafed cultivar. snakebites. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. 2. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages.appliedhealth. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. and tonic. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). and for low ground cover.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". (2003). ^ Akhondzadeh S. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. 'Lavandulaefolia'. yellow and green variegated leaves.00463.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. References 1. a styptic. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. 'Icterina'. emmenagogue. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. OBeWise Nutriceutica.1365-2710. a small leaved cultivar. a cultivar with white.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. Khani M. Applied Health. 'Tricolor'.[4] It was sometimes called S. and more. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. and used as a diuretic.net/ . a wild undershrub he called sphakos. 'Berggarten'. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans.

CRC Press.net/ .crazychefs. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. pp.com http://www.3. p. Spiridon E. 4. Sage: The Genus Salvia. Deni Bown (New York: DK. ISBN 9789058230058. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. 10-11. (2000). ^ a b Kintzios.

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