Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. Thyme. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. In French cuisine. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Persian. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. tomatoes and http://www. Italian. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. which is due to its content of thymol. Dried. Lebanese. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. As a rule of thumb. Greek. and Turkish cuisines. fresh thyme is often available year-round. the whole sprig may be used (e. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. It tolerates drought well. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. Syrian. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and . It can be propagated by seed. Depending on how it is used in a dish. or by the sprig. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. cuttings.crazychefs. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. storage life is rarely more than a week. and of herbes de Provence. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. Portuguese. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Spanish.a little less if it is ground. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Libyan. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. In some Levantine countries. soups and stews. Albanian. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves.g. assume that it means fresh. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. and in those derived from them.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. while flavourful. While summer-seasonal. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. Leaves are often chopped. in a bouquet garni).

[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis.[6] Thymol. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. etc.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. it was used to medicate bandages. tisane. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb.crazychefs. It also has medicinal uses. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full . The dried equivalent is 1:3. Because it is antiseptic. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme.[5] As with bay. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed].estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. pulegioides × http://www. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. hybrid T. but is grown as a ground cover. an antiseptic. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. All thyme species are nectar sources. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. salve. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails.

ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually http://www. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times .Variegated lemon thyme. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity.

net/ . neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum http://www.

B2) 0. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is common in Middle Eastern.3 g 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates . B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.1 mg recommendations for adults.0 mg Vitamin K http://www. B3) 1.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.8 g 3.0 mg Iron 6.9 g . although parsley has a milder flavor.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.1 mg 6.Dietary fiber 3.0 μg Calcium 138. B1) 0.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 .Sugars 0.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.0 mg Phosphorus 58. and American cooking.crazychefs.1 mg Folate (Vit. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro). European. often used as spice. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.2 mg Magnesium 50.

Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. it attracts predatory insects. tuberosum).Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. While parsley is biennial. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. parsnip meaning "forked turnip".[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. neapolitanum). as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. or flat leaf (P. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). Although little known in Britain and the United States. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. http://www. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. it is not related to real turnips. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. which then tend to protect plants nearby. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. not blooming until its second year. used in soups and stews. Like many other . they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. reducing pest attraction. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. For example.crazychefs. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. which helps accommodate the long taproot.

com/npc/parsley.[3] Parsley is high (1. 2007. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. ^ a b c John W. In addition. lamb or goose. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins." West Virginia University Extension Service. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. parsley is part of bouquet garni. steaks. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. with fish. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. "Parsley on plucodes. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies.crazychefs. In Southern and Central Europe. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. soups. References 1. Last retrieved April 26. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines.aspx?id=1075&s=4. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. Ossobuco alla milanese. Goulash or Chicken paprikash).net/ . and sauces. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. [1]) in oxalic acid. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. leaf. 2. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. e. garlic. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. http://www. Jett. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3.drugs. or 4900. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. Parsley as an oil.70% by mass. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian http://www. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. and lemon zest.".html. 4. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf).. root. fried chicken.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. a mixture of". "That Devilish Parsley.plucodes.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899.

Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.

net/ .crazychefs. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.

native to Europe. Oregano is an important culinary herb. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy . Unlike most Italian herbs. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. and lovage leaves. Together with basil. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. spicy flavor. as well as cultivars. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. growing to 20-80 cm tall.g.crazychefs. which is popular in southern Italy. of the mint family. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. The flowers are http://www. fried vegetables. O vulgare gracile. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). and to add a nice. e. 3-4 mm long. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. capers. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. Greek. and grilled meat. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. each with distinct flavours.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. Oregano growing in a field.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. Spanish and in Italian cuisine.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. It is a perennial herb. produced in erect spikes.

especially for mutton and lambs meat. In the Philippines.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. which. together with paprika. warm and slightly bitter taste. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. however. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. West Asia) have similar flavors. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. useful for relieving children's coughs. Asia Minor) and O. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation.crazychefs. differs significantly in taste. it can be usually found on table. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. It has an aromatic. heracleoticum (Italy. The influence of climate. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil.[5][6] Additionally. Balkan peninsula. salt and pepper. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. In Turkish Cuisine. Oregano growing in a pot. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the http://www. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some . It varies in intensity.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity.

dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. Coleus aromaticus).[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. indigestion.Main constituents include carvacrol. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. mild fevers. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. stomachic and mildly tonic. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). this latter is used in at least one Old English work. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". this substitution would not work the other way round. and caryophyllene. stimulant. Plectranthus amboinicus. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. limonene. A Cretan oregano (O. influenza. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. enteric parasites. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large http://www. cholagogue. thymol. Used topically. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. ^ http://www. useful for relieving children's coughs. stomach upsets.[7] and painful menstruation. capsules. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". including Poliomintha longiflora. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. expectorant. emmenagogue. especially in the United States. carminative. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. ocimene. but is usually stronger. pinene.crazychefs. diaphoretic. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. Aqueous extracts.[12] References 1. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds.uni-graz.[8] Hippocrates.html. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. ^ Organic Gardening 2. In the Philippines. Lippia berlandieri. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. also called Cuban oregano. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. fungal infections. antispasmodic. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. . the father of medicine. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed].

php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. Leonor. 12.2008. draft revision for "origanum". 11. 24 November 2008.crazychefs. Medical News Today. draft revision for "organum". doi:10. (01 May 2003). ^ Epikouria Magazine. 28. PMID 12730411.php. 133 (5): 1286– http://jn. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. http://www.10. (Cav. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". Fall/Winter 2007 10. ^ Oregano Herb Profile http://www. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".". 6. (2005).asp?item=1374&year=2008.1021/jf0510079. 53 (21): 8162–8168. 7. PMID 16218659. Retrieved 2008-11-26. Food Chem. http://info. Agric. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. University of the West of England. Retrieved 200811-26. J.uwe. ^ Dragland. ^ Epikouria Magazine. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project".) and Origanum vulgare L. Fall/Spring 2007 June 2008. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum ^ ["http://www. et al. Draft revision for "oregano". J Nutr. et al. ^ a b March 2009.

however.[2] In Greek mythology. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. perennial. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). the diminutive of fenum or faenum. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Ferula communis. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now".Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. The Latin word for the plant was . As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). recorded in the 10th century. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. bulb-like stem base that is used as a http://www. meaning "hay". and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). it seems. umbelliferous herb. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. it was from the giant fennel. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. It is a hardy. In Ancient Greek. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. This came from the Old English fenol or finol.crazychefs. Also.

and grows to heights of up to 2.5 mm wide.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates .64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. glaucous green.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. about 0. It is erect. half as wide or less. and grooved.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit. B3) 0.047 mg Folate (Vit.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. with hollow stems.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. but thinner.01 mg 7. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron . B2) 0.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.20 g 1. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike).032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.Dietary fiber 3. bulb. they are finely dissected.29 g 0.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.5 m. B1) 0.

the United States. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. by the late 19th century.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. It is of cultivated origin. which is also known by several other names. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. In North American supermarkets. and in other open sites in many regions. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in pastures. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. but is more aromatic and sweeter. vulgare var. it is often mislabelled as "anise". Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. It propagates well by seed. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. both raw and cooked. "bronze-leaved" fennel. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. though usually not as strong.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. . notably the Italian name finocchio. for its edible. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds.crazychefs.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. both in its native range and elsewhere. syn. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. including northern Europe.20 mg Manganese http://www.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. in side dishes. mouri in Bengali. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. fish. pastas. or cooked in risotto. often tossed with chicory and avocado. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. stewed. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. Many egg. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. sompu in Telugu. anise-flavoured spice. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye . or eaten raw. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). The bulb is a crisp. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed.Fennel. but also the most expensive.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. green seeds are optimal. though smaller. which are very similar in taste and appearance. and risottos. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. where bulbs and fronds are used. For cooking.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. foliage. salads. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. braised. badesoppu in Kannada. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. grilled. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise.crazychefs. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. brown or green in colour when fresh. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. both raw and cooked. variyali in Gujarati. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. It may be blanched or marinated. or it can be braised and served as a warm side http://www.

used to ease flatulence in infants.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. also employed as a carminative. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder.[12] For http://www. sometimes with some sweetener. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. This use. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which can explain some of its medical effects: it.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. although not supported by direct evidence.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. act as phytoestrogens. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. Fennel seeds are also eaten . Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. Fennel tea. or its polymers.crazychefs. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. as it is said to improve eyesight. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.

badian (star anise). There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.crazychefs. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. fennel and coriander. followed by India. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. which promote growth of breast tissue. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C.[17] However.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by .

in the original Sinhala. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫.crazychefs. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. In http://www.[3] In Sri Lanka. In Telugu. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon.C. itself ultimately from Phoenician. cinnamon is known as kurundu. Ceylon. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. which are often called cinnamon too.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. In Bengali.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum.[5] In Malayalam.[2] In Marathi. it is called "Darchini" ( ). In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. it is known as "DalChini ( )". the "real' cassia.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. native to Sri Lanka. In Farsi (Persian). and in Gujarati taj. Hindi. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. it is called Dalchina Chakka. it is called darchin (‫. Chakka meaning bark or wood. synonym . zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae.

24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil.crazychefs. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. and in Song of Solomon. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the http://www.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. in Proverbs.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. cinnamon is native to Sri . When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. a song describing the beauty of his beloved.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. aloe and cinnamon.

The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270.Ages. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. took control of the factories by 1640. They established a trading post in 1638. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. 7–18 cm (2. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. The flowers. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. which are arranged in panicles. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. "The shores of the island are full of it".[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. a Dutch captain reported. p.75–7. and coffee. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. sugar.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. and used them to construct their nests.8–49.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of http://www. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to . However. tea. although in the first century. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. have a greenish color. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. and have a distinct odor.2 feet) tall. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. in a letter of about 1292.1 inches) long. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score." (Braudel 1984.

smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. Madagascar. Only the thin (0. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Chips are trimmings of quills. and Egypt. Vietnam. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. verum). which is left to dry. India. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. the West Indies. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sumatra. According to the International Herald . and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. the outer woody portion is removed. Zanzibar. Java. and Vietnam. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. followed by China.[15] According to the FAO. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed http://www. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special.crazychefs. Brazil. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. Bangladesh. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. The next year. eg.5 mm) inner bark is used.

using only the thin inner bark.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. However. and is considered to be less strong than cassia. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon".com http://www. the related species. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name . Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi).[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Vietnamese cinnamon". and more crumbly texture. or "Indonesian cinnamon". and thicker (2–3 mm thick).[16] Ceylon cinnamon. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum).crazychefs.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. for example. many websites. has a finer. zeylanicum). (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . as all of the layers of bark are used. is generally a medium to light reddish brown. hard and woody in texture. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. less dense.

donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. but when cassia is present. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. especially apples. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. hot cocoa. used in a variety of thick soups.crazychefs. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. and fruits. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. bread-based dishes. In the Middle East. capable of damaging a spice or coffee . It is of a golden-yellow color. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. True cinnamon. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. It is used in the preparation of http://www. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. and then quickly distilling the whole.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. drinks. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. such as apple pie. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. are easily distinguished. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. In the United States. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. a deep-blue tint is produced. ‫. macerating it in seawater. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. when whole.5% to 1% of its composition. The two barks. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. tea.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. especially in Mexico. and liqueurs. and sweets. rather than cassia. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch).

who failed.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae.crazychefs. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. beta-caryophyllene. linalool.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. The Cinnamon Challenge.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect .[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. cassia. In Hoodoo. ^ a b "Cinnamon". Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Encyclopaedia Britannica. and Myanmar (Burma). However. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits).[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. cinnamaldehyde. and money. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. luck. cinnamyl acetate.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. http://www. and methyl chavicol[citation needed].[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae.and a very hot aromatic taste. eugenol. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. although it remains untested. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. and anethole.[34] Notes 1. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system.0. love. few seem able to succeed.

http://www. ^ "Cassia.html#pg598. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health _of_life/html/1. J. ^ Knox. ^ http://www. retrieved 2008-07-15 http://www. revised ed. retrieved 2007-05-01 19.henriettesherbal. The History of Food. ^ Mancini-Filho J. Harvey.en. 437f.php? Breyne) extracts".CO%3B2-N 13. Sir James Emerson. ^ [1] 16. http://www. p. Account of the Island of Ceylon. Encyclopedia of Spices. doi:10. Cinnamomum.437. 53 (17): 6939–46. Food Chem. http://www. ^ Yule. ^ http://links. ^ Tennent. Henry. Cozzolino Col. Emily. ^ Shan B. J. Sun M. 437). tr. ^ The Epicentre.—Cinnamon. http://lakdiva.html. ^ http://www. retrieved 200807-15 6. ^ Toussaint-Samat vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains".org/docrep/007/ae017e/ 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Food Chem. Torres RP (December 1998). Cinnamon." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". Van-Koiij A. ^ Felter. An Historical Relation Of The Island .com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent thespicehouse. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 23. ^ http://news. p. PMID 16104824. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. 9.1021/jf051513y.jstor. Corke H (October 2005). Cai YZ.1021/jf050709v. doi:10. "Solid. PMID 10077878. Agric. 10. http://dsr.0.stm 3. ^ Harris. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. retrieved 200705-01 21. ^ http://www. 8. Robert.htm 20. Mancini DA. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. 2009. PMID 16190627.theepicentre. Agric. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Nerín C (August 2005). 22. ^ [2] ^ http://findarticles.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. Cathay and the Way p.2. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. Batlle R. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. p. 53 (20): 7749–59.html.htm. ^ López P. 437 7.html.npr. Anthea Bell. Sánchez C.

Retrieved 2007-12-17.3. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206.1. Anderson RA (December 2003). "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". ^ Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8..113. July 2000. www. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica.pdf.nutrition. Eugen J.3.2337/diacare. 26. doi:10. Medicinal Seasonings. Retrieved 2008-05-11. ^ Yronwode. retrieved 200705-01 32.1643. http://care. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography"..1016/00219673(88)90035-0. Eleventh Edition. 30. retrieved 200705-01 25.1.sciencedaily. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". Braudel. ^ Verspohl. ^ George Mateljan Foundation. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by http://www. Cinnamon. New York: Kodansha International. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. 33. Ali Khan MM. Safdar M. 27.2217/14750708.24. Muhammad et Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ [3].php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). Fernand (1984). PMID 14633804. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF) Kristof et al.. doi:10. Charles (1998). Agricultural Research magazine.2217/14750708.whfoods.futuremedicine. Khattak KN. http://www. 34. ^ Vanschoonbeek. http://www.lesliebeck.html?source=r_health. http://www. Archer (1988). The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. a publication now in the public domain. Research: Thalido.redorbit.1002/ptr.sciencedaily. Alan W. http://www. ^ Khan A. The Perspective of the World.26. 29. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". ^ 28. s_have_been/index.luckymojo. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism.htm. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). Retrieved 200808-05. Corn. http://jn. Akram et al. ^ . "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro".. doi:10. (2005).my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. ground.. Cat. Retrieved 200805-11. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".3215. doi:10. et "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".diabetesjournals. Retrieved 2008-05-11.

Fritsch & Matin from Iran. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. Onions can be used.Department of Export Agriculture. which it is not.M. They are now available in fresh. and dehydrated http://www. They are known by the common name "onion" but. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. used without qualifiers."[3] Uses Onions. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. chopped.crazychefs. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. . pickled. powdered. it usually refers to Allium cepa. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. one of the oldest vegetables. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. and Allium asarense R. frozen. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber.

In ancient Greece. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. and also to relieve headaches. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. However. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish.crazychefs. transported and stored.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. due to toxicity during . Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. spicy. recent evidence has shown that dogs. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC.chopped or sliced. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. http://www.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". an onion can be sharp. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. In Bronze Age settlements. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. snakebite and hair loss.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5] The onion is easily propagated.[5] However. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. cats. Depending on the variety. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood.

5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .crazychefs. B1) 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.1 g 89.monounsaturated 0. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.02 mg Vitamin K .com http://www.34 g 0. B3) 0.Sugars 4.7 g Fat .027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. 0 μg 9.polyunsaturated 0. B2) 0.1 g 1.042 g .saturated 0.21 mg Magnesium 0.4 mg Vitamin E 0.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Dietary fiber 1.24 g .11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.013 g .

This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Empire Sweet.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. Imperial Valley Sweet. Empire Sweet. Northern Red. pungent yellow (New York Bold). Texas 1015. Empire Sweet. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. Imperial Valley Sweet. anticholesterol.crazychefs. Western Yellow. and Vidalia. followed by Western Yellow. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee . Texas 1015. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. For all varieties of onions. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. Western http://www. Peruvian Sweet.[10] In many parts of the world. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. eleven times the amount found in Western White. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. Western White. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. Peruvian Sweet. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. Mexico. In general. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. Texas 1015. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. If you are allergic to onions.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. Imperial Valley Sweet. Mexico. Shallots have the most phenols.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. and other diseases. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. Peruvian Sweet. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. Mexico.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. In the United States. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. osteoporosis. Northern Red. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. and Vidalia.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. diabetes. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. However. anticancer.

leeks. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. limiting the amount of gas generated. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. where it binds to sensory neurons. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. http://www. mouth and throat ulcerations. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. 2008. all present in garlic. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation.include reactions to onions. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. breathing difficulties.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. it can lead to an allergic reaction. chives. On January 31. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from . Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. and bananas. garlic.crazychefs. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). creating a stinging sensation. garden lilies. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. cells are broken. ginger. Eye irritation can. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. As onions are sliced or eaten.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. allylmercaptan and allicin. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. The volume of sulfenic acids released. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. diarrhea. and the irritation effect. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. therefore.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. shallots. differs among Allium species. allylpropyldisulfide. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling.

Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. "short-day" onions. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. which have been developed in more recent times. the Welsh onion. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. which are the leaves and/or immature plants.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb . Finally. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. Allium fistulosum. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. more commonly today. which can be planted directly in the ground. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. from sets started from seed the previous year. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" http://www.

758 Russia . Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). a hybrid of Allium cepas.Produce bulblets in the flower head.637 Japan Egypt 1.346 2.764 Pakistan 1. Oregon (USA).149 Spain World Total 64.302 1.220 Turkey 1. Tree onion or Egyptian onion . bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.750 South Korea 1. Vale. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.793 India 5.500 China United States 3. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple http://www.crazychefs. each of which forms a bulb. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.

It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near . passed in 1958.crazychefs.The Onion Futures Act. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced http://www. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. It remains in effect as of 2009. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. known as garlic. leek. and chive. commonly known as garlic. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Medical Botany. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. shallot. Allium sativum. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. the most commonly used part of the . Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. Its close relatives include the onion. It has a characteristic pungent. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae.crazychefs. from William Woodville.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called http://www.[1] A bulb of garlic. 1793.

They can suffer from pink root. and for medicinal purposes. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". "crow garlic". Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. The papery. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. The leaves. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. for consumption (raw or cooked). and Allium oleraceum. India (4. accounting for over 77% of world output.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. Garlic plants can be grown close together."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. the so-called elephant garlic. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). respectively.Yunnan province of China. are common weeds in fields. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. with Russia (1. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars.crazychefs. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. stems (scape). which grows wild in southwestern Asia.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. Garlic is grown globally. Allium .[5] The "wild garlic". In North America. with approximately http://www. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. according to Zohary and Hopf. In cold climates. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". The cloves are used as seed.

south Asia. northern Africa. or ginger.crazychefs. semiofficial.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. F = FAO estimate. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.000 254. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. tomato. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. Southeast Asia. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. including eastern Asia.000 128.088. It is often paired with onion.000 125. California. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy.000 221.000 645. A = aggregate (may include official. C = calculated figure. the Middle East.000 142.4%). P = official figure.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or estimates). southern Europe.000 325.Alaska) in fifth place (1.810 168. and parts of South and Central America. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.400 140.686.000 http://www. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) .

Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. or vegetables. meats. They are also known as "garlic spears". crostini and canapé. called black garlic. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. oil. .com http://www. Blending garlic. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. In eastern Europe.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. "stems". Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. salt. The leaves are cut. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. almond. In some cuisine. and a chunky base produce skordalia. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. and roast them in an oven. Garlic. and is now being sold in the United States. is sweet and syrupy. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. In Japan and Korea. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. the resulting product. garlic toast. and then stir-fried with eggs. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. meat.crazychefs. and spices. cleaned. United Kingdom and Australia. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. breads and pasta. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. oil. Immature scapes are tender and edible. or "tops".


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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com http://www. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. The herb is. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. leeks. werewolves. forming allyl methyl sulfide. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. such as pistou. deterring animals like birds. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. Humans. and release of AMS several hours more.[50] In Europe. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. insects. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. making garlic much more potent than onions. including onions. all present in garlic. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". garden lilies. included in many garlic recipes. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. garlic. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. allylpropyldisulfide. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. However. Since digestion takes several hours. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. hung in windows. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. persillade.[51] To ward off vampires. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. where it is cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. ginger. thus mellowing its spiciness. or leeks. however. Among the members of the onion family. and bananas. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). allylmercaptan and allicin. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. However. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. garlic could be worn. chives. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. and worms from eating the plant.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. shallots. and vampires.[48] Due to its strong odor. shallots. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. When eaten in quantity. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. usually enjoy these sensations.crazychefs. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. therefore.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of . This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden.

are largely unknown. saquinavir. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. Editing help is available.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). calcium channel blockers.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. . allergic reactions. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. nausea. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. antiparasitic value of garlic.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. and diarrhea.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. However. You can help by converting this article to prose. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. if appropriate.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. antihypertensives.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. Garlic can thin the blood. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial http://www.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. minimal risks to normal individuals. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. In connection with the odor associated with garlic.In Daoism mythology. indicated Muhammad.crazychefs. similar to the effect of aspirin. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. emesis. if any exist. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. dizziness. as well as other medications. sweating. at worst. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. bleeding. and menstrual irregularities. indigestion.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. and hypoglycemic drugs. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi".

Retrieved 5 June 2009. J. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. In particular.handle.html 8.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. Domestication of plants in the Old World.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. 2000). 197 5. http://hdl. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. ^ McGee p.html.htm. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. including naturopathic uses and acne split. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. including burns to children.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. G. "Influence of storage duration on field http://www.jhortscib. http://www. Notes 1. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. ^ ^ http://www. et al.nj. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23).crazychefs. (2004). 397 6. A bulb of garlic. 3.unigraz.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. Retrieved 2007-08-28.natural-holistic-health. garlick)". 112 7. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. topical use of raw garlic.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. et al. ^ a b 9. 2. bigger. 4. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. ^ a b c d Tabor.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. Ethiopia". (2005). one the bulbs will grow . third edition (Oxford: University Press. is discouraged. p. Retrieved 5 maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L.

1186/1476-511X-6-5. PMID 17123684. Akrami M (March 2007). "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". PMID 17328819. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). 20. ^ Benavides GA. July 1. Arch. Lin RS (June 1998).346. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. Better Nutrition. PMID 15277094. 34. Facts. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health .crazychefs. 28. 2005 ^ Groppo. 21. 14. ^ a b Steiner M. 31. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. 27. J. Biochem. Ferraresi. (p..1097/00005344-199806000-00014. ^ Chan KC. Olcay E. F. Aytaç B. (Mrs. Arch. et al (February 2007). Herald Publishing Co.1001/archinte. N. ^ Borrelli F. 11.).org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346. Squadrito GL." Int. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic".200700072. Garlic.1002/mnfr. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". P. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". 15. Güven C (2002).1073/pnas. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. Dent. ^ Durak I. Sci. PMID 15157944. Accessed: December 18. 5:109–115. Ramacciato. ^ Goodbye. 2006. 23.1162/106361403773062678.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux.. 29.. Sova P (May 2004). Izzo AA (November 2007). Natl. doi:10. and Mary U. doi:10. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. [2] ^ Hamel. A. 25. Proc. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". 12. Capasso 54 | P a g e http://www. doi:10. Maud. Hyg. Sartoratto. . PMID 2291748. Mills RW.C. http://archinte. 5. et al (November 2007).lehoux/Tropes. Block E. Daryn (2003). Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. et al (June 2004). Nutr. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. PMID 15218732.4. 17. Med. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6.200700058.167. Kavutcu M. doi:10. Yin MC. 26. Paul B. http://personalpages. ^ Mader FH (October 1990). PMID 17951430. J. Acad.4.A 400 Year History. and Empiricism" (PDF). "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets.325. doi:10. doi:10.1001/archinte.. "Tropes. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . Intern. 24. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. doi:10. 167 (4): 325–6. ^ Gardner CD. 33. Vosoughi AR. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". 15 (6): 373–7.2004.pdf. 167 (4): 346–53.005. A Modern Herbal. Intern. 22. 30. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". 32. http://archinte. PMID 17325291.manchester. PMID 9641475. ^ Durak I. ^ Kojuri J. Lawson LD. 19.A.167.jnutbio. ^ Charlson M. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits".ama-assn.1016/j. 104 (46): 17977–82. Sylva. McFerren M (February 2007). "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. Med. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M.. J. Oztürk HS. "Garlic (Allium sativum L.10. PMID 17325296. 16.S. PMID 17966136.ama-assn. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". 18.01.0705710104. doi:10. Chao WJ (March 2007). R. PMID 17918162.1002/mnfr. 13. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44.

National Health Service.. ^ John Steckelberg JM. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic doi:10.unito. Sterling Publishing. Nishimura Aon MA.28095-0. 2007. ^ Garlic . Jordan W. Long D. Retrieved December 7. ^ Macpherson et al. 40. 58. 38. ^ Oi Y. 211 51. Kominato David (2003). http://linkinghub.jst. ^ McGee p. Imafuku M. Matuura H. Passa O. ^ http://www. PMID 11600262.htm 44. 39. http://linkinghub. 4 . ISBN 0-395-65783-0. ^ Alnaqeeb .Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. ^ Shuford JA.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. a stress compound from garlic. doi:10. et al (October 2005). PMID 8441577. Lett.go. UK Medicines Information. Patel R (January 2005). Thomson M. (1991-08-01).jlc.January 29. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. 42.) 62. ^ Macpherson et al. 120. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".elsevier. 049 .sgmjournals. on mutagenesis.html 45.blogspot. PMID 11481410. http://aac.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ^ http://www. Raymond T (1994). "Garlic burns". Bordia T. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". Castro C. ^ a b c Yamasaki T.. Antimicrob.. ^ Baruchin AM. (1989-01-30).49. http://mic. 41. ^ McNally p. Agents Chemother. Engl. 52. 49 (1): 473.". "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). PMID Lau B. Shishido C. Volume W. ^ Health Canada . "Garlic burns". AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. Slattery M. 65. 122. Retrieved December 7. section "Conclusion" 48. 211. ^ a b c d Hogg.2005. Fuwa T. 2007. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.html 54. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".html 46.elsevier. 66. 43. (2001). "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet." DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". ^ a b McNally..1099/ ^ Fareed G. Sanders N.economicexpert. Houghton Mifflin. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. p.. Retrieved 2009-01-30. Summer 2005 .jp/JST. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ronen M (November 2001). "Allixin.pdf. http://joi. Jennifer (2002-12-13).) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.1128/AAC. ^ Bukhari. PMID 16207909.go. In Search of Dracula. Chesson C. "Effect of allixin.. Complementary Medicines Summary. Retrieved 2007-0707. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. NLM Gateway.Garlic-in-Oil 61. ^ Kodera Y. Itakura Y. ISBN 0-30436561-0. 53.jst. 49. ^ University of Maryland Garlic Microbiology (Reading. 310–311 47. Scolaro M. http://www. Yoffe B. Teel R.Vol 9 No. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. Book 65 57. James.473. http://joi. Ali M (June 1996). Sumida T. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases H. ^ Pickering. garlic advisory 63.goldbamboo. PMID 15616341. ^ http://washokufood. ^ Lemar KM. p. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. Yoshida S. 64. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). Nishino H. Iwai K. ^ http://lem. Sagi A.. 85 (3): 157–64. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9.0. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter.asm. PMC: 538912. Toxicol. Pickering p.

.net/ . Yukihiro Kodera. A. J. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖.Garlic. M. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". M. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent.. "Garlic burns". Hort. Gardner. McMahon FG (June 1993). Vol. H. (2000). Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. D. I. L. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. H. D.. A.. D. (2001). [3] Yukihiro Kodera. Isao Sumioka. (2004). S. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. 50. L. Balise.. Zhang. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study".. Jiro Yoshida. (1996). C. J. PMID 9247357. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. 'Kyolic'.-Z.P. Kraemer. Hile. Garty BZ (March 1993). D. Pharm. L.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. 354-363 (2002). Jain AK. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). E. PMID 8506890. L. Rabinowitch (2004). Z. Susumu Yoshida.[青森県産]. Koch. D. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203.. (1992). Pharm. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Block. and Related Species (Second Edition).. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. Selfsufficientish . Gotzkowsky S. Chatterjee. Bull... Lawson.. Hamilton. R. [4] Lawson. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. Makoto Ichikawa. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Campbell JH (July 1997). P. Naoto Uda. http://linkinghub. Block. Am. Campbell GR.. K. Sci.. Bull. G. Lloyd. J. 3rd ed. A. The chemistry of garlic and onions. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. 94 (6): 632–5. E. http://circ.ahajournals. H. Breithaupt-Grögler K. Kiazand. Masanori Ayabe. Med. 129: 144–151.crazychefs. Retrieved 1 May 2005. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". New York: Avery. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. C. 405-407 (2002).com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6. Simmons DL. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. A. and H. Soc. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. Boudoulas H. Chem. Z.M. Am. Block. Turner. L. Vargas R. Efendy JL. Ling M. Shafir. Block.elsevier. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. Kamenetsky.. Williams & Wilkens. Lemar. Garlic.References Japanese garlic. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. Andy (2004). 50. Barzilay. Zemah. (1985). Belz GG (October 1997). PMID 9355906. R. Lawson. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Chem. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Vol.. Shan. P. Balch. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Kozue Ogasawara. E. Naoki Kashimoto. Wang. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. PMID 8441577. E.

473. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. Michael Bandell. Yeh. D. Steckelberg JM. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.K. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). PMC: 538912. Kadam. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Veena Viswanath. Samer R. et http://www. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". Antimicrob. Yeh. Cardiovasc.crazychefs. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. In: Ohigashi. Shuford JA. Garlic.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. Scribner. Harold (2004). PMID 8169881. J. H. et al. Pharmacol. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. 310–3. Marcel Dekker. McGee. PMID . Macpherson. (1998). 49 (1): 473. Abstract.. Lin RS (June 1998). S. Bernhard H. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6.Lindsey J. Y-Y. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. PMID 2291748.1128/AAC. (1997). http://aac. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. (1999). Neil A (1994). FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".. Patel R (January 2005). Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets.asm. 31 (6): 904–8. Silagy C.12. http://meta. Y-Y.S. Leeks".2005. Salunkhe. "The Onion Family: Onions. PMID 15616341. Agents Chemother.49. Eid. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4.1. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". SunWook Hwang.. Steiner M. et al. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). pp. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". (eds). Geierstanger. Mader FH (October 1990).

Zanzibar. when they are ready for collecting. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. Cloves are harvested when 1. and consist of a long calyx. and Sri Lanka. In Vietnam. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the http://www.crazychefs. syn. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5-2 cm . it is called đinh hương. Madagascar. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. after which they develop into a bright red. Pakistan. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. terminating in four spreading sepals.

Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes.[1] In north Indian cuisine. cloves are often used to season pho broth. especially for digestive problems. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. During Christmas. which sells Djarum Black. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive . It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. but as they are extremely strong. In south Indian cuisine.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. Cloves are used in cheeses. it is used in almost all dishes. along with other spices. In Vietnamese cuisine. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. they are used sparingly. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. Cloves are also said to be a natural http://www. Cloves are used as a carminative. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. entering the kidney. often in combination with cumin. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form.000 tonnes). Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. spleen and stomach meridians.crazychefs. warm and aromatic. but with the addition of other spices).Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum.

the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets.The infusion is called Ogun http://www. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). Brazil. RH (AHG). The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. pimples etc. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang.[5] In West Africa.P. In the late fifteenth century.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. Ayurvedic herbalist . Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. Moti. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. and Tidore. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. mainly from the Maluku Islands.[7] Cloves. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands).direct stomach qi downward. including cloves. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. including for multiple sclerosis. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. Khalsa. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. along with nutmeg and pepper. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness.crazychefs. and Zanzibar. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. Makian. Subsequently. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. vomiting and diarrhea. including Bacan. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. most of the West Indies. It is also used in severe burns.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria.[6] History Until modern times. were highly prized in Roman times. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli.[7] Nevertheless. Ternate. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC.

and several sesquiterpenes. Medicine Plus.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". pp. Jack (2004). 3. ^ Balch. 3rd ed. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia . 8. Steven Clavey.html Tilotson.html National Institutes of Health.tibetmed. kaempferol. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Special Diets for Illness 6. Third Edition by Dan http://www. Steven Clavey. ©2003. http://www. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. stigmasterol and campesterol. xv. ^ a b Turner. comprising 72-90%. Karen. Alan.nih. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.htm. ©2000.squarespace. crategolic acid. ^ http://oneearthherbs.[8] Notes and references 1. the flavonoids eugenin. and eugenitin. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. and Andrew Gamble.crazychefs.nlm. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. Andrew and Page. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. Vintage Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. pg. 2. due to the high price of importing them. methyl salicylate (painkiller). Erich Stoger. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. ^ "TibetMed . 94. ^ http://www. tannins.. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. Erich Stoger. James. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. Avery Publishing. Phyllis and Balch. gallotannic acid. 5. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. ^ Dorenburg.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. Spice: The History of a Temptation.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". ^ Louisa Lim. Retrieved 8 June 2009.2004-0058.atypon-link. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods.iso. 6. f.1021/jf058156b. Vaishali C. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". http://www.5555/jaoi.1542/peds. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www.703. 18 May 2009 2.88.Specification".com/BZ-shuju/ http://www.2005. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. http://www.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. doi:10. Retrieved 8 June 2009.3.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . doi:10. NPR. ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ Lederer. 5. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum http://www.Botanical nomenclature". (2006).[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. Retrieved 10 November. Retrieved 8 June ^ Joshi. PMID 15492355.iso.) -. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". (2005). ^ International Organization for Standardization. f.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". . and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn.crazychefs.htm?csnumber=19183. Ines et al.chinaios.htm?csnumber =4844. 3.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. while Lederer et al. et

net/ .crazychefs. native from the east Mediterranean to East India. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum http://www.

Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological . which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. and yellow-brown in colour. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. cumin is known as kimyon.crazychefs.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. the story goes. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). including kamūnu in Akkadian. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". in Iran and Central Asia.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. In Arabic. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. In Northern India and Nepal. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin".com http://www. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. in Turkey. a member of the parsley family. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. locally called "Kermun". being oblong in shape. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. cumin is known as zireh. longitudinally ridged. in northwestern China.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. Kerman. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ .[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. parsley and dill. maduru.

crazychefs. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. Egypt. when added to hot milk and consumed. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Morocco. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach http://www. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Seeds. India. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). Mexico. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). Uzbekistan. today it is mostly grown in Iran. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. In South Asia. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. Turkey. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. and Chile. and this practice continues in Morocco. . It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. Syria.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. In Sri Lanka. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region.

garam masala. and is found in achiote blends. and bahaarat. sofrito. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. adobos. Contrary to popular belief in the US. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. North African. and in some traditional breads from http://www. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. tacos. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. curry powder. Indian. Middle Eastern. white or . Cumin can be used to season many dishes. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pakistani.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. either ground or as whole seeds.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. Sri Lankan. curries. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. enchiladas. but are smaller and darker in colour. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. popular in Indian. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. containing a single seed. pinnate or bipinnate.crazychefs. It is traditionally added to chili. and borne in umbels. Northern Mexican cuisines. and other Middle-Eastern. The flowers are small. Today. Cuban. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. It is an herbaceous annual plant. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. thread-like leaflets.

saturated 1. Cultivation of cumin requires a long.81 g 8. B2) 0. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish.very common in Mexican cuisine. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g ( http://www.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.Dietary fiber . well-drained soil. and needs fertile.5 g Fat .24 g 22.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.435 mg Folate (Vit. it is drought-tolerant. hot summer of 3–4 months.crazychefs.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66. 64 μg 44.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit.33 mg Vitamin K 5.7 mg Vitamin E 3. sown in spring.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B3) 4. However. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F). It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.25 g . the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 2. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. It is grown from seed.27 g 17. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.

to eat. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin).a small cat). cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. lighter in colour. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it.v. Not related to curcumin.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.a cat and 'kotek' . Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. However. as in 'kot' .crazychefs. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). In Swedish. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin ( http://www. from the Swedish word "spisa". a chemical found in turmeric. In Polish the difference is even less significant. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. For example.).Zinc 4. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".net/ .

and Carum carvi L. 4.arsgrin. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.foodreference.2009." premiumwanadoo.313. 8.77. http://www. ^ http://www. (2009)." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). Retrieved 2008-03-13. 2000. ^ "Kamūnu.html 6.ars-grin.".Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . ^ a b Iacobellis. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L.aca. doi:10. from China". Nicola S.1016/ ^ Growingtaste. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". ^ "KMN. ^ a b c Li. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . (2005). whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1.crazychefs.030. 206 5. et al. 9. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. . Domestication of plants in the Old Essential Oils".1002/ffj. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. 2.1021/jf0487351. 2000). Lu et ^ a b 7. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. third edition (Oxford: University Press. Rong. doi:10. doi:10.

com http://www.Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.crazychefs. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. shogaols and gingerols. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. West Africa and the Caribbean.crazychefs. or spice. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. In laboratory animals.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sedative. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. cardamom. medicine. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. and . Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. and citral) have also been identified.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer http://www. cineol.

com .The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. Allam ( ) in Telugu. particularly gingerols and shogaols. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. [edit] Regional use In India. in Tamil Nadu. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. Inji in Tamil. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. and sugar. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. In South India.crazychefs. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. crackers and cake. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. and ginger beer. to which honey is often added. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Additionally. in Gujarati. ginger ale. especially in the Tanjore belt. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. Adrak. or frozen for longer term storage. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. and Aduwa in Nepali. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. cookies. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. Alay in Marathi. nuts. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. salt. For storage. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. stimulating the production of saliva.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. ghee. enchi in Malayalam. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Ginger has a sialagogue action. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which makes swallowing easier. Ginger is also made into candy. and tender green chili peppers.

sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. In the traditional Korean kimchi. On the island of Corfu. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the . ginger snaps. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. ginger is called gyin. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. gingerbread. In China. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. Greece. In the Caribbean. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. In the Ivory Coast. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. a type of ginger beer. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. In Vietnam. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. and a variety of nuts and seeds. parkin and ginger biscuits. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. In Western cuisine. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. France.crazychefs. However. In Burma. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. during their occupation of the islands. and making drinks such as sorrel. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. ginger is ground and mixed with http://www. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. In Arabic. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. In Japan. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. is made. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee.

and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger.crazychefs. which several scientific studies support. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. cough and cold.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of .[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. though studies been inconsistent.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. morning sickness and chemotherapy. though it does interact with some http://www.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. including warfarin.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made.

gas. In the United States. and heart rhythms. in food etc.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is considered a panacea.[14] In Congo. clotting. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. bloating. belching and . and although it's generally recognized as safe. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue.crazychefs. ginger can cause heartburn. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with http://www. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. people use ginger for making tea. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. In Indonesia. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. reducing "winds" in the blood. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. particularly if taken in powdered form. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. In Burma. In China. it is considered good for a sore throat. In India. and individuals who have had ulcers.

905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. followed by Indonesia(~12. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. Scalding.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. it is immediately scalded. which has slipped to the second position (~20. replacing . Nepal(~11. produces black ginger. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes.5%).000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale http://www. Production trends India.000 F 177. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting.000 158. now leads in global production of ginger. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming.crazychefs. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. with over 30% of the global share.7%). Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. washing and scraping gives white ginger. or washed and scraped. but this generally reduces its value. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. Traditionally. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems.

is used in cooking and medicine. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". Also referred to as galangal.000 8. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. http://www.000 ginger material References 1.ars-grin. a carcinogenic compound. galangal.000 42.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official 34. Retrieved 2008-03-03. A = Aggregate(may include official. is also known as "wild ginger". The plant also contains aristolochic acid.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. but it is not related to true Asarum canadense. the flower buds are the part http://www.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). F = FAO estimate.387.000 57. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae . semiofficial or estimates). and its root has similar aromatic properties.crazychefs. Galangal is also called Thai ginger. www. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine.270 1. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine.arsgrin. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai.

umm. Susan (2007-01-15). New York: Scribner pp. 4. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. ^ Al-Achi.. (01 Mar 2000).2. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). ^ Chen. PMID 10793599. PMID 9821826. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. Retrieved 2006-09-06. http://www.013. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://bja. doi:10.amaassn.6. MD. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.1001/archfami. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). Retrieved 5 November. Retrieved 2007-08-02.2006.crazychefs. 14. (2007).net/ .cambridge. Jaw-Chyun. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". Kathi Kemper. M.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. Kim Farrell.ucla. Li-Jiau Huang.oxfordjournals. 6. http://timeblog. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". http://www. "Ginger".com 12. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. "Beverage of Champions". 7. E. Ali Taghizadeh et al. http://www. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". http://www. & MSt.1016/j.).asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. ^ Ernst. et al. 425-426. MD. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". Antoine. ^ McGee. Retrieved 2007-08-02.01. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF).library. http://unitproj. ^ MD O' Hara. ^ ^ Al-Amin. Retrieved 2007-08-06. Shih-Lu Wu.uspharmacist. MD. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. MPH (1998). Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007).7.html. Retrieved 2007-0808. ^ Afshari.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. 8. 15.foodchem. Tin-Yun Ho. Mary. Harold (2004).cfm?displayID=15. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. David Kiefer. & Pittler. 3. (2006). "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".com/health/ginger/ doi:10. doi:10. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. Zainab M. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. Sheng-Chu Kuo. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice" Retrieved 2007-08-02. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". 13. doi:10. http://archfami.

slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Zingiberaceae. and to impart color to mustard condiments.crazychefs.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger http://www. slightly bitter. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed].net/ . For these reasons. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. In medieval Europe. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. for dyeing. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. Erode.

orange juice. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay http://www. turmeric is also used fresh. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. much like ginger. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. or Textile City. popcorn color. relishes. Over-coloring. such as in pickles. Turmeric City. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric).[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. not only in curry.[citation needed] Sangli. ice cream. powdered form. yogurt. yellow cakes.crazychefs. sweets. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. gelatins. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern . is sometimes used to compensate for fading. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. Although usually used in its dried. cereals. custardlike yellow color. and many more. cake icings. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. sauces. dairy products. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. In non-South Asian recipes. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. rendang.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. but also in masak lemak. biscuits. and mustard.Yellow City. etc.

In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. winter butter and http://www. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day.In combination with annatto (E160b). Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). is also treated with turmeric powder. dry mixes. a traditional dish in South Asia. Within one week of using turmeric. yogurt. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for . It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. an uncurable and debilitating disease. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[4] cancer.crazychefs. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. burns and bruises. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). and other digestive disorders. It is unknown why it works. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. are spiced with turmeric. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. Japan. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. Indians. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. salad dressings.

Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. found in black pepper. or BDNF. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. and the U. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the .S. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. Bangladesh. and Pakistan. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. research activity into curcumin is exploding. improves the absorption of turmeric. multiple myeloma.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. Bangalore. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by http://www. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. which supports nerve growth. Snake Bite Anti venin. John‘s Medical College. with no adverse effects. In 1998 researchers at St. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. and colorectal cancer. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Alzheimer's. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004.

and it is used for power and purification rites.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. and coconut and cooked in steam. In southern India. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony.crazychefs.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. part of the Bengali wedding. jaggery. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. Also. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. This happens in economically lower situations. However. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. such as saris. as a part of the marriage ritual. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. During the south Indian festival Pongal. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice . In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape.

co.07. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 64(4):353-6.2008. or Natural Yellow .7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1.foodchem. | accessyear = 2009}} 3.ars-grin.stm 5.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. et al.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.172. http://www. ^ Chan. (2009).thieme-connect. ^ http://www. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. ^ [|Ketteler. Retrieved June 2009.I. keto and enol. Notes 1. Shoba G.6-heptadiene3. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain".gov. AOL Health. 1998 "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". The systematic chemical name is (1E. 2. Judy] (June 2009). Retrieved E.1016/j. Srinivas PS. a http://www. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . ^ http://news. Joy www. Rajendran R.6E)-1.crazychefs.C. Majeed M.W. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Joseph T. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms.ars-grin. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". 75300. 6. Planta It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as

the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). also known as Candleberry. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. Kemiri. 4–6 centimetres (1. with an acute http://www.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. simple and ovate. The leaves are pale green. Euphorbiaceae. is a flowering tree in the spurge . flowers.9–7. The nut is round. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). Indian walnut.9 in) long.4 in) in diameter.crazychefs. which allows its use as a candle (see below). Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans.6–2. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. 10–20 centimetres (3. hence its name. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. with wide spreading or pendulous branches.) Willd.

The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. giving them greater underwater visibility. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian http://www. and gonorrhea. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. burned with charcoal. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. In Japan its bark has been used on . Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. named kukui were burned to provide light. lit one end. ulcers. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine.crazychefs. swollen joints. On the island of Java in Indonesia. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. In Hawaiʻi. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. they are mildly toxic when raw. the nuts. The flavor. including: leis from the shells.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. In Malaya. In Java. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. leaves and flowers. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. fevers. is quite different. Outside of Southeast Asia. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pounded seeds. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. In Sumatra. a varnish with the oil. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. as the candlenut is much more bitter. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. are applied around the navel for costiveness. however.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. This led to their use as a measure of time.

com/kukui. used as soap or shampoo. 2. Honda. ^ Scott.[citation needed] References 1. http://books. One of the legends told of a woman who. Beatrice Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. "Chapter 4: Canoes". 122.). Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. University of Hawaii Press. named tuitui are pounded into a In plantations. pp. ^ Dunford. p. despite her best efforts to please her husband. p.html. was routinely beaten. Lilinoe Andrews. Mikiala Ayau. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). Liana I. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. and the husband was eventually killed. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. protection and peace. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. Craig Thomas (2000).[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). ^ Krauss. she was given new life. 50-51. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). University of Hawaii Press. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Retrieved 2009-03-06. ISBN 9781573061377. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. still nowadays. ISBN http://www. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. http://canoeplants. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of[5] In Tonga. 26. Susan. This larva is eaten by some people. Finally. ripe nuts. http://books. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. Bess on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). Being a kind and just woman. Betty. 4. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. the god of agriculture. (1993). ^ "Kukui". . 5. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil.

may be described as black pepper. . The terms pink peppercorns. . cultivated for its fruit. red pepper (as in bell or chile).Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. . . unrelated plants. Konkani:miriya konu. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. containing a single seed. white pepper. Kannada:meNasu.crazychefs. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. dark red when fully mature. and very often simply pepper. Peppercorns. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. known as a peppercorn when http://www. green pepper.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. Telugu:miriyam. . The fruit. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. However. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

White pepper consists of the seed only. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. with the skin of the pepper removed. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed.[4] In the U. chemical or biological methods. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. in the early 20th century.. Once dried. this was shortened to pep. Dutch http://www. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. often alongside table salt. the spice is called black peppercorn. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. wrinkled black layer. French poivre. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. and other similar forms. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer.S. In the 16th century. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. including decortication. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a . This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. and the naked seed is dried. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit.crazychefs.

such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. also green. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). Pickled peppercorns. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. which is mostly no longer an issue. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. Fresh. largely unknown in the West. the Peruvian pepper tree. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. from Bangka Island. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry . are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. Schinus terebinthifolius. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. is made from the unripe berries.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". made from the http://www.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. Schinus molle. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. particularly Thai cuisine. like black. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. unpreserved green pepper berries. green. with a bright aroma. are used in some Asian cuisines.Black.crazychefs. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar.

[11] Black pepper is native to India. if allowed to ripen. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. Competing plants are cleared away. The leaves are alternate. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. The flowers are small.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to http://www. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. moist.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. well-drained and rich in organic matter. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. poles. or trellises. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. the berries lose pungency. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres . A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes.crazychefs. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. and ultimately fall off and are lost. The cuttings are usually cultivars.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. entire. and before the fruit is mature. but when full grown and still hard. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. It is a spreading vine.

Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. its most important source was India. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 . in what is now the state of Kerala. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". The term "peppercorn rent" still exists http://www.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money.[14] J. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. In fact. Chile peppers. particularly the Malabar Coast.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times.crazychefs. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper.

The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. pepper was also being grown in Java.Until well after the Middle Ages. Madagascar. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. . 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. Sumatra. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. Returning from India. growing in the north-western part of India. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. plus long pepper's greater spiciness.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. By the 16th century. Sunda. changed the course of world history. barged to Alexandria. but these areas traded mainly with China. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. nor how it reached the Nile from India. the Middle East. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. or used the pepper locally. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. this trade advantage. Trade routes of the time were by land. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. Black pepper. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. Long pepper.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire.

sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. seasoning in the Roman Empire. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. pepper was a luxury item.. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. and of black. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages.crazychefs. the banquets of kings. I season delicacies. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. is fifteen denarii per pound. whereas. and the prices reflected it.[22] In addition. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. clad in a wrinkled cover.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. Once into the Mediterranean. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. if . 12." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. first the Persians and then the Arabs. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. it is sometimes their sweetness. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper.. There is no evidence to support this claim. I wonder.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. four. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. who travelled east to India. After the fall of Rome. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . seeing that in other substances which we use. affordable only to the wealthy. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. Edward Gibbon wrote. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them http://www. Apicius' De re coquinaria. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. Similarly.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. while that of white pepper is seven. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. especially Venice and Genoa. and the luxuries of the table. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow.

" Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. especially in winter. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. has some antimicrobial properties. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian http://www. "we seek Christians and spices. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. In 1498. and salt-cured meats were common fare. A depiction of Calicut. Pepper harvested for the European trader. his representative replied. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for .[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the 17th century. Pepper. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. the effect is small. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. However. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich.crazychefs. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. Today. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. as well as around Africa. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not).

He was told it came from the markets of Shu. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Long pepper. heart disease. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). each load being equal to 223 lbs. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". however. indigestion. Like many eastern spices. hernia. was often the preferred http://www. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts.crazychefs. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. either long or black. earache. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. being stronger. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. including long pepper.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. insomnia. as well as she could for sneezing. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). liver . Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". hoarseness. gangrene.. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. lung disease.. insect bites. Siddha and Unani medicine in India.[25] In the 3rd century CE. but if this estimated 10.[26] By the 12th century. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. Note the cook's pepper mill. joint pain.000 pounds (4. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. oral abscesses. diarrhea. but both were used.

which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. Refined piperine. milligram-for-milligram.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. and toothaches. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. tooth decay.sunburn. limonene. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. left on black pepper. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. The outer fruit layer.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. and linalool. Some sources say that piperine. which is stripped of the fruit layer. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit.crazychefs. sabinene. http://www. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. a mildly carcinogenic compound. chapter five. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. woody. Few. vitamin B. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. a substance present in black pepper.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[31] As a medicine. if any. causing the sneezing. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. and floral notes. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines.[31] Also. which give citrusy. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. irritates the .

pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. dispensers of pre-ground pepper.[35] By weight. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. are used for this. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. the most widely traded spice in the world. Sri Lanka (6%). Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders").com http://www. India.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 t (391.crazychefs. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. India (19%). Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well.[33] Once ground. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns.000 t (299.000 short tons). but has fallen to just over 271. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. Thailand (4%). As of 2008. Brazil (13%). Malaysia (8%). which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in .[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. and China (6%). by monetary value. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. The price of pepper can be volatile. for example. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. sometimes instead of pepper shakers.

Retrieved 6 November 2005. Black pepper is marica. http://www. American Journal of Botany 88: 706.poor crop management. ^ a b Jaramillo. 20. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. 13. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon 9. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). Retrieved 2009-01-29. 17. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. ^ Dalby p. Retrieved 17 October 2006. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. Retrieved 12 August 2006. ^ J. 7.2307/2657072. Random Gernot (2006). 18.000 short tons). ^ Ochef. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. doi:10. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. http://books. 93. and Builder. ^ Translation from Turner. ^ Innes Miller. disease and weather. 11. Retrieved 2008-03-02. Retrieved 13 November 2005. PMID "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)".org/florataxon. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. 83 21. 19.ars-grin. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. Warrior. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ using almost none of its production .crazychefs. ^ Katzer. Alejandra (2001).efloras. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. Innes Miller. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Flora of China. 2. 1969). The Spice Retrieved 10. 3. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". http://www. 4. p. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. Text online. The Hindu Business line. p. http://www. ISBN 0375407219.000 t (99.pd f. 2006-1120.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581.[36] Notes 1. p 94. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". Vietnam dominates the export market. http://www. 80 16. from Penzey's Spices. ISBN 075653836X. www. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Ramses II. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 6. p. Using fresh green ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. ^ See Thai Ingredients http://www. 88. Spice. Egyptian Pharaoh. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 5. Pepper. M. 8. Compass Point Books. ^ Peppercorns. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). http://www. 12.

Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. Dorman and S. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. 33. purchase required. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Davidson. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Duke (1993-08-16)." ISBN 0849336201. 23. References Dalby. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. Alan (2002).net/ . ISBN 0520236742. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). 35. 25. doi:10. Steven (2004). ^ Jaffee p. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. http://www. J. ^ Montagne. Retrieved November s_20080515_01. "Spices.html. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. Andrew (2002).org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). p.1365-2672. http://siteresources. ^ a b James A. 171. 28. 160. G. 2.pdf.pdf.ch05. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. 26.crazychefs. Berkeley: University of California Press. Buddhist Monastic Code II.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". 29. ^ Dalby p. 156. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). http://books. ISBN 9781580084178. ^ 428. Vol. "Mill".22. 74–75. Cambridge University Press. 2008-05-15. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . 77. 10. ^ Jaffee p. 12.worldbank. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. also Turner pp. table http://www. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils".1046/j. ^ Turner p. ^ Dalby pp. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. Full text at Blackwell website. Larousse Gastronomique.accesstoinsight.. CRC Press. Karvy Comtrade Limited. 204. 2005. ^ Dalby p. ^ U.karvycomtrade. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". 108–109. ISBN 0600-60235-4. 36.S. Dover. http://www. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. 34. 726. 30. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Deans (2000). http://books.x. 27. Prosper (2001). 31. Dangerous Tastes. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. D. Jaffee. ^ a b McGee p. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ISBN 0521367085. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. 32.2000. p. ^ Turner p. Hamlyn.

Harold (2004). ISBN 0375707050. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). London: Vintage Books. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Scribner. Spice: The History of a Temptation.McGee. pp. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 427–429. OCLC 61213802. OCLC 56590708. Bell pepper Bell pepper . annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Turner. "Black Pepper and Relatives". Jack (2004). ISBN 0-684-80001-2.crazychefs.

B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 2. green and orange.17 g 0.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. yellow. sweet. including red. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.Pepper. Today. Central America and northern South America.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. Peppers are native to Mexico.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc http://www.Dietary fiber 1. B1) 0.40 g .net/ .crazychefs. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".224 mg Folate (Vit. B3) 0.64 g 0.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B2) 0.057 mg 4. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors.

crazychefs. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. respectively). hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. " In Japan. instead of using as a spice. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. such as Australia. Indiana. were a highly prized condiment. meaning Big pepper.g. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most . like pasta. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. regardless of their color. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. meaning Bulgarian pepper. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe.. "red pepper". and "Maalu" means Vegetable. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. the term "paprika". the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. in Dutch. which has its roots in the word for pepper. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. "gele paprika". In Norway. g. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. an unrelated plant. In the United States and Canada. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. they are called "capsicum". Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. "Miris" is Chilli. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". Bell peppers are botanically fruits. It is eaten with fried noodles. "groene paprika". the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. Malaysia and New Zealand. the fruit of Piper nigrum. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. Grilled. or "piment. which are green and yellow. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. "green pepper"). India." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). meaning pepper-fruit. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". With the similar meaning. and Pennsylvania. the word ピーマン ("pîman. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". Across Europe. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. At that time peppercorns. In France it is called "poivron". In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Sweden. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). In parts of Ohio. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. When cut off. In British English.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable.

aqua. more rarely. yellow or orange peppers. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef . maroon. http://www. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. purple. rainbow. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. in various soups and stews.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. It is eaten as a raw snack. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. Varieties The color can be green. blue. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. pink. in salads. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. yellow. violet. red. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. orange and. black and brown.

indigenous to Europe. also known as M. The plant. [1]) is a hybrid mint.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. It is found wild occasionally with its parent http://www. ^ http://www.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita . a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint .com/html/fmango. balsamea Willd.

it can grow anywhere.5–4 cm (0.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in http://www. The flowers are purple. and bare fibrous roots. 6–8 mm (0. fleshy. he treated it as a species.6–3.24– 0. and 120 recorded.31 in) long.crazychefs.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. including stream sides and drainage ditches.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. with 2n counts of . The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. 84. square in cross section. noted since 1843[8]. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. Flowering is from mid to late summer. it is usually sterile.6 in) cm broad. The chromosome number is variable. blunt spikes. dark green with reddish veins. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. 72.59–1. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem.20 in) diameter. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. with smooth stems. forming thick. spreading by its rhizomes.5 in) long and 1. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. If placed. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. with a few exceptions. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. Being a hybrid.

compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. and is often used as a flavouring in tea. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.1. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.crazychefs.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl http://www. .[10] Similarly. thus promoting belching. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. ice cream. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and toothpaste. chewing gum.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. particularly menthyl acetate.

[13] and in the United States. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. Leaves aromatic. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. it is advisable to plant it in a container." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. which they then call "after-dinner mints. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants.crazychefs. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. [16]. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. Foliage . hairless. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results.[12] Outside of its native range. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Galápagos Islands. and it is considered invasive in Australia. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. In addition to that.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. If you choose to grow peppermint. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. [18]. as a natural insecticide. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. Eau De Cologne Mint). The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. New Zealand. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Stems reddish. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. Leaves wrinkled. A mild. It needs a good water http://www. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. [21]. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow.

http://www. C. et al. ^ World Health http://www. ed. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. Mentha L. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". ^ a b Akdogan. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://whqlibdoc. Mehmet (2004).. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. doi:10. G. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. ISBN 978-1563636783 10. ^ Harley.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1.pdf.glu. 6..006. 4th Edition. ^ . Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. Flowers open from bottom up. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. 9. M. C. (1992). C.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.dld. (1989). ^ Cappello. a popular confection.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. A.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil .02. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. (1975).1016/j..crazychefs. Thomson Healthcare. (1753). ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. 5.2007. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". (2007). ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. M.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . Retrieved 2009-02-07. In: Stace. A. page 640. 11. Retrieved 3 June 2009. ^ a b Huxley.who. & 2. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". ^ a b Blamey. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. R. 7. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. Frédéric et al. ^ a b c Jullien. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.159.iso.1071/ ^ Sharma. ^ Edwards. S.htm?csnumber=32041.. Mehmet (2003). ^ International Organization for Standardization. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". D.actahort. Retrieved 3 June. 18. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . Retrieved 6 June 2009. on kidney tissue in rats". "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. http://het. paraquat. et and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)".224.1002/jsfa. Bienvenu (1998). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 .interscience.10): 119 . http://www.. Bienvenu (1999). 20.iso. Retrieved 3 June. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. 25. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide.sagepub. populations.Specification". ^ Adamovic. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .crazychefs.S. http://www. F. 21. Retrieved 7 June http://www. 17. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. ^ Akdogan.D. doi:10. Ambika et Retrieved 3 June.16..)". Retrieved 6 June 2009. 19.219.sagepub. 26. http://www. ^ International Organization for Standardization.sagepub. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .com/journal/118500486/abstract. 22. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". V. ^ Akdogan. doi:10. Retrieved 7 June 2009. doi:10.wiley. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria.. http://het. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. (2007).)". 24.122. and Mentha spicata L. F. (2004). "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)".htm?csnumber=11633.2740311104.actahort. Plant Cell. ^ International Organization for Standardization.28. Retrieved 8 June 2009..htm. Mehmet et al.E. Valerie Howland (2006). http://www3. Retrieved 3 June. http://tih. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 .1023/A:1006185103897. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. J. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .htm?csnumber=4844. Derek R. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . . Australia".com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213. ^ Farley.

porrum (L.crazychefs. Two related vegetables. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum http://www. to the Alliaceae family. Allium ampeloprasum var. is a vegetable which belongs.Gay The leek. porrum (L.) J. along with the onion and garlic. the elephant garlic and kurrat. also sometimes known as Allium porrum. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. ampeloprasum var. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or . although different in their uses as food.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.).

121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. Once established in the garden. and overwintering leeks. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. to be planted out as weather permits. intended for harvest in the season when planted.crazychefs. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn http://www. leeks are hardy. and they have few pest or disease problems. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering . many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil.

Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. carrots and potatoes and different meats. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. due to the layered structure of the leek. along with leek soup. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. Lamb is the most popular. as the leek ages. which can be used in salads.Cuisine Leeks for sale. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. The onion-like layers form around a core. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or http://www. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. In its raw state. The tender core may be eaten. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. Raw. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). Leek has a mild onion-like taste. although less bitter than scallion. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. which turns it soft and mild in taste. but.crazychefs. Fried. http://www.C. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 1. who consumed it most often in soup. B3) 0. as well as other recipes with leeks. 83 μg 14. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.15 g 0. B2) 0. B1) 0.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B. onwards.monounsaturated 0.04 g .5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .net/ .5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.polyunsaturated 0. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.9 g .233 mg Folate (Vit.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.C.8 g Fat . Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet. In her book.crazychefs. as well as wall carvings and drawings. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.3 g 1.E.004 g . B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.saturated 0. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.Sugars 3.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.

King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. you know. Shakespeare. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long . a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. In the play. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. According to one legend. good countryman.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0.crazychefs. David‘s Day. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. representing Wales.Vitamin E 0.12 mg recommendations for adults.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. for http://www. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods.

^ Guiliano. Knopf.crazychefs. Mireille. (Penguin .com http://www. French Women Don't Get Fat..p. third edition (Oxford: University Press. Domestication of plants in the Old World.Notes 1. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. 2000). 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1978. ^ Jane Grigson. 3.

Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753. dulce) or celeriac (var. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.6 g Fat Protein Water 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.2 g . Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for http://www. Celery.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A.Dietary fibre 1.crazychefs.Sugars 2 g 3g . with fewer than 100 individuals left.

such as chicken noodle http://www. Actually very small fruit. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. . these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. as celery salt. Celery. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. Celery. on the Chicago-style hot dog.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. birds. squirrels. horses.crazychefs. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). dogs. celery is also grown for its seeds. and small rodents. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. often used as a base for sauces and soups. 30 AD. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. onions. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. and in Old Bay Seasoning. Celery is a staple in many soups. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca.In temperate countries.

for people with celery allergy. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. M.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. chthonian divinities celebrated in http://www. Celery contains androstenone.[8] In the European Union. In Homer's Iliad. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking .Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. however. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. even in trace amounts. Lemnos and Thebes. However.crazychefs. foods that contain or may contain celery. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. they note "since A. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. father of the Cabeiri. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. have to be clearly marked as such. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. making avoiding such foods difficult.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. at Kastanas. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions.

sweetish. 2–3 mm diameter. borrowed from Greek. the whole plant having a coarse. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. due to extremely uniform crop growth. The flowers are creamy-white. cracks. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. and the most crisp and tender. splits.[14] With cultivation and blanching. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. 1. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. apium Italicum. The plants are raised from seed. white and http://www. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. mainly in having stouter leaf . Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. as the Grace of the whole Board". In the past. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. many of which differ little from the wild species. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. shape. from the Latin selinon. straightness and thickness of petiole. In North America.5–2 mm long and wide. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. at our Great Mens tables.. but the leaves may be used in salads. earthy taste. and a distinctive smell. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. fields are harvested only once. and Praetors feasts.. They are ranged under two classes. The wild form of celery is known as smallage.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. insect damage and rot). it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. seleri. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars.crazychefs. Under optimal conditions. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. produced in dense compound umbels. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine).

^ D.crazychefs. 227. 11. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus.practicallyedible. 3.. Thayer translation [1] 4. Western Journal of Medicine 158. (3rd ed. M. Zohary and M. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). Domestication of Plants in the Old World. 1920). are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". (Laurentii Salvii). Wilson IBH. Retrieved 2008-03-04. ^ Pliny. Heiner DC. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. ^ R. Scheiner O. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g Celery and Negative Calories 6. West J. (2005).nsf/pages/smallage. Holmiae.46.202. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". Natural History XIX. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. Species Plantarum: Tomus I.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F).17:1697-1699. ^ OED. et al. Ko SN. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. and proper sanitation. 14. ^ a b Fragiska. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay.. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. C (1753). Lee LG. Hopf. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". 9. Thomson. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. 15.[16] References 1. Radauer C. de Medicina. (2002-06-10).com http://www. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". 10. M. P. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. "Celery". 2. ^ Calcium sources 7. 12. ^ Teng CM. s. 16. ^ . 2003.shtml.ucdavis. http://postharvest. gentle handling. T. Retrieved 2009-05-03. ^ William Robinson and W. Post-harvest technology research and information center. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. p.6 (June 1993): 610-611.. ^ Celsus. 13. 8. Kraft D. ^ snopes. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Celestin ^ "Smallage". ^ Bublin M. 2000) p. http://www.

Sugars 96.21 g .Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0. see Sugar (disambiguation). For the common table sugar. Sugar.03 g Riboflavin (Vit. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.98 g 0g 0g 0.91 g .5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates . see sucrose. B2) 0. (Discuss) For other uses.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Magnification of grains of sugar. brown Nutritional value per 100 g ( .crazychefs.Sugars 99.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.

Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.crazychefs.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. obesity and tooth decay.026 mg Folate (Vit. sorghum. sugar maple (in maple syrup).007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. mainly sucrose. honey.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B1) 0. and fructose. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances.77 g Thiamine (Vit.082 mg Vitamin B6 .[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. B2) 0. lactose. B3) 0.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc http://www. It forms the main ingredient in candy. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1.Water 1. but also appears in fruit. and in many other sources.

A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing . etc. zahari.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). the etymology reflects the spread of the http://www. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist.) will likely denote a sugar. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. Generically known as "syrups". Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. In a list of ingredients. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars").crazychefs. and texture) of beverages and food. such as glucose. the Italian word zucchero. the Spanish word azúcar. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. Etymology In the case of sugar. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6.[4] It came to English by way of French.) The Greek word for "sugar". Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). molasses or treacle. (Compare the OED. means "pebble". including palm sugar and fructose. Scientific Scientifically.Popular In non-scientific use. preservation. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. "dextrose". the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. Spanish and/or Italian. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". "fructose". In this informal sense.

Natural sugars come in fruit. as its name suggests. 2. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). deoxyribose. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. Sugars include monosaccharides. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. important molecules in the body. raw sugar. cook or consumer. disaccharides. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. has a "missing" oxygen . Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.crazychefs. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form.containing 1. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. syrups and fruit juices. This includes all the sugars referred to above.Culinary sugars Grainier. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . plus sugars naturally present in honey. 3. A notable exception. making the sugars reactive. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet.

crazychefs. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). Monosaccharides include fructose. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. and galactose. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. fructose.water (H2O) per bond. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. Note for example glycoproteins. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. which uses deoxyribose as a . with less than 0. After digestion and absorption. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. which is made of glucose. glucose. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. which has the formula C6H12O6. If combined with fine ash. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. including NADH and ATP. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. In these closed-chain forms. This resulting syrup. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. sweeter than the original sucrose.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product.1% of the molecules in the open-chain http://www. galactose and mannose. or DNA. lactose (milk sugar . creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . sugar will burn with a blue flame. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. which form part of nucleic acids. proteins connected to one or more sugars.made from one glucose and one fructose). producing invert sugar.

crazychefs.illovosugar.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. ISBN 063205476X. The International Sugar Trade. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. ^ "Engineering Resources .com/worldofsugar/internationalSugarStats. ISBN 1566398320. Michael (January 2001). 4. Glyn (2004). ^ 2.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. 5.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. Blackwell Publishing.Bulk Density Chart. ^ scientificpsychic.htm 3.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. OCLC 44493265. Temple University Press. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. OCLC 51837990 84251137.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0." . A C Hannah. 1996. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. James. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. Sugar Blues. Cambridge: Woodhead." Powder and Bulk References Adas.webmd. Joseph and Mike Carlson. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. History of Science and Technology in Islam. Sugarcane.80 g/ml Notes 1.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0.

net/ . between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. sugar beet molasses is used. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses.5% molasses (dark brown sugar)." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. Products for industrial use (e. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white http://www.g. It is. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed.crazychefs. Brown sugar contains from 3. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. for light brown sugar. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. without mixing them separately. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar.35 mm.25% of the total volume).5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. however. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. especially in the Netherlands. Although in some areas. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products.

UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. apart from pure carbohydrate. which did not have full control over brown sugar http://www. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. Nutritionally.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as opposed to white sugar. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. History In the late . In other applications. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. White and Deadly" . much like adding molasses would do. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water.crazychefs.[2] John Yudkin. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect.[1] However. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. The effort was so successful that by 1900. in his studies (cited in "Pure. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar.

com/PressRelease. an island off 4. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. Retrieved 2008-09-20. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. which is then crystallized. but most is now produced in Mauritius. or Demerara sugar. http://www.crazychefs. 2. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made.htm#bm07.3 fao.wildernessfamilynaturals.wholesomesweeteners. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. crystals. where sugar cane was grown. 32-33 5. centrifuged. References 1.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. light brown. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). cane sugar.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup.1. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. Retrieved 2008-09-20. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California ^ Levenstein. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and http://www. 6. Retrieved 2008-09-20. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ . light brown. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. 3.html.php?id=3026. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". http://www. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. resulting in the characteristic large. Muscovado. Demerara is another unrefined.". giving it a higher mineral content. binado_Sugar.fao. 7. 2003. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. Harvey. ^ New Scientist.

[citation needed] Conversely.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). refined salt (table salt). Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt).net/ . and iodized salt. white. Chloride and sodium ions. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including humans. but toxic to most land plants. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits.crazychefs. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. including high blood pressure. pale pink or light gray in color. It is a crystalline solid. which some use to prevent caking. the two major components of salt. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. an important preservative and a popular food http://www.

especially for meat. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. the caravans still transported some 15.000 tons of salt.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC. however. as were salted birds and salt fish. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. in the millennia before http://www.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. salt provided the best-known food preservative.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. glass.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.[2]:44 Along the . the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans).crazychefs. In 1960. and the dye Tyrian purple. China dates back to at least 6000 BC.

[citation needed] The root hal(l). In religion According to Strong's Concordance.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. the Hallstatt Celts. the Roman exonym for the Celts. (Judges 9:45. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. a root for salt found in Celtic.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. water.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. who had heretofore mined for salt. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". and Egyptian. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. In many Pagan religions seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. though incorrectly. began open pan salt making. Greek.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. Hallstatt. God sent down four blessings from the sky .) In the Sermon on the Mount. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. which was illegal under British . and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and http://www. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin.crazychefs.also gave us Gaul. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. salz.[1] It is widely. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". During the first millennium BC. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass.Salzburg. Halych in Ukraine. taking their names from hal(l)-.

to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at http://www. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water.crazychefs.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. Halite. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.[9] The Ancient Egyptians.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. In Aztec . salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. such as in Sumo Wrestling. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.

it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics.5% of salt http://www.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things.[12] However. food uses account for 17. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. After the raw salt is obtained.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). and the making of soaps and detergents. Purification usually involves recrystallization. which is most widely used presently. Fleur de sel. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt.crazychefs. which are kiln-dried. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. Refined salt.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. Injected water dissolves the salt. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. One example are bath salts. giving each one a unique flavor. natural sea salt harvested by hand.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. is mainly sodium chloride. Today.Different natural salts have different . and thus is rarely eaten.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. In recrystallization.

[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. Some people also add a desiccant. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. but was determined to be unnecessary.crazychefs. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. and calcium aluminosilicate. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. however. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] .[29] . sodium aluminosilicate. Single-serving salt packets.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. magnesium oxide. calcium or magnesium carbonates. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. fatty acid salts (acid salts). this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals.154 g/cm3. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. condiments such as soy sauce. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. calcium silicate. and a bulk density (dry.165 g/cm3. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. Table salt has a particle density of 2. silicon dioxide.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National http://www.

even fatal. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. In France. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. which gives the table salt a yellow color. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the . fluorinated table salt is available.[32] Another additive. and myxedema in adults. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism).com http://www. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. potassium. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country.[33] Drinking too much water. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. or sodium iodate. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. with insufficient salt intake. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. cretinism in children.[31] Today. magnesium. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. dizziness. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. In Canada. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. specifically endemic goiter. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. The reason for this is unclear. which can cause severe. In the United States. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter.crazychefs. iodized salt is more common in the United States. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. or even an electrolyte disturbance. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. sodium iodide. especially important for pregnant women. neurological problems. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. which can cause goitre.

combined with an inadequate intake of water.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium." ([41]. in Japan. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). It can exacerbate renal disease. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention).[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment.[38] heartburn." ([41]. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. independently of blood pressure effects.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. p18) However.crazychefs. since salt was quite valuable).net/ ." ([44]. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. salt consumption is higher. such as in treatment of dysautonomia. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal." ([41] p3).[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical http://www. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. can cause hypernatremia. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. forced salt intake.

possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate http://www.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. SACN states. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. such as the Yanomami in South America. for a typical adult.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. A salt mill for sea salt.crazychefs.[50]. but achievable population goals. However. have been found to consume little salt.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK . Some isolated cultures. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium.

it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). calories. Australia. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute.'[55] Campaigns In 2004.[57] In March 2007.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). Amber (Medium).[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1." In the UK. Excess potassium intake can cause http://www. Those who have kidney failure. When other health claims are made about a food (e.).[51] In the United States. One manufacturer. "low". or Green (Low). foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt.3 g sodium = 5. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. low in fat.5g salt per 100g (or 0.crazychefs.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free".8 g salt) per day. without recourse to salt substitutes. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.6g sodium). The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. then that is a medium level of salt.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it".[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans . which will increase potassium intake. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. etc.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication.g.1g sodium). the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. LoSalt.300 mg of sodium (= 2. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. Low is 0. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

the top five producers being the United States (40.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. and Hall in Austria. http://www. ^ "Salt". Eplerenone and Inspra. 8. 3. India (14. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. In 2002. 4. 6. called halite.3). Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion.answers. Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. Notes 1. Triamterene. China ( 4th edition".7). and Canada (12. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. 1913. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. Answers. Dytac.wikisource.9). Costs can reach staggering amounts. and by mining rock salt. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone).crazychefs. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. Retrieved 2008-12-14. Germany (17.5).3 million tonnes). http://en. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. 7. 2. such as brine wells and salt lakes. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and . New York: Robert Appleton their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.

Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. Salt Institute. ^ Gary Taubes.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). p. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.newton. ^ Table 27. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. ^ Iodized Salt 31. Mason (2006-12-19). ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". ^ B.9% sodium by weight which equals ^ References on food salt & health issues. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. 5379. ^ Iodized Salt 32. salt manufacture. "The (Political) Science of Salt".Weather Curriculum 18.htm 19. salt history.pdf 33. J. 898 . ^ Salt made the world go round 17. ^ David A.9% sodium chloride 25. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. Victoria) Salt 34. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. sodium. salt uses. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. sodium. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". salt ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. ^ HE-620 ^ http://www. salt manufacture. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. http://www3. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. ^ Roskill Information Services ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. 28. Retrieved 2009-0708. Kuemmel (1994). 10. 2008 29.wiley.stm 38.saltsense. salt history. pp. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. Vol. Retrieved 2008-07-29.htm 15. Transportation Research Board. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. 14.9. Fall/Winter 2006 10.anl. 281. 12. Retrieved 200907-08. ^ a b http://news.907 37. Salt Institute. ^ Nauticus .uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/ ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. ^ What is Salt?. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet Ask a Scientist. http://books. ISBN Epikouria Magazine. . ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. 14 August 1998. no.htm.interscience.

Mark (2002). Further reading Kurlansky. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. 47-50. Friedrich Schulz. Obarzanek E et Putnam's Sons.crazychefs.hyp. The Story of Salt.005 48. Published online 2005. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. John Wiley & Sons. ^ Understanding labels 55. 2007. OCLC 48426519.P. . ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. Legal Medicine 2005. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. ^ Susan R.1002/0471238961. Sodium chloride. Norton & Co. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. 28 January 2008. Feldman. New York: Walker & Co. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. OCLC 48573453. http://www.. 7. Erwin Koops. ^ U. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes http://www. BMJ. NY: G. doi:10. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP).ac. (accessed13 January 2007) 49.2004. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. Cutler JA. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. ISBN 0802713734. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT Salt: A World History. 62. New York: W. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. Inc. Barber.pub2 References Kurlansky. Schindler.334(7599):885. D.40. 61. S. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45.W. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. doi:10.healthandwellbeing. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41.legalmed. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt".1016/j. ^ Salt TV ads 59. The Mummies of Ürümchi. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ Cook NR. 2006.06. ^ Salt Matters 60. New Mark. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1915040902051820. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases.. ISBN 0393320197. and S. Sodium 52.

Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ by Dr Trevor Beard. New York: Columbia University Press. Department of Health. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go .crazychefs. Arts and traditions of the http://www. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters .Laszlo. 2001. Pierre. The Stationery Office. Salt: Grain of Life.

Indonesia. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. mainly Kerala. phrik thai. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for http://www. Vietnam. It can also be found in India.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). Malaysia. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai . such as Cambodia. the Philippines and Singapore. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. as well as in neighbouring countries. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. phrik khi nu(lit. found commonly in Thailand. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: .

155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger http://www. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili.000 to 100. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine.000 on the Scoville pungency scale." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the . Although small in size compared to other types of chili. "Big things come in small packages." which can best be described by the English equivalent. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries.

sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.wikipedia. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). orange. and then red. and go from green to yellow. Ladâ. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). creating a rainbow effect. Thai hot. and among the group of capsicum . These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). Thai). has peppers that point upward on the plant. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws).com http://www. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit.As well as the Malay word. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. but slightly less pungent variety.crazychefs. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. The more decorative. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. phrik khii nuu ( .

It is a kind of . Unlike other root vegetables. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. it can also be used on its http://www.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. Celeriac has a celery flavour. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. It has a tough. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. about the size of a large potato. or used in casseroles.crazychefs. furrowed. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which store a large amount of starch. usually mashed.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. gratins and baked dishes.

raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. especially in Europe. Among them are 'Prinz'.2 g .3 g 1.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. and 'Kojak'. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. There are a number of cultivars available.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. Celeriac soup.Sugars .com http://www. Celeriac.6 g 9. 'Ibis'.crazychefs. rinsed.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk.Dietary fiber 1. 'Diamant'. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail.

Pakistan and Sri Lanka. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall.crazychefs. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. and see text The eggplant. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. The flowers are white to purple. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. As a . is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. aubergine. It bears a fruit of the same name.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum http://www. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. The stem is often spiny. or brinjal (Solanum melongena).

the fruit is known as a "brinjal. History Solanum melongena. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". which are edible. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. In Indian and South African English. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. from Arabic al-badinjan. which is used in British English. and contains numerous small.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. New Zealand. flower The plant is native to . but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. from Persian bad'en-j' http://www. In the Caribbean Trinidad. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. The fruit is fleshy. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety.crazychefs. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). soft seeds." Aubergine and brinjal.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. The name eggplant. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. 1500 CE. used in the United States. The name aubergine. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. but much larger in cultivated forms. Australia.

egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. Classic. Traditional. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Pingtung Long. whiteskinned. Some cultivars have a color gradient. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Black Magic. A much wider range of shapes. and Black Beauty. Dusky. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. and http://www. slightly pendulous cucumber. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. green. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. shape and color. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers.crazychefs. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. especially purple. or . Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. in white skin Dourga. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Ichiban.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. Burpee Hybrid. There are even orange varieties. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist.

chutney.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. or http://www. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. and garlic. It is often stewed. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. battered. as in the related tomato. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. In Iranian cuisine. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed].crazychefs. peanuts. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and masala and then cooked in oil. tahini. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. As a native plant. it is called Begun ( ). tahini. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. and achaar. and deep-fried. rice. It. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. In some parts of India. In one dish. In Bangladesh. the Arabian moussaka. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. In the Caucasus. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. for example. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani . It can be sliced. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. allowing for very rich dishes. braised (紅燒茄子). The thin skin is also edible. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. along with the fish Hilsa. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. The fruit flesh is smooth. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. or Eggplant Parmesan. as in the French ratatouille. so that peeling is not required. or other fillings and then baked. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. for example in sambhar. curries. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. complex flavor. tomatoes. as they are far less bitter. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed.

The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after http://www.) between plants. For this reason. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. showing the inside. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. such as tomato. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). depending on cultivar. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations.) between rows. containing both female and male structures. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the most serious of which is Verticillium. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. flea beetle. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. are also troublesome to eggplants.) to 60 cm (24 in. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. Flowers are complete. and potato.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives.crazychefs. aphids. Egypt. This is called Beguni ( ). Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. (Adults can be removed by hand. and spider . Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. pepper (capsicum).

B1) 0. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data. P = official . F = FAO estimate.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .039 mg 5.( http://www.Sugars 2.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.Dietary fiber 3. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.[5] In the United States. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.19 g 1. semi-official or estimates). B2) 0.35 g .7 g 0.043. New Jersey is the largest producing state. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant. However. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.[8] On average. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).Niacin (Vit.crazychefs.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. while 1.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium.084 mg Folate (Vit.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.01 mg/100g). 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking http://www. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.16 mg Manganese 0. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. B3) .2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0. Brazil.

ovigera. On the other hand. oblongo-cylindricum. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. aethiopicum. capsicoides). known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. lasiocarpum. such as agreste. variegatum. brownii.C. ovigerum and . tongdongense. S. divaricatum. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. and (invalidly) by Sweet.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L.-Lag. subrepandum. that of Blanco to S. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. Solanum longum Roxb. stenoleucum. violaceum. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. aethiopicum. an unrelated plant described by Ortega.F. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. album. Similarly. giganteum. But this is not correct. Dunal. violaceum and viride. ruber. multifidum.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. There is an actual S. racemosum. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. sinuatorepandum. leucoum. globosi.Varieties Solanum melongena var. mainly by Dikii. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. H. trongum. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. Scopoli's S. insanum. which used to include Dunal's http://www.crazychefs. inerme. luteum. inerme and subinerme at that time. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. Names for various eggplant types. rumphii. Solanum oviferum Salisb. racemiflorum. edule.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. esculentum. esculentum. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium).

^ Doijode. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. Footnotes . Technology. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". common. Handbook of Food Science. D. and Engineering by Yiu H. ISBN http://www. 2. CRC Press. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. S. (2001). Hui (2006).Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157).

^ Kabashima K. P. Arq Bras Cardiol. 202 4. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. Miyachi Y.aspx? . Andréa Thomaz. pp. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. http://pubs. 2008 10. Toorenenbergen AW. Vol. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. Tsenge Demana. volume 82 (nº 3). Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004.133(42):2081-3 12. Ebury Press. http://www. ^ Health24.uga. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. Dieges PH. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802.fao. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. ^ SN Pramod. . Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L.caes. ^ Westerfield. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables.pdf. N. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. Bruno Caramelli. ^ B. http://faostat. 7. P. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). 1993 Number 6 9. Harish Babu * .Aubergine 8. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels".org/site/567/DesktopDefault. Erich Hornbach. 2004.) reveals female predominance. A. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. Robert (2008-11-14). The New England Journal of Medicine.* YP Venkatesh.crazychefs. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. Retrieved 2009-07-01. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 6. Mahesh † and Y. ^ Solanum melongena var. Volume 329:437 August ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). FAO. 5. ^ Edward F. 18(1): 59-62 13. 273-6.50(2):101-102 11. Retrieved 2007-04-24. ^ "FAOSTAT".

4–0. The tomato is native to South America. yellow. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. odd pinnate. and have a weak. see section Fruit or vegetable below). with five pointed lobes on the corolla.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. woody stem that often vines over other plants. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with a serrated margin. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru.crazychefs.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. Solanum lycopersicum.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual.8 in) across. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. One . It is a perennial. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. syn. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together.

However. and cultivation began in the 1540s. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. The exact date of domestication is not known. meaning plump thing with a navel. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. an Italian physician and botanist. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. now Mexico City in 1521. lycopersicum. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s.[6] Gerard's Herbal. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. cerasiforme. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. who named it pomo d‘oro. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. smaller vegetable . means "wolf-peach". The specific name. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of http://www.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. However. lumpy tomato. such as Florence. according to Smith. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. was the first European to take back the tomato.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. a barber-surgeon. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher . tomatl. golden apple. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. likely to be the original salsa recipe. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. the other by currant tomatoes. corn and salt.crazychefs. ancestor of L. earlier in 1493.[4] The large. in certain areas of Italy. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. They also took it to the Philippines.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. a mutation from a smoother. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers.

Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. and in general. a pioneer in tomato genetics research.[6] Nonetheless. California. The Spanish tomato dish. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. Rick. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. and before the end of that century. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. most famously in Worthing.[6] But by the mid-1700s. 1799 – c. Gerard's views were influential. The C. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. but the fruit is safe). broths.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. The University of http://www. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. particularly Florida and California. Charles M. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. In Victorian times. sent some seeds back to America. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. ―within the last forty years. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). By the mid-18th century. and as a garnish. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in . In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. Paella. British consul in Aleppo c. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean.M. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. Currently. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. Thomas Jefferson.largely plagiarized from continental sources.crazychefs. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. who ate tomatoes in Paris. Over the past 15 years. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum).

0 in) diameter. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. but a number of cultivars with yellow. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. through cherry tomatoes.[12] According to FAOSTAT. and have a lower water content. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. they are known as plum tomatoes. California accounts for 90% of U. orange. pink. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. about 5mm in diameter. followed by United States and Turkey. 18 September 2009. Most cultivars produce red fruit.8 in) size as the wild .6–2. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types.S. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.0–2. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. black. China. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. purple. It may be deleted after Friday. green.crazychefs. the largest producer. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion.4 in) diameter range. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter.4–0. production and 35% of world http://www. or white fruit are also available. For processing tomatoes. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking.

plum tomatoes. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of . as well as heirloom tomatoes. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. As in most sectors of agriculture. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds.[18] and productivity. along with zucchini. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial http://www.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. but unlike commercial hybrids. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. based mostly on shape and size. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste.crazychefs. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed].[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. and are shaped like large strawberries. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes.

crazychefs. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. some tomato cultivars .net/ . Green Zebra (top right). but must be bought as seed. pink. often via mail-order. A variety of specific cultivars. although some determinate heirlooms exist. Red Boar). ivory. etc. disease and pest resistance. and lack of mealiness. or home growers interested in canning.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. low acidity. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are http://www.especially heirlooms . They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). orange. or bush. including Brandywine (biggest red). while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. and purple. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop.cherry tomatoes are small and round. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. multiple colors (Hillbilly. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. et cetera. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. white. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. Black Krim (lower left corner). Burracker's Favorite. which usually discourages fruit set. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". they are often good choices for container growing. As an intermediate form. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. black. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. but are smaller than plum tomato.produce fruit in colors other than red. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. Lucky Cross). Determinate. including yellow. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. brown.

which interrupts the lifecycle. . One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus.alternaria. The most common letters are: V . red spider mite. T .crazychefs.fusarium wilt strain I.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. As the name implies. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. tomato fruitworms. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. tomatoes required cross-pollination.tobacco mosaic virus. entirely within the closed corolla. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. too. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars.fusarium wilt strain I & II. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. and A . it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. their traditional pollinators. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. cutworms. The stamens were. original state. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. F . which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. aphids. As a floral device to reduce selfing.verticillium wilt. carried by the beet leafhopper. In the wild. cabbage loopers.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. but manure or compost work well. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. FF . The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. N nematodes. slugs. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. flea beetles. and remain.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak http://www.

which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. as with most species. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. In more temperate climates. However. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. They may be recognized by their color. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. or more often today. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. In an outside setting. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant.crazychefs.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf http://www. by cultured bumblebees. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). This is not the same as self-pollination. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with . 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. Unripe tomatoes are firm. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. depending on variety. The pollen moves through pores in the anther.

[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). especially in cooked tomatoes.Sugars 2. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. a subset of fruit.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium).com http://www.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. in pieces. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. and other antioxidants. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). carotene. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole.6 g 4g . one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. They contain lycopene. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich).2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Recently. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. as tomato sauce. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. In some studies . there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. Though it is botanically a berry. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below).[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. or paste. anthocyanin. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. The tomato is acidic.crazychefs. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets.make salsa. generally three feet tall or shorter. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. such as rugose leaves. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). Known for its tomato growth and production. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. and grow as a series of branching stems. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. The fruit is also preserved by drying. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. lateral buds take over and grow into other. there are variations.5 °C (54.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). Embracing it for this protest connotation. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual http://www. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. fully functional. annually celebrates La Tomatina. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. it will not continue to ripen.[28] In October 1965. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. They are bred to continue ripening. Spain. Botanical description Tomato plants are . These hairs facilitate the vining process. although erect bush varieties have been bred. vines. whether because of pruning or flowering. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. When that tip eventually stops growing.crazychefs. initially decumbent. meaning covered with fine short hairs.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. often by sun. Of regular leaves. or pickled. Cultural impact The town of Buñol.5 °F). a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. Determinate types are annual in all climates. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. Tomato plants are dicots.

and he named it Lycopersicon http://www. very small cavities. or other external forces that present in the Americas.. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. have the anthers fused along the edges. Similarly. variegated. . called locular cavities. appearing on the apical meristem. which frequently used it and still do). and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). would be more correct. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. wolf. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture.e. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. "wolf-peach"). Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. plus 'persicum'.. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. Despite this. moths. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs.[31] Their flowers. butterflies. However. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). i.g. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. angora leaves. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. genetic evidence (e. chili peppers. (derivation. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. with both names found in the literature. Therefore.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. Other species in that family are potatoes. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. making the Linnaean name correct. 'lyco'.Karst. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. However.) H. This is because they are native to the Americas. while paste tomatoes have very few. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tobacco. As a true fruit. These vary. and be dried/fermented before germination. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.deeply grooved. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. other insects. Technically.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. according to type. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come.crazychefs. among cultivated species.

University breeding programs are active in Florida. U. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. etc. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. In 2006. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. North Carolina. AVRDC. New York. universities. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law.W. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. and organizations. together with its seeds. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. Ohio. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. and numerous other traits. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term.S. corporations. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. as are vegetables. nutritional value. color.S. . Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. However. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. http://www. cucumbers. A.S. Oregon. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. pest tolerance. In 1887. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. BHNSeed. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. However. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. disease tolerance. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. U. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. of Reynoldsburg. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use.S. a tomato is the ovary. flavor. As noted above.crazychefs. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. The U. 304)). Bejoseed. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. Monsanto. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. Hedden (149 U. 1883. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. from a culinary standpoint. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. Corporations including Heinz. shape.

which is toxic to humans and animals. North Carolina. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Massachusetts. Maine. 2006. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . contain the poison Solanine. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. Ohio. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. stems. Vermont and Wisconsin. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). On October 30. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Georgia. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation . the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. harmless. however. Minnesota. Tennessee.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Pennsylvania.crazychefs. Virginia. Michigan. New Hampshire. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network).[35] 2006 A sign posted at a http://www. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. the U. Kentucky.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The fresh fruit is. Indiana. Speakers from the British Isles. Rhode Island.S. Connecticut.

Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. with a harvest of more than 32. Oklahoma in 1986. French and Germans. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. fresh jalapeño pepper. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record http://www.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. 2008.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). On August 30. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. the District of Columbia. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985.S.8 m (65 ft) length.crazychefs. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). Illinois (100). from April 10. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine.[38] As of July 8.273 illnesses from this outbreak. Yong Huang.6:1). Epcot's manager of agricultural science. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. the U.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those . Lake Buena Vista. As of July 2008. 2008. discovered the unique plant in Beijing. Lancashire. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. with 49. and fresh cilantro.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. such as raw tomato. New Mexico (98). Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. and Arizona (49).000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. respectively. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. in 2000.1 reported cases per million. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival.000 kilograms (250." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. UK. 2007.151.7 and 16. Florida. and Canada. 40.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. China. one would arrive at an estimated 40.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1.84 pounds (522 kg). grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. fresh serrano pepper. it caused at least one death.

net/ . Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.S. indeterminate. Derived from Cherokee http://www.S. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially.crazychefs. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. Fusarium.

pickling. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Tomato Flower. good for Tomatoes on a http://www. Tomato . Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. Young tomato plant. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato plants in the garden.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. in Korea. Tomato fruit.

net/ http://www.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

F. ^ http://faostat.. University of Illinois Press. http://www. Footnotes 1. (1994). section Lycopersicon Mill. Tgrc. & Spooner. 3. ^ "http://www. ^ Acquaah." See: Natural History Museum.ucdavis.. 1994.The East Hampton Star . http://www.smithsonianmag.M. ^ a b American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online).nationalarchives. 1881. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. 1876. The Tomato in America. 2002-05-08. Cyphomandra. During the three months of the local harvest.html".html. Retrieved December 11 2009.. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. webpage: books-google-TTp17. October 26." 15. Retrieved 2009-04-02. http://tgrc. Appleton and Co. ^ "http://www. I. G.Smith. it handles more than and Triguera are nested within Solanum. Peralta. p.html". et al.aspx?PageID=567 14. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. Subsection Lycopersicon).com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.universityofcalifornia. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 2009-04-02. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . Retrieved December 11 2009.easthamptonstar. Processing Tomato Production in California.nationalarchives. culture. Horticulture: Principles and T. 13. E. ^ "UC Newsroom. 519 [1] 9. Universityofcalifornia. Easthamptonstar. page 57: ". UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at Retrieved 2009-04-02. bid/6280/Default.fao. 12. ^ The Friend.smithsonianmag.html. 6. 2008. Smith. 223 10. The tomato in America: early history. 2. 5.crazychefs. ISBN 1-57003000-6. ISBN 0252-07009-7. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". 11.five tons to the acre. (2002-0508)". ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. S.Food & Wine".Your Archives". ^ "C.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. (2002).smithsonianmag. p. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ Tomato history 4. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . Columbia. 2009-01-26. http://yourarchives. Appletons' journal Published by D. http://www. 7. (2001). . and In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. Normania. ^ a b Smith. Andrew F (1994).gov. and cookery. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. D.aspx. USA: University of South Carolina Andrew F. Culture. 8. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. Retrieved

http://www.smithsonianmag. 17.smithsonianmag. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only Faq. 31. Sinaloa. Retrieved 2008-10-27.umn. 2006. http://www. Ncsu. http://ohioline. Retrieved HYG-5532-93".html. Retrieved 22. "Tomato genome project gets $1. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".gob.plants. News.cornell. Retrieved page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato 29.stm.html". ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. ^ http://www. http://www. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look http://www. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.whfoods. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". 26. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium." 20.html".gardenweb.cornell. Retrieved Retrieved December 11 2009. 27.html. 2006.html 23. http://www.smithsonianmag.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44.16. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and". ^ "http://www.smithsonianmag. 25. http://www. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Smithsonianmag. http://news.html".org/pub_releases/2007-05/ of which there are many: beetles and nematodes.sinaloa. Retrieved June 30. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".bbc. 30.gob. Retrieved 2008-10-27.php. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention". ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes".ncsu. ^ "Selecting.ufseeds.smithsonianmag. ^ " http://www. ^ "http://www.umn. Ohioline. Retrieved 200810-27. Retrieved July 14. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. http://www. ^ http://www. Retrieved December 11 2009. Storing and Serving Ohio ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007). Retrieved December 11 2009. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.gardenweb. page 57: "The plants are still growing.crazychefs. which are carried in the wind. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. Retrieved 200705-24.8M".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ^ . and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. ^ "Crop Profiles ." 19. http://wwwplb. Retrieved" 18. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more.

2004. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005". http://www. Retrieved ^ Retrieved 2008-10-27. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 40. http://itn. Retrieved 200904-02. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak.html. Retrieved http://www. Tomato Recipe".com.cbsnews. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. Itn. 42.html?id=585498. California Master Gardener Handbook.CBS News". "Spain's tomato fighters see red"".journals. ^ a b ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus".php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. Nationalpost. et al. Retrieved 2009-0402. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . p.shtml. ISBN 1879906546. 643. 39. ANR Publications. United States. Cdc. Dennis R. ^ "August 8. 38:S3. http://www.1086/ 2007-08-30. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. http://www. ^ "ITN.uchicago. http://www. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". by state".edu/doi/full/ (2004-04-15). (2002). Retrieved 37. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 41. http://www. Tomato Nutrition. 36. 38.cdc. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". .

6 to 0. and nutmeg butter (see below). nutmeg and mace. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily.7 in) wide. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. It also grows in Kerala. extracted oleoresins. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). Species About 100 species. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg http://www. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. a state in the south part of India. called selei buah pala.crazychefs. or Spice Islands. and Bombay Nutmeg M. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different . fragrans products.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. including essential oils.4 oz) dried. called Jaiphal in Hindi. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. or sliced finely. argentea from New Guinea. both are used as adulterants of M. especially in Grenada. the fruit is also made into jam.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia.2 and 0.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. malabarica from India. In Indonesia. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.

Painkiller. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. sauces. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. and baked goods. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. In Arabic. "Lau Hau Peng". nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). In European cuisine. In the Caribbean. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. they are also used in soups. In Penang cuisine. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the . cauliflower. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater).Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities.crazychefs. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. mulled wine. and string beans. green. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais http://www. In Indian cuisine. and Barbados rum punch. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. saffronlike hue it imparts. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. and eggnog.

and sweets. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. that were at the time highly valued in European http://www. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. The oil is colourless or light yellow. It is semi-solid. although this is disputed. beverages. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. for instance. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups.crazychefs. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. medicines. used as flavourings. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. which can be turned into myristic acid. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked . preserving agents.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. 758 – ca. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. syrups. in toothpaste. reddish brown in colour.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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crazychefs.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. Fermented products such as soy sauce. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. Canned. and were not observed when MSG was given with food." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. yeast extract. with 4% annual growth expected. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. and protein isolate. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. it also said . frozen. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. particularly processed foods.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. soy extracts. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. sugar beets. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms." However.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. autolyzed yeast. About 1. steak sauce.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. sugar cane.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the http://www. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. hydrolyzed yeast. or molasses. being an amino acid.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. not reproducible. based on anecdotal reports.

g. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. and converted to its monosodium salt. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index).com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration.7% women). acidification. dextrose or citrate).html 2. pp. In 1993. such as hydrolyzed protein. concentration. In the hydrolysis method. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. [monosodium glutamate].4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled.crazychefs. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. 373-375.. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. For this reason. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate] http://www. References 1.g. (2) synthesis. Foster. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. New York: Wiley. MSG. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. On Food and Cooking. or its International Numbering System (INS) number.2. and crystallization. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. and Cosmetics (2nd ed." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. "Monosodium Glutamate". ISBN .[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. age 40–59 years. In the 2004 version of his book.). the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. followed by either the name of the food additive. Albert Y..inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. purified. even in large amounts. and (3) microbial fermentation. ^ Leung. flavour enhancer). 621. Steven (August 2003). The label must bear the food additive class name (e.". In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. ^ http://www. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. and mineral ions and growth factors. Drugs.

html?_r=1&oref=slogin. ^ http://www. 16. doi:10.3. Alan R. PMID 16999713. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. Chirality 6 (4): pp.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. Daniel W (1994).1999. Nutr. doi:10. Zhou. Inc. ^ Kawakita. ^ Walker R (October 1999).nlm. Stamler. Beifan. Linda.. Toxicol.pdf 9. New York Times.1111/j. MSG. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". 8. Tetsuya. (1993). Anjimoto Co.2008. Dyer. Food Chem. http://www.1002/14356007. Kelly M. Kimber L.1038/ ^ a b Tarasoff L. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp. doi:10. 11. Daniel. Ka.cfsan. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. Regul. Linguang. Shioya. 13. J.html. Yangfeng. ^ http://www. Pharmacol. "Monosodium Glutamate".org/stable/3421360 5. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ren C.00160. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. (April 2000).4. Julia (2008-03-05). Jordan (2005). doi:10. 15. doi:10. Shigeru. ^ He. ^ "Production process".1337.17457599.crazychefs. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". Masahiro. Jeremiah (August 2008) http://www.1525/gfc. Case study: monosodium glutamate". Dongshuang. the Secret Behind the Savor" 1875–1880. doi:10. Martha L. ^ a b Geha RS. 6. Chiaki. Beiser A. ^ a b Rundlett.F. 31 (12): 1019– . 277–282. http://jn. Daviglus. http://www. Liancheng. ^ http://vm.1006/rtph. 10. 38–49. Shizuko (2005).2005. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". PMID 18497735. Van http://www.2006. 7. ^ Freeman M. Toxicol. ^ Moskin. "Yes. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Encyclopedia of Amino Acids.nytimes. 14. ^ http://www. Armstrong.1002/chir. (October 2006).html 4. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. PMID 10736382.5.ncbi. Garside.a16 711. Guo. doi:10. "A Short History of MSG". Sano. PMID 8282275.x.celiac. PMID 10597625.274. et al.html 12.530060410. ^ Sand. Takehara. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review".

荳油 3. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 豆油 http://www. 酱油 2.crazychefs. 醬油 2. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. [4] By the mid-19th century. Soy sauce was invented in China. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. and salt.crazychefs. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared http://www. In its various forms.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737.[3] In the 18th century. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. water.500 . when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima.

and are popular in Southeast Asia and China.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. sojae) and other related microorganisms. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. Although there are many types of soy sauce. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. such as in giant urns and under the sun. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap.crazychefs. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. Today. literally "delicious taste").net/ . which was believed to contribute to additional flavours.

Another type. and Chinese cuisine. or a mixture of both. In traditional Chinese cooking. traditional Chinese: 醬油.crazychefs. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. like extra virgin olive oil. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG.3-DCP (1. with relatively low amounts of other grains. It has a richer. slightly sweeter. Despite their rather similar appearance. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. lighter brown soy sauce. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). Thai. since it is saltier. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. Since it is lighter in color. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. consistency. shuānghuáng (雙璜). ): A thin (nonviscous). fragrance and saltiness. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. one of the two types. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". but it also adds flavour. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. traditional Chinese: 頭抽).3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. pinyin: jiàngyóu. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. An additional classification of light soy sauce. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in . opaque. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour.

lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. or 醤油). where it is known as "shōyu". "white") A very light colored soy sauce. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. Shiro (白?. due to the addition of alcohol in the product.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. for example sashimi. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts.crazychefs. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. It contains little or no wheat. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り).com http://www. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than . as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. Usukuchi (淡口?. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. Technically. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. that is used in its production. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century.

Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also . Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality.Saishikomi (再仕込?. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. Consequently.crazychefs. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. not pasteurized. Amakuchi (甘口?. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. 1 litre bottles. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with http://www.

which has a thick. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. powder. in a pinch. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring.crazychefs. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. In Indonesia.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. It is a unique variety. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is . usually implies limited http://www. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce.

soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). lit. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊).Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. Later. is made entirely of soy and brine. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in . in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). thin and dark brown in color. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant.crazychefs. Founded in 1909. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭).4% of soy sauce purchases. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. 조선간장. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. Malaysia. O'Long(黑龍). Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. (called Joseon ganjang. Joseon ganjang. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish http://www. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. WanJaShan(萬家香). Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China.

is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. China. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. It can also be very salty. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt.[6] Furthermore. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from .[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. and can help prevent cardiovascular http://www. nước tương. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. salt. wheat. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or sometimes simply tương. it is also a table condiment. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar.3-DCP (1. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. and caramel. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet.crazychefs. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. pronounced SOO-kah).

com http://www. Individuals with a wheat allergy. p. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce.asp?id=7598 10. XXVII. ^ http://www. ^ Tanaka. 3. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. Pearl River Bridge. Kimlan.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007.smartfood.[1] Notes 1. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. Norio. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. they are the dominant brands in their respective the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. ^ http://www. 2nd edition." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. Golden Swan. ^ Tanaka.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. 2. 4. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. Retrieved 2008-01-07.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. 6. III.miyajimasoy.000 to 18. Sinsin. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. ^ http://www. p. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". p. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed".gmp.crazychefs.) In March 2008. http://www. Jammy 9. including six samples with up to 11. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. Vol. (1781). "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. Press release. Retrieved 200801-07. 6. ^ Tanaka. ^ Jung. http://www. 2 (January 2000).tw/newsdetail. King Imperial.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Seong-Gook (2002). 7. 7.[citation needed] In Vietnam. OCLC 9752305 Golden Mark. Soon Teck• and Kang. the leaflet does include oyster sauce.317 2. Isaac.Kong and Taiwan. Lee Kum Kee. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid an increase over 23 to 5. Celiac . Despite these being small in number in the UK. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). No. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce").com. ^ Titsingh.htm. marinades and other types of

Edition 2. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand".100.144. Stephen (2006-06-06).com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC http://www. et al.nutraingredients. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 16. 12. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". Kentucky: CRC Press. doi:10. ISBN 0632059877. doi:10. fermentation and micro-organisms.1263/jbb. 18. Florence. PMID 16198255. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". chemical veggies -. ^ Kobayashi. 103. PMID 12469319.crazychefs. Retrieved 2008-01-07. Charles W (2005). Fereidoon. 14. Food. Marian (2003). Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209.201. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. . ^ Toxic soy sauce. p. 13.2323/jgam. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. ISBN 1587161389. Somboon (2002-06-18).food scares hit Vietnam 20. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice Hoboken. ^ Tanasupawat. Makio (2005-04-18). Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. p.48.11. ^ Shahidi. Naczk. ^ Bamford. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. http://books. ^ Daniells.

0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.8% Behenic acid: < .0 % Linolenic acid: <1.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.5 °C) 84 cP 1.5–21.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5–20.9180 (@ 15.4677– 211 | P a g e http://www.0% Stearic acid: 0.5% Linoleic acid: 3.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.0% Arachidic acid: <0.crazychefs.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.9150–0.3% Myristic acid: <0.3–3.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.5–5.0–83.

the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. World production in 2002 was 2. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. Olive oil is used throughout the world. Italy and Greece. North Africa and the Near East. in France. Leccino Pendolino. Koroneiki.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. Japan and China. principally Italy. which produce approximately 350. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa.4680–1. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. Australia. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. Hojiblanca. Alberquina. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). 93% comes from Spain. as well as in Crete. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. cosmetics. In . About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.[3] Of the European production. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. pharmaceuticals.6 (refined and pomace) 0. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region.6 million tonnes. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. and Manzanilla de Jaén. and Moraiolo. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. in Greece. but especially in the Mediterranean. family Oleaceae). The variety is also suited to the production of agouré http://www. Picholine.000 tons of olive oil annually.

with 23 member http://www. with production increasing to meet demand. and monitoring authenticity. defining quality standards.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life).000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. The California Olive Oil Council. called pomace.800. by its chemistry. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. Spain. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. in Portugal. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. The US imported 47. still contains a small quantity of oil.000 US gallons (181. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. The USDA uses a different system.California. of which 34.000 m3) came from Italy. In North America. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. in Croatia. Spain. often in "prestige" packaging. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). Galega.000 US gallons (131. and by its flavor. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy.crazychefs. After extraction the remnant solid substance. a private trade group. Mission. and Turkey. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. Oblica and Leccino.600.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. IOOC terminology is precise. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. Spain. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known.

under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. it is . but there are no guarantees.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. EU officials took issue with the new law. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents.crazychefs. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.[14] In March 2008. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant.[14] In February 2008.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being http://www. measured by weight. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. particularly in Italy.[16] In April 2008. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. of free oleic acid it contains. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. defined as the percent. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome).[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. and by heat. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. 25. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section)." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. for blended oils. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. but safe. mostly hexane.[12] In some cases. is extremely lax and corrupt. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. however. both in Italy and abroad.[15] Under EU rules. product as superior olive oil. Almost 700 people died.

Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides.5% acidity. of not more than 0.the oil degrades. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. expressed as oleic acid. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this . Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. These grades were established in 1948. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. has an acidity less than 2%. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production http://www. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. The US is not a member. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. and is judged to have a good taste.crazychefs.S. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. and is judged to have a superior taste. Pure olive oil. absence of defects. It has a free acidity. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. It is fit for consumption. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. another cause of rancidity. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. and are based on acidity. In order to classify it by taste. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants.3 grams per 100 grams (0. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. contains no more than 0. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. of no more than 1. The U. but may not be described simply as olive oil.8% acidity. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. This is also called its organoleptic quality. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. Used on salads.

with less flavour.S.S. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than . http://www. Grade C". This is incorrect. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.S. "cold" does not define any precise temperature.S. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". (34 kJ/ml).0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning.S. Grade C or U.U. Grade D or U.S. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.S. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. First of all.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. U. Grade A or U.S. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.0% and is "fairly free from defects".[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. U.S.5% and is "reasonably free from defects". which may be as low as 10-15 °C. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used.4% and is "free from defects". Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. Grade B or U. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled.crazychefs.

but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13.62 12. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. so the term "first press" is meaningless.pressed".2 7 1. Tunisia. Spain and Italy. Portugal and Lebanon.7 11.7 l. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 1. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.crazychefs.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country.8 7. around 14 l. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label.1 0. around 8 l.35 23. over 26 liters per http://www. around .

This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor.34 1.crazychefs. 4. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). which are stacked on top of each other in a column. 3. If ground with mill stones. suggesting a different taste. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. 1. then placed into the press. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described . First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method).com http://www. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. After grinding. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. 2. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. After grinding. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. which is much faster and more accurate. This is done in specialised chemical plants. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. Green olives produce bitter oil. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. no or very little organoleptic defects). A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). not in the oil mills. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms.

region. In the United States. most notably oleic acid. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and fat 3.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat .polyunsaturated 11 g .net/ . altitude.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g . time of harvest.7%) and sterols (about 0. including oleocanthal and oleuropein.monounsaturated 73 g . along with traces of squalene (up to 0. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.2% phytosterol and tocosterols).[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ fat <1.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 http://www. and extraction process.crazychefs. The composition varies by cultivar.5 g . To achieve this possible benefit.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.

a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. During the first http://www. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. This could.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer.crazychefs. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. During the second phase.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in the long term.This decision was announced November 1. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. The study was conducted in two stages. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. For example. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. at least in part.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. rather than its fatty acid profile. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. This way. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. and oleuropein. 2004. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective . antithrombotic.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. It is theorized that.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil.

people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. A very fresh oil. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. oils deteriorate and become stale. cookware. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. Used cold.[citation needed]. Also. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. not for foods to be eaten cold. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated.crazychefs. For example. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). as available in an oil producing region. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. http://www. In . etc. blenders. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. like salads. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine.

It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. It is also good for the management of pain. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive .Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. acting as a stool softener. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM).crazychefs. It does have demulcent properties. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. and mild laxative properties.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial http://www. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer.

from Gk.Fr. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now . oile ( http://www.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". olive oil has been used for religious rituals." In ancient Greece. olie. olio). It. from O. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. olive oil" (cf. magical. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil.Fr. drawn and engraved by J.N. and skin care application. elaion "olive tree".Fr. as a fuel in oil lamps. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. huile). from Anglo-Fr.. olive oil. and O. medicines. oleum "oil. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal.crazychefs. from L. soap-making. 1175. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. Homer called it "liquid gold. Mod. Besides food.

[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen.crazychefs. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. olive presses became common. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. Bodrum. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater .com http://www.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. In the centuries that followed.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium.

"the best in the Mediterranean".net/ . and area consisting of present day Palestine. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC.over 4. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron).. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. where it is thought to have represented wealth. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states.[citation needed]. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body.000 and 3. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine.000 tons of olive oil per season. together with naked appearance of athletes. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. drained the water from the bottom.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. when the oil had risen to the top. allowing more time for more oil to be made.[46] Until 1500 BC. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. wrote of abundant olive trees. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. oil containers are preferred. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. Lebanon. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil.crazychefs. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). he maintained. According to the historian Pliny. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks http://www. the fertile crescent. Sinuhe. during the 13th century BC. stored in special containers. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. According to legend. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. and Israel.[dubious – discuss] During this time.

com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. Margaret Lindstrand (2005). the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. the tourch is in a glass bulb. 158. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). in the consecration of altars and churches. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF).org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo. Retrieved 2007-05-25. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit)." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. ^ G. Retrieved 2007-05-25.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. 2. ^ USDA. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. light upon light. ^ USDA. and. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. Steven Sibbett. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a http://www. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out.crazychefs. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. 5.imitate the original Menorah. http://findarticles.PDF. Louise Ferguson." He also stated that it cures 70 . ANR Publications. To douse the flame."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. "The Olive Tree.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. ^ "findarticles. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth.gourmetretailer.usda. and the Mount of Sinai. and this secure city. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. Retrieved 2008-07-04. neither Eastern nor Western. References 1. originating from King David. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. Olive Production Manual. In Islam. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. even without fire touching it. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. its oil almost glows.html. 3. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. ^ International Olive Oil". The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". traditionally. http://www. 4. Joann L Coviello.internationaloliveoil. http://www.

^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. http://www. ^ Durant. ^ 55 (3): 175–86. Alan (1989-05-21). ^ "www. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam .internationaloliveoil. ^ a b "Telegraph article". G. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil.Telegraph".oxfordjournals.html". ^ a b . http://www.htm. Pharmacol.1016/j. Menotti A. Epidemiol.telegraph. Am. November 2. http://query. PMID 17321749. 25. US Customs Department. 16. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.".Scotsman. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. Giammanco. J. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar". Retrieved 2008-11-16.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/ Slippery Business The New Yorker. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.nytimes. and Maurizio La Guardia.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. PMID 3776973. ^ "EUbusiness. http://www. 17. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 15. 7. ^ "www. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud .).info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. Di http://news. et al. M.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. Giammanco.htm". http://www. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. Tom.23/.com".com News". 13.46. http://aje.2007. ^ Mueller. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" J. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10.1079/NRR200495 24.html.crazychefs.23/. Retrieved 2008-11-16. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). 14. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". Retrieved 2008-11-09. ^ Keys A. 20. http://www. D. Karvonen MJ.southafrica. Tabacchi. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil".telegraph. doi:10. 19 CFR 134. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. United States Department of Agriculture. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".phrs.usda. 12. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study".eubusiness. http://www.scotsman. Tripoli. 124 (6): 903– Res. 21. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. 10. 18. 2004. Raymond & Co. http://oliveoilonly.6. (December 1986). The New York Times (H.4005000.ams. ^ "Eubusiness. ^ New York Times.

says the 6th millennium in Jericho. (27 March 2000). 2000. http://www. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. 44. Poulsen HE. Vol. Mar. 19. PMID 10737284. Ahmed. 29. Israel".jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. 21 (1): 45–52. (January 2007). europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". ^ Pagnol.html". ^ Machowetz A.1. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". André Bervillé. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. doi:10.75. ^ Ferrara Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). Pagnol. 21. ^ "www. Brenes M. p." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. J Agric Food Chem. Etienne N. et al. A : Bito. 34.xml. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". 19. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997).ama-assn. Marotta T. pp. 2085-2090. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. Carcinogenesis. Guida L. Olives 41." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. An Wu. Nov. 37. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". ". s.. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. M : Osawa. Dello Russo A. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. Faseb J. M : Ahmed. Suppl. ^ Ehud Galili et al.61. 23. 43. ^ Mayo Clinic. 19 November 2007 30. 11." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006.telegraph. Olea europaea L. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 31. Vol. Masamitsu De Castro A (February 2007). ^ Romero T : Ueda. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". ^ Turner R. ^ http://www. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. ssp.tchain. ^ a b Davidson. 1S45-50. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. but cites no 36. et al. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". PMID 17263460. ^ "Quite Interesting .v.". Raimondi AS. s.Telegraph".06-6328com. p. No. (January 2005).videojug. 1: Prevent Cancer. Vargas J. http://www. 45. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. N U : Budiyanto.crazychefs. p. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. Toshihiko Osawa.tchain.1021/jf0630217.1096/fj. 10. 39. ^ [2] Ichihashi. A : Wu. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice".html. http://www. "olive" and "oil" 40. d'Episcopo L. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?.. "New Year's Resolution No. Nazim U. Use Olive Oil.1024/0300-9831. ^ 35. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. PMID 17110467. 2000. PMID 15830923. Catherine Breton. doi:10. Alonso MG. Toshinori Bito. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. Osamu Nikaido. Gruendel S. 55 (3): 680–6.28. Medina E. 38. Masato . T. JDermatol-Sci.

htm. Riley. Kennell. Provencal. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in ^ Thomas F. pp119–33 Harrington Park Press. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. 2001. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil".youngmuslims. ^ "www. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.). Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. 47. ^ Nigel M. http://www. http://www. Verstraete and V. 2005 49. Scanlon. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. ed. C. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". B. ^ F.reshafim.htm".ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/ . Processing methods.crazychefs.46.

Saffron has further medicinal applications. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Saffron Saffron crocus C.crazychefs. ən] / [ˈsæf. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf.[4][5] A carotenoid dye.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. Saffron. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. sativus flower bears three stigmas.or hay-like fragrance. crocin. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. A .com http://www. each the distal end of a carpel.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia.

must be dug up.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower.[11] Upon flowering.5 centimetres (1. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer http://www. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ).crazychefs. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. Only in October." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ).The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. and replanted. Being sterile. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. It is a sterile triploid form.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. in Central Asia.2 in) in length. A corm survives for one season. purple buds appear.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In autumn. broken apart. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms.98– . as was once generally believed. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. which means "yellow. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer.

leaf rusts. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. Planting depth and corm http://www. loose. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. Greek.8–5.[16] Furthermore. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. they fare poorly in shady conditions.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. rats.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. where annual rainfall averages 1.. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. well-watered. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow . Saffron crocuses grow best in friable.e.000–1. low-density. maximizing sun exposure.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0.crazychefs. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. are critical factors affecting yields. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. where hot.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. and birds. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested).9 in) deep. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. in concert with climate. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. and corm rot pose other threats.500 mm (39–59 in). Nematodes. Moroccan.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted.

a product results that is itself water-soluble.8-carotenoic acid). One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.and β-carotenes. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α . http://www. and thus oil-soluble. and various α. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.crazychefs.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.2 oz of dried saffron).[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. lycopene.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds.0. including zeaxanthin. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8.[19] Meanwhile.8-diapo-8.11 gr) of dried saffron. It also has many nonvolatile active components.[19] many of which are carotenoids. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass.

0 0.5 10.0 8.0–7.0 9.0 4.0 12.crazychefs.0 2.0 6.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0–1.5 40.0–13.0 6.0 12.0 6.0 3.0 1.0 1.0–15.0–14.0– .Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 6.0 1.0 http://www.0 11.

3-diene-1. incidentally. combined with enzymatic action. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building.Fiber (crude) 5. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin .5-cyclohexadien-1-one. and may comprise up to 4% of dry http://www. the scent of which has been described as "saffron. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate. a volatile oil. the heat. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. p.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat.6-trimethyl-2. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. dried hay like". 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties.4. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.crazychefs.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. Santorini. When saffron is dried after its harvest.[18] Safranal. Significantly. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen.6. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.0 Source: Goyns 1999.

[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. townspeople in Rhodes. and medical treatments. and scabies. divine offerings.[28][29] Later. There. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. physicians in Gaza.crazychefs.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. sativus.000 years.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. a sterile mutant form of C.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and http://www. mascaras. Since then. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. . adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. colic. ointments.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. cough. and in the mithridatium. In late Hellenistic Egypt. Thus.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3. C.[33] potpourris.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes.

crazychefs.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. perfumes. medicines. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC.[44] During his Asian campaigns. Isfahan.Asia The 17.[53] On the other hand. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts.[39][40] Later. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. saffron threads were woven into textiles. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. a Chinese medical expert. dating to 978–993 AD. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. Wan Zhen. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac.[44] From there. or jackfruit.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. a less expensive dye. rice.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. For example. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC.[42] ritually offered to divinities. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. At such sites. and body http://www.[51] However.[43] Thus.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. and used in . also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death.

which grew prosperous. under which saffron adulterators were fined. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812.[59][60] Only in southern France. and Italy.saffron is in Kashmir.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. tea. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. and Spain.[58] Soon after. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline.[62] By 1730.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. France. In Europe. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. imprisoned. did significant cultivation endure. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. Italy. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. However.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few http://www. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. It can be used to aromatise wine."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. named for its new specialty crop. and then the saffron is .crazychefs. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. and executed. indeed. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. coffee. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.

[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. noodles. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron.crazychefs. .[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. and chicken or trout dishes. and Cornish cuisines. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. immunomodulating. Arab. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). Medicinally. and antioxidantlike properties. Indian. European. Central Asian. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. Pennsylvania. and in perfumery.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). particularly in China and India. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa.

[2] A pound comprises between 70. flavour. Aside from these.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). England. For example. are generally mellower in http://www. the United States.200/£1.500/€7. and aroma.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5. France. the average retail price is $1. Azerbaijan. India.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.000 and 200. In Western countries. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. Spain. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide.000 threads.crazychefs.100/€1. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. Morocco. slight moistness. Switzerland.100–11.000 flowers.000–75.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2.000 flowers. elasticity. A pound of dry saffron requires 50.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand.000 per pound (US$1.[5] Iran. they are graded by government-imposed standards. and other countries.550 per kilogram). while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. Annually. Greece. in decreasing order of production. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'.500 per kilogram. are the major producers of . Spain's varieties. Vivid crimson colouring. and Italy.000-170.

blights. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour).net/ .S. contribute to its high prices.crazychefs. combined with an Indian export ban. and crop failures in Kashmir. and colourative effect. Repeated droughts. There. it also has very high crocin. aroma. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue..some organically grown. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. and safranal (fragrance) content. http://www.79 in). The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. shape. for quality and quantity. unusually pungent aroma. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). Sardinia. In the U. near L'Aquila. among the world's darkest. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. is in San Gavino Monreale. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. and safranal content.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. picrocrocin (taste).

pliability.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I).net/ . high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports.[77] However. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. and thus a greater colourative intensity. many growers. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. III. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. and other powders used as diluting http://www.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation.[80] Thus. paprika. aroma. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. II. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. However. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. with turmeric. traders. red-dyed silk fibers. and I (finest quality). These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages.national standards bodies. pomegranate fibers. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron.crazychefs. in India. http://www. 24. p. crocin and safranal. 3. 3. pp. ^ a b c d Katzer ^ DPIWE 2005. 2. ^ a b c Hill 2004. Kansai. ^ Rau 1969. p. pp. p. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. ^ Dharmananda 2005. 4. Grilli Caiola . ^ Willard 2001. ^ Deo 2003. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. 21. . ^ a b Deo ^ a b McGee 2004. p. ^ Willard 2001. 19. 23. stigma extracts and their constituents. p. ^ Harper 2001. 422. 2. 22. ^ McGee 2004.Saffron reproductive biology 11. 272. p. 14. Sterling. 8. 103. p. http://books. p. 4. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. 2–3. 9. 5. p. www.". 7. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. Retrieved 2007-12-01. p. 287. ^ Willard 2001.cababstractsplus. 3. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. 4. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 16. 3. p. pp.asp?AcNo=20043148643. 17. in mice. p.cababstractsplus. 3–4. p. ^ Grigg 1974. 53. 18. ^ Kumar V (2006). 20. ^ a b Deo 2003. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. ^ Willard 2001. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. 1. ^ M. 1. http://www. 12. p. 1. 6. Honshū. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10.

p. 132–133. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 30 AD. p. 2. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 34–35. ^ Rau 1969. 73. 42. p. ^ Willard 2001. 51. 54–55. pp. 56. p. 20. 40. 26. p. ^ Humphries 1998. 59. 2–3. 143. 45. Kuo & Wang 1964. 62. p. 66. 12. p. 57. 128. 58. 41. ^ a b Willard . 55. ^ Lak 1998b. transl. ^ a b Willard 2001. 43. pp. ^ Willard 2001. 2. 1. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. p.25. 39. 32. ^ Willard 2001. p. p. 30. p. ^ a b Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 29. pp. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Goyns 1999. 138–139. p. ^ a b Dalby 2002. 63. 41. ^ Willard 2001. 1. 41. ^ Hayes 2001. 55. 70. ^ Celsus. ^ Willard 2001. p. p. p. ^ Dalby 2003. 65. 36. pp. 422. p.pdf 70. ^ http://www. 64. 224. 61. 11. 46. ^ Willard 2001. 48. 68. 101. ^ http://vision. ^ Willard 2001. 54. p. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ Chang. ^ Willard 2001. 71. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Hill 2004. 47. 34. ^ McGee 2004. p. p. 17–18. p. Victoria (30 December 2002). 60. 142–146. p. p. ^ Willard 2001. 1935 [1] 38. 63. 1. de Medicina. ^ Honan 2004. ^ Willard 2001. 67. p. 58. 256. 138. Random House.iovs. ca. ^ Deo 2003. ^ Fletcher 2005. p. 99. 1. 117. pp. 44. 103–104. ^ Ferrence 2004. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 1. p. ^ a b c Willard 2001. p. pp. 95. ^ Honan 2004. ^ Dalby 2002. 35. 49. ^ Willard 2001. p. 50. p. ^ Finlay. 28. p. 59. ^ Willard 2001. pp. pp. 35. Loeb Classical Library Edition. 133. ^ http://www. ^ Willard 2001. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 69. 37. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. p. p. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. p. 2. 273. 138. 33.

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com/download/saffron.etymonline. 2006. "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron".crazychefs. Retrieved on January 10.>. St. 2006. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution". 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. BBC News. Leffingwell. Ferrence. <http://www. 2006. "Saffron". Ten Speed m>. T (2004). JH. DB (1974). Fotedar. AW (2001). "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. MH (1999). <http://www. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2).net/ . saffron". "Saffron (Crocus sativus L.uni-graz. Retrieved on January 10. Taylor & Francis. Hussain. A (2005).pdf>.org/pdf/Vitasta1998-1999. Online Etymology Dictionary. ISBN 0-471-21423-X. 2006. Saffron. Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. Jessie. ISBN 1-58008-024-3. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. PMID 8590890 Hayes. Lak. SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005). Retrieved on January < The Essential Saffron Companion. <http://news.leffingwell. JC (2002). ISBN 1-56032-814-2. <http://www.nytimes. <http://news. 2006. Retrieved on January 10. Harper. The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen.DPIWE (2005).uk/2/hi/south_asia/4216493. "Saffron". PMID 16180089 Katzer. 2006.pdf>.html>. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). J (1998). PMID 15259204 Fletcher. D (1998). <http://www.nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>. Retrieved on January 10. Martin's Press. 2006[dead link]. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4)>. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron".uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/212491. <http://books. 2006. SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995).co. Retrieved on January 10. The Agricultural Systems of the World. BBC ISBN 0-312-34068-0.)". Retrieved on January 10. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron".co. <http://www. "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera".au/inter. D (2001). D (1998b). "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review".uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/213043. Retrieved on January 10. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5). G (2001). 2006. Cambridge University Press. Food & Agriculture.stm>.ikashmir. "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress". The New York Times. ISBN 0-521-09843-2. Honan. Goyns. Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1). <http://news. SC (2004). Taylor & Francis.tas. WH (2004). N (2005). "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine". S (1998–1999). Retrieved on January 10. Lak. ISBN 90-5702-394-6. Wiley. BBC News.html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>. Retrieved on January>. Grigg. Hasegawa. Humphries. Willard.".barc. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). Retrieved on January 10. JB (2005). <http://www. Tarvand Saffron Company. "Grading and Classification". Beacon Press. 2006. The Cooking of India.tarvandsaffron. Tarvand Saffron Company. P (2001)>. H (2004).cfm?chemic al_id=140>. "What is Saffron?". USDA Phytochemical Database.usda. 2006. Cancer Letters 57 (2). 2006. <http://books.reconstructinghistory.html>.com/irish/saffron. Retrieved on January 10. Reconstructing History. Retrieved on January 10. Scribner.htm>. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. 2006[dead link]. <http://books. Retrieved on January 10. http://www. <http://www. F (2005). < New Scientist.htm>.html>. PMID 2025883 Park. Tarvand (2005b).>.net/ . On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Retrieved on January 10. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. 2006. McGee. Retrieved on January 10. K (2003). Retrieved on January 10. <http://www.McGann. "Saffron". Nair. <http://www. Time Life Education.tarvandsaffron. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus).com/classification. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". ISBN 0-684-80001-2. SR (1969).

europaea Binomial name Olea europaea . Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O. Dead http://www. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea.

The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. olives.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. by a spring. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. Its fruit."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. from Lebanon. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. they were reverently preserved for centuries. the olive suckers readily from the stump.[9]. It is short and squat.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the . ca 170 AD. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. called xoana. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea.crazychefs. Asia and parts of Africa. referring to their wooden material. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. two stamens and bifid stigma."[7] indeed. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage.5 cm long. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted.(XVII. endives. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. Theophrastus. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. In Homer's Odyssey. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). are borne generally on the last year's wood. Though. and smooth mallows provide sustenance.[1] and in the Iliad. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars.[6] and when Pausanias was shown http://www. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The small white flowers. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. the olive. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae.

As emblems of benediction and purification. glory. As far back as 3000 BC. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. Over the years. Peru. fertility. For example. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. and then in the 18th century in California. the pits give rise to thorny.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health.[12] After the 16th century. The olive tree itself. and its cultivation began in Mexico. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. Theophrastus. Today. as well as olive oil and olives. indeed. The Book of Jacob 5. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. in On the Nature of Plants. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece.16. olives were grown commercially in Crete. in both the New and Old Testaments. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. kotinos.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. play an important role in the Bible. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.The leafy branches of the olive tree . http://www.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. glory and peace . for which the Greeks had a separate name.crazychefs. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. but he makes clear (in 1. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. Chile and Argentina. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. the olive has been the symbol of peace. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. spread far and wide by birds. power and pureness. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. wild-type olives. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world . and one of the most significant.

Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). drought-. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. One olive tree in Bar. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. The older an olive tree is. which is made into top quality olive oil.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. has been calculated to be about 1. claimed to be over 2. The age of an olive tree in Crete. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. named "Plato's Olive Tree".net/ .com http://www. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Istria in Croatia. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar.and fire-resistant. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. disease.crazychefs. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. and can live for very long.000 years old.600 years old. Montenegro.

though showing a preference for the coast. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. According to a recent scientific survey. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. olive http://www. fine wood. both in Galilee region. see Olive (fruit). two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. All seven trees continue to produce olives. In the same natural garden.6 km) as the limit.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. called the "Peisistratos Tree".2. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. Specifically. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century . Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. Italy. Modern experience does not always confirm this. and the olive fruit. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. 1600-2000 years old. a few other millenary trees can be admired. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A supposedly even older tree. and.400 years ago. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens.crazychefs. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic.

Israel. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean http://www. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. Niger. Olive plantation in Andalucia. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. Chile. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New . Sudan. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. laperrinei (Algeria.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. northwest Africa) where winters are mild. Argentina. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. the Mediterranean Basin.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp.crazychefs. such as South Africa. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). Australia. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp.

com http://www.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .crazychefs.

Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive http://www.crazychefs. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. originating in Dos Hermanas. 'Bosana'. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. often after being pitted. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. a large.crazychefs.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the .000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. but only a few are grown to a large extent. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. Seville. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. http://www. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi.200.Cailletier cultivar. Rich taste and thick pulp. The olive grove of Amfissa. which consists of 1. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. A prolific bearer. in southern Spain. with purple-green skin. rounded-oval fruit. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 'Manzanilla'. In recent times. It is used mostly for oils. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. grown around the world. stuffed (with pickled pimento. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so.

a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. even on clay if well drained. They are black and generally used for table consumption. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. originating in the south of France. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'.net/ . a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. They grow in any light soil. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. large. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. Due to their highly valued flavour. used as a table olive. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). a small. Spain.crazychefs. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. a large. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. 'Nabali'. Spain. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive http://www. which. good for eating and for oil. 'Empeltre'. 'Cornicabra'. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. and elongated. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. The olive is medium sized. 'Arbequina'. It is mainly used for oil. disease-resistant.[23] 'Barnea'. 'Picual'. Greece. 'Kalamata'. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. It is green. 'Hojiblanca'. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. It has a strong but sweet flavour. originating in Toledo. originating from the southern Peloponese. and elongated.[21] 'Koroneiki'. Moreover. Their flavour is mild and nutty. Spain. though difficult to cultivate. 'Souri'. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. named after the city of Kalamata. and coastal climate conditions. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. It is used both for oil and for table olives. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. This small olive. round. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. brown olive grown in Catalonia. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. originating in the south of France (Aude département). originating in the province of Córdoba. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. good for eating and for oil. They are green. another modern Israeli. medium size. The flavour is mild and nutty.

Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground.) Olives like hot weather. Another method uses an electric tool. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. P. the trees are regularly pruned. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. However. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers.crazychefs. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. Olives grow very slowly. Occasionally. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. it is valued by woodworkers. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. 114). when covered with a few centimetres of soil. This method is used for olives used for oil. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. rapidly throw up sucker-like . it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. but the time varies in each country. to facilitate germination. They tolerate drought http://www. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. In Greece. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. Where the olive is carefully cultivated.poorer soil. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. A. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Italy. In southern Europe. removing fruit from the tree. the oliviera. and with the season and the cultivar. More specifically. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. embryonic buds. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. up to several centuries. Olives are propagated in various ways. as in Languedoc and Provence. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. which form small swellings on the stems. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. In some places in Italy and Greece. being very hard and close-grained. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. soon vegetate. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. and can remain productive for as long. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder.

This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. Fresh are often sold at markets. Olives can be used green. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. through to full purple black ripeness. the creation of lactic acid. a bitter carbohydrate.2 kg of oil per tree per year. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar.. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. which can be eaten fresh. After some weeks. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. or green with hints of colour).[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. The method also involves sawing off branches. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines.g. Typical yields are 1.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. then drained. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the fruit is not bruised.5-2. which is healthy for future production. which leads to a superior finished product. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products.crazychefs. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. which is a natural preservative. large fruit (e. which is why they taste milder than green olives. The olives are soaked in water to . As a result. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% http://www. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. ripe green (a yellower shade of green.

Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. lemon juice. capsicum (pimento). can infect the trees for several successive seasons. diseases. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. olives suffer occasionally from frost. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. their main predators are wasps. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. spices. Sometimes. feta.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. olive oil. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. The ten largest producing countries. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. of which the water is changed daily. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. garlic cloves. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades.6 to 8. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. especially to young trees. Lye-curing. salt-curing. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. leaving sawtooth damage. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. juniper berries and anchovies. wine. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. lemon zest. Pests. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. causing great damage to plantations. In France and north-central Italy. induces tumour growth in the shoots. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. oleae[27]. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. and weather A fungus. http://www. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. or removing the pit and stuffing them. but can be left to cure for up to three months. an unnatural method. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. Popular flavourings are . vinegar. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug.crazychefs. A species of bacterium. Cycloconium oleaginum. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous.

988 500.000 594. p.800.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures. 6... 82.000 275.5 63.317.597.000 1.000 8.[31] References 1. and to cultivate olive-trees. 5. 2.400. to make bee-hives.1). 27.140.. 5. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.000 498.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.7 27.8 16.888 178. most notably South Australia.000 430. 3.14. Odyssey.000 1. On the Causes of Plants.830 2. Bibliotheke.5. 1)." (Herodotus. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.000 550.crazychefs.000 20.3 8. 81.339 300. book 5". An introduction.149. 3.000 470. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees.300.4 30. ^ Homer.160. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.000 280. ^ ".1 25. 1992.500. 1 ).000 49.000 998." (Diodorus Siculus. 4.685 http://www. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.100 3.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus. Ancient Greek Agriculture.000 318. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard. 4. ^ Pausanias.9 6. Description of Greece 1.5 6. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. 4.3 20. 38.13.0 3..6 31.064 2. ^ Theophrastus. 7. 1.981 1. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 250.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.089 .

John Hutton.. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. 25. Rackham. R." Horace. 23. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. ^ Lumaret. Epikouria Magazine. ^ http://www. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. Cavagnaro P. 32:166–169.15.zatoun. http://www. Madrid.W. ^ Janse. 1996. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16... ^ Gooch. ^ Burr. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil".fao. Juárez. me cichorea levesque malvae. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. http://apps3. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. J. 28. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". 24. ^ Belaj et al.aspx?PageID=151. Zatoun. ca 30 BC 9. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Ellen. Syst. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. op.cit.crazychefs. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. Epikouria Magazine. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. J. Bacteriol. & Parker.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. Elena "Unusual Olives". Tabak & O. vol. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. 30. 13. cited in Number 4). ^ Fotiadi. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Lewington. ^ "Old Olive Tree".net/ . Leshonenu (Hebrew). N. Int. ^ O. ^ Muncipality Bar. (September 2002). 1982. M. ^ Balfour. Retrieved Riley (2002). Retrieved 2007-08-31.pasoroblesolivefestival. E. 69. A. Volume 15. 29 April. 1999. 35. 2004". 1981. ^ Riley.A. Australian Olives. 29. ^ "FAO. Brijuni National Park. 27. J. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. http://www. pp 110–113. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. rev. Available through Google Books 11. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. 17. Volume 18:27-35 20. ^ a b M.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA".279 18. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. Spring/Summer 2006 26. M Bauza & R. Kislew. http://www. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. ^ [1] 21. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives".springerlink. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. Processing methods. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana.8.. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. EspasaCalpe S.jsp. Retrieved 2007-03-10.. 4th http://www.fao.31. D. p. Y. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Masuelli. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. 2001. (1999) Ancient Trees. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. 105. p. & Ouazzani. nov. Odes 1. 1779. R. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. Simhoni. AGRISCIENTA. nom. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22.

) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to .31." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. L. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. however. with slender branched stems. with an entire margin. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. glossy green. western North http://www. (French tarragon. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter.crazychefs.R. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. and south to northern Mexico. seldom produces flowers. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. The leaves are lanceolate. Corresponding to its species name.

A perennial. but cannot be grown from seed. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. which is the Armenian.[1] Russian tarragon (A. It is normally purchased as a plant. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. sunny spot. dracunculoides L.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. due to the presence of estragole. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. by extension. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Spreading plant can be divided easily.[1] However. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is http://www.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. Georgia and.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. Persian and Russian word for .net/ . without excessive watering. fish and egg dishes. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). and particularly suitable for chicken.[1] It likes a hot. Russia and Ukraine. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. it normally goes dormant in winter. Fresh. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food.

Maggie (2002). pp. Johannes Panten (2006). Workman Publishing. ^ Gatfield IL.Cis-Pellitorin. 3. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. 233. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. ISBN 9783527607891. ^ a b c d McGee. Ley JP.crazychefs. Horst.[3] In Slovenia. Foerstner J. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. References 1. Krammer G. Stuckey. ^ Surburg. . Rose Marie Nichols. Wiley-VCH. Machinek A. The Bountiful Container. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Properties and Uses.

In the Balkans and the Middle http://www. sage has a slight peppery flavor. Garden sage. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. grayish leaves. Culinary sage. cheeses (Sage Derby). then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). with woody stems. and some drinks. and blue to purplish flowers.Salvia officinalis (Sage. In the United . Broadleaf sage. It is a member of the mint family. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. it is used when roasting mutton. Kitchen sage. Lamiaceae. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. though other species. Common sage. Dalmatian sage. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. Purple sage. In French cuisine. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). Britain and Flanders. In Western cooking. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe.crazychefs. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub.

[1] In a double blind. chlorogenic acid. oleic acid. antibiotic. means ―to heal". flavones. cornsolic acid. borneol.more trichomes are visible on this side.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf .trichomes are visible. http://www.crazychefs.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. ursolic acid. ursonic acid. which contains cineole. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. antifungal. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. salvia. and tonic. antispasmodic. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. fumaric acid. cornsole. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. flavonoid glycosides. and estrogenic substances. estrogenic. caffeic acid. nicotinamide. The Latin name for sage.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. The underside of a sage leaf .net/ . hypoglycemic. and thujone. astringent.

'Extrakta'. increasing women's fertility. and for other uses. Khani M. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. ^ a b c "Sage". OBeWise Nutriceutica. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. . During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. salvatrix (Sage the Savior).2003. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. a white-flowered cultivar. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. 'Lavandulaefolia'. References 1. (2003). 2. 'Tricolor'. Dioscorides. and tonic. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil.x.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. snakebites. a small leaved cultivar.[4] It was sometimes called S. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. a local anesthetic for the skin. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. 'Berggarten'.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages.crazychefs. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". doi:10. 'Alba'.appliedhealth. especially in sunny dry environments. hemostatic.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. and more. Pliny.1365-2710. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. a cultivar with white. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. and used as a diuretic. They are easily raised from summer Applied Health. Retrieved 2008-02-04. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. Ohadinia S. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. 'Icterina'. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. a cultivar with large leaves. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. a styptic. Noroozian M. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. ^ Akhondzadeh S. Jamshidi AH. http://www. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. a purple-leafed cultivar. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine.php. and for low ground cover. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. Mohammadi M. PMID 12605619.1046/ http://www. yellow and green variegated leaves.

net/ . ^ a b Kintzios. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 4. Deni Bown (New York: DK. p. 10-11. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. Sage: The Genus Salvia. (2000).com http://www. pp. Spiridon E. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. ISBN 9789058230058. CRC Press.crazychefs.3.

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