Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. As a rule of http://www. In some Levantine countries.a little less if it is ground.crazychefs. cuttings. Spanish. in a bouquet garni). does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. while flavourful. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). Libyan. and of herbes de Provence.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Greek. fresh thyme is often available year-round. Depending on how it is used in a dish. Lebanese. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. and in those derived from them. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. It tolerates drought well. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. assume that it means fresh. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. Syrian. soups and stews. Dried. It can be propagated by seed. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. Italian.g. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. the whole sprig may be used (e. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. storage life is rarely more than a week. Leaves are often chopped. Portuguese. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. which is due to its content of thymol. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. Thyme. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. Albanian. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. Persian. and Turkish cuisines. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. or by the sprig.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain .[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. tomatoes and eggs. While summer-seasonal. In French cuisine. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh.

as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 http://www. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. The dried equivalent is 1:3. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. it was used to medicate bandages.[6] Thymol.[5] As with bay. hybrid T. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover.crazychefs. pulegioides × T.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. tisane. etc. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. is the main active ingredient in Listerine . but is grown as a ground cover. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. an antiseptic. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. It also has medicinal uses. All thyme species are nectar sources. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. Because it is antiseptic. salve.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice.

crazychefs. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing . good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Variegated lemon thyme. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used http://www. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing.

Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.crazychefs.

1 mg Folate (Vit.9 g . European.1 mg 6. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb. often used as spice. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.8 g http://www. although parsley has a milder . It is common in Middle Eastern.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B2) 0.3 g 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .0 μg Calcium 138.2 mg Magnesium 50. B3) 1. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. and American cooking.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.1 mg recommendations for adults.Dietary fiber 3.crazychefs. B1) 0.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.Sugars 0.0 mg Phosphorus 58.0 mg Iron 6.

com http://www. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. While parsley is biennial. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. not blooming until its second year. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. Like many other umbellifers.crazychefs.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. it attracts predatory insects. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tuberosum). Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. However. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in . like flat leaf parsley or chervil. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. which then tend to protect plants nearby. which helps accommodate the long taproot. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. it is not related to real turnips. or flat leaf (P. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. used in soups and stews. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. For example. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". neapolitanum). Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. reducing pest attraction. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. Although little known in Britain and the United States. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish.

In addition. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. leaf. or 4900. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. parsley is part of bouquet garni.g. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor.".crazychefs.drugs. Jett. Last retrieved April 26. http://www. lamb or goose.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. http://www. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European . In Southern and Central http://www. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. root. Goulash or Chicken paprikash).70% by mass.[3] Parsley is high (1. 4. and lemon zest. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). and sauces. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. "That Devilish Parsley. [1]) in oxalic acid. steaks. fried chicken." West Virginia University Extension Service. 2. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. References 1. Parsley as an oil. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. Ossobuco alla milanese. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken". a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. "Parsley on plucodes. garlic.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. 2007. with fish. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3.plucodes.html. a mixture of parsley. ^ a b c John W. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally.aspx?id=1075&s=4.

Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .crazychefs.

14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.crazychefs. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O.

growing to 20-80 cm tall. It is the leaves that are used in cooking.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . native to Europe. Greek. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. produced in erect spikes. O vulgare gracile. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. each with distinct flavours. capers. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. The flowers are purple. of the mint family. and grilled meat. It is a perennial herb. as well as cultivars. and lovage leaves. e.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. 3-4 mm long.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the . fried vegetables. which is popular in southern Italy.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary http://www. Unlike most Italian herbs. and to add a nice. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. spicy flavor. Oregano is an important culinary herb. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. Together with basil.crazychefs. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.g. Oregano growing in a field.

16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. differs significantly in taste. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. heracleoticum ( http://www. It varies in intensity. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. which.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. The influence of climate. Asia Minor) and O. In Turkish Cuisine. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. West Asia) have similar flavors. however. it can be usually found on table. together with paprika.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. It has an aromatic. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory . warm and slightly bitter taste. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. salt and pepper. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. Oregano growing in a pot. useful for relieving children's coughs. especially for mutton and lambs meat. In the Philippines. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. Balkan peninsula.[5][6] Additionally. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor.

fungal infections. ^ Organic Gardening 2. this substitution would not work the other way round.crazychefs. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Aqueous extracts. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano.Main constituents include carvacrol. diaphoretic. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. capsules. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. http://www. thymol. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. In the Philippines. expectorant. Plectranthus amboinicus. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. cholagogue. stomach upsets. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. Used topically. .at/~katzer/engl/Orig_vul. also called Cuban oregano. emmenagogue. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. especially in the United States. which simply referred to "an acrid herb".[7] and painful menstruation. carminative. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. mild fevers. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. A Cretan oregano (O.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). indigestion. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. but is usually stronger.[8] Hippocrates.uni-graz. Lippia berlandieri. stimulant. limonene. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language.[12] References 1. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. and caryophyllene. antispasmodic. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον.html. including Poliomintha longiflora. ^ http://www. enteric parasites. influenza. stomachic and mildly tonic. ocimene. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". Coleus aromaticus). Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. the father of medicine. useful for relieving children's coughs. .org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286. 53 (21): 8162–8168.3. et al. J Nutr. ( June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum PMID 12730411. 11. University of the West of England.2008.php. Fall/Winter 2007 10. http://www. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".medicalnewstoday. Medical News Today. http://www. 6. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project".1021/jf0510079. Retrieved 2008-11-26. (01 May 2003). Leonor. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. J. Food Chem. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. June 2008. et al.uwe.10. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9.". http://info. 133 (5): 1286–1290.dmannose. ^ Epikouria Magazine.nutrition.) and Origanum vulgare L. 28. Retrieved 200811-26. 12. ^ Dragland.crazychefs.asp?item=1374&year=2008. ^ Epikouria Magazine. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. ^ a b Faleiro. (2005). draft revision for "organum". doi:10. Fall/Spring 2007 5. March 2009. http://jn. draft revision for "origanum". "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". Agric. PMID 16218659. Draft revision for "oregano". 24 November 2008. ^ ["http://www.

Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. In Ancient Greek. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. Ferula communis. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. it was from the giant fennel. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. however. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods.[2] In Greek mythology. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal http://www. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).crazychefs. it seems. recorded in the 10th century. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. perennial. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. meaning "hay". that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. umbelliferous herb. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. It is a hardy. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the . Also.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists).

5 mm wide. and grows to heights of up to 2.20 g 1.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. glaucous green.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.01 mg 7. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. about 0. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike).net/ . B3) 0. but thinner.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.29 g 0. with hollow stems.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. It is erect.Dietary fiber http://www.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.5 m. and grooved. they are finely dissected.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb.047 mg Folate (Vit. half as wide or less. bulb.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. B2) 0. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.crazychefs. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long.

crazychefs. It is of cultivated origin. for its edible. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant.20 mg Manganese 0. though usually not as strong. including northern Europe. it is often mislabelled as "anise". Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. and in other open sites in many regions. It propagates well by seed. vulgare http://www. which is also known by several other names. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a .[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. the United States. both raw and cooked. but is more aromatic and sweeter. by the late 19th century. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. "bronze-leaved" fennel. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. F.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. notably the Italian name finocchio. in pastures.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. syn. In North American supermarkets.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. both in its native range and elsewhere. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type.

Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. though smaller. both raw and cooked. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye http://www. which are very similar in taste and appearance.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. but also the most expensive. It may be blanched or marinated. badesoppu in Kannada. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or cooked in risotto. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. fish. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. and risottos. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. For cooking.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. salads. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. anise-flavoured spice.Fennel. brown or green in colour when fresh. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. The bulb is a crisp. or eaten raw. sompu in Telugu. often tossed with chicory and avocado. grilled. mouri in Bengali. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener.crazychefs. pastas. foliage. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. where bulbs and fronds are used. in side dishes. variyali in Gujarati. Many egg. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. braised. green seeds are optimal. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. .

is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. Fennel tea. also employed as a carminative. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. This use. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. as it is said to improve eyesight.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. or its polymers. which can explain some of its medical effects: it.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. act as phytoestrogens. sometimes with some sweetener.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding http://www. although not supported by direct evidence. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension.[12] For . Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. used to ease flatulence in infants.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress.crazychefs. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration.

crazychefs. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which promote growth of breast tissue. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic . fennel and coriander.[17] However. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. followed by India. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. badian (star anise). Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. Fennel is also largely used for cattle http://www.

native to Sri Lanka. In Farsi (Persian). Hindi. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. it is known as "DalChini ( )". itself ultimately from Phoenician.crazychefs. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. it is called "Darchini" ( ). It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them.[3] In Sri Lanka. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . it is called darchin (‫.[5] In Malayalam. In Bengali. the "real' cassia.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or . In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. synonym C. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra.C. In Telugu.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. cinnamon is known as kurundu. Ceylon. and in Gujarati taj. Chakka meaning bark or wood.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Urdu. it is called Dalchina http://www.[2] In Marathi. which are often called cinnamon too. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. in the original Sinhala. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫.

Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of http://www.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. and in Song of Solomon. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus.crazychefs.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. aloe and cinnamon. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew .[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the . but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. in Proverbs. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[9] In Herodotus and other authors. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. although in the first century. The flowers. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. took control of the factories by 1640.crazychefs. However. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers.1 inches) long.Ages. p. "The shores of the island are full of it".[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. a Dutch captain reported.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. and used them to construct their nests. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. which are arranged in panicles. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 7–18 cm (2.8–49. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. in a letter of about 1292. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. have a greenish color. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. They established a trading post in 1638. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. and coffee." (Braudel 1984. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire.2 feet) tall. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. sugar. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of .75–7. tea. and have a distinct odor.

Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. eg. http://www. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. verum). Bangladesh. Sumatra. which is left to dry. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. the outer woody portion is removed. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka.[15] According to the FAO. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted . Vietnam. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. According to the International Herald Tribune. followed by China. and Vietnam. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. India. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. The next year. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. Java. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. Only the thin (0. Chips are trimmings of quills. the West Indies. and Egypt. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Brazil. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon.5 mm) inner bark is used. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. Madagascar.

Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). zeylanicum). or "Indonesian cinnamon".net/ . is generally a medium to light reddish brown.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. as all of the layers of bark are used. for http://www.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. using only the thin inner bark. and is considered to be less strong than cassia. However. less dense. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. has a finer. hard and woody in texture. the related species. many websites.crazychefs. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. and more crumbly texture. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia.[16] Ceylon cinnamon. "Vietnamese cinnamon". and thicker (2–3 mm thick).

It is used in the preparation of chocolate. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. used in a variety of thick soups. when whole. a deep-blue tint is produced.crazychefs. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. The two barks. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. hot cocoa. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). and liqueurs. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. macerating it in seawater. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. In the Middle East. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. and then quickly distilling the whole. are easily distinguished. drinks. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. especially apples. capable of damaging a spice or coffee . European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. and fruits. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is of a golden-yellow color. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. such as apple pie. ‫. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. and sweets. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. tea. True cinnamon. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. whereas cassia sticks are much http://www.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). especially in Mexico. but when cassia is present. In the United States. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. bread-based dishes.5% to 1% of its composition. rather than cassia.

cinnamyl acetate. luck.crazychefs. Encyclopaedia Britannica. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. and anethole. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. and methyl chavicol[citation needed].[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber http://www.and a very hot aromatic taste. love. linalool. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves).[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. cassia.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. beta-caryophyllene. ^ a b "Cinnamon". although it remains untested.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. In Hoodoo. who . In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. However.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds.0. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. cinnamaldehyde.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. 2008. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. few seem able to succeed. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. and money. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. and Myanmar (Burma). eugenol. The Cinnamon Challenge.[34] Notes 1. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. Sri Lanka (Ceylon).[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations.

53 (20): 7749–59. PMID 16190627.jstor. Anthea Bell. Col. ^ http://www.1021/ ^ http://news. ^ Harris. retrieved 2008-07-15 _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004.1021/jf050709v. ^ http://www. 2009. 4. p. http://www. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. _of_life/html/1.0. 53 (17): 6939–46. ^ [1] 16. ^ Shan B. Food Cinnamon. ^ http://www.htm. 23. 437 7. p. Sir James Emerson. Robert. p. retrieved 200705-01 21. J. Breyne) extracts". PMID 16104824.stm 3. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". ^ [2] 18. retrieved 200807-15 6. ^ "Cassia. revised ed.html. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. Mancini DA.htm 20. http://lakdiva. http://www.CO%3B2-N 15. "Solid. http://www. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14.henriettesherbal.nii. Nerín C (August 2005).fao. retrieved 2008-07-15 11.en. 437f. ^ Yule. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. 9. ^ Felter. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009. p. http://www. Food Chem. Cozzolino FF. . Sánchez C. ^ Tennent. ^ Mancini-Filho doi:10. ^ Toussaint-Samat 17. PMID 10077878. ^ The Epicentre. ^ Knox. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. 8. Agric. Encyclopedia of Spices. Batlle R. Cai YZ. http://www.— German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. 22.html. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Sun M. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Henry. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour.html#pg598.. Account of the Island of Ceylon. The History of Food. Van-Koiij A.html.npr. Cathay and the Way Thither. Corke H (October 2005).com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_June/ai_3289703 13.437. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. doi:10. Harvey. 437)." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. ^ ^ López P. Torres RP (December 1998). vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. ^ http://findarticles.2.

"Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". 28. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. 33. New York: Kodansha International. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. http://www. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study".php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. doi:10.. et al.1016/00219673(88)90035-0.3.php?featured_food=80. http://www.3.sciencedaily. Research: Thalido. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". ^ Yronwode. ^ Vanschoonbeek. 26. 27.diabetesjournals. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". Anderson RA (December 2003).com http://www. http://www. ^ Ranjbar. ground.24. http://www.26. Safdar M. Leslie. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". 30.1002/ptr. Khattak KN. doi:10. http://eprints. Eugen J. retrieved 200705-01 Retrieved 2007-12-17.htm. http://www. ^ "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000).113. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. Archer (1988). Kristof et al. Fernand (1984).redorbit.futuremedicine. Cinnamon.3215. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".net/ . retrieved 2007-12-12 31.utm.2337/diacare. retrieved 200705-01 32. a publication now in the public domain. Retrieved 2008-05-11. doi:10. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography".. http://care. Akram et al.. ^ Khan A. (2005) July 2000.lesliebeck. Charles (1998). Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8..html?source=r_health. Ali Khan MM. 34.1643. The Perspective of the World. http://www. Medicinal Seasonings.113. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206.luckymojo. www.2217/ The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2217/14750708. Retrieved 2008-05-11. Braudel. Muhammad et al. PMID 14633804.whfoods.1. Alan W.pdf. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde.sciencedaily. Retrieved 200805-11. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). Eleventh Edition. 29. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica.crazychefs. Retrieved ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007).com/releases/2004/07/040716081706. Cat. doi:10. Agricultural Research magazine. ^ George Mateljan Foundation.1. ^ [3]. ^ Verspohl. ^ s_have_been/index. Corn.

chopped. canned.M. and Allium asarense R. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. which it is not. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. Fritsch & Matin from Iran.crazychefs. frozen. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. it usually refers to Allium cepa."[3] Uses Onions. pickled. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. . one of the oldest vegetables. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. used without qualifiers. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. They are now available in fresh. and dehydrated forms. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. They are known by the common name "onion" but.Department of Export Agriculture. Onions can be used.

[5] However. at the same time that leeks and garlic were . Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions".com http://www. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. an onion can be sharp. transported and stored. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. Depending on the variety. In Bronze Age settlements. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. However. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. due to toxicity during digestion.[5] The onion is easily propagated.crazychefs. In ancient Greece. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. coughs. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. and also to relieve headaches. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. cats. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. snakebite and hair loss. spicy. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish.chopped or sliced. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. recent evidence has shown that dogs.

com http://www.4 mg Vitamin E .042 g .34 g 0. 0 μg 9.02 mg Vitamin K 0.013 g .monounsaturated 0.21 mg Magnesium 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B2) 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.Sugars 4.1 g 1.7 g Fat .116 mg Vitamin B6 0. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B3) 0.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.Dietary fiber 1.saturated 0.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.1 g 89.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.24 g .17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.polyunsaturated 0.crazychefs. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

In general. eleven times the amount found in Western White. Northern Red.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. Peruvian Sweet. Western Yellow. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. Texas 1015.[10] In many parts of the world. Texas 1015. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. Empire Sweet. diabetes. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. .[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. anticancer. anticholesterol. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. and antioxidant properties such as http://www. pungent yellow (New York Bold). Texas 1015. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. Mexico.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. Imperial Valley Sweet.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. followed by Western Yellow. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. However. Imperial Valley Sweet. and Vidalia. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. For all varieties of onions.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. Imperial Valley Sweet. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. and other diseases. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. Western White. Mexico. Western White. Peruvian Sweet. If you are allergic to onions. Peruvian Sweet.crazychefs. Northern Red. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. In the United States. Empire Sweet. Mexico. Shallots have the most phenols. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. Empire Sweet. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. and Vidalia.

shallots. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. all present in . as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. limiting the amount of gas generated. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. differs among Allium species. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). and bananas. it can lead to an allergic reaction. chives. where it binds to sensory neurons. cells are broken. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. garden lilies. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. garlic.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. therefore. diarrhea. leeks.crazychefs. 2008. On January 31. breathing difficulties.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. allylpropyldisulfide. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. Eye irritation can. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. creating a stinging sensation. allylmercaptan and allicin. and the irritation effect. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. http://www. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. As onions are sliced or eaten. mouth and throat ulcerations.include reactions to onions. ginger.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. The volume of sulfenic acids released.

Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. which have been developed in more recent times. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. the Welsh onion. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. more commonly today. which can be planted directly in the ground. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Allium fistulosum. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive.crazychefs. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. Finally. from sets started from seed the previous . "short-day" http://www. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

each of which forms a bulb.Produce bulblets in the flower head. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.500 China United States 3. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). a hybrid of Allium cepas. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.750 South Korea 1. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.793 India 5.149 Spain World Total .346 http://www.758 Russia 1. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.764 Pakistan 1. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.crazychefs.302 1. Oregon (USA).220 Turkey 1.637 Japan Egypt 1. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions. Vale. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba.The Onion Futures Act. passed in http://www. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.crazychefs. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United . It remains in effect as of 2009. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices.

Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. leek. commonly known as garlic.[1] A bulb of garlic. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and chive. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Medical .crazychefs. from William Woodville. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. known as garlic. It has a characteristic pungent. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. 1793. the most commonly used part of the plant. shallot. Its close relatives include the onion. Allium sativum. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes.

the so-called elephant garlic. They can suffer from pink root. The papery. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. with Russia (1.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allium . a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. with approximately 10. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. Garlic plants can be grown close together. India (4.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. stems (scape). is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. respectively. and Allium oleraceum. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. The cloves are used as seed. according to Zohary and Hopf. In North America.crazychefs. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. accounting for over 77% of world output. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. The leaves. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. Garlic is grown globally. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". It is called "Sudu Lunu" in http://www.[6] One of the best-known "garlics".[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. In cold climates. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum).[5] The "wild garlic". are common weeds in fields.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi.Yunnan province of China. for consumption (raw or cooked). "crow garlic". which grows wild in southwestern Asia. and for medicinal purposes. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense.

It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.crazychefs. C = calculated figure.000 221. the Middle East. A = aggregate (may include official. south Asia. or estimates). northern Africa. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. or ginger.686.4%). Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. including eastern Asia.400 140. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.000 128. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.000 645.000 142.000 125. P = official figure. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. http://www. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked .810 168. It is often paired with onion. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 254. California. southern Europe. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world".Alaska) in fifth place (1. and parts of South and Central America. tomato. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. F = FAO estimate.000 15.000 325. Southeast Asia.

and then stir-fried with eggs. and roast them in an oven. meats. is sweet and syrupy. United Kingdom and Australia. bruschetta. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. salt. In Japan and Korea. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an http://www. In eastern Europe. Scapes generally have a milder taste than . the resulting product. meat. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. They are also known as "garlic spears". These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. cleaned. or vegetables. oil. and a chunky base produce skordalia. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. "stems". Blending garlic. garlic toast. almond. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. breads and pasta. Immature scapes are tender and edible. or "tops". In some cuisine. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. and spices. and is now being sold in the United States. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia.crazychefs. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. crostini and canapé. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. Garlic. The leaves are cut. called black garlic. oil.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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deterring animals like birds. However. werewolves. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. garlic could be worn.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. thus mellowing its spiciness. making garlic much more potent than onions.[51] To ward off vampires. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. It is carried to the lungs and the http://www. chives. and worms from eating the plant. hung in windows. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. Among the members of the onion family. forming allyl methyl sulfide. . This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. included in many garlic recipes.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. allylmercaptan and allicin. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. and bananas. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. or leeks. such as pistou. where it is excreted. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. therefore. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. shallots.[50] In Europe. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. including onions. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide.crazychefs. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. and vampires. all present in garlic. persillade. shallots. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. leeks. garlic. and release of AMS several hours more. When eaten in quantity.[48] Due to its strong odor. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. The herb is. insects. Humans. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). ginger. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. allylpropyldisulfide. however. Since digestion takes several hours. garden cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. usually enjoy these sensations.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking.

Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. indicated Muhammad. bleeding.In Daoism . which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. and diarrhea. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. saquinavir. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). and no FDA-approved study has been performed. antihypertensives.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. Garlic can thin the blood.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Editing help is available. sweating. similar to the effect of aspirin. dizziness. minimal risks to normal individuals. calcium channel blockers.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin.crazychefs. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. if any exist. antiplatelets. nausea. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. However. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. emesis.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. are largely unknown. antiparasitic value of garlic. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. and menstrual irregularities. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily http://www. if appropriate. allergic reactions. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. as well as other medications.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. and hypoglycemic drugs. You can help by converting this article to prose. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque".[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. at worst.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. indigestion. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth.

topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. p. 112 7. 397 6. third edition (Oxford: University Press. ^ http://www. J. ^ http://www. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. Ethiopia". et al.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23) .html 8. In particular. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. ^ McGee p. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium http://www. 3. garlick)". including burns to children. ^ a b c d Tabor.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. A bulb of garlic. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. Retrieved 2007-08-28. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.jhortscib. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting.natural-holistic-health.nj.htm. topical use of raw garlic.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various 9.handle. 197 5. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. ^ a b Lee. Domestication of plants in the Old bigger. 4. (2004). http://www.crazychefs.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. http://hdl. one the bulbs will grow Notes 1. Retrieved 5 June. is discouraged. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. split. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. G. 2. et al. Retrieved 5 June[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. 2000). (2005). maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L.unigraz.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection".

N.S. July 1. doi:10. doi:10. Kavutcu M. Yin MC. Intern. 15 (6): 373–7.1002/mnfr.. ^ a b Steiner M. et al (November 2007).1001/archinte. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". Ramacciato. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. ^ Charlson M.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). A. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition.01. 34. 2005 ^ Groppo. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. http://archinte. R. Intern. ^ Kojuri J. 104 (46): 17977–82. Better Nutrition. (p. Paul B.. 32. doi:10. doi:10. Oztürk HS. Lawson LD. 30. 17. 28. Mills RW. ^ Goodbye. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. Daryn (2003).167.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux.). 15. 27.jnutbio.C. et al (June 2004).1001/archinte. Lin RS (June 1998). 35. Hyg. 11. 20. Motta. doi:10. Facts. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. doi:10. http://personalpages. 14. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7.10. doi:10. Capasso R. 23.325. and Mary U. 167 (4): 325– . 33.ama-assn. Arch. PMID 17918162.167. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). Ferraresi. [2] ^ Hamel. Accessed: December 54 | P a g e http://www. Chao WJ (March 2007). 5:109–115. 167 (4): 346–53. A Modern Herbal. Med.lehoux/Tropes. Sci. 16. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". 12. ^ Chan KC.200700072. PMID 17123684.4. PMID 17951430. Squadrito GL. http://archinte. Sova P (May 2004). Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". McFerren M (February 2007). "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. F. Maud. 31. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". J. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. J. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. Acad." Int. 18.manchester. PMID 2291748. 24. doi:10. PMID 17966136. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. PMID 17328819. PMID 15157944. Izzo AA (November 2007). Vosoughi AR. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Arch. 29. 22. U. 5. "Tropes. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". Sylva. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. Güven C (2002). P. PMID 17325291. ^ Benavides GA. Block E.346.200700058. et al (February 2007).A. 21. J. PMID 9641475. Garlic. ^ Borrelli F. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. and Empiricism" (PDF). Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Dent..4.1186/1476-511X-6-5. Akrami M (March 2007). (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". (Mrs.A 400 Year History.005. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". Sept 1996 ^ Garlic .ama-assn.1073/pnas. Aytaç Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. PMID 15277094. ^ Durak I. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".1162/106361403773062678. Sartoratto. 2006. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol".. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado.0705710104.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". PMID 15218732. Biochem. ^ Mader FH (October 1990).crazychefs. doi:10. ^ Durak I. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. ^ Gardner CD. PMID 17325296.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. Olcay E. 26. 25. Natl. 13. Herald Publishing Co. Med.

Castro C.elsevier. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. Passa O. Microbiology (Reading. 53. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. 39. "Garlic burns". ^ Shuford JA. Retrieved December 7. Matuura H. ^ Lemar KM.pdf. Aon MA. 49 (1): 473. Nishino H. James. PMID 8644128. Book 65 57.html 54. 120.html Kominato Y. NLM Gateway. Imafuku M. Toxicol. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. garlic advisory 63. Shishido C. http://linkinghub. 049 . Houghton Mifflin. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions.1.January 29. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. 41. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". Burns 27 (7): 781– ^ http://www. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. 211 51. In Search of Dracula..Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60.1099/mic. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".ukmi. H. Retrieved 2007-0707. ^ Alnaqeeb MA.unito.473. PMID 11600262. ^ John S. 2007.. Complementary Medicines PMID 16207909. http://mic. http://www. PMID 40. ^ Garlic . http://joi.go.. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). Chesson C.jst. Ronen M (November 2001). http://linkinghub. 49. Long D.sgmjournals.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.) 62.blogspot. ^ Health Canada . UK Medicines Information. ^ a b c d Hogg. ^ Kodera Y.asm. Lett. David (2003).jst.0. 38...html 45. National Health Service. ^ http://washokufood. http://www.". ^ Macpherson et al. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats". Sagi A. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. et al (October 2005).uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. "Garlic burns". doi:10. Nishimura S. Thomson M. Slattery M.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65. p. on mutagenesis.Vol 9 No. (1991-08-01). Teel R. 85 (3): 157–64.28095-0.2005. doi:10. a stress compound from garlic.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. 43. ^ Fareed G. "Allixin. Scolaro M. Raymond T (1994). Jordan W. Pickering p. ^ Oi Y. ^ Pickering.economicexpert. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. http://aac. PMID 11481410. PMID ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L..JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. Jennifer (2002-12-13). Ali M (June 1996). 4 .com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582. ^ a b McNally. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Lau B. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS ^ http://lem.crazychefs.36. Sterling Publishing. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". PMC: 538912. W. (1989-01-30).net/ . 1988.49. Engl. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. Iwai K. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. Fuwa T.nhs. Summer 2005 . Volume 7.htm 44. "Effect of allixin. Yoffe B. Antimicrob. Sumida T. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. ^ Baruchin AM.elsevier. section "Conclusion" 48. Bordia T. Patel R (January 2005). ^ http://www.. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection.goldbamboo.1128/AAC. 310–311 47. ^ Bukhari. Retrieved December 7. 37. 2007. ^ McNally p. ISBN 0-30436561-0. 42. p. 211. Itakura Y. Yoshida S. ^ Macpherson et al. (2001).com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic. 66.Garlic-in-Oil 61.". 52.go. Steckelberg JM. 65. ^ McGee p. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. Sanders N. Agents Chemother.

(2004). Shafir. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. Kamenetsky. PMID 8441577. Jiro Yoshida. [4] Lawson. Breithaupt-Grögler K. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Kozue Ogasawara. Lawson. 354-363 (2002).elsevier.Garlic. Jain AK. L. Zhang. K. Med. Ling M. 405-407 (2002).. E. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. L. Andy (2004). Vargas R. Makoto Ichikawa. PMID 9355906. Koch. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. (1985). H. Barzilay. "Garlic burns". Yukihiro Kodera. S. Z. M. Vol. Block. ISBN 0-683-18147-5... E.. Gardner. H. Balch. Lloyd. (1996).References Japanese garlic. Chem. A. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Williams & Wilkens. Campbell GR. J..にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Hort. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. L. Block. Lemar. L. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. J. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. Soc. Chem. 50. Gotzkowsky S. PMID 9247357. R. Selfsufficientish .. Vol. D. Garlic. Simmons DL.. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono.. 50. PMID 8506890. Hamilton. 3rd ed. Am. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry.. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. McMahon FG (June 1993). R. Bull.P.. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. Naoki Kashimoto. A. 'Kyolic'. Rabinowitch (2004).. A. Zemah.M. Garty BZ (March 1993). Block.crazychefs. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". Shan. J.. Susumu Yoshida. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. 129: 144–151. Retrieved 1 May 2005.. H. Wang. D. E. E. M. A. New York: Avery. C. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis.. Am. . Masanori Ayabe. Sci. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖.-Z. P.[青森県産]. Hile. Belz GG (October 1997). Chatterjee. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. http://circ.. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. D. Pharm. http://linkinghub. The chemistry of garlic and onions. (2000). 94 (6): 632–5. (1992). Balise. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. http://www. L. and H. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Efendy JL. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". C. Campbell JH (July 1997). Boudoulas H. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Isao Sumioka. D. (2001). Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. D. I. Block. G.ahajournals. Kiazand. and Related Species (Second Edition). R. Naoto Uda. Z. Pharm. Bull.

S. McGee.crazychefs. Y-Y.wkhealth. Harold (2004). et al. Patel R (January 2005). Geierstanger. Steckelberg JM. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 49 (1): 473. Neil A (1994). http://aac. 31 (6): 904–8. et al. PMID 2291748. 310– . Eid.2005.S. Agents Chemother. Shuford JA. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".com/pt/pt-core/templatejournal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage. PMID 9641475. PMID 15616341. (eds). Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4.. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. D. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. Abstract. Y-Y. Pharmacol. Marcel Dekker. Leeks". PMID 8169881. Lin RS (June 1998). Yeh. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Scribner. Yeh. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Michael Bandell.asm.1. pp. Kadam. SunWook Hwang. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. (1999).htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. Macpherson.. H. doi:10. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". et al. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". Antimicrob.Lindsey J.1128/AAC. "The Onion Family: Onions.12. Salunkhe. PMC: 538912. http://meta. Cardiovasc. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). In: Ohigashi.. Veena Viswanath. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis".com http://www. (1998). Silagy C. Mader FH (October 1990). Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.473.49. Steiner M.K. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34.. Garlic. Samer R. Bernhard H. (1997).

and consist of a long calyx. after which they develop into a bright red. terminating in four spreading . and Sri Lanka.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. Madagascar. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu.5-2 cm long. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. syn. when they are ready for http://www. In Vietnam. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia.crazychefs. Pakistan. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. Cloves are harvested when 1. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. Zanzibar. it is called đinh hương.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S.

it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. During Christmas. warm and aromatic. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee.[1] In north Indian cuisine. Cloves are used as a carminative. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is . Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. but with the addition of other spices). along with other spices. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house.crazychefs. especially for digestive problems. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. they are used http://www. In Vietnamese cuisine. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. In south Indian cuisine. but as they are extremely strong. which sells Djarum Black. cloves are often used to season pho broth. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. often in combination with cumin. entering the kidney. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor").Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. Cloves are used in cheeses. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis.000 tonnes). where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. it is used in almost all dishes. spleen and stomach meridians. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India.

were highly prized in Roman times. Brazil.P.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. Makian. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. along with nutmeg and pepper. In the late fifteenth century. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. This is also found in Tibetan . It is also used in severe burns. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. Khalsa. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. and Zanzibar.[6] History Until modern times. including Bacan. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. http://www. RH (AHG).[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. Ayurvedic herbalist K. pimples etc. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death.[7] Cloves. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. including cloves.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku stomach qi downward. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan).[5] In West Africa. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). Ternate. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. most of the West Indies.[7] Nevertheless. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. vomiting and diarrhea. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi.crazychefs. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. and Tidore. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. Moti.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. including for multiple sclerosis. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. mainly from the Maluku Islands. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe.

Jack (2004). 2. ^ http://oneearthherbs. Erich Stoger. gallotannic acid. Prescription for Nutritional Healing.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. due to the high price of importing them. 94. John Wiley and Sons Inc. ^ a b Turner. 8.nih. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. 3rd ed. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". the flavonoids eugenin. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.nlm. Steven Clavey. and several sesquiterpenes. crategolic acid. ©2000. .In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ^ Balch. ^ Dorenburg. pg. Third Edition by Dan Avery Publishing. and Andrew Gamble. Alan. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. comprising 72-90%.[8] Notes and references 1. tannins. Steven Clavey. Phyllis and Balch. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. Vintage Books.squarespace. Karen. xv. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. ^ "TibetMed Medicine Plus. Erich Stoger. Spice: The History of a Temptation.html National Institutes of Health.. Special Diets for Illness 6. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. rhamnetin. ^ http://www. and eugenitin. 5.html Tilotson.htm. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. methyl salicylate (painkiller). 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.tibetmed. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. James. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. pp.crazychefs. kaempferol. Andrew and Page.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". stigmasterol and http://www. ©2003.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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com/BZ-shuju/standshow. 3.crazychefs. while Lederer et al.2004-0058. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. ^ Louisa[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -.Botanical nomenclature".3. f. Retrieved 8 June 2009. 6. 4. f.1542/peds. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . http://www. NPR.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. PMID Ines et al.1021/jf058156b. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species.atypon-link.2005.chinaios. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". ^ International Organization for Standardization. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. et al. Retrieved 8 June 2009. doi:10. (2005).a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1.5555/ .com http://www. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角".htm?csnumber =4844. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (2006).88. ^ Joshi. Retrieved 8 June 2009. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. 5. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". http://www. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. ^ International Organization for Standardization.iso.iso. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. ^ Lederer. http://www.Specification".) -. Retrieved 10 November. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". 18 May 2009 2. http://www.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. Vaishali C.

Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. native from the east Mediterranean to East http://www.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ . pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.

maduru. cumin is known as ziran (孜然).[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. cumin is known as zireh. In Northern India and Nepal. in Iran and Central Asia. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the story goes.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. locally called "Kermun". The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. longitudinally ridged.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in http://www. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. parsley and dill. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. Kerman. in Turkey. being oblong in shape. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. in northwestern China. In Arabic. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. and yellow-brown in colour. Cumin seeds resemble caraway . The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand.crazychefs. a member of the parsley family. Like many other Arabic words in the English language.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. including kamūnu in Akkadian. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. cumin is known as kimyon. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ .

Turkey. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. Mexico. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). when added to hot milk and consumed. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. In Sri http://www. today it is mostly grown in Iran. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Egypt. India. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. .crazychefs. and Chile. In South Asia. Syria.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. Tajikistan. and this practice continues in Morocco. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). Seeds. Uzbekistan. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour.

Cuban. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. thread-like leaflets. Middle Eastern. Sri Lankan. Today. but are smaller and darker in colour. garam masala.crazychefs. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. curry powder. enchiladas. white or pink. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). either ground or as whole seeds. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. . containing a single seed. Pakistani. pinnate or bipinnate. curries. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. It is traditionally added to http://www. popular in Indian. and in some traditional breads from France. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. and is found in achiote blends. and bahaarat. and borne in umbels. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. Contrary to popular belief in the US. Northern Mexican cuisines. and other Middle-Eastern. The flowers are small. It is an herbaceous annual plant. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. tacos. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. Indian. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. sofrito. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. adobos. North African. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings.

However.27 g 17.81 g 8. it is drought-tolerant. It is grown from seed. hot summer of 3–4 months. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. B3) 4.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . and needs fertile.33 mg Vitamin K 5.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit.Dietary fiber 10. 64 μg 44. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.25 g . sown in spring. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.crazychefs. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.7 mg Vitamin E 3.Sugars 2. well-drained soil.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.saturated 1. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).net/ .com http://www.5 g Fat .24 g 22.435 mg Folate (Vit. B2) 0.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cultivation of cumin requires a long.very common in Mexican cuisine. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.

crazychefs. as in 'kot' . from the Swedish word "spisa". in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. lighter in colour. In Swedish. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. to http://www. In Polish the difference is even less .8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. For example. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. Not related to curcumin.a cat and 'kotek' . while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin".). cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste.Zinc 4.v. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day.a small cat). a chemical found in turmeric. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). 2000.1021/jf0487351. third edition (Oxford: University Press. Essential Oils". ^ Growingtaste. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . 206 5.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry.foodreference.arsgrin. doi:10. ^ a b Iacobellis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Domestication of plants in the Old 7. ^ "KMN. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). Retrieved 2008-03-13. 9. Lu et al.030.313.aca. 8. http://www.1016/j.2009.05. (2009). doi:10. et al. p. Nicola . and Carum carvi L. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. doi:10. ^ "Kamūnu. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum" American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 .com http://www. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.". ^ http://www.html 6." ^ a b Wang. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". 2000). 2. www. from China". whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. 4.crazychefs.77.1002/ffj.ars-grin. ^ a b c Li. (2005). http://www. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal .

with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. In laboratory animals. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name http://www. sedative. and citral) have also been identified. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. and galangal.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. cineol. or spice. medicine. shogaols and . the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. antipyretic and antibacterial properties.crazychefs.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. cardamom. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). West Africa and the Caribbean.

[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for http://www. In South India. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. particularly gingerols and shogaols. Ginger is also made into candy. in Gujarati. and ginger beer. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. Inji in Tamil. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Allam ( ) in Telugu. ginger ale. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. ghee. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many . Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. Alay in Marathi. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cookies. crackers and cake. Additionally. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. salt. and Aduwa in Nepali. [edit] Regional use In India. and sugar. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant.crazychefs. which makes swallowing easier. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. or frozen for longer term storage. stimulating the production of saliva. enchi in Malayalam. in Tamil Nadu. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. Adrak. especially in the Tanjore belt. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. and tender green chili peppers. nuts. For storage. to which honey is often added. Ginger has a sialagogue action.

com http://www. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. In the traditional Korean kimchi. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. during their occupation of the islands. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. In Western cuisine. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. In Burma. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. However. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. In Arabic. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the Caribbean. is made. In the Ivory Coast. In Vietnam. and a variety of nuts and seeds. ginger is called gyin. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. a type of ginger beer. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. On the island of . The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. Greece. gingerbread. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. France. ginger snaps. In Japan.crazychefs. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). and making drinks such as sorrel. parkin and ginger biscuits. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. In China. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle.

morning sickness and chemotherapy.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. though studies been inconsistent. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United . though it does interact with some medications. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. which several scientific studies support.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. cough and cold. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are http://www.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. including warfarin.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

In the United States. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. bloating. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. In India.crazychefs. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. people use ginger for making tea. gas.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. which is considered a panacea. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. in food etc. reducing "winds" in the blood. and heart rhythms. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. In Burma. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. In China.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . belching and http://www. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. ginger can cause heartburn. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage.[14] In Congo.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. particularly if taken in powdered form. clotting. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. and although it's generally recognized as safe. and individuals who have had ulcers.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. it is considered good for a sore throat. In Indonesia. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits.

but this generally reduces its value. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy . washing and scraping gives white ginger. now leads in global production of ginger. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates.5%). in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. which has slipped to the second position (~20. replacing China. Production trends India.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. produces black ginger. with over 30% of the global http://www. Nepal(~11. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420.crazychefs.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 F 177.7%). or washed and scraped.000 158. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming.5%) and Nigeria(~10%).Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. it is immediately scalded. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. Traditionally. Scalding. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. followed by Indonesia(~12.

is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine.ars-grin. F = FAO estimate. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is used in cooking and medicine. A = Aggregate(may include official. galangal. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".387. http://www. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. a carcinogenic compound. is also known as "wild ginger".000 8. semiofficial or estimates). the flower buds are the part eaten. Also referred to as galangal.arsgrin. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family.000 34. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.000 57. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. Asarum 42. Retrieved 2008-03-03.270 1.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. and its root has similar aromatic properties. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). but it is not related to true ginger. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine.000 28.contains ginger material References 1.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . Galangal is also called Thai ginger.crazychefs. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . .pl?

com 7. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153.cfm?displayID=15. Retrieved 2006-09-06.amaassn. Retrieved 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mary. & Pittler. doi:10. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". (2006). ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01).org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". Susan (2007-01-15). ^ Ernst.01. MD. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. http://www. 13.html.ucla. 8.library. 3.013. Sheng-Chu Kuo. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660– 5. 10. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. Retrieved 2007-08-02. http://archfami. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). 6. Kathi Kemper. Zainab M. . ^ Al-Amin. ^ Afshari. Kim Farrell.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25).crazychefs.foodchem. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". et al.1021/jf071460f. "Beverage of Champions". http://www. M.7. "Ginger".edu/biomed/spice/index. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390– PMID 9821826. MD. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. ^ Chen. Tin-Yun Ho. http://timeblog. Ali Taghizadeh et al. MPH (1998). "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. & (01 Mar 2000). 14. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. Retrieved 2007-08-02.6. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Antoine.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. 4.uspharmacist.523. ^ Jakes.mayoclinic.umm. David Kiefer. Harold (2004). Shih-Lu Wu. Retrieved 5 November. doi:10. doi:10.). ^ Al-Achi. 425-426. ^ MD O' 12.2006. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). (2007). "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats".html. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".1001/archfami. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. E. ^ McGee. "A Current Look at Ginger Use".1016/ http://www. New York: Scribner pp. http://www. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. 11. 9. 15. Jaw-Chyun. http://bja. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". http://journals.H. Li-Jiau Huang. Retrieved 2007-08-06.cambridge.oxfordjournals. PMID 10793599.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. Retrieved

Erode. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.crazychefs. In medieval Europe. For these reasons. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. slightly bitter. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. Zingiberaceae. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in http://www. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. for dyeing. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil . The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. and to impart color to mustard condiments. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season.

Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. rendang. or Textile City. dairy products. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. and mustard.crazychefs. cereals. cake icings. etc. but also in masak . The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. yellow cakes. Over-coloring. relishes. ice http://www. and many more.Yellow City. much like ginger. sweets. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. turmeric is also used fresh. not only in curry. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. biscuits. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. Turmeric City. powdered form.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. sauces.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). custardlike yellow color. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes.[citation needed] Sangli. such as in pickles. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. yogurt. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. gelatins. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. In non-South Asian recipes. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. Although usually used in its dried. popcorn color. orange juice. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia.

Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. are spiced with turmeric. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. Japan. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. a traditional dish in South Asia. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards.In combination with annatto (E160b). Indians. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate http://www. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). an uncurable and debilitating disease. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. Within one week of using turmeric.crazychefs. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. burns and bruises. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. It is unknown why it works. yogurt. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary . It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. winter butter and margarine. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent.[4] cancer. is also treated with turmeric powder. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. and other digestive disorders.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. salad dressings. dry mixes.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa.

found in black pepper. and the U. which supports nerve growth. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations.S. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. research activity into curcumin is exploding.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. and colorectal cancer. improves the absorption of turmeric. John‘s Medical College. In 1998 researchers at St. Snake Bite Anti venin. multiple http://www. and Pakistan. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. with no adverse effects. or BDNF. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. Bangladesh. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. Bangalore. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. Alzheimer' .[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would.

In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. such as saris. and coconut and cooked in steam. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. However. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. This happens in economically lower situations. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. as a part of the marriage ritual. and it is used for power and purification rites. In southern India.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. particularly in North India and the Deccan . Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. During the south Indian festival Pongal. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. part of the Bengali wedding. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. http://www. jaggery.crazychefs.

Rajendran R.1016/j. ^ Chan. Joy D. E. 64(4):353-6.aolhealth. | accessyear = 2009}} Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. 75300.thieme-connect.ars-grin. 1998 May. 6. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN".uk/1/hi/health/ Shoba www. Notes 1. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ ^ http://www. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers.I. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. doi:10.5-dione. AOL Health. Planta Med. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. Joseph T. Majeed M. The systematic chemical name is (1E. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. keto and enol.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.6-heptadiene3.crazychefs. http://www. ^ [|Ketteler. Judy] (June 2009). Retrieved . 2. or Natural Yellow 3.foodchem.172.090. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". Retrieved June 2009.ars-grin. et al.C. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect.6E)-1. a polyphenol. Srinivas Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.2008. (2009). 5.

com http://www. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). flowers.9 in) long. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. also known as Candleberry. Euphorbiaceae. Indian walnut. hence its name. with an acute apex. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. The leaves are pale green.4 in) in diameter.6–2. 10–20 centimetres (3. simple and ovate. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. The nut is round. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana).9–7. 4–6 centimetres (1. which allows its use as a candle (see below). and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. Kemiri. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .) Willd.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content.crazychefs.

fevers. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. a varnish with the oil. is quite different. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. Outside of Southeast Asia. the nuts. are applied around the navel for costiveness. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. however. In Malaya. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. they are mildly toxic when raw. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. In Java. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. lit one end. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. pounded seeds. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. named kukui were burned to provide light. giving them greater underwater visibility. The flavor. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out.crazychefs. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian . the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. On the island of Java in Indonesia. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. including: leis from the shells. This led to their use as a measure of time. In Sumatra. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. leaves and flowers. In Hawaiʻi. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. burned with charcoal. swollen joints. and gonorrhea. as the candlenut is much more bitter. http://www.

Susan. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. http://books. Bess Press. 26. Finally. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. http://books. she was given new life. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). Plants in Hawaiian Culture. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. Betty. still . 5. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. (1993). p. Honda.crazychefs. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua' ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. and the husband was eventually killed. ^ "Kukui". Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. http://www. One of the legends told of a woman who.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. was routinely beaten. ISBN 9781573061377. pp. Being a kind and just woman. This larva is eaten by some people.[5] In Tonga. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. Lilinoe Andrews. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of tukilamulamu. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage).[citation needed] References 1. ISBN 9780824822514. 50-51. despite her best efforts to please her husband.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. Beatrice H.). p. 2. ripe nuts.html. Mikiala Ayau. ^ Krauss. ^ Dunford. Julie Stewart Williams (2002).com/kukui. In plantations. Liana I. protection and peace. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. 4. University of Hawaii Press. ^ Scott. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. "Chapter 4: Canoes". the god of agriculture. Craig Thomas (2000). Retrieved University of Hawaii Press. http://books. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the used as soap or shampoo. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil.

. dark red when fully mature.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. Malayalam:kurumulaku. . Konkani:miriya konu. unrelated plants. may be described as black pepper. The terms pink . cultivated for its fruit. . containing a single seed. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. red pepper (as in bell or chile). Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. and very often simply pepper. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning.crazychefs. Kannada:meNasu. Telugu:miriyam.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. green pepper. known as a peppercorn when dried. Peppercorns. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. The fruit. white pepper. . Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. http://www. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns.

often alongside table salt. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. White pepper consists of the seed only.S. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper.. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. Once dried. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. and the naked seed is http://www. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. French . this was shortened to pep.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. Dutch peper. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. in the early 20th century. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. chemical or biological methods.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting.crazychefs. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor.[4] In the U. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. and other similar forms. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. with the skin of the pepper removed. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. the spice is called black peppercorn. In the 16th century. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. including decortication. wrinkled black layer.

[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Schinus http://www. also green. Pickled peppercorns. largely unknown in the West. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. Schinus molle. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. particularly Thai cuisine.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and .crazychefs. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. like black. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. Fresh. which is mostly no longer an issue. the Peruvian pepper tree. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. unpreserved green pepper berries. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. made from the largest. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. green.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). from Bangka Island. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. are used in some Asian cuisines. is made from the unripe berries. with a bright aroma.Black. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying.

net/ . The leaves are alternate. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. entire. Competing plants are cleared away. if allowed to ripen. moist. It is a spreading vine.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years.crazychefs. poles. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. The cuttings are usually cultivars. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. but when full grown and still hard. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. the berries lose pungency. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the http://www. selected both for yield and quality of fruit.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. and ultimately fall off and are lost. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. or trellises. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum.[11] Black pepper is native to India. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. The flowers are small. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. and before the fruit is mature. well-drained and rich in organic matter. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground.

in what is now the state of Kerala. the dried fruit of closely related Piper http://www.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long . Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. Chile peppers.crazychefs. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today.[14] J.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. its most important source was India. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly the Malabar Coast. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. In fact. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined.

Trade routes of the time were by land. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. or used the pepper locally. Sunda. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. Long pepper. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. probably made black pepper less popular at the time.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. the Middle East. Returning from India. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. Sumatra. this trade advantage. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. but these areas traded mainly with China. By the 16th century. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. growing in the north-western part of India.Until well after the Middle Ages.crazychefs. Black pepper. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. barged to Alexandria. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. Madagascar. changed the course of world history. nor how it reached the Nile from India. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient . pepper was also being grown in Java. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. Malaysia.

black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. I wonder. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow.H. and of black. who travelled east to India. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control.[22] In addition. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper .[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. especially Venice and . 12. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. After the fall of Rome." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. is fifteen denarii per pound. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. if expensive. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. seasoning in the Roman Empire.. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the prices reflected it. it is sometimes their sweetness. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. I season delicacies. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. Edward Gibbon wrote.crazychefs. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. pepper was a luxury item. Once into the Mediterranean.. seeing that in other substances which we use. clad in a wrinkled cover. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Apicius' De re coquinaria.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. There is no evidence to support this claim. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. whereas. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. four. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery".com http://www.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". Similarly. while that of white pepper is seven. affordable only to the wealthy. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. and the luxuries of the table. the banquets of kings. first the Persians and then the Arabs. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne.

In the 17th century. Pepper harvested for the European trader. However. his representative replied. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. "we seek Christians and . the effect is small. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. In 1498. especially in winter. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. has some antimicrobial properties.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. and salt-cured meats were common fare. as well as around Africa. Today. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. A depiction of Calicut. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for http://www. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas.crazychefs. Pepper. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come.compound that gives pepper its spiciness.

China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. hernia. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". Like many eastern spices.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. Long pepper. gangrene. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. diarrhea. indigestion. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). including long pepper. earache. was often the preferred . It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. each load being equal to 223 lbs. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. oral abscesses. however. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". lung disease. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. but if this estimated 10. but both were used. joint pain. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. insomnia. as well as she could for http://www. being stronger. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. insect bites.crazychefs. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda.000 pounds (4. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". either long or black. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. liver problems. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation.[25] In the 3rd century CE. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. heart disease.. Note the cook's pepper mill.. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. hoarseness.[26] By the 12th century. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful.

beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. a mildly carcinogenic compound. and linalool. which give citrusy. which is stripped of the fruit layer. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. causing the sneezing. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines.sunburn.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems.[31] . and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. irritates the nostrils. sabinene.crazychefs. if any. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. chapter five. Some sources say that piperine. and toothaches. limonene. The outer fruit layer. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. and floral notes. woody.[31] As a medicine. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Refined piperine. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any http://www. a substance present in black pepper. caryophyllene. left on black pepper. Few. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. vitamin B. milligram-for-milligram. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. tooth decay. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium.

Malaysia (8%). and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. India. for example. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. Thailand (4%). and China (6%). sometimes instead of pepper shakers. As of 2008. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to http://www.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. India (19%). but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). dispensers of pre-ground pepper. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. Sri Lanka (6%).000 t (299.000 short tons). are used for this. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation.[35] By weight. Brazil (13%). The price of pepper can be volatile.000 t (391.crazychefs. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders").000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. by monetary value. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than . pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998.[33] Once ground. the most widely traded spice in the world. but has fallen to just over 271.

200803-27. Using fresh green peppercorns.ars-grin. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well.000 short tons). 12.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. from Penzey's Spices. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. Retrieved 2008-03-02. Egyptian Pharaoh.thehindubusinessline. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. Retrieved 12 August 2006. http://www. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". 2006-1120. 10. Gernot (2006). doi:10. 5. ISBN 075653836X. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. Retrieved 6 November 2005. PMID 11302858. Black pepper is marica. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. 20.000 t (99. Retrieved 17 October 2006. Pepper. Retrieved 6 November 2005.pd http://www. Retrieved 13 November 2005.da.arsgrin. ISBN 0375407219. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares.2307/2657072. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. ^ Katzer. 2. Spice. p. http://www. 13.[36] Notes 1969). 7. Innes Miller.efloras.M1. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ Innes Retrieved 6 November 2005. http://www. ^ J. 93. http://www. ^ a b Jaramillo. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. The Spice Trade. 17. Retrieved 2009-01-29. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. ^ Ochef. p. Retrieved 19.crazychefs. 3. Alejandra (2001). ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). The Hindu Business line. 83 21. 8. disease and weather. Flora of China. Random House. The Philippine Department of Agriculture.htm. www. M. 18. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN".poor crop management. ^ Translation from Turner. and 14. ^ Dalby p. 11. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". ^ Peppercorns. http://www. Text online. Warrior. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). 80 16.amjbot. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. 88. p 94. Compass Point Books. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus".com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. using almost none of its production domestically. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. 4. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 p. Ramses II. Vietnam dominates the export market.

Larousse ds/IndiaSpices. ^ H.worldbank. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). "Spices. Prosper (2001). http://www. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.. D. ISBN 0521367085. J. 23. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). ^ Dalby p. Dorman and S. G. 204. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. ^ a b James A. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . Retrieved 2008-01-29. ^ Montagne. Andrew (2002). "Mill". http://www. Karvy Comtrade Limited. 395. . 156. purchase required. ^ Dalby pp. TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. 12. ISBN 0520236742.1365-2672. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. ^ Turner p. ISBN 0600-60235-4. 25. 2005. ISBN 0849336201. 33. 108–109. Retrieved 2008-01-29. ^ U. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. ^ Jaffee p. 74–75. ^ Dalby p. ISBN 9781580084178. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils" s_20080515_01. Alan (2002).crazychefs. 10. Berkeley: University of California Press. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. Full text at Blackwell website.pdf.2000. 29. Steven (2004). 726. Cambridge University Press. References Dalby. ^ Jaffee p. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). Davidson. pp. Jaffee. OCLC 47231315 50747863 p. 35. http://siteresources. 26. Hamlyn.html. Why does pepper make you sneeze?.S. ^ Turner p. 27.1046/j. 2008-05-15. 160.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". table 36. 34. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. 32.pdf. 28. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". Buddhist Monastic Code II.ch05. CRC Press. Duke (1993-08-16). 31. 428. p. 77.00969. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji http://www. ^ a b McGee p. 2. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. Deans (2000). Retrieved 2009-01-29. http://books. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant.22." 24. Retrieved November http://books. 171. doi:10. also Turner pp. Vol. Dangerous

McGee. OCLC 61213802. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 427–429. "Black Pepper and Relatives". yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Scribner.crazychefs. London: Vintage . On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). OCLC 56590708. Harold (2004). http://www. Spice: The History of a Temptation. Jack (2004). Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. ISBN 0375707050. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Turner. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L.

Dietary fiber 1. including red. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.224 mg Folate (Vit. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries.crazychefs.17 g 0.64 g 0. green and orange.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.Sugars 2. B1) 0.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0. Today. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.057 mg 4.Pepper. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for . B3) 0. sweet.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. B2) 0.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Central America and northern South America. yellow.40 g . Peppers are native to Mexico.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.

"groene paprika". which has its roots in the word for pepper. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. "Miris" is Chilli. At that time peppercorns. "red pepper". In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". meaning Bulgarian pepper. In the United States and Canada. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. " In Japan. were a highly prized condiment. In parts of Ohio. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. respectively). bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. India. like pasta. regardless of their color. With the similar meaning. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which are green and yellow. g. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. It's widely used in a variety of http://www. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. in Dutch. the word ピーマン ("pîman. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". whereas パプリカ ("papurika. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. In France it is called "poivron". they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country.crazychefs. In Norway. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. meaning Big pepper.. In British English. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. Sweden. the fruit of Piper nigrum. Malaysia and New Zealand. It is eaten with fried noodles.g. Grilled. meaning pepper-fruit. Across Europe. instead of using as a spice. the term "paprika". such as Australia. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled').net/ . "green pepper"). they are called "capsicum". although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. Indiana. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". or "piment. "gele paprika". rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. When cut off. an unrelated plant. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. and Pennsylvania.

In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". red. yellow. in salads. black and brown. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. in various soups and stews. It is eaten as a raw snack. violet. more rarely. pink.crazychefs. rainbow. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. . yellow or orange peppers. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. blue. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. aqua. Varieties The color can be green. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. maroon. orange and. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. purple.

also known as http://www. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita.crazychefs.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint .com/html/ . Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. ^ http://www. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).foodreference. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. balsamea Willd.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. indigenous to Europe. The plant. [1]) is a hybrid mint.

The flowers are purple.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. it is usually sterile. square in cross section. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. fleshy. blunt spikes. noted since 1843[8].5–4 cm (0. including stream sides and drainage ditches.59–1.31 in) long.5 in) long and 1.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. 84. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. dark green with reddish veins. he treated it as a species. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. 6–8 mm (0.24– 0. Flowering is from mid to late summer. Being a .com http://www. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively.crazychefs. and 120 recorded. If placed.6–3.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. and bare fibrous roots. with a few exceptions. 72. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. spreading by its rhizomes. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with smooth stems. it can grow anywhere.20 in) diameter.6 in) cm broad. with 2n counts of 66. forming thick. The chromosome number is variable. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0.

Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. thus promoting . compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. and is often used as a flavouring in tea.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery.1. and toothpaste.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. ice cream. chewing gum. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and http://www. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content.crazychefs. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. confectionery.[10] Similarly. particularly menthyl acetate.

and it is considered invasive in Australia. it is advisable to plant it in a container. Stems reddish.crazychefs. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. Leaves wrinkled. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. [16]. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases.[13] and in the United http://www. New Zealand. [21]. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. which they then call "after-dinner mints.[12] Outside of its native range. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. as a natural insecticide. If you choose to grow peppermint. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. Leaves . In addition to that. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. Eau De Cologne Mint). Foliage lime-scented. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. [18]. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. hairless. the Galápagos Islands. It needs a good water supply. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. A mild.

com . New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. C.2007. doi:10. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. G. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial".who. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. ed.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. ^ World Health Organization. Mehmet (2004).dld.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. ^ Harley. In: Stace. http://whqlibdoc. M. 11. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.02. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. Retrieved 2009-02-07. C. M. 5..crazychefs. Mentha L. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. (1753). a popular confection..006. R. Retrieved 3 June 2009. page 640. 4th Edition. ISBN 978-1563636783 10. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. A.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 .pdf. 2. (1975). Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. et al. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". ed. 7. (2007). ^ Cappello.1016/j. ^ a b Blamey.. 6. ^ Linnaeus. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". Thomson Healthcare. (1992). ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. (1989). ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. C. ^ a b Akdogan. http://www. Flowers open from bottom up. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. 9.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'.glu. & Grey-Wilson.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . ^ a b

^ Adamovic. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 3 June. Retrieved 6 June 2009. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .htm?csnumber=11633.crazychefs.2740311104. 18..1023/A:1006185103897. doi:10. http://www.actahort. Retrieved 7 June 2009.257. et al.htm?csnumber=4844.10): 119 .28. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". ^ Akdogan. populations. Mehmet (2003). paraquat. Bienvenu (1998).iso.159. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e ^ Retrieved 7 June 2009. http://www. 22..actahort. 19.htm. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L.1071/AP99036. 26. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 .)".)". Retrieved 3 June.16. (2007).htm.224. doi:10. J. D. on kidney tissue in rats". http://www3. Australia". and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. Retrieved 6 June 2009. http://www. ^".S. Plant F. http://tih. ^ International Organization for Standardization. 21. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119. http://www. 25.. Zheljazkov.1002/jsfa. 27.E. http://www. Frédéric et al. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". ^ Akdogan.sagepub.sagepub. Retrieved 3 June. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . 17. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide.iso.sagepub. (2004). Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 . ^ a b c Jullien. Retrieved 8 June 2009. Derek R. ^ International Organization for Standardization. S. V.htm?csnumber=32041.. F. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. and Mentha spicata Mehmet et . Bienvenu (1999).com http://www. ^ Edwards. 24. ^ International Organization for Standardization.interscience. 23. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 .iso. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars.E.1151. http://het.219. http://het. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita Retrieved 3 June. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". 20. Valerie Howland (2006).org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. Ambika et al. doi:10.

is a vegetable which belongs. to the Alliaceae family.). the elephant garlic and kurrat. porrum (L. although different in their uses as food. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. along with the onion and garlic. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. ampeloprasum var. Two related vegetables. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum . porrum (L. Allium ampeloprasum http://www.crazychefs.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk.Gay The leek. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. also sometimes known as Allium porrum.) J.

Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna . to be planted out as weather permits. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended http://www. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. and overwintering leeks. leeks are hardy. Once established in the garden. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil.crazychefs.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. and they have few pest or disease problems. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. intended for harvest in the season when planted. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching).

It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with .Cuisine Leeks for sale.crazychefs. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. which turns it soft and mild in taste. as the leek ages. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. although less bitter than scallion. The tender core may be eaten. Lamb is the most popular. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). Fried. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. due to the layered structure of the leek. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. The onion-like layers form around a core. In its raw state. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. which can be used in salads. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and http://www. Raw. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. carrots and potatoes and different meats. along with leek soup. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. but. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

C.004 g .E. as well as other recipes with leeks. 83 μg 14.crazychefs. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.Sugars 3. B1) 0. who consumed it most often in soup.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.3 g 1. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.15 g http://www. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.9 g . led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.8 g Fat .166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.04 g .Dietary fiber 1.polyunsaturated 0.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.233 mg Folate (Vit. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.C.monounsaturated 0.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .net/ . as well as wall carvings and drawings.saturated 0. B3) 0.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B. In her book.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.E. B2) 0. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. onwards.

12 mg recommendations for adults. representing Wales. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. David‘s Day.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. good http://www. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. you .1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. According to one legend. In the play.Vitamin E 0. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. for example.crazychefs. Shakespeare.

Notes . ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Jane Grigson. 2000). 1978. ^ Guiliano. (Penguin Books. Knopf. Mireille. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. 3. third edition (Oxford: University http://www.. Domestication of plants in the Old World. French Women Don't Get Fat. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.

Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Sugars 2 g 3g . Celery.2 g 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium http://www. with fewer than 100 individuals left.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy .Dietary fibre 1.6 g Fat Protein Water 0. dulce) or celeriac (var. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable.crazychefs. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .

and small rodents. dogs. as celery salt. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. and carrots make up the French . either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. onions. such as chicken noodle soup. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. Celery. and in Old Bay Seasoning. Celery is a staple in many soups. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. 30 AD. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. birds. horses.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. celery is also grown for its seeds. often used as a base for sauces and soups. squirrels. on the Chicago-style hot dog. onions. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. Actually very small fruit. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs.In temperate countries. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine.crazychefs.

making avoiding such foods difficult.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. for people with celery allergy. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the ." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. they note "since A.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. at Kastanas. However. however. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. In Homer's Iliad. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. M. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace.crazychefs. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. foods that contain or may contain celery. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided.[8] In the European Union. have to be clearly marked as such. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking http://www. Lemnos and Thebes. even in trace amounts. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. father of the Cabeiri.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. Celery contains androstenone. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms.

commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. at our Great Mens . splits. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. In the past. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. due to extremely uniform crop growth. fields are harvested only once. 1. produced in dense compound umbels. The plants are raised from seed.. 2–3 mm diameter.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. and its seeds are those sold as a spice.5–2 mm long and wide. and Praetors feasts. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. shape. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. seleri.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. The flowers are creamy-white. many of which differ little from the wild species. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. sweetish. In North America.crazychefs. borrowed from http://www. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. apium Italicum.[14] With cultivation and blanching. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. but the leaves may be used in salads. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. from the Latin selinon. straightness and thickness of petiole. the whole plant having a coarse. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. and the most crisp and tender.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. as the Grace of the whole Board". and a distinctive smell..[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. They are ranged under two classes. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. white and red. cracks. insect damage and rot). earthy taste. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. Under optimal conditions.

shtml. Lee LG. ^ R. "Celery". (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens".com http://www. 14. 11. s. ^ Calcium sources 7. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 9. Kraft D. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". p. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. 13. M. M. 2000) p. 10. ^ Teng CM. Suslow.6 (June 1993): 610-611. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). ^ "Smallage". Hopf. et al.. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. and proper . Natural History XIX. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal.[16] References Celery and Negative Calories 6. 15.46. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". ^ William Robinson and W. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 227. ^ Pliny. Ko SN. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. T. gentle handling. 16. (Laurentii Salvii). 3. ^ Cantwell. C (1753).L. 1920).practicallyedible.crazychefs. http://www. Radauer C. 8. ^ D. Heiner DC. 2003. Scheiner O. Thayer translation [1] 4. ^ Celestin (3rd ed. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F).ucdavis. ^ Celsus. de Medicina.. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. Retrieved 2009-05-03. (2005). Post-harvest technology research and information center. West J. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. Western Journal of Medicine 158. Holmiae. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. ^ a b Fragiska. Wilson IBH.17:1697-1699. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. (2002-06-10). P. Zohary and M. ^ OED.nsf/pages/smallage. 2. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". ^ snopes. Thomson. ^ Bublin M. 12. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5.202.

5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .91 g .Sugars 96. Sugar. see sucrose.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Sugars 99. B2) 0. For the common table .5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .crazychefs. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3. see Sugar (disambiguation).01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars.03 g Riboflavin (Vit. (Discuss) For other uses.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.21 g . Magnification of grains of sugar.98 g 0g 0g 0.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.

Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. honey. B3) 0. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. obesity and tooth decay.77 g Thiamine (Vit. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. sugar maple (in maple syrup).008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. B1) 0.026 mg Folate (Vit.082 mg Vitamin B6 . Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet.Water 1.crazychefs. It forms the main ingredient in candy.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural http://www. lactose. mainly sucrose. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. B2) 0. and in many other sources. but also appears in fruit. and fructose.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sorghum.

Popular In non-scientific use. Scientific Scientifically. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. In a list of ingredients. Generically known as "syrups". Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit http://www. Spanish and/or Italian. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. Etymology In the case of sugar. the Spanish word azúcar. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar.) will likely denote a sugar. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. In this informal sense. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. preservation. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. zahari. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. etc. (Compare the OED. "dextrose". "fructose". such as glucose. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. the Italian word zucchero.[4] It came to English by way of French. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of . molasses or treacle. and texture) of beverages and food.) The Greek word for "sugar". the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. means "pebble". including palm sugar and fructose. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre).crazychefs. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions).

trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides .crazychefs. syrups and fruit juices. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. has a "missing" oxygen atom. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. deoxyribose. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O).Culinary sugars Grainier. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. This includes all the sugars referred to above. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. A notable http://www. Natural sugars come in fruit. plus sugars naturally present in honey. as its name suggests. cook or consumer. Sugars include monosaccharides. 2. important molecules in the body. making the sugars reactive. disaccharides. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. . Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. raw sugar.containing 1. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet.

Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. including NADH and ATP. lactose (milk sugar . galactose and mannose. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. which is made of glucose. Monosaccharides include fructose. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as . the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. sweeter than the original sucrose. In these closed-chain forms. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. producing invert sugar. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. glucose. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. which has the formula C6H12O6. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose.made from one glucose and one fructose).com http://www. This resulting syrup. and galactose. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. sugar will burn with a blue flame. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar).[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. with less than 0. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. After digestion and absorption. or DNA.crazychefs. If combined with fine ash. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. which form part of nucleic acids.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). Note for example glycoproteins. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance.water (H2O) per bond. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. fructose. proteins connected to one or more sugars.

ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. OCLC 51837990 84251137." Powder and Bulk References Adas. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. ^ scientificpsychic. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. Blackwell Publishing. Cambridge: Woodhead. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. ^ "Engineering Resources . Sugar Blues. History of Science and Technology in Islam.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. Glyn (2004).Bulk Density Chart.htm link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. ISBN 1566398320.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries.80 g/ml Notes 1. Temple University Press.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. 5. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0.webmd. ISBN 063205476X. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 2. A C .The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. The International Sugar http://www." http://men. OCLC 44493265.illovosugar. ^ Wuebben. James. 4.crazychefs. Joseph and Mike Carlson. Michael (January 2001). Sugarcane.

net/ . Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. especially in the Netherlands. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar.crazychefs. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. without mixing them separately. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. however. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. Products for industrial use (e. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. It is.35 mm. for light brown sugar. Brown sugar contains from 3. Although in some areas. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. sugar beet molasses is used. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or http://www.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking.5% molasses (dark brown sugar).25% of the total volume). Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses.

Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. In other applications. in his studies (cited in "Pure. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. much like adding molasses would do. White and Deadly" . but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. as opposed to white sugar. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. Nutritionally.crazychefs. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more http://www.[1] However. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though the impact could only be detected in their . History In the late 1800s. The effort was so successful that by 1900. apart from pure carbohydrate.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect.[2] John Yudkin. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types.

Retrieved 2008-09-20.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. Demerara is another unrefined. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 3. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar.3 fao. but most is now produced in Mauritius.htm#sugarmade. http://www. Muscovado.".htm#bm07. 2. 2003. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. which is then crystallized. where sugar cane was grown. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup.1. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed.fao.php?id=3026. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. Retrieved 2008-09-20. ^ Levenstein. an island off http://www. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar".wildernessfamilynaturals. largecrystalled. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar 7.crazychefs. giving it a higher mineral content. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. 6. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. centrifuged. 32-33 5. 4. cane sugar. ^ New Scientist. Retrieved 2008-09-20. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. . I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. resulting in the characteristic large.csrwire. or Demerara sugar. light brown. References 1. light brown. crystals.

Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. pale pink or light gray in color. including high blood pressure. which some use to prevent caking. . an important preservative and a popular food seasoning.[citation needed] Conversely. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). the two major components of salt. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. refined salt (table salt). Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in http://www. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. Chloride and sodium ions. including humans. but toxic to most land plants. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself.crazychefs. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. It is a crystalline solid. and iodized salt. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In 1960. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. glass. salt provided the best-known food http://www.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). the caravans still transported some .crazychefs. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. however. and the dye Tyrian purple. as were salted birds and salt fish. in the millennia before then. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire.000 tons of salt. especially for meat.

In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. During the first millennium BC.Salzburg. the Hallstatt Celts. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central . Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. God sent down four blessings from the sky . the Roman exonym for the Celts. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. Hallstatt. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. Greek.) In the Sermon on the Mount. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space.also gave us Gaul. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in http://www. In many Pagan religions esp.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. a root for salt found in Celtic. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. salz. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". water. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. who had heretofore mined for[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. which was illegal under British rule. began open pan salt making. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. (Judges 9:45. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. though incorrectly. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. and Egyptian. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. Halych in Ukraine. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26).[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100.[citation needed] The root hal(l). taking their names from hal(l)-.crazychefs.[1] It is widely. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city".

Halite. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted http://www.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as in Sumo Wrestling. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. In Aztec mythology. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations.crazychefs. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God.In the native Japanese religion . Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts.

The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt.[12] However. which are kiln-dried. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics.5% of salt production.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. One example are bath salts. natural sea salt harvested by hand.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. which is most widely used presently. Injected water dissolves the salt.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic http://www. and thus is rarely eaten. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. food uses account for 17. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. Fleur de sel.crazychefs. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. and the making of soaps and detergents.Different natural salts have different mineralities. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Purification usually involves recrystallization. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. After the raw salt is obtained. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. Today. Refined salt. is mainly sodium chloride. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). In recrystallization.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. giving each one a unique flavor.

magnesium oxide. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about . salt is not traditionally used as a condiment.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution.165 g/cm3. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. silicon dioxide. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] .[29] However. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. such as a few grains of uncooked http://www.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. fatty acid salts (acid salts). Single-serving salt packets. and a bulk density (dry. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. and calcium aluminosilicate. Table salt has a particle density of 2. Some people also add a desiccant.154 g/cm3. calcium or magnesium carbonates.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. condiments such as soy sauce. sodium aluminosilicate.crazychefs. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. calcium silicate. however.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. but was determined to be unnecessary.

sodium iodide. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9).net/ . 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride.[32] Another additive. In Canada. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. iodized salt is more common in the United States. In the United States. or sodium iodate. magnesium. which gives the table salt a yellow color. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps.[31] Today. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. which can cause severe. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in http://www. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). or even an electrolyte disturbance. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. and myxedema in adults. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[33] Drinking too much water. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. The reason for this is unclear.crazychefs. potassium.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. even fatal. especially important for pregnant women. In France. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. neurological problems. fluorinated table salt is available. specifically endemic goiter. dizziness. with insufficient salt intake. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. which can cause goitre. cretinism in children. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced.

[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention).com http://www." ([41]. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process." ([44].person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia)." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways.crazychefs. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. independently of blood pressure effects. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. salt consumption is higher. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. p18) However. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment." ([41]. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. forced salt intake.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. in Japan. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] . Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. can cause hypernatremia. It can exacerbate renal disease. since salt was quite valuable). the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. such as in treatment of dysautonomia." ([41] p3).[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. combined with an inadequate intake of water.[38] heartburn.

possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. However. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. but achievable population goals. SACN states. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels.[50].net/ .6 g or 70 mmol sodium).crazychefs. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of http://www. Some isolated cultures. A salt mill for sea salt.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets. such as the Yanomami in South America. for a typical adult.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. have been found to consume little salt.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand.

which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High).1g sodium). When other health claims are made about a food (e. Australia.).6g sodium). low in fat. LoSalt.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3 g sodium = 5. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI).[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. or Green (Low).3g salt or less per 100g (or . maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. Low is 0. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it"." In the UK.5g salt per 100g (or 0. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. which will increase potassium intake.crazychefs. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. "low". the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. without recourse to salt substitutes. One manufacturer.g. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. Amber (Medium). Those who have kidney failure. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in http://www. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". calories. then that is a medium level of salt.[57] In March 2007. etc. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day.300 mg of sodium (= 2.[51] In the United States.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005.'[55] Campaigns In 2004. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.8 g salt) per day.

China (32. Notes Germany (17.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating . The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. such as brine wells and salt lakes. Answers. the top five producers being the United States (40.crazychefs. http://en. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone).com/salary.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. 3. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. 7.9). Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. http://www. Retrieved 2008-12-14. and by mining rock salt. 5. Eplerenone and Inspra. http://www. and Canada (12. Catholic Encyclopedia.5). New York: Robert Appleton Company.3 million tonnes). (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English 2. Triamterene. In 2002. 4. Costs can reach staggering amounts. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. called halite.3). ^ "Salt". 6.answers. 1913.7). and Hall in Austria. 4th edition". 8. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. India (14. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes.

Salt Institute. p. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20.saltsense.stm 38. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page Mason (2006-12-19). ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. ^ Iodized Salt 31. 898 . ISBN 9780309056663.interscience.newton. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. http://www. 10. Science. Curriculum 18. salt uses. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". Fall/Winter 2006 10.htm 15. http://www3. ^ What is Salt?. 14 August 1998. 5379. Ask a Scientist. ^ References on food salt & health issues. ^ Nauticus . ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. salt manufacture. salt manufacture. Retrieved 200907-08. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. ^ David A. pp. salt history.htm 19.roskill. 14. Transportation Research Board. .9% sodium by weight which equals 98. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.anl. Kuemmel (1994). no. ^ HE-620 24. 281. salt uses.dep. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. ^ a b http://news. Managing roadway snow and ice control ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine Salt Institute.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. "The (Political) Science of Salt". 11. Epikouria Magazine.9% sodium chloride 25. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. ^ Iodized Salt 32. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. sodium. ^ http://www. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". ^ Salt made the world go round 17. Victoria) Salt 34.pdf 33. ^ Gary Taubes. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. ^ salt history. Retrieved ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1.crazychefs.wiley.9. http://books. sodium. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt".907 37. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: ^ Table 16. J. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 2008 29. Retrieved 2008-07-29.

Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. Mark (2002). 2007. 7. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. ^ Salt Matters 60.healthandwellbeing. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. Putnam's Sons.hyp. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 2006. ^ Cook NR. Legal Medicine 2005. Schindler. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. Sodium chloride. Norton & Co. The Story of Salt. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 62. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56.1915040902051820. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41.06. New York: Walker & Co. S. The Mummies of Ürümchi. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT Friedrich Schulz. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. Feldman.1002/0471238961. and S. Sodium 52.1016/j. ^ Susan R. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. 47-50. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. 61. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. BMJ. ISBN 0802713734. Erwin Koops.W.334(7599):885. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). 28 January 2008. . Cutler http://www. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. OCLC 48426519. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. Salt: A World History. New York. Further reading Kurlansky. New York: W. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. doi:10. John Wiley & Sons.a01.crazychefs. ISBN 0393320197. ^ Salt TV ads 59. Mark. http://www. ^ Understanding labels 55.P. (accessed13 January 2007) Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. Obarzanek E et al.005 48. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. NY: G. Barber. http://www. Published online 2005.pub2 References Kurlansky. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt" PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44.. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. doi:10.. OCLC 48573453. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". ^ U.

2001. New York: Columbia University Press. Salt: Grain of Life. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section by Dr Trevor Beard. Pierre. Department of Health. The Stationery Office. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ .Laszlo. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Arts and traditions of the http://www.crazychefs. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Vietnam.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. as well as in neighbouring countries. phrik http://www. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Indonesia. phrik khi nu(lit. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper.crazychefs. It can also be found in India. the Philippines and Singapore. Malaysia. mainly Kerala. found commonly in Thailand. such as Cambodia. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: .

000 to 100. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. "Big things come in small packages. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger http://www." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies.crazychefs. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and .Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant." which can best be described by the English equivalent. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries.

net/ . Siling Labuyo (Filipino). Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). phrik khii nuu ( .org/wiki/Thai_pepper" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. and among the group of capsicum annuum. Ladâ. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. Thai hot. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. but slightly less pungent variety. The more decorative. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C.As well as the Malay http://www. Thai). orange. creating a rainbow effect. has peppers that point upward on the plant. and then red. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. and go from green to yellow. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name).crazychefs. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental.wikipedia.

usually http://www. furrowed. Unlike other root . gratins and baked dishes. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. It has a tough. it can also be used on its own. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. or used in casseroles. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. about the size of a large potato. which store a large amount of starch.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'.crazychefs. It is a kind of celery. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. Celeriac has a celery flavour.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

'Ibis'.com http://www. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. especially in Europe. and 'Kojak'. There are a number of cultivars available. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. Celeriac.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates .crazychefs. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for . raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Sugars 1.Dietary fiber 1. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables.3 g 1. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. Celeriac soup. rinsed. 'Diamant'. Among them are 'Prinz'.2 g .6 g 9.

it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. The stem is often spiny. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. or brinjal (Solanum melongena).Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum http://www. aubergine. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. As a nightshade. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. The flowers are white to . and see text The eggplant. It bears a fruit of the same name. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger.

from Sanskrit vatin-ganah).crazychefs. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. from Arabic al-badinjan. New Zealand. 1500 CE. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. Australia. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. In the Caribbean Trinidad. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. The name aubergine. and contains numerous small. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names." Aubergine and brinjal.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. soft seeds. which is used in British English.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow http://www. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. unsurprising as it is a close relative of . In Indian and South African English. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. used in the United States. but much larger in cultivated forms. History Solanum melongena. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. flower The plant is native to India. which are edible. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. The name eggplant. The fruit is fleshy.

net/ . A much wider range of shapes. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. Burpee Hybrid. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. green. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also http://www. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. or white. Black Magic. Dusky. shape and color.crazychefs. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. and Black Beauty. Ichiban. whiteskinned. slightly pendulous cucumber. There are even orange varieties. Some cultivars have a color gradient. and Tycoon. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Classic. Pingtung Long. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Traditional.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. in white skin Dourga. especially purple.

In some parts of India. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. or other fillings and then baked. Melanzane alla Parmigiana.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. as in the French ratatouille. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. complex flavor. It. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. In one dish. battered. and achaar. and garlic. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt.crazychefs. and masala and then cooked in oil. As a native plant. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). In the Caucasus. rice. It can be sliced. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. it is called Begun ( ). chutney. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. Grilled and mashed and mixed with .com http://www. and deep-fried. tomatoes. tahini. or Eggplant Parmesan. tahini. the Arabian moussaka. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. curries. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. peanuts. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. along with the fish Hilsa. for example in sambhar. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. for example. braised (紅燒茄子). The fruit flesh is smooth. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. so that peeling is not required. as in the related tomato. In Iranian cuisine. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. or tamarind. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. The thin skin is also edible. In Bangladesh. allowing for very rich dishes. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. as they are far less bitter. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. It is often stewed.

Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. aphids. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. flea . and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. pepper (capsicum). a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. and potato.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a http://www. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. showing the inside. containing both female and male structures. the most serious of which is Verticillium. depending on cultivar. (Adults can be removed by hand.) between plants.) between rows. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. For this reason. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. Flowers are complete. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed.crazychefs. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). Common North American pests include the potato beetle.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. such as tomato.) to 60 cm (24 in. are also troublesome to eggplants. Egypt. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This is called Beguni ( ). and spider mites. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden.

35 g . Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.043. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B1) 0.Sugars 2.7 g .039 mg 5. semi-official or estimates).crazychefs.19 g 1. F = FAO estimate.(2.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .[5] In the United States. P = official figure. B2) 0.Dietary fiber 3. New Jersey is the largest producing state. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties http://www.

[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant.crazychefs. while 1.Niacin (Vit. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals.084 mg Folate (Vit. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.[8] On average. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or http://www. B3) 0.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking.16 mg Manganese 0. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. Brazil. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. However.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.01 mg/100g).2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron . Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. http://www. aethiopicum. trongum. stenoleucum. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. Solanum longum Roxb. esculentum. . aethiopicum. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. ruber. that of Blanco to S.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. sinuatorepandum.F. racemiflorum. such as agreste. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. H. variegatum.Varieties Solanum melongena var. violaceum. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. luteum.C. Scopoli's S. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. S. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. inerme and subinerme at that time. album.crazychefs. Similarly. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. which used to include Dunal's S. capsicoides). mainly by Dikii. rumphii. Dunal. ovigera. inerme. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. tongdongense. and (invalidly) by Sweet. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. insanum.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. ovigerum and S. violaceum and viride. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). But this is not correct. On the other hand. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. divaricatum. leucoum. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. giganteum. There is an actual S. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. subrepandum. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. brownii. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Names for various eggplant types. oblongo-cylindricum. globosi. Solanum oviferum Salisb. edule. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. esculentum.-Lag. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. multifidum. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work.

CRC Press. S.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. D. (2001). The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). Technology. and Engineering by Yiu H. . common. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Footnotes http://www. ISBN 1574445510. Handbook of Food Science.crazychefs. Hui (2006). ^ Doijode.

Aubergine 8. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. http://faostat. ^ B. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena.crazychefs. 2008 10. The New England Journal of Medicine. Robert (2008-11-14). Erich Hornbach. Toorenenbergen AW. 2008-11-11. http://pubs.133(42):2081-3 12. ^ Westerfield. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. Occupational pollinosis in commercial . Tsenge Demana. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). 7. Mahesh † and . Retrieved 2009-07-01. Domino.) reveals female predominance.caes. Andréa Thomaz. Dieges PH.3. ^ Kabashima K. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. A. Retrieved 2007-04-24. Volume 329:437 August 5. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables.* YP Venkatesh. Retrieved http://www. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. Miyachi Y. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. P. P. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. ^ Edward F. pp. Ebury Press. 18(1): 59-62 13. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. Bruno Caramelli.pdf. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". 202 4. FAO. Arq Bras Cardiol. Vol. Harish Babu * . volume 82 (nº 3). ^ Health24.uga. 5. 6. 1993 Number 6 9. ^ SN Pramod. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. 273-6. ^ "FAOSTAT". 2004.50(2):101-102 11. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. ^ Solanum melongena var.

see section Fruit or vegetable below).8 in) across. yellow. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. and have a weak. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. with a serrated margin. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. One species.crazychefs. odd pinnate.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres ( http://www. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. . The tomato is native to South America. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. Solanum lycopersicum. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles.4–0. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. It is a perennial. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. woody stem that often vines over other plants.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable.

and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. They also took it to the Philippines. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. in certain areas of Italy. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. golden apple. an Italian physician and botanist. the other by currant tomatoes.[4] The large. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. such as Florence.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. lumpy tomato. according to Smith. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. lycopersicum. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. and cultivation began in the 1540s. tomatl. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination.[6] Gerard's Herbal. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. The exact date of domestication is not known. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. However. cerasiforme. smaller vegetable . Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. was the first European to take back the tomato. http://www. ancestor of L. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). earlier in 1493. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. corn and salt. a mutation from a . It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. now Mexico City in 1521. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard.crazychefs. The specific name. who named it pomo d‘oro. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. means "wolf-peach". meaning plump thing with a navel.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. a barber-surgeon. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. likely to be the original salsa recipe.

Currently. British consul in Aleppo c. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets.M. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. California. and in general. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. sent some seeds back to America. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in http://www. broths. The Spanish tomato dish. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. Rick. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. By the mid-18th century.[6] But by the mid-1700s. Gerard's views were influential. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives.largely plagiarized from continental sources. The University of California. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. most famously in Worthing. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). Thomas Jefferson. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). Paella. particularly Florida and California. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. but the fruit is safe). a pioneer in tomato genetics research. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American .‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. 1799 – c. who ate tomatoes in Paris. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy.[6] Nonetheless. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. The C. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. ―within the last forty years.crazychefs. and before the end of that century. In Victorian times. Over the past 15 years. and as a garnish. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. Charles M.

7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.S. orange. but a number of cultivars with yellow. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion.6–2. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. followed by United States and Turkey. or white fruit are also available.0–2. about 5mm in diameter. the largest producer. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. Most cultivars produce red fruit.crazychefs. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. For processing tomatoes.[12] According to FAOSTAT. through cherry tomatoes. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. production and 35% of world production. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. http://www. and have a lower water content. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. purple. California accounts for 90% of U. they are known as plum tomatoes. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. green. . It may be deleted after Friday.4 in) diameter range.8 in) size as the wild tomato. 18 September 2009. pink. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions.0 in) diameter.4–0.

to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. and are shaped like large strawberries. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower.crazychefs. plum tomatoes. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . As in most sectors of agriculture.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. along with zucchini. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several http://www. but unlike commercial hybrids.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). as well as heirloom tomatoes.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life.[18] and productivity.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. based mostly on shape and size.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds.

often via mail-order. but are smaller than plum tomato. brown. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. disease and pest resistance. ivory. As an intermediate form. including yellow. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. white. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. Determinate. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. Burracker's Favorite. Black Krim (lower left corner).[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or http://www. and lack of mealiness.produce fruit in colors other than red. Lucky Cross). which usually discourages fruit set. but must be bought as seed. etc. they are often good choices for container growing. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. or home growers interested in canning. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. although some determinate heirlooms exist. and purple. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. or bush. Red Boar). while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. pink. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. low acidity. including Brandywine (biggest red). Green Zebra (top right). et cetera. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). black. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. some tomato cultivars . multiple colors (Hillbilly.especially heirlooms . orange. nor are their seedlings available in typical . The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced.crazychefs. A variety of specific cultivars. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach.cherry tomatoes are small and round. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate".

whiteflies. T . red spider mite. original state. cabbage loopers. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars.fusarium wilt strain I. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. carried by the beet leafhopper. Some common tomato pests are stink http://www. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants.crazychefs. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop.verticillium wilt. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. N nematodes. and A . As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. which interrupts the lifecycle. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. but manure or compost work well. As a floral device to reduce selfing. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. tomato fruitworms. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. tomatoes required cross-pollination. their traditional pollinators. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. slugs.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. As the name implies. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . In the wild. F . The most common letters are: V . aphids.tobacco mosaic virus.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. cutworms. too. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening.fusarium wilt strain I & II. flea beetles. and remain. The stamens were.alternaria. entirely within the closed corolla. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. FF .

Unripe tomatoes are firm. In an outside setting. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep http://www. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. However. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the .crazychefs. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. In more temperate climates. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. by cultured bumblebees. This is not the same as self-pollination. depending on variety. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. or more often today. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. They may be recognized by their color. as with most species. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene.

Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine.crazychefs.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 2. especially Italian and Middle Eastern . Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. and other antioxidants. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable http://www. as tomato sauce. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. or paste. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue).2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. In some studies lycopene. anthocyanin. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. in pieces. The tomato is acidic. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below).Recently. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a subset of fruit. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried.6 g 4g . carotene. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). Though it is botanically a berry. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). especially in cooked tomatoes. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. They contain lycopene.

5 °C (54. generally three feet tall or shorter. Determinate types are annual in all climates. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. The fruit is also preserved by drying. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight.crazychefs.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. fully functional. When that tip eventually stops growing. whether because of pruning or flowering. meaning covered with fine short hairs. Tomato plants are dicots.[citation needed] Once fully ripe.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. often by sun. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. although erect bush varieties have been bred. lateral buds take over and grow into other. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing.make salsa. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. Of regular leaves. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. such as rugose leaves. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. They are bred to continue ripening. there are variations. and grow as a series of branching stems. vines.[28] In October http://www. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. Spain. it will not continue to ripen. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. Embracing it for this protest connotation. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. Known for its tomato growth and production. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. initially decumbent. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. annually celebrates La . or pickled. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes).5 °F). Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. These hairs facilitate the vining process.

[31] Their flowers. Technically.) H. This is because they are native to the Americas. among cultivated species. making the Linnaean name correct. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. or other external forces that present in the Americas. butterflies. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. and be dried/fermented before germination. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). called locular . in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. moths. genetic evidence (e. However.e. i. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. These vary. wolf. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). Some smaller varieties have two cavities. However. Other species in that family are potatoes.g.. very small cavities. plus 'persicum'. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum http://www. Similarly. tobacco. other insects. while paste tomatoes have very few. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. according to type. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato).crazychefs. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. Therefore. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. angora leaves. appearing on the apical meristem. 'lyco'.deeply grooved. peach. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities..[32] while others are pollinated by flies. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. As a true fruit. would be more correct. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. which frequently used it and still do). chili peppers.Karst. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. with both names found in the literature. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. "wolf-peach"). (derivation.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. Despite this. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. have the anthers fused along the edges. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. variegated.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum.

color. as are vegetables.S. size. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. shape. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. http://www. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. North Carolina. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. cucumbers. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. etc.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. universities. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same . Monsanto. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit.W. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. Oregon.crazychefs. U. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. and organizations. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. corporations. Corporations including Heinz. Bejoseed. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. from a culinary standpoint. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. 1883. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. and numerous other traits. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. The U. Hedden (149 U. A. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. Livingston. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. flavor. However. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. As noted above.S. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In 2006. nutritional value. together with its seeds. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. In 1887. a tomato is the ovary.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. U. pest tolerance. However.S. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. 304)). AVRDC. New York. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. University breeding programs are active in Florida. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. of Reynoldsburg. Ohio. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. disease tolerance.

Connecticut.crazychefs. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). North Carolina. Massachusetts. . Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. Georgia. the U. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ .[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Rhode Island.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. Tennessee. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella http://www. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Speakers from the British Isles. The fresh fruit is. Minnesota. Michigan. Indiana. contain the poison Solanine. Kentucky. Vermont and Wisconsin. Maine. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. Virginia. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. 2006. New Hampshire.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Pennsylvania.S.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. however. which is toxic to humans and animals. Ohio. harmless. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). On October 30.

2008. from April 10.S.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. the District of Columbia. of the cultivar 'Delicious'.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. and Arizona (49). grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. fresh jalapeño pepper. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. Illinois (100). Florida. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. Oklahoma in 1986.84 pounds (522 kg). with a harvest of more than 32. 2007. grown by Gordon Graham of http://www. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. 40. China. On August 30. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. French and Germans. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. it caused at least one death.151. Lake Buena Vista. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. 2008. respectively.000 kilograms (250. the U.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by . Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. New Mexico (98).000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. Epcot's manager of agricultural science.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. UK. and fresh cilantro. As of July 2008.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants.[38] As of July 8.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). such as raw tomato.crazychefs. Lancashire. in 2000.273 illnesses from this outbreak. fresh serrano pepper. with 49. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. discovered the unique plant in Beijing. and Canada. one would arrive at an estimated 40. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death.1 reported cases per million.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38.8 m (65 ft) length. Yong Huang.7 and 16.6:1).[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot.

Derived from Cherokee . Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. indeterminate. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak.S. Fusarium.S. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the http://www.

crazychefs. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. pickling. good for Tomatoes on a vine. Tomato plants in the garden. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Tomato . Young tomato plant. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato fruit. Tomato http://www.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. in Korea.

com http://www.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

crazychefs. Easthamptonstar. http://www. Retrieved December 11 2009. Subsection Lycopersicon). Tgrc. ^ a b Hartz. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. ^ "http://www. USA: University of South Carolina Press. Yourarchives. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Smith.five tons to the . http://tgrc. ^ a b Smith.Food & Wine". webpage: Wettst. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. Footnotes 1. Universityofcalifornia.aspx?PageID=567 14. Processing Tomato Production in po. p. Andrew F (1994). ^ Acquaah. (2001). Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.html. ^ The Friend. Andrew S. et al. ISBN 0252-07009-7. ^ " Horticulture: Principles and Practices. 12.17.html". Columbia. culture. Retrieved 2009-04-02.smithsonianmag. 223 10. 11. and cookery.nationalarchives.easthamptonstar. p. Appleton and Co. During the three months of the local harvest.aspx. & Spooner. The Tomato in America." See: Natural History Museum. it handles more than 1. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center.2 million pounds of tomatoes every bid/6280/Default. The tomato in America: early history.ucdavis. Normania. I. A.smithsonianmag. 2009-01-26.Smith. and Cookery. (2002-0508)".edu/news/article/4319. 519 [1] 9. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. p. http://www. University of Illinois Retrieved 2009-04-02. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. ^ "UC Newsroom. 7. 1881.The East Hampton Star . October 26. ^ Tomato history 4. 1994. F. section Lycopersicon Mill." 15. 13. http://www. 5. 1876. ISBN American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). Retrieved December 11 2009. 2008. ^ http://faostat.. 2002-05-08. page 57: ". Culture. G. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. 6.universityofcalifornia. M. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . (1994). http://www. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://yourarchives. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo .Your Archives". Retrieved 2008-10-27.fao. Cyphomandra.M. Appletons' journal Published by page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. ^ "http://www. D. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. Retrieved 2009-04-02. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. (2002).smithsonianmag.html" 2.

kr.Tomato".html.html". Retrieved December 11 2009. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more.eurekalert.html.gardenweb. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague.smithsonianmag. 33. 31.html. which are carried in the wind. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". http://www. http://www.ucdavis.16. Retrieved 2008-10-27. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. ^ "http://www. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". 28. Retrieved 2009-04-02.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html".net/ .com/faq/lists/tomato/2004111539004321.gob. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention". News. Smithsonianmag.smithsonianmag. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ "http://www. ^ http://www.html. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. 32. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. 2006. http://www.osu.smithsonianmag.smithsonianmag." 19. http://www. Retrieved June 30. http://www.cornell. ^ 17. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'". http://www. http://wwwplb. HYG-5532-93" 21. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension." ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. ^ " Retrieved December 11 2009. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look http://ohioline. ^ "Crop Profiles ." 20. 24. 30. Retrieved and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted fungi such as fusarium and verticillium.umn. 2006.html Retrieved ^ http://www. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". Retrieved July 14. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 2008-10-27. http://news. Retrieved December 11 2009.html.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. 29. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).html. http://www.smithsonianmag.umn. Retrieved 2008-10-27. http://faq.gob. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once.html". Plb.ucdavis.8M". ^ " "Tomato genome project gets $1.smithsonianmag. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. page 57: "The plants are still growing.stm. http://www. Retrieved 200705-24.

42. 39. Retrieved 200904-02.html.html? 38. http://www.cdc. Retrieved 2008-10-27. http://www. 41. California Master Gardener Handbook. 37.foodsafetynetwork. Tomato Recipe". Clinical Infectious Diseases. Dennis R. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". Foodsafetynetwork. p.vegparadise. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Retrieved 2008-1027. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nationalpost. by state". http://www. (2002). Retrieved 2008-10-27. (2004-04-15).html. Cdc. ANR News". 2007-08-30. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . ^ "August . ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. http://itn. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".html. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus" ^ a b Vegparadise. Retrieved Tomato Retrieved 2009-0721. Retrieved http://www. United http://www. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". ^ "ITN. http://www.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419& 35.uchicago.1086/381578. http://www.crazychefs. et al.cdc. 643. http://www. 38:S3. ISBN 1879906546. ^ Voetsch. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. Cbsnews. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"".

a state in the south part of http://www. extracted oleoresins. called selei buah pala. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. the fruit is also made into jam.7 in) wide. or Spice Islands. and nutmeg butter (see below). both are used as adulterants of M. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.crazychefs. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. malabarica from India. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. especially in Grenada. It also grows in Kerala. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. Species About 100 species.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0.2 and 0. including essential oils. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different . The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. In Indonesia.4 oz) dried. or sliced finely. and Bombay Nutmeg M.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets").6 to 0. nutmeg and mace.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. fragrans products. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. called Jaiphal in Hindi. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. argentea from New Guinea.

[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. In Indian cuisine. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. Painkiller. and eggnog.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. In Arabic. In the Caribbean. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. green. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Lau Hau Peng". and Barbados rum punch. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. In European cuisine. mulled wine. saffronlike hue it imparts. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. In Penang cuisine. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala.crazychefs. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate http://www. and string beans. sauces. and baked goods. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. they are also used in soups. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. cauliflower. it is added to vegetables like Brussels .

Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. medicines. syrups.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical http://www. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. beverages. reddish brown in colour. used as flavourings. preserving agents. although this is disputed. for . which can be turned into myristic acid. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. The oil is colourless or light yellow. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. in toothpaste. It is semi-solid. 758 – ca. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter.crazychefs. and sweets. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. with 4% annual growth expected. steak sauce. sugar beets. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. About 1. Canned. based on anecdotal reports. and were not observed when MSG was given with food.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. or molasses.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. it also said that.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. autolyzed yeast.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives." However. particularly processed foods. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. and protein isolate. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. . or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured http://www. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. frozen.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. sugar cane. not reproducible. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. hydrolyzed yeast." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG.crazychefs. Fermented products such as soy sauce. being an amino acid. soy extracts. yeast extract. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings.

4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. and converted to its monosodium salt. followed by either the name of the food additive.celiac. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. age 40–59 years. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate].g. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. such as hydrolyzed protein. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. Steven (August 2003). Foster. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. and (3) microbial fermentation. 373-375." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. acidification. MSG. and crystallization. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. New York: Wiley.g.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard . Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food.2. In 1993. concentration. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate.. dextrose or citrate). Drugs. On Food and Cooking.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients.html 2. and mineral ions and growth factors..". and Cosmetics (2nd ed. (2) synthesis. even in large amounts. In the 2004 version of his book. "Monosodium Glutamate". ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. ^ http://www. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. purified.7% women). References 1. ^ Leung. For this reason. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. flavour enhancer).). In the hydrolysis method. 621. pp. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. Albert Y. or its International Numbering System (INS) http://www. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index).com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. [monosodium glutamate]. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies].

http://www. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 11. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. 10. Julia (2008-03-05). Beifan.1002/14356007.274.. PMID 8282275. doi:10.1002/chir. Chiaki. Van Horn. Linguang.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127& PMID 10597625.1525/gfc. Shioya. Daniel.1006/rtph. ^ http://www. Inc. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.html 12.pdf 9. ^ http://vm. ^ a b Tarasoff L. "Yes. the Secret Behind the Savor". Dyer. Sano. . Daviglus. http://www. Liancheng. 38–49. Anjimoto Co.crazychefs. J. Ka. 14. Food Chem.ajinomoto. Yamaguchi. (April 2000). Shizuko (2005). 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. PMID 10736382. doi:10.. ^ Sand. doi:10. Dongshuang. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. (October 2006). Shigeru.2005.jstor. 1875–1880. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Ren C. PMID 18497735. "A Short History of MSG". ^ a b Rundlett.4. Wu. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". Kelly M.celiac. Guo.cfsan. ^ Freeman M. 13.1999. Beiser A.html. Tetsuya. Jeremiah (August 2008). Kimber L. doi:10. ^ http://www. Takehara. et al. Stamler.1038/ ^ Kawakita. Pharmacol. (1993). 277–282.fda. Masahiro. ^ a b Geha RS.a16 711. doi:10.html http://www. "Monosodium Glutamate". ^ He.ajinomoto. Case study: monosodium glutamate". Zhou.1111/j. Daniel W (1994).2008.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Linda. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. Alan R. 16. ^ Walker R (October 1999). doi:10.3.00160. Yangfeng.nlm. 6. 7. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Moskin. 15. ^ "Production process". Jordan (2005). Toxicol. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study".nutrition.5. Toxicol. Martha L. MSG. Nutr. 5. http://jn.ncbi. ^ http://www.38.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. New York Times. PMID 16999713. Chirality 6 (4): pp.530060410. Zhao. http://www.

豆油 3.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy . 醬油 2. 酱油 2.crazychefs. 豉油 Simplified Chinese http://www. 荳油 3. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

and salt. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. . History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). [4] By the mid-19th century. In its various forms. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji.crazychefs.[3] In the 18th century.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods.500 years. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. Soy sauce was invented in China. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted http://www. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market.

Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹.com http://www. Although there are many types of soy sauce. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. sojae) and other related microorganisms. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel . Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Today.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans.crazychefs. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. such as in giant urns and under the sun. literally "delicious taste").

or a mixture of both. with relatively low amounts of other . and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. Thai. slightly sweeter. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. since it is http://www. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. ): A thin (nonviscous). Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). but it also adds flavour. one of the two types. like extra virgin olive oil. opaque. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. shuānghuáng (雙璜). Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. Despite their rather similar appearance. Korean. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. pinyin: jiàngyóu. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. Another type. An additional classification of light soy sauce. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". lighter brown soy sauce. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. In traditional Chinese cooking. It has a richer. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. fragrance and saltiness. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. consistency. and Chinese cuisine.3-DCP (1. traditional Chinese: 醬油.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Since it is lighter in color.crazychefs. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG.

Shiro (白?. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of http://www. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. where it is known as "shōyu". as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. Technically. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. for example . It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). due to the addition of alcohol in the product. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. that is used in its production. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Usukuchi (淡口?. It contains little or no wheat. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce.crazychefs. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. or 醤油).

Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. Amakuchi (甘口?. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?.net/ .crazychefs. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu".com http://www. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it.Saishikomi (再仕込?. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. Consequently. not pasteurized. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. 1 litre bottles.

Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. usually implies limited quantity. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. which has a thick. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses.crazychefs. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced . Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. powder. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. It is a unique variety.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. in a pinch. In Indonesia. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived.

Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). O'Long(黑龍). Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Joseon ganjang. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). Later. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). lit.crazychefs. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. WanJaShan(萬家香).4% of soy sauce purchases. is made entirely of soy and brine. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. thin and dark brown in color. Founded in 1909.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Malaysia. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in http://www. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy . uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. 조선간장. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. (called Joseon ganjang. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin.

It can also be very salty.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. it is also a table condiment. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy http://www. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. pronounced SOO-kah).crazychefs. . and caramel. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). or sometimes simply tương. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. China. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. salt.3-DCP (1. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided.[6] Furthermore. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). nước tương.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food.

OCLC 9752305 5. ^ http://www. No.) In March http://www. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". including six samples with up to and Taiwan. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and 9. Seong-Gook (2002). Tung Chun and Wanjasham.htm. 7. p.miyajimasoy. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. 4. Despite these being small in number in the UK. Vol. King .aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.asp?id=7598 10. Pearl River Bridge. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). Golden Swan. Retrieved 200801-07. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. 2nd edition.tcoc. 6. Jammy Chai. Retrieved 2008-01-07. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. ^ http://www. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. ^ http://www.[citation needed] In Vietnam. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. Soon Teck• and Kang. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. 8. ^ Jung. XXVII. http://www." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. Kimlan. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). 2. Sinsin. ^ Tanaka. 6. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat.crazychefs. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. p. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. marinades and other types of sauces. 3.000 to 18. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". an increase over 23 to 5. Press release. Celiac disease.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. Golden Mark.gmp.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. ^ Titsingh. p. Lee Kum ^ Tanaka. ^ Tanaka.000 times more 3-MPCD than[1] Notes 1.317 2. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. Isaac. 2 (January 2000).com. the leaflet does include oyster Individuals with a wheat allergy. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20).' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. pp. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. 7."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. (1781).org.

^ Bamford. ^ Kobayashi. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". et al. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. http://www. ^ Toxic soy sauce. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.144. p. 15. 13. 103. doi:10. Florence. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. 18. Hoboken. Marian (2003).48. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. doi:10. ISBN 1587161389. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. ^ Daniells. 14. 186. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. Stephen (2006-06-06). Charles W (2005). ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. Fereidoon. Retrieved 2008-01-07. nutraingredients. Makio (2005-04-18). scares hit Vietnam http://www. ^ Shahidi.nutraingredients.crazychefs. chemical veggies -. http://books. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. Edition 2. PMID 16198255.201.1263/jbb. Kentucky: CRC Press. ^ . PMID 12469319. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD".com/news/ng. 16. Somboon (2002-06-18).100.2323/jgam. ISBN 0632059877.11. Food. fermentation and micro-organisms.

net/ .0–83.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.9150–0.5–21.5–20.0% Stearic acid: 0.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.crazychefs.5 °C) 84 cP 1.5–5.8% Behenic acid: <0.0% Palmitoleic acid: 211 | P a g e http://www.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9180 (@ 15.5% Linoleic acid: 3.0% Arachidic acid: <0.3% Myristic acid: <0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.3–3.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.4677–1.

but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. in Greece.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. pharmaceuticals. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. cosmetics. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. and Manzanilla de Jaén. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported.6 million . oil from olives that are slightly unripe. Picholine. in http://www. World production in 2002 was 2.4680–1. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. Australia.6 (refined and pomace) 0. as well as in Crete. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. 93% comes from Spain. principally Italy.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. which produce approximately 350. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Leccino Pendolino. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe.000 tons of olive oil annually.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. but especially in the Mediterranean. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. Koroneiki. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. In 2006. North Africa and the Near East.crazychefs. Olive oil is used throughout the world. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. Alberquina. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. family Oleaceae).[3] Of the European production. Italy and Greece. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. Hojiblanca. Japan and China. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. and Moraiolo.

000 US gallons (131. and by its flavor.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. The USDA uses a different system.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. IOOC terminology is precise. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil).[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. a private trade group. with 23 member states. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices.800. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. still contains a small quantity of http://www. Spain. and monitoring authenticity. defining quality standards. often in "prestige" packaging. Oblica and Leccino.000 m3) came from Italy. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). Spain. Mission. in Croatia. and Turkey. with production increasing to meet demand. Galega. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. In North America. by its chemistry. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. of which 34.California.000 US gallons (181. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. called pomace. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. The California Olive Oil Council. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. The US imported 47. in Portugal.600. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking . Spain. After extraction the remnant solid substance. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method).

This practice makes it difficult for high quality.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off . of free oleic acid it contains. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. defined as the percent. for blended oils. Almost 700 people died.[16] In April 2008. however.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. and by heat. is extremely lax and corrupt. both in Italy and abroad. product as superior olive oil.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. particularly in Italy. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. 25. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. EU officials took issue with the new law. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small http://www. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. but there are no guarantees.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil.[15] Under EU rules. mostly hexane. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. it is believed.[12] In some cases. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. but safe. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. measured by weight. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section).[14] In February 2008." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian.[14] In March 2008.

odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. another cause of rancidity. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. The US is not a member. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. absence of defects.crazychefs. but may not be described simply as olive oil. of not more than 0. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Used on salads.the oil degrades. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's http://www. which measures the degree to which the oil is . Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. has an acidity less than 2%. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. contains no more than 0. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. and is judged to have a good taste. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions.8% acidity. It is fit for consumption. It has a free acidity. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level.S.5% acidity. This is also called its organoleptic quality. expressed as oleic acid. of no more than 1.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. The U. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. These grades were established in 1948. and is judged to have a superior taste. and are based on acidity. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. In order to classify it by taste. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. Pure olive oil. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters.3 grams per 100 grams (0.

Grade A or U.S.S. Grade D or U. This is incorrect.S.S. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. Grade B or U.5% and is "reasonably free from defects". in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled.0% and is "fairly free from defects". The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. Grade C". U. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed".S.U.S.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual http://www.4% and is "free from defects". Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than . which may be as low as 10-15 °C. U. U.S. First of all. (34 kJ/ml).[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. Grade C or U.crazychefs.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2.S. with less flavour.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. "cold" does not define any precise temperature.S.

Portugal and Lebanon. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. Tunisia. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. around 0.1 1. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. over 26 liters per year.8 7. so the term "first press" is meaningless. around 14 l. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.1 0.56 Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.7 l.2 7 1.62 12. Spain and Italy.35 23. around 8 l. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.pressed" . This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide.7 11.

crazychefs. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. suggesting a different taste. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". This is done in specialised chemical plants. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. If ground with mill stones. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. 2. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. 4. not in the oil mills. 3. Green olives produce bitter oil. which is much faster and more accurate. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. 1. After grinding. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the http://www. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). This very slow separation process has been replaced by . First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. After grinding. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. then placed into the press. no or very little organoleptic defects). the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor.34 1. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water.

most notably oleic http://www. region.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .net/ .omega-6 fat 3.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). In the United States. and extraction process. The composition varies by cultivar. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat .5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g ( fat <1. time of harvest.7%) and sterols (about 0.5 g . To achieve this possible benefit. along with traces of squalene (up to 0. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.crazychefs.polyunsaturated 11 g . (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.monounsaturated 73 g .[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. altitude.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. including oleocanthal and oleuropein.

Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. This way. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content.crazychefs. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. at least in part. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. During the first stage. in the long . a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. 2004. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" http://www.This decision was announced November 1. For example. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. This could. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. During the second phase. antithrombotic. rather than its fatty acid profile. The study was conducted in two stages.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. It is theorized that. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. and oleuropein.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols.

but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). For example. Also. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses.[citation needed]. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. A very fresh oil. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. etc. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. cookware. as available in an oil producing . the unrefined particles within the oil get http://www. not for foods to be eaten cold. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. In time.crazychefs. like salads. Also. Used cold. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. blenders. oils deteriorate and become stale. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat.

and mild laxative properties. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM).[36][37] Jeanne . Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions.crazychefs.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. acting as a stool softener. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. It is also good for the management of pain.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive http://www. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. It does have demulcent properties. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent.

soap-making.. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olie.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. oile (12c. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. Homer called it "liquid gold. from Gk.Fr.Fr.Fr. huile). It.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. drawn and engraved by J.crazychefs. from O. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. olive oil" (cf.N. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. from L. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. magical. oleum " . and skin care application. and O. elaion "olive tree". Mod. Besides food. olio). as a fuel in oil lamps. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. olive oil. 1175. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. medicines." In ancient Greece. from Anglo-Fr.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior".com http://www.

[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from http://www. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the .[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times).[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. olive presses became common. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. In the centuries that followed.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.crazychefs. Bodrum.

Although candles can be used to light the http://www. Lebanon. stored in special containers. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff).[citation needed]. According to legend. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. he maintained. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. According to the historian Pliny. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan.[46] Until 1500 BC. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. when the oil had risen to the top. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. together with naked appearance of athletes.[dubious – discuss] During this time. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil.crazychefs. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. allowing more time for more oil to be made.000 tons of olive oil per season. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. where it is thought to have represented wealth. Sinuhe. the fertile crescent. during the 13th century BC. "the best in the Mediterranean".[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. wrote of abundant olive trees. oil containers are preferred. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies.over 4. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. and Israel.000 and 3. drained the water from the bottom. and area consisting of present day Palestine. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. These presses are estimated to have had output of between ..

4. and this secure city. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. originating from King David. http://findarticles. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. http://www. Steven Sibbett.crazychefs. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings.html. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. its oil almost" He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. 5.imitate the original Menorah. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. light upon light. neither Eastern nor Western. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. "The Olive Tree. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). 2.internationaloliveoil. p. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). Olive Production Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and http://www. and."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. Joann L Coviello. traditionally. Retrieved 2007-05-25. ^ "findarticles. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree".com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047". ^ USDA. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak.PDF. Retrieved 2007-05-25. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit).usda. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. Louise Ferguson. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. To douse the flame. the tourch is in a glass bulb. Retrieved 2008-07-04. ^ USDA. ^ International Olive Oil Council. 158. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. References 1. http://www. ANR Publications. Margaret Lindstrand (2005). One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath.gourmetretailer. and the Mount of Sinai. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred . The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. In Islam. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. even without fire touching it. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. in the consecration of altars and churches. ^ G.

98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. Tom. http://www.0/getfile? The New York Times ( 2007-08-13.4005000. and Maurizio La Guardia. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). Nutrition Research Reviews 18. http://www. ^ "EUbusiness. ^ a b "Telegraph article". et ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.Scotsman. 25.xml. Karvonen MJ. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. 14.telegraph. PMID ^ Keys A. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26.htm. Giammanco. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 13. 19 CFR 134. D. Retrieved". 11. 7. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. Retrieved 2008-11-16. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam .2007. John. J.usda. ^ ^ "Eubusiness. http://oliveoilonly.phrs. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site http://www. Epidemiol. United States Department of Agriculture. ^ a b McGee. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. 20. Di Majo.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar". "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)".internationaloliveoil.).com News".scotsman. ^ Mueller. 10. http://www. Am. 2004. November 2. 16. http://www.010. 23.". doi:10. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. 124 (6): 903–15. ^ New York ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April . Pharmacol. Raymond & Co. Slippery Business The New Yorker. PMID 17321749.html". http://aje. 12. ^ "www. 18.xml.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07.southafrica.htm. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. http://query. Dennis.46. ^ Riding. Giammanco. Alan (1989-05-21). ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil".23/. Menotti A. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8.southafrica. S. 55 (3): 175–86. (December 1986). 17.1079/NRR200495". J.01. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". 15. Tabacchi. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. M.htm". 19. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud .crazychefs. http://news.23/. http://www. US Customs Department. Retrieved 2008-11-09. Tripoli. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". ^ "www.

telegraph. Toshihiko Osawa. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. A : Wu. Nov.Telegraph". d'Episcopo L. Toshinori Bito. 2085-2090. http://www. Vol. Olives 41. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. 29. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". Nazim U. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms".". No. Poulsen HE.. J Agric Food Chem. but cites no source. Osamu Nikaido. M : Ahmed.1. 19 November 2007 30. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. Etienne N. 1S45-50. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". ". Carcinogenesis. http://www. 21 (1): 45–52. ^ "Quite Interesting . p. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. 10. Guida L. 38. ^ [2] Ichihashi. Pagnol. doi:10. ^ Ferrara LA. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. An Wu. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". JDermatol-Sci.28. p. ^ Rosenblum. 35. (27 March 2000). ^ Mayo Clinic 32. (January 2005). pp. Mar.html. Catherine 36. PMID 15830923. PMID 17110467.videojug.ama-assn. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997).com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2.v. 43. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". Israel". says the 6th millennium in ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary.61. 19.1024/0300-9831. Olea europaea L. doi:10. PMID 17263460.1096/fj.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. André Bervillé. ^ http://www. ^ Mayo Clinic. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". PMID 10737284. 45.75. (January 2007). Masato Ueda. Masamitsu Ichihashi. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). Raimondi AS. 2000.06-6328com. Medina E. et al. ^ Ehud Galili et al. T. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. ^ Turner R. Marotta T. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61– "New Year's Resolution No. Alonso MG. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. p.tchain. Ahmed. Gruendel S. s. Vargas J. et al. Vol.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis"." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. 19.html". 31. 2000. 23.xml.v. Brenes M. 55 (3): 680–6. s. T : Ueda. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. .tchain.1021/jf0630217. A : Bito. doi:10. ^ "www. "olive" and "oil" 40. 1: Prevent Cancer. 21. M : Osawa. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. 39. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. http://www. 11." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. Dello Russo A. ^ Romero C. De Castro A (February 2007). 34. ^ Machowetz A. ^ Pagnol. ^ a b Davidson. Use Olive Oil. Faseb J. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice.. N U : Budiyanto.

ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/ ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe".reshafim. ^ Nigel M. http://www. Processing methods. ^ Thomas F. C. ed. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West.youngmuslims. Scanlon. Riley. Kennell. ^ "www. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Harrington Park Press. 47. ^ F. http://www.youngmuslims.46.crazychefs. pp119–33 50.htm". Verstraete and V.htm. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www.R. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed.). B. 2005 . "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". and Storage life of Minoan olive oil".

crazychefs.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. each the distal end of a carpel. ən] / [ˈsæf.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus).net/ .or hay-like fragrance. crocin. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.[4][5] A carotenoid http://www. Saffron has further medicinal applications. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. A C. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. Saffron. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. sativus flower bears three stigmas.Saffron Saffron crocus C.

sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.98–1. as was once generally believed.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. which means "yellow. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. A corm survives for one season.2 in) in length. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not.5 centimetres (1." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. It is a sterile triploid form. in Central Asia. purple buds appear.crazychefs.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. Being sterile. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms.[11] Upon flowering. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in .[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. and replanted. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. In autumn.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. Only in October. broken apart.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. must be dug up.

dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm http://www. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields.9 in) deep. and corm rot pose other threats. and birds. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. in concert with climate. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka . Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. where annual rainfall averages 1. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. loose. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. Moroccan. rats. Nematodes. Greek. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields.crazychefs. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight.. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. leaf rusts. maximizing sun exposure.8–5. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron.[16] Furthermore. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. are critical factors affecting yields. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. where hot. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates.000–1.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms.e. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. Planting depth and corm spacing.500 mm (39–59 in). Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. they fare poorly in shady conditions. well-watered. low-density.

saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.0.8-carotenoic acid).com http://www.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and various α. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. and thus oil-soluble.11 gr) of dried saffron.8-diapo-8. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. a product results that is itself water-soluble. including zeaxanthin.[19] Meanwhile. .[19] many of which are carotenoids.2 oz of dried saffron). It also has many nonvolatile active components.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.crazychefs. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.and β-carotenes. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). However.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8.

0 3.0 11.0 12.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 9.0–8.0–7.0 http://www.5 10.0 2.0–13.0–1.0–14.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0 6.0 1.0 .0 0.crazychefs.0 12.0 6.0 4.0 6.0–15.0 1.0 8.5 40.0 6.

combined with enzymatic action. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties.Fiber (crude) 5.3-diene-1.0 Source: Goyns 1999.6. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. a volatile oil. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. the heat.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than http://www.4. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of . 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. incidentally.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. Santorini.6-trimethyl-2.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. dried hay like".[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4. When saffron is dried after its harvest. Significantly.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building.[18] Safranal. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.6. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.6. p. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7.

There.000 years.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. Since then.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.[33] potpourris.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.crazychefs. Thus.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. cartwrightianus. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. cough.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. In late Hellenistic Egypt. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos. townspeople in .[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. ointments. mascaras.[28][29] Later. and medical treatments. colic. divine offerings.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. sativus.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. physicians in Gaza. C. a sterile mutant form of C. and in the mithridatium. and scabies.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. emerged in late Bronze Age http://www. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron.

and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. and body washes. a Chinese medical expert.[43] Thus. Isfahan. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. and used in dyes.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir.[51] However.[39][40] Later. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. At such sites. or http://www. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".[44] During his Asian campaigns.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. Wan Zhen. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.Asia The 17.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of . a tome dating from 200–300 BC. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. rice. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. a less expensive dye.crazychefs. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. For example.[53] On the other hand. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. medicines. perfumes. dating to 978–993 AD. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy.[42] ritually offered to divinities. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50.[44] From there. saffron threads were woven into textiles. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions.

indeed. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold.[55] During the 14th century Black Death." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. and executed. and Spain.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. and Italy.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg.[58] Soon after. . tea. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center.[59][60] Only in southern France. did significant cultivation endure. It can be used to aromatise wine. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War".crazychefs.[62] By 1730.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Europe. coffee. and then the saffron is obtained. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. which grew prosperous. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. named for its new specialty crop. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. France. However. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron.saffron is in Kashmir. Italy. under which saffron adulterators were http://www.

European. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. particularly in China and India.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. and in perfumery. Turkish. Central Asian.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Arab. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. .crazychefs. http://www. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing).[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. and antioxidantlike properties. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. Pennsylvania. and chicken or trout dishes. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. and Cornish cuisines.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). Indian. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Medicinally. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa).

various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand.000 flowers.000 threads. flavour. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. in decreasing order of production. Greece. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India.000–75. England.[2] A pound comprises between 70. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.[5] Iran.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide.100/€1. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. . while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.crazychefs.000 per pound (US$1. Spain.000-170.500 per kilogram. they are graded by government-imposed standards. and other countries.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. In Western countries. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 and 200. India. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. slight moistness. the United States. Aside from these. the average retail price is $1.000 flowers. are generally mellower in colour. and aroma.200/£ http://www. France. and Italy.100–11. Switzerland.550 per kilogram). Vivid crimson colouring. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. Annually. are the major producers of saffron. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. Spain's varieties. elasticity. Azerbaijan.500/€7. For example.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram).

which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. picrocrocin.S.. Repeated droughts.some organically grown. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. In the U. aroma. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. is in San Gavino Monreale. and safranal (fragrance) content. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. Sardinia. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. There. and crop failures in Kashmir. http://www. picrocrocin (taste). and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. combined with an Indian export ban.crazychefs.79 in). contribute to its high prices. near L'Aquila.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. unusually pungent aroma. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. blights. it also has very high . Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. among the world's darkest. and safranal content. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. and colourative effect. for quality and quantity.

Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. However. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. and thus a greater colourative intensity. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. aroma. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. with . These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. pomegranate fibers. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. and I (finest quality).[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. red-dyed silk fibers. pliability. and other powders used as diluting fillers.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I).national standards bodies. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. II. traders.[77] However. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0.[80] Thus. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic http://www.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. III. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. in India. many growers. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. paprika.

Grilli Caiola . p. ^ Kumar V (2006). 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. p. p. p. 22. ^ Grigg 1974. p. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. ^ McGee 2004. Honshū. ^ Willard 2001. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. 9. p. http://www. 3. 21. 8. ^ a b Deo 2003. 24. 5. 4. p. 2–3. 14. crocin and safranal. Kansai.Saffron reproductive biology 11. 1. 423. p. p. 23.". .cababstractsplus. http://books. ^ a b c Hill 2004. ^ M. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. Sterling. ^ a b McGee 2004. 6.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). 1. ^ Willard 2001. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. ^ Dharmananda 2005. ^ Deo 2003. p. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 287. 2. 15. pp. ^ a b Deo 2003. 422. 3. 7. ^ Rau 1969. p. ^ a b c d Deo 2003.crazychefs. 17. ^ DPIWE 2005. stigma extracts and their constituents. 53. pp. www. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. 20. 3–4. p. 16. 272.cababstractsplus. ^ Willard 2001. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Harper 2001. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 2. 4. 3.asp? p. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. 19. in mice. 1. 3. http://www. 13. Retrieved 2007-12-01.

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Retrieved on January 10. The Cooking of India. Retrieved on January 10.htm>. Reconstructing History. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. McGee. Retrieved on January 2006.". New>. 2006. 2006. Retrieved on January 10. PMID 2025883 Park. Beacon Press. <http://books.usda. K (2003). 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. 2006.htm>. Retrieved on January 10. USDA Phytochemical Database. P (2001). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen.tarvandsaffron. <http://books. Willard. Cancer Letters 57 (2). <http://www. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". Tarvand Saffron Company. "Grading and Classification". F (2005). Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. <http://www.barc. Tarvand Saffron Company. Retrieved on January 10. Pearce. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.html>. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005).com/irish/saffron.tarvandsaffron. Nair. "Saffron".com/classification. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". SC. al_id=140>. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). <http://www. < . Scribner. Time Life Education. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. 2006[dead link] B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). SR (1969).html>. JB (2005).com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>. H (2004).google. 2006. "What is Saffron?". Tarvand (2005b).McGann.

com http://www.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. Dead Sea. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea . Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.

thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil."[7] indeed. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. The small white flowers. are borne generally on the last year's wood. It is short and squat.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. Its fruit. Asia and parts of Africa. they were reverently preserved for centuries. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. referring to their wooden material. In Homer's Odyssey.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. called xoana. by a spring. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD.[9]. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea.crazychefs. from Lebanon. the olive. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. two stamens and bifid stigma. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down.[1] and in the Iliad. Though. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. .5 cm long. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. the olive suckers readily from the stump. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. endives. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. which he describes as very simple: "As for http://www. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature.(XVII.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. Theophrastus. ca 170 AD.

Chile and Argentina. glory and peace . It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games.The leafy branches of the olive tree . indeed. Over the years. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. spread far and wide by birds. The Book of Jacob 5.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. olives were grown commercially in Crete. as well as olive oil and olives. but he makes clear (in 1.16. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. power and pureness. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures.[12] After the 16th century. Theophrastus. and one of the most significant. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. wisdom. play an important role in the Bible. the olive has been the symbol of peace. As emblems of benediction and purification.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. wild-type olives. The olive tree itself. As far back as 3000 BC.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over.crazychefs. and then in the 18th century in California. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. glory. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. in On the Nature of Plants. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. for which the Greeks had a separate name. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. in both the New and Old Testaments. in regard to the scattering and gathering of . some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. and its cultivation began in Mexico. Peru. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. fertility. kotinos. the pits give rise to thorny. Today. For example. Olive oil has long been considered sacred.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times.

[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. drought-.600 years old.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. which is made into top quality olive oil. has been calculated to be about 1. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. The older an olive tree is. Montenegro. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year).net/ .and fire-resistant. claimed to be over 2. One olive tree in Bar. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus.crazychefs. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. disease. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. and can live for very long. named "Plato's Olive Tree". the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. The age of an olive tree in http://www. Istria in Croatia. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated.000 years old.

Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. In the same natural garden. and. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. a few other millenary trees can be admired. see Olive (fruit).crazychefs. called the "Peisistratos Tree". 1600-2000 years old. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though showing a preference for the coast. Specifically. and the olive fruit. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. Italy. is located by the banks of the Cephisus http://www. All seven trees continue to produce olives. A supposedly even older tree. olive leaf. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. fine wood. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir . have been determined to be over 3000 years old.400 years ago.2. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. According to a recent scientific survey. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. both in Galilee region. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. Modern experience does not always confirm this.6 km) as the limit. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region.

and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. northwest Africa) where winters are mild.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei (Algeria. Olive leaves are used in medicinal http://www. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. Niger. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. Sudan.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the . also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. such as South Africa. Australia. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. Olive plantation in Andalucia.crazychefs. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. Chile. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa).[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. the Mediterranean Basin. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results).5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Israel. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Argentina.

net/ http://www.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

which consists of 1. rounded-oval fruit. often after being pitted. In recent times. stuffed (with pickled pimento. 'Bosana'. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. grown around the world. Rich taste and thick pulp.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to . excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. a large. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. 'Manzanilla'. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. The olive grove of Amfissa. A prolific bearer. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. in southern Spain. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region .com http://www. the most common olive grown on Sardinia.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. originating in Dos Hermanas. It is used mostly for oils.Cailletier cultivar. with purple-green skin. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. but only a few are grown to a large extent. anchovies. Seville. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one.

They are black and generally used for table consumption. large. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). and elongated. 'Empeltre'. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. 'Cornicabra'. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. good for eating and for oil. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. Spain. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. which. originating in the south of France. Due to their highly valued flavour. This small olive. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. disease-resistant. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. originating in the province of Córdoba. comprises about 12% of Spain's production.[23] 'Barnea'. It is green. and coastal climate conditions. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. It is used both for oil and for table olives. Their flavour is mild and nutty. named after the city of Kalamata. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. 'Arbequina'. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. Moreover. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. originating in Toledo.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste.[21] 'Koroneiki'. 'Picual'. medium size. and elongated. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. The flavour is mild and nutty. It has a strong but sweet flavour. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. They grow in any light soil. though difficult to cultivate. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. round. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed].com http://www. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. even on clay if well drained. Greece. good for eating and for oil. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. a small. They are green. originating from the southern Peloponese. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. It is mainly used for oil. Spain. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. The olive is medium sized. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. originating in the south of France (Aude département). used as a table olive. 'Kalamata'. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. a .crazychefs. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. another modern Israeli. 'Nabali'. Spain. 'Souri'. brown olive grown in Catalonia. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. 'Hojiblanca'. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar.

harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. but the time varies in each country. Olives are propagated in various ways. Occasionally. the oliviera. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit.crazychefs. This method is used for olives used for oil. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. removing fruit from the tree. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of . which form small swellings on the stems. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. the trees are regularly pruned. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. A. However. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. P. Another method uses an electric tool. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. being very hard and close-grained. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olives grow very slowly. soon vegetate. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree.) Olives like hot weather. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. More specifically. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and.poorer soil. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. as in Languedoc and Provence. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. 114). In some places in Italy and Greece. and with the season and the cultivar. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. it is valued by woodworkers. up to several centuries. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. and can remain productive for as long. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. They tolerate drought well. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in http://www. to facilitate germination. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. Olive trees can live exceptionally long.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. In Italy. In Greece. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. embryonic buds. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. In southern Europe.

5-2. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water.g. then drained. which can be eaten fresh. through to full purple black ripeness.. a bitter carbohydrate. Typical yields are 1. As a result. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. which leads to a superior finished product. 800 g salt and 300 ml of http://www.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable.2 kg of oil per tree per year. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. The method also involves sawing off branches. or green with hints of colour). the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. large fruit (e. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. which is healthy for future production. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation . This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. Fresh are often sold at markets. After some weeks. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. which is a natural preservative. The olives are soaked in water to wash. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green.crazychefs. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. the creation of lactic acid.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. the fruit is not bruised. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. Olives can be used green. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. which is why they taste milder than green olives.

It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. juniper berries and anchovies. feta. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. an unnatural method. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization.crazychefs. spices. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. Lye-curing. or removing the pit and stuffing them.6 to 8. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. In France and north-central Italy. induces tumour growth in the shoots. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. Cycloconium oleaginum. especially to young trees. and weather A fungus. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. of which the water is changed daily. capsicum (pimento). lemon zest. Pests. Popular flavourings are herbs. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. olive oil. wine. oleae[27]. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. The ten largest producing countries. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. A species of bacterium. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. olives suffer occasionally from frost. chili. garlic cloves. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. causing great damage to http://www. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. salt-curing. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. brine-curing and fresh watercuring.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. but can be left to cure for up to three .[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. lemon juice. Sometimes. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. diseases. leaving sawtooth damage. their main predators are wasps. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. vinegar.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves.

4.000 280.685 765. most notably South Australia. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication. p.988 500.6 31. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures. 27. Description of Greece 1.1 25. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.160.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.317.3 8.000 594. ^ Theophrastus.000 1.000 275.crazychefs.7 27.1). 6.400.000 430.800.830 2.981 1. 7.8 16. On the Causes of Plants.000 550.300. ^ Pausanias.5 63.4 30.000 998. 38.000 250. Ancient Greek Agriculture.000 http://www. 82..000 1.597. and to cultivate olive-trees. An introduction. 1992. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.0 3.000 470. Bibliotheke. 2.3 20.888 178.064 2. 1 )..140. 5. 5.13.. 1). 3. to make bee-hives.149. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves. Odyssey.000 498. 4.100 3.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.089 6.339 .500. book 5". ^ "." (Herodotus. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.[31] References 1. ^ Homer.5 6. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 81. 3.14.000 8. 1.000 318. 4. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.000 20. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants." (Diodorus Siculus.9 6..

. Epikouria Magazine. Processing methods. ^ Muncipality Bar. Juárez. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.15. rev.brijuni. Rackham.. ^ [1] 21. EspasaCalpe S. Tabak & O." Horace. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. Number 4). ca 30 BC 9. & Ouazzani. Retrieved 2009-05-18. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana.8. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair http://www. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Ellen. 32:166–169. J. 1996. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. ^ Lumaret. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. Moody. 35. vol. ^ "Old Olive Tree". Pseudomonas syringae subsp. Volume 18:27-35 20. ^ Riley. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. 17. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 4th edition. 24.jsp. Int. Simhoni. Retrieved 2007-03-10.. ^ Belaj et al. Available through Google Books 11.crazychefs. ^ "Me pascunt http://www.fao. nom. R. 28. Leshonenu (Hebrew). ^ Balfour. (1999) Ancient Trees. J. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". 23. Masuelli.. Syst. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil".31. Australian Olives. & Parker. Spring/Summer 2006 .W. M Bauza & R. D. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". Brijuni National Park. 69.. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. p. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. John Hutton. 2001. 13. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. ^ a b M. Bacteriol. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. N. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. Retrieved 2007-08-31.pasoroblesolivefestival. ^ http://apps3. ^ O. 105. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. me cichorea levesque malvae. Riley (2002).springerlink. J. Apps3.zatoun. 1981. Retrieved 2007-08-31. http://www. ^ http://www. Elena "Unusual Olives". ^ Fotiadi. http://www. Zatoun. Epikouria Magazine.279 18. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares.cit. 1999. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea 25. Kislew. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. Y. Volume 15. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". ^ Burr. 1779. cited in F. AGRISCIENTA. 29 April. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". ^ Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. op. 30. M. p. J.aspx?PageID=151.A. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. 29. pp 110–113. Odes 1. (September 2002). Madrid. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. A. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. E. 2004". R. 1982. ^ Gooch. nov. ^ "FAO.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. Cavagnaro P.

The leaves are lanceolate.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. and south to northern Mexico. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. L. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm .31." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. glossy green. Corresponding to its species name. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. seldom produces flowers. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. however. (French tarragon.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L.R. western North America. with an entire margin. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. with slender branched stems. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review.crazychefs. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L.

The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce.[1] Russian tarragon (A. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. and particularly suitable for chicken.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. by extension. dracunculoides L.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety.crazychefs. Russia and Ukraine. but cannot be grown from seed. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fresh. sunny spot. Georgia and. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. A perennial. It is normally purchased as a plant. it normally goes dormant in winter. Persian and Russian word for .com http://www.[1] It likes a hot. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin.[1] However. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of . but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. due to the presence of estragole. which is the Armenian. fish and egg dishes. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. Spreading plant can be divided easily. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. without excessive watering.

Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. ^ a b c d McGee. ISBN 9783527607891. pp. References http://www. Wiley-VCH. Rose Marie Nichols. The Bountiful Container. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S.Cis-Pellitorin. Properties and Uses. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring.[3] In Slovenia. Horst. 2. 3. . Maggie (2002). has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Ley JP. ^ Surburg. Stuckey.crazychefs. Krammer G. ^ Gatfield IL. Workman Publishing. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. Foerstner J. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Machinek A. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Johannes Panten (2006). 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

grayish leaves. Lamiaceae. Kitchen sage. sage has a slight peppery flavor. It is a member of the mint family. cheeses (Sage Derby). Germans often use it in sausage dishes. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. Garden sage. with woody stems. Common sage. Purple sage. In Western . In French cuisine. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. Culinary sage. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). In the Balkans and the Middle East. In the United States. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. and some drinks. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. Broadleaf sage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. and blue to purplish flowers. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. though other species. Britain and Flanders. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable http://www. it is used when roasting mutton. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Dalmatian sage.Salvia officinalis (Sage. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe.

oleic acid. and tonic. hypoglycemic. niacin. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. borneol. chlorogenic acid. antibiotic.more trichomes are visible on this side. flavones. antifungal. The underside of a sage leaf .com http://www. salvia.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf .net/ . caffeic acid. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. flavonoid glycosides. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. and estrogenic substances. antispasmodic. cornsolic acid. means ―to heal".trichomes are visible. ursolic acid. cornsole. astringent.crazychefs. ursonic acid.[1] In a double blind. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. estrogenic.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. fumaric acid. and thujone. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which contains cineole. nicotinamide. The Latin name for sage.

com/nutri/page8453.crazychefs. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. 'Extrakta'. Khani M. a styptic.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. a cultivar with white.appliedhealth. emmenagogue. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. increasing women's fertility. (2003). monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. Dioscorides. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. yellow and green variegated leaves. 'Icterina'. hemostatic. a local anesthetic for the skin. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. a white-flowered cultivar. 2.x. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. Pliny. a cultivar with large leaves. Theophrastus wrote about two different http://www. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 'Berggarten'.php.2003. Noroozian M. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. and tonic. Retrieved 2008-02-04. 'Tricolor'. and for other uses. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. and more. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. snakebites. Mohammadi M. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. especially in sunny dry environments. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. Ohadinia S. They are easily raised from summer cuttings.1365-2710. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". a wild undershrub he called sphakos. ^ Akhondzadeh S. and used as a diuretic. 'Alba'.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. ^ a b c "Sage". a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. a purple-leafed cultivar.[4] It was sometimes called S. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. doi:10. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. Jamshidi AH. References 1. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). PMID 12605619. http://www.1046/ .00463. Applied Health.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. and for low ground cover. OBeWise Nutriceutica. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. 'Lavandulaefolia'. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. a small leaved cultivar.

4. Deni Bown (New York: DK. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" . CRC Press. pp. ISBN 9789058230058. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3. ^ a b Kintzios.crazychefs. Spiridon E. (2000). Sage: The Genus Salvia. 10-11. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. p.

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