COOKING INGREDIENTS

Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]

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Taxonomy
Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]

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Uses
Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

Safety
A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Cultivation
Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]

Gallery

Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.

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Thyme

Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

History
Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]

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does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. storage life is rarely more than a week. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. in a bouquet garni). A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. Italian. As a rule of thumb. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. soups and stews. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. Persian. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It tolerates drought well. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. Lebanese. or by the sprig. Libyan. Leaves are often chopped. Portuguese. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs.com http://www. while flavourful.net/ . tomatoes and eggs. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. In some Levantine countries. assume that it means fresh. the whole sprig may be used (e. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. and in those derived from them. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. Thyme.g. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. and Turkish cuisines. In French cuisine.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. fresh thyme is often available year-round. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. which is due to its content of thymol. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines.crazychefs. It can be propagated by seed. and of herbes de Provence. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). While summer-seasonal.a little less if it is ground. Dried. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. Depending on how it is used in a dish. Spanish.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. Greek. cuttings. Syrian.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. Albanian.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs.

syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty.[6] Thymol. it was used to medicate bandages. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. It also has medicinal uses.com http://www.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. hybrid T. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. an antiseptic. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tisane.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. pulegioides × T. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. The dried equivalent is 1:3. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. All thyme species are nectar sources. salve.net/ . etc.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. but is grown as a ground cover. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun.crazychefs.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme.[5] As with bay. Because it is antiseptic.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US.

net/ . ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.Variegated lemon thyme. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing.com http://www. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.

crazychefs.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.com http://www.net/ . neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

3 g 0.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. B2) 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.1 mg 6.0 mg Phosphorus 58. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).1 mg recommendations for adults. often used as spice.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.net/ . B1) 0.8 g 3. although parsley has a milder flavor. It is common in Middle Eastern.Dietary fiber 3. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.0 mg Iron 6. and American cooking.2 mg Magnesium 50. European.Sugars 0.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1. B3) 1.0 μg Calcium 138. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.com http://www.9 g .crazychefs.1 mg Folate (Vit.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.

Like many other umbellifers.crazychefs.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian.net/ . The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. However. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. Although little known in Britain and the United States. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. it is not related to real turnips. reducing pest attraction. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol.com http://www. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). which then tend to protect plants nearby. tuberosum). These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. For example. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. While parsley is biennial. neapolitanum). not blooming until its second year. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. used in soups and stews. or flat leaf (P. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. which helps accommodate the long taproot. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. it attracts predatory insects. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period.

crazychefs. a mixture of parsley. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 4. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. steaks. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs.aspx?id=1075&s=4.g. or 4900. parsley is part of bouquet garni.. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. Jett. Last retrieved April 26. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. 2. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. ^ a b c John W.net/ . http://www. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. "That Devilish Parsley.[3] Parsley is high (1. 2007. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). leaf. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. References 1. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup." West Virginia University Extension Service. and lemon zest. In Southern and Central Europe. fried chicken.com/PLUdetails.70% by mass.com/npc/parsley. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés.com". http://www.drugs.com". root. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3.plucodes. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. [1]) in oxalic acid. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally.html. Ossobuco alla milanese. garlic. Parsley as an oil. soups. Goulash or Chicken paprikash).[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. lamb or goose. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato).com http://www. and sauces. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). In addition. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. with fish. "Parsley on plucodes. e.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries.

net/ .crazychefs.com http://www.Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ . 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O.com http://www.

Varieties There are a number of subspecies. capers. of the mint family.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. and grilled meat. as well as cultivars. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. and lovage leaves. growing to 20-80 cm tall. Greek. and to add a nice. which is popular in southern Italy. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. 3-4 mm long. Oregano is an important culinary herb. O vulgare gracile.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. Oregano growing in a field.net/ . produced in erect spikes. The flowers are purple. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.g. native to Europe. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. Spanish and in Italian cuisine.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . It is the leaves that are used in cooking. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano).crazychefs. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. spicy flavor. each with distinct flavours. fried vegetables.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food.com http://www. Unlike most Italian herbs. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. It is a perennial herb. e. Together with basil. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes.

heracleoticum (Italy. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity.net/ . West Asia) have similar flavors. which. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. Balkan peninsula. especially for mutton and lambs meat. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. salt and pepper. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. In the Philippines. together with paprika. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. In Turkish Cuisine. warm and slightly bitter taste. it can be usually found on table. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. In barbecue and kebab restaurants.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram.com http://www. useful for relieving children's coughs. Oregano growing in a pot. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine.[5][6] Additionally. Asia Minor) and O. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. It has an aromatic. differs significantly in taste. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖.crazychefs. however. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The influence of climate. It varies in intensity. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor.

and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat.Main constituents include carvacrol. ^ http://www. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. ^ Organic Gardening 2. especially in the United States. cholagogue. the father of medicine.at/~katzer/engl/Orig_vul. indigestion. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. stomachic and mildly tonic. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". this substitution would not work the other way round. antispasmodic.[8] Hippocrates. Lippia berlandieri. fungal infections. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. oregano. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs.com http://www. limonene. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. and caryophyllene. Coleus aromaticus). Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. but is usually stronger. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. emmenagogue.html. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. mild fevers. influenza. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. also called Cuban oregano. pinene. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. Aqueous extracts.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. diaphoretic. In the Philippines. ocimene. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. A Cretan oregano (O. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. stomach upsets. enteric parasites.net/ . expectorant. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). useful for relieving children's coughs. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. Plectranthus amboinicus. thymol.[7] and painful menstruation. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico.[12] References 1. capsules. carminative. including Poliomintha longiflora. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. stimulant. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. which simply referred to "an acrid herb".uni-graz.crazychefs. Used topically.

1021/jf0510079. PMID 16218659.ac. http://info. ^ Epikouria Magazine.2008. (01 May 2003).asp?item=1374&year=2008.) and Origanum vulgare L. J Nutr. 53 (21): 8162–8168. 133 (5): 1286–1290. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.dmannose. University of the West of England. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. 24 November 2008.com/articles/130620. ^ ["http://www. June 2008.co. (Cav. Retrieved 2008-11-26. draft revision for "organum". 12.net/ . Steinar. et al.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. 11. ^ Epikouria Magazine. Draft revision for "oregano". Fall/Spring 2007 5. Fall/Winter 2007 10. Food Chem. PMID 12730411.3. March 2009. ^ Dragland.com http://www. http://jn.uwe. 28. J. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants".php. doi:10. 7.10. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. (2005). Leonor. http://www. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". 6.org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286. et al.crazychefs.medicalnewstoday. ^ a b Faleiro. Agric. Medical News Today.uk/wild-oregano-oil-carvacrol.nutrition. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. draft revision for "origanum". ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".".uk/news/UWENews/article. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. Retrieved 200811-26.

with yellow flowers and feathery leaves.net/ . especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks.com http://www. meaning "hay". recorded in the 10th century. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now".[2] In Greek mythology. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. it was from the giant fennel. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. In Ancient Greek. Also. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. perennial. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). however. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. it seems. It is a hardy. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον).Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. umbelliferous herb. Ferula communis.

B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0.01 mg 7.29 g 0.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. about 0. B1) 0.com http://www.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.20 g 1. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.5 m.crazychefs. It is erect.047 mg Folate (Vit.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . B3) 0. but thinner.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. glaucous green. they are finely dissected.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb.Dietary fiber 3. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.5 mm wide. and grows to heights of up to 2.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit. with hollow stems. half as wide or less.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. and grooved.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. B2) 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.net/ . bulb.

in pastures. syn.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. and in other open sites in many regions. notably the Italian name finocchio. It is of cultivated origin.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. though usually not as strong. for its edible. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant.net/ . In North American supermarkets. vulgare var. both raw and cooked. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). it is often mislabelled as "anise".[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. the United States.crazychefs. but is more aromatic and sweeter.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. It propagates well by seed. including northern Europe.20 mg Manganese 0. by the late 19th century. which is also known by several other names. "bronze-leaved" fennel.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became.com http://www. both in its native range and elsewhere. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. F. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel.

slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. though smaller. Many egg. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. stewed. or cooked in risotto.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. The bulb is a crisp. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. but also the most expensive. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. mouri in Bengali. variyali in Gujarati. badesoppu in Kannada. anise-flavoured spice. where bulbs and fronds are used.crazychefs.Fennel. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise.net/ . Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. fish. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. which are very similar in taste and appearance. grilled. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. For cooking. and risottos. foliage. sompu in Telugu.com http://www. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. both raw and cooked. often tossed with chicory and avocado. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. green seeds are optimal. brown or green in colour when fresh. or eaten raw. salads. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. pastas. It may be blanched or marinated. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. in side dishes. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. braised. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel.

to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. Fennel tea.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. used to ease flatulence in infants. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. also employed as a carminative. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. which can explain some of its medical effects: it.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. or its polymers. as it is said to improve eyesight.crazychefs. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. act as phytoestrogens. This use.net/ . Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.[12] For adults.com http://www. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. sometimes with some sweetener.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. although not supported by direct evidence.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties.

[17] However.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens.crazychefs. which promote growth of breast tissue. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.com http://www. fennel and coriander. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.net/ . Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. followed by India. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. badian (star anise).Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas.

zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum.[2] In Marathi. Ceylon. and in Gujarati taj. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.com http://www. cinnamon is known as kurundu. the "real' cassia.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them.[3] In Sri Lanka. In Telugu. it is called "Darchini" ( ).[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera.[5] In Malayalam. in the original Sinhala. it is known as "DalChini ( )". The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. it is called Dalchina Chakka. In Farsi (Persian). In Bengali. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni.crazychefs. Hindi.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.C. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . In Urdu.net/ . Chakka meaning bark or wood. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. native to Sri Lanka. synonym C. itself ultimately from Phoenician. it is called darchin (‫. which are often called cinnamon too.

qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD.com http://www. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon.crazychefs.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear.net/ . from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. and in Song of Solomon.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. aloe and cinnamon.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. in Proverbs. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity.

2 feet) tall. and used them to construct their nests. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks.Ages.75–7. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew.net/ . In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. and have a distinct odor. took control of the factories by 1640. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. p.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. sugar. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia." (Braudel 1984.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. 7–18 cm (2. a Dutch captain reported. and coffee. in a letter of about 1292. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. although in the first century. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. However. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers.1 inches) long. The flowers. have a greenish color. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.com http://www. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. "The shores of the island are full of it". Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. They established a trading post in 1638. tea.crazychefs. which are arranged in panicles.8–49. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape.

Madagascar. Chips are trimmings of quills. Sumatra. Java. Bangladesh. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The next year. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. Brazil. Zanzibar. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. Vietnam.crazychefs. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. verum). and Vietnam. eg. followed by China. the outer woody portion is removed. the West Indies. Only the thin (0.[15] According to the FAO. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale.com http://www. India. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. According to the International Herald Tribune. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg.net/ . leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. and Egypt. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C.5 mm) inner bark is used. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. which is left to dry.

Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. and more crumbly texture. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C.crazychefs. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. or "Indonesian cinnamon".rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. and is considered to be less strong than cassia.net/ . is generally a medium to light reddish brown. as all of the layers of bark are used.[16] Ceylon cinnamon. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). hard and woody in texture. However. the related species. using only the thin inner bark. less dense.com http://www. many websites. "Vietnamese cinnamon".[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . zeylanicum). has a finer. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). for example.

and liqueurs. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. True cinnamon. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. rather than cassia.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.com http://www. and then quickly distilling the whole. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. a deep-blue tint is produced. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. tea. hot cocoa. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. bread-based dishes. used in a variety of thick soups. whereas cassia sticks are much harder.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. and fruits. drinks.5% to 1% of its composition. such as apple pie. when whole. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material.net/ . but when cassia is present. In the United States. ‫. and sweets. It is of a golden-yellow color. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb.crazychefs. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. are easily distinguished. especially in Mexico. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). The two barks. macerating it in seawater. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. especially apples. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. In the Middle East. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per.

[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting.net/ . love. ^ a b "Cinnamon". it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. and Myanmar (Burma). as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties.and a very hot aromatic taste. eugenol. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. cinnamaldehyde. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme.[34] Notes 1.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. and money. cassia. linalool. The Cinnamon Challenge. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. Encyclopaedia Britannica. cinnamyl acetate. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). beta-caryophyllene. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. few seem able to succeed. luck. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. and anethole.com http://www.crazychefs. However.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. although it remains untested.0. In Hoodoo. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. 2008. who failed.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde.

437). Torres RP (December 1998). Food Chem.2. 4. http://www. ^ http://links.co. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Emily. Agric. Mancini DA.org/sici?sici=00754358(1970)60%3C222%3ATSTOTR%3E2. ^ [2] 18. doi:10. Cai YZ. p.com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. ^ http://findarticles. Breyne) extracts". Col. p. 10.org/templates/story/story. Henry. Anthea Bell. p. Sun M. PMID 16190627.CO%3B2-N 15.theepicentre. "Solid. ^ Tennent. 437 7. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009.za/index.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains".com http://www. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.php?storyId=6672644.htm. ^ López P. 53 (17): 6939–46. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Sánchez C. PMID 16104824. Cathay and the Way Thither.net/ . Nerín C (August 2005). Encyclopedia of Spices. 22. Cinnamon.en. ^ [1] 16. J.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/south_asia_sri_lanka0s_spice _of_life/html/1.—Cinnamon. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. PMID 10077878. p. 2009.html. http://www.npr.bbc. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009..nii. Account of the Island of Ceylon.html. Food Chem.henriettesherbal.org/docrep/007/ae017e/ae017e12. tr. 9. 23. http://www. ^ http://www.htm 20. ^ http://www. p. retrieved 200807-15 6. retrieved 2008-07-15 5.1021/jf051513y. ^ Harris. J. 8. http://dsr. Sir James Emerson.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report.437. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. http://lakdiva.stm 3. Batlle R. Agric.html. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. ^ "Cassia.thespicehouse. ^ Felter. ^ Mancini-Filho J.jstor.com/eclectic/kings/cinnamomum. http://www. ^ http://news. ^ Knox. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. ^ http://www.jp/toyobunko/III-2F-b-2/V-1/page/0487. revised ed.0. Robert.co. doi:10. 53 (20): 7749–59. ^ Yule.iol.com/spices/vietnamese-cassia-saigon-cinnamon-wholecracked-ground thespicehouse. retrieved 2008-07-15 11.org/tennent/v1_p5_c02.ac. Corke H (October 2005). retrieved 2007-05-01 19. retrieved 200705-01 21. The History of Food.fao. Cozzolino FF. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger.com 17.ihaystack. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". ^ The Epicentre.1021/jf050709v. 437f.com/Spices/cinnamon. Harvey. ^ Shan B.crazychefs. Van-Koiij A. Cinnamomum.html#pg598.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_June/ai_3289703 13.

2217/14750708. ^ [3].com/releases/2004/07/040716081706. http://www. 34. PMID 14633804. ^ Verspohl.nutrition.113. July 2000. Retrieved 2007-12-17.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. 30. Corn. ground. http://www. doi:10. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. a publication now in the public domain. Agricultural Research magazine. ^ Yronwode. ^ Ranjbar.2217/14750708. Muhammad et al..html?source=r_health. Eleventh Edition.php?featured_food=80. ^ Beck. Charles (1998)..net/ .sciencedaily. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). doi:10. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276.113.com. Leslie. ^ George Mateljan Foundation.26. ^ Khan A.htm. ^ Vanschoonbeek. Khattak KN. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007).utm.3215. http://www. Ali Khan MM. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. Medicinal Seasonings. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. doi:10.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14633804. Research: Thalido.redorbit. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro".crazychefs. http://www. http://care. Kristof et al. Retrieved 2008-05-11.2337/diacare. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 26..lesliebeck.com http://www. (2005).com/doi/abs/10.1002/ptr.12.luckymojo.24. Akram et al. 27.my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH. et al. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. retrieved 200705-01 32. 29. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". Retrieved 2008-05-11. http://www.. Braudel. 33. New York: Kodansha International. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".com.sciencedaily. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". Archer (1988).futuremedicine.whfoods.pdf. The Perspective of the World. Eugen J. www. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. Retrieved 200808-05.com/news/health/803646/chillies_are_the_spice_of_life__pepper s_have_been/index.3. Cat. Alan W. Fernand (1984). Safdar M.com/ingredient_index. Retrieved 200805-11. http://eprints. retrieved 200705-01 25.1.. Cinnamon. http://www.3.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/977.com/genpage.1643. doi:10. 28.. ^ Taher.diabetesjournals. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. Anderson RA (December 2003).1016/00219673(88)90035-0. http://jn.1.

and dehydrated forms. used without qualifiers. chopped. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. one of the oldest vegetables.Department of Export Agriculture. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. They are now available in fresh."[3] Uses Onions. and Allium asarense R. it usually refers to Allium cepa. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. powdered.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia.com http://www. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. frozen.M. which it is not. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. canned.crazychefs. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. They are known by the common name "onion" but. Onions can be used. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion.net/ . pickled.

tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. due to toxicity during digestion. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". snakebite and hair loss.[5] However. transported and stored. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women.crazychefs.[5] The onion is easily propagated. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood.net/ . In ancient Greece. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. spicy.chopped or sliced. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. recent evidence has shown that dogs. In Bronze Age settlements. and also to relieve headaches. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. and other animals should not be given onions in any form.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. Depending on the variety. an onion can be sharp. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. However. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. cats. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. coughs.

saturated 0.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.7 g Fat .4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.1 g 1.12 mg Folate (Vit.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .polyunsaturated 0.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B2) 0.monounsaturated 0.21 mg Magnesium 0.4 mg Vitamin E 0.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.net/ .042 g .02 mg Vitamin K 0.24 g .17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.crazychefs. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.Sugars 4. B1) 0.Dietary fiber 1.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.com http://www.1 g 89.013 g . Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.34 g 0. 0 μg 9.

[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. Imperial Valley Sweet. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. Western White. Shallots have the most phenols.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. In the United States. osteoporosis. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. and other diseases. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. Mexico. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. eleven times the amount found in Western White.net/ . Mexico. For all varieties of onions. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. anticholesterol. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. However. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. In general. Western Yellow. Texas 1015. Mexico. Imperial Valley Sweet. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. Peruvian Sweet.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies).[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. Empire Sweet. pungent yellow (New York Bold). anticancer. Northern Red. followed by Western Yellow. and Vidalia. If you are allergic to onions. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. diabetes. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. Imperial Valley Sweet. Northern Red.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. Western White. Empire Sweet. Peruvian Sweet.crazychefs.[10] In many parts of the world. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. Texas 1015. Texas 1015. Peruvian Sweet.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). Empire Sweet. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. and Vidalia.com http://www.

As onions are sliced or eaten. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. allylpropyldisulfide. garden lilies. On January 31.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. limiting the amount of gas generated. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. all present in garlic. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. The volume of sulfenic acids released. nausea. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. creating a stinging sensation.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. differs among Allium species. allylmercaptan and allicin. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. 2008. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. and the irritation effect. shallots. leeks. cells are broken. breathing difficulties. chives.include reactions to onions. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. therefore.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide.net/ . Even if garlic is present in a very small amount.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. diarrhea. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. and bananas. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. ginger. Eye irritation can. it can lead to an allergic reaction. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. where it binds to sensory neurons.com http://www. mouth and throat ulcerations. garlic.crazychefs.

but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned.crazychefs. the Welsh onion. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. which can be planted directly in the ground.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. from sets started from seed the previous year.net/ . Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. which have been developed in more recent times. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. Allium fistulosum. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. more commonly today. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation.com http://www. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. "short-day" onions. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. Finally. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs.

302 1. each of which forms a bulb.500 China United States 3. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.149 Spain World Total 64.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Produce bulblets in the flower head. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.758 Russia 1. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.793 India 5. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.220 Turkey 1. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .com http://www.crazychefs. Vale. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.750 South Korea 1. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.346 2. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.net/ . Oregon (USA). a hybrid of Allium cepas.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.764 Pakistan 1.637 Japan Egypt 1.

crazychefs. It remains in effect as of 2009. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.net/ .com http://www. passed in 1958. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices.The Onion Futures Act. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A.net/ . leek. Its close relatives include the onion. Allium sativum.crazychefs. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. 1793. known as garlic. commonly known as garlic. It has a characteristic pungent. Medical Botany.[1] A bulb of garlic. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. and chive.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. from William Woodville. the most commonly used part of the plant. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. shallot. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves.

In cold climates. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. India (4. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. and Allium oleraceum.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. with approximately 10. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. accounting for over 77% of world output.Yunnan province of China.[6] One of the best-known "garlics".com http://www. for consumption (raw or cooked). is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. the so-called elephant garlic. They can suffer from pink root. The cloves are used as seed. are common weeds in fields. according to Zohary and Hopf. stems (scape). with Russia (1. In North America. respectively. Garlic plants can be grown close together. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red.net/ . it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. The papery. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". which grows wild in southwestern Asia. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese.[5] The "wild garlic". and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. Allium vineale. "crow garlic". Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. The leaves. Garlic is grown globally. and for medicinal purposes."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. or ginger. Southeast Asia. C = calculated figure.686.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure. California.4%).net/ . including eastern Asia. A = aggregate (may include official. and parts of South and Central America. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.Alaska) in fifth place (1.810 168. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data.000 221. semiofficial.000 142.000 125. It is often paired with onion. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.crazychefs. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb.000 254. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. or estimates). northern Africa. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press.000 325. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. southern Europe. F = FAO estimate.com http://www.000 645. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form.400 140. south Asia.000 15.000 128.088. P = official figure. tomato. the Middle East.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output.

the resulting product. breads and pasta.crazychefs. Garlic. cleaned. They are also known as "garlic spears". almond. The leaves are cut. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. meat. called black garlic. or "tops". Blending garlic. oil. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. garlic toast. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic.net/ . and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. and roast them in an oven. In eastern Europe. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. bruschetta. United Kingdom and Australia. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. oil.com http://www. and spices. In Japan and Korea. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. "stems". In some cuisine. crostini and canapé. salt. and a chunky base produce skordalia. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or vegetables. Immature scapes are tender and edible. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. is sweet and syrupy.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. and is now being sold in the United States. meats. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. and then stir-fried with eggs. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove.

Storage

Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—theheart.org, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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where it is excreted. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. hung in windows. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. deterring animals like birds.com http://www. usually enjoy these sensations.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic.[51] To ward off vampires. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. making garlic much more potent than onions. garlic could be worn. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. ginger. however. thus mellowing its spiciness. therefore. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. shallots. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. and vampires.[50] In Europe. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. The herb is.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. garden lilies. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna.net/ . shallots. chives. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. and bananas. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. However. However. persillade.crazychefs. Humans. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. including onions. all present in garlic. or leeks. leeks. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. and release of AMS several hours more.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. such as pistou. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". forming allyl methyl sulfide. When eaten in quantity. included in many garlic recipes. Since digestion takes several hours.[48] Due to its strong odor. allylmercaptan and allicin. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. werewolves. insects. garlic.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). and worms from eating the plant.in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. allylpropyldisulfide. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. Among the members of the onion family. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin.

It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". if appropriate. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. emesis. nausea. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. if any exist. calcium channel blockers.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. saquinavir.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. antiparasitic value of garlic.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. similar to the effect of aspirin.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. are largely unknown. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. Editing help is available. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. antihypertensives. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". minimal risks to normal individuals. dizziness. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. and menstrual irregularities. and diarrhea. as well as other medications. indigestion. antiplatelets. bleeding.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. sweating.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. Garlic can thin the blood.com http://www. and hypoglycemic drugs. indicated Muhammad. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. You can help by converting this article to prose.net/ .[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. at worst. However.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial.crazychefs.In Daoism mythology. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. allergic reactions. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children.

including naturopathic uses and acne treatment.htm.net/10113/877.com http://www.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). including burns to children.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. 397 6. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. In particular. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. A bulb of garlic. one the bulbs will grow peeled. topical use of raw garlic.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. ^ http://www. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L.org/Vol79/79_6/8.html 8. ^ a b c d Tabor. 112 7. ^ http://www. third edition (Oxford: University Press. 197 5. http://www. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes.crazychefs. ^ a b Lee. (2005). 3. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. http://hdl. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. Retrieved 5 June. Notes 1. is discouraged. Domestication of plants in the Old World. G. Retrieved 5 June 2009. Retrieved 2007-08-28. et al.com/alternative-therapies/herbs-for-health/medicinal-garlic/ 9. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves.jhortscib. p.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. bigger. garlick)". http://www. J.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. 4. 2000).handle.net/ .com/warrenreporter/index. 2.unigraz.nj. ^ McGee p. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p.natural-holistic-health.at/~katzer/engl/Alli_sat. (2004). split. et al.html. Ethiopia". ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7.200700072.10. PMID 15218732.346.jnutbio.uk/staff/daryn.1162/106361403773062678." Int. ^ Goodbye. ^ Charlson M.com 54 | P a g e http://www. 21.1001/archinte.4. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6.. Maud. ^ Mader FH (October 1990). Med. 14.A. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats".1016/j. J. 15 (6): 373–7. 16. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans".). P. http://archinte. 33. 22.200700058.. A. PMID 17325296. 29. Motta. 18. N. ^ Kojuri J. U. F.167. 23. PMID 17918162. 19. Mills RW.org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346. Vosoughi AR. Facts. PMID 17951430.lehoux/Tropes. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. Squadrito GL. 25. 13. Izzo AA (November 2007). Sartoratto. Oztürk HS. 26. Lawson LD. PMID 17966136.S. Intern. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. ^ Gardner CD.C. PMID 9641475. 12. doi:10. PMID 15157944. 2005 ^ Groppo.org/cgi/content/extract/167/4/325. A Modern Herbal. ^ Durak I. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". Kavutcu M. http://archinte. Arch. doi:10. (p. and Mary U. Sylva. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5.1073/pnas. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". PMID 17325291.net/ . ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. J.005. Ramacciato. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. Chao WJ (March 2007). Arch. doi:10.ama-assn. [2] ^ Hamel. Yin MC. Block E. Proc. 30. Med. PMID 17328819. R. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). PMID 17123684.crazychefs. July 1. Intern. Garlic. 31.manchester. Natl. PMID 15277094. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8.ama-assn. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know".325.1002/mnfr. 11. Acad. doi:10. 104 (46): 17977–82. Aytaç B. Lin RS (June 1998). et al (June 2004). 5. 34. doi:10. 35. Dent. Olcay E..ac. 20. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". doi:10. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97.2004..01. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. 167 (4): 325–6. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. 32. Herald Publishing Co. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". doi:10. ^ a b Steiner M. Akrami M (March 2007).pdf.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. 5:109–115. Sci. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". and Empiricism" (PDF). et al (November 2007). Nutr. 24. Sova P (May 2004). et al (February 2007). "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial".1001/archinte.4. Ferraresi.167. (Mrs. 15. 2006. ^ Chan KC.0705710104. Güven C (2002). Biochem. 27. 167 (4): 346–53. ^ Durak I. ^ Borrelli F. ^ Benavides GA.1186/1476-511X-6-5.1002/mnfr. doi:10. "Tropes. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic .A 400 Year History. J. Capasso R. doi:10. 17. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". 28.. PMID 2291748. McFerren M (February 2007). Paul B. Accessed: December 18. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . Hyg. Daryn (2003). http://personalpages. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech).Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. Better Nutrition.

^ Mosquito Repellents 50.blogspot. ^ a b McNally.html 46.pdf. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. David (2003).go. (1989-01-30). http://mic. 85 (3): 157–64. Yoffe B.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. Toxicol. Sterling Publishing. ^ a b c d Hogg.elsevier. 53. Engl. "Garlic burns". 52..jlc.jlc. 122. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Lett. PMID 16207909. a stress compound from garlic. http://aac. garlic advisory 63. Jordan W. Iwai K.1099/mic. 310–311 47. Imafuku M.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. Fuwa T.net/ . Bordia T. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. Jennifer (2002-12-13). http://linkinghub. Matuura H. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. Raymond T (1994).com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390. 66. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. p. ^ John S. Retrieved 2007-0707. NLM Gateway. http://linkinghub. ^ Macpherson et al. http://joi. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). http://joi.jp/JST. Sumida T. ^ Baruchin AM.28095-0. Ronen M (November 2001). Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. Agents Chemother. Itakura Y.com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic. on mutagenesis.2005. 120. Teel R. ^ Lemar KM. ^ Health Canada . Yoshida S. Sanders N. W.jp/JST. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. Microbiology (Reading. 43.. Retrieved December 7. Castro C. Houghton Mifflin. Shishido C. Retrieved 2009-01-30. ^ Garlic .49. 49 (1): 473. Thomson M. 58. Nishimura S. section "Conclusion" 48.0.crazychefs.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. Aon MA. Ali M (June 1996). ^ Pickering.473.com http://www.uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. ^ Fareed G. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65..economicexpert. Antimicrob. doi:10. 211.asm.jst. Book 65 57.Garlic-in-Oil 61. PMID 11600262.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257.1. Steckelberg JM. ^ McGee p. H. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association.jst..html 54. ^ Shuford JA.html 45. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993).JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. (1991-08-01). ^ Alnaqeeb MA. ^ Macpherson et al.) 62. ^ Oi Y.com/a/Garlic. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.ch. 64. Chesson C.unito. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. Nishino H.com/topic-t6335-a1-6Allium_sativum. p. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea.. 49.ukmi. ^ http://www. 2007.htm 44. ^ http://washokufood. Summer 2005 . PMC: 538912. 41.. Complementary Medicines Summary. "Garlic burns". Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. 65. Scolaro M.nhs. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans".Vol 9 No. 38. PMID 8644128. 2007. Retrieved December 7. PMID 8441577. PMID 11481410.. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. 211 51.go. Sagi A. 37. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter.". "Effect of allixin. Pickering p. 4 . ^ Bukhari. National Health Service. 39. 049 . ^ a b c Yamasaki T. 42. In Search of Dracula. PMID 15616341. UK Medicines Information.com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582. doi:10. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. Long D.goldbamboo. 40. "Allixin.36.".1128/AAC. http://www. James. ^ McNally p. et al (October 2005). ^ Kodera Y. Passa O. Slattery M.it/didattica/infochimica/2006_aglio/pagine/agronomy. Patel R (January 2005). (2001). ISBN 0-30436561-0. Lau B. Volume 7.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. Kominato Y. ^ http://www. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".elsevier.January 29. 1988. ^ http://lem..

Hort. New York: Avery. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. (1992). "The effect of the aged garlic extract. (2001).elsevier. A. Barzilay.. Z. C. R. Wang. Block. D. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. Am. J.References Japanese garlic. Kiazand. A. Gotzkowsky S.. D.P. H. Yukihiro Kodera. E. A. Block.. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. Lawson. Sci. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. and Related Species (Second Edition). http://linkinghub. E. The chemistry of garlic and onions. 405-407 (2002). PMID 8441577. 3rd ed. Efendy JL. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. M. Balch. D. Breithaupt-Grögler K. Hamilton. 'Kyolic'. Shafir. Vargas R. Chem. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖.. "Garlic burns". P. Makoto Ichikawa. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3).Garlic. Lemar. K. (1985). Shan. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. J. 50. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. Turner. (2000). Campbell JH (July 1997). Block. G. Retrieved 1 May 2005. L. 50. S. Kraemer. McMahon FG (June 1993). Garlic.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Belz GG (October 1997). Soc..com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6. Bull. PMID 8506890. P. Hile.com http://www. Med.. Susumu Yoshida. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. Bull. M. Naoki Kashimoto.M.ahajournals. Selfsufficientish . L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. C. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". E. Naoto Uda. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Campbell GR. I. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono.crazychefs. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs.net/ . Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. and H. Balise. Zemah. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". 354-363 (2002). Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. E.. Pharm. Chatterjee. Prescription for Nutritional Healing.-Z. PMID 9355906. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. (2004). Block. Chem.. L. Lloyd. Simmons DL. Vol. Boudoulas H. Pharm. (1996). Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Isao Sumioka. L.. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203.. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. R.. H. [4] Lawson. Koch.. Jain AK. Andy (2004).jp[青森県産]. Garty BZ (March 1993). Ling M. Rabinowitch (2004). http://circ. 129: 144–151. Jiro Yoshida. Zhang. Masanori Ayabe. 94 (6): 632–5. D. Williams & Wilkens. Kozue Ogasawara. Vol. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Z. R. J. D. D.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9355906.. Kamenetsky. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. PMID 9247357. Lawson.. A. Gardner. Am.. H. L.

"Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". (1999). Shuford JA. 49 (1): 473. Y-Y. Garlic.S. pp. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. Pharmacol. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".wkhealth. Steckelberg JM. Antimicrob. Leeks". "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin".1128/AAC. Patel R (January 2005).. Yeh. Agents Chemother. Harold (2004). S.. PMC: 538912.2005. SunWook Hwang. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Abstract. (1997).htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. PMID 8169881. Bernhard H. Marcel Dekker. doi:10..org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. Geierstanger. H. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Lin RS (June 1998). "The Onion Family: Onions.473. http://meta. Michael Bandell. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. 310–3. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". ISBN 0-684-80001-2. PMID 2291748. Kadam. http://aac.1.com/pt/pt-core/templatejournal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage. (1998).K. Silagy C. Y-Y. Scribner.Lindsey J.49. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Steiner M. PMID 15616341.. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. Salunkhe. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".net/ .12. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Neil A (1994). Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. In: Ohigashi. 31 (6): 904–8. (eds). Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. et al. et al. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Eid. Veena Viswanath. et al. PMID 9641475. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. J. D.asm. Yeh. Mader FH (October 1990). Samer R.com http://www. Cardiovasc. Macpherson.crazychefs. McGee.

syn. In Vietnam. after which they develop into a bright red. it is called đinh hương. and consist of a long calyx. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. Pakistan. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. Madagascar.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S.5-2 cm long. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. Cloves are harvested when 1.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. when they are ready for collecting.net/ . The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. Zanzibar.crazychefs.com http://www. terminating in four spreading sepals. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. and Sri Lanka.

Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. which sells Djarum Black.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. they are used sparingly.net/ . Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. During Christmas. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid.000 tonnes). it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. spleen and stomach meridians. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum.[1] In north Indian cuisine. Cloves are used in cheeses. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies.crazychefs. along with other spices. In Vietnamese cuisine. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. it is used in almost all dishes. cloves are often used to season pho broth. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. but with the addition of other spices). often in combination with cumin. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. but as they are extremely strong. Cloves are used as a carminative. entering the kidney. especially for digestive problems. warm and aromatic. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee.com http://www. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. In south Indian cuisine. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form.

along with nutmeg and pepper. most of the West Indies. Ternate. Makian. were highly prized in Roman times." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. vomiting and diarrhea.[7] Cloves. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan).[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. including Bacan.P.[6] History Until modern times. RH (AHG). cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands).net/ .[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. mainly from the Maluku Islands. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness.[7] Nevertheless. including cloves. In the late fifteenth century. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. pimples etc. Ayurvedic herbalist K.direct stomach qi downward. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). and Tidore. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Moti. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne.[5] In West Africa.crazychefs.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels.com http://www. Subsequently. It is also used in severe burns. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. Khalsa. including for multiple sclerosis. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. and Zanzibar.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. Brazil. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang.

In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Andrew and Page.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. ^ Dorenburg.squarespace. Steven Clavey.nih..html Tilotson. James. and Andrew Gamble. comprising 72-90%.htm.org/questions/question_44. Alan.crazychefs. ^ "TibetMed . tannins. ^ http://oneearthherbs. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. pp. xv. ^ a b Turner. pg. 3rd ed. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. Vintage Books. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid.Question: Multiple Sclerosis".gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-clove.net/ . beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. ©2003. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold.com/diseases/special-diets-for-illness.html National Institutes of Health. Erich Stoger. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. Erich Stoger. 94. kaempferol. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. stigmasterol and campesterol. methyl salicylate (painkiller). Third Edition by Dan Bensky. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. 3. and several sesquiterpenes. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. 5. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. gallotannic acid.com http://www. due to the high price of importing them. 8. Jack (2004). http://www. Special Diets for Illness 6. Spice: The History of a Temptation. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Avery Publishing. Medicine Plus.nlm. and eugenitin. ^ http://www. rhamnetin..[8] Notes and references 1. the flavonoids eugenin. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". Third Edition by Dan Bensky. Phyllis and Balch. 2. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. ©2000. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. crategolic acid. Steven Clavey. Karen.tibetmed. ^ Balch.

Shallot
Shallot

Shallots

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Details
Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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Cardamom
Cardamom

True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

Varieties
There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]

Uses

Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.

Gallery

Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

Notes
1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer. Rediff.com, 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

Bibliography
1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum
Hook.f.

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Usages
Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Identification
Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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atypon-link. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. (2005).1021/jf058156b.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. f. doi:10. while Lederer et al. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn.com/BZ-shuju/standshow.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al.iso. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -.2005. http://www. Ines et al. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706.htm?csnumber=19183. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". NPR.org/iso/catalogue_detail. Retrieved 8 June 2009. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. Retrieved 8 June 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2009.2004-0058. 5. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". 4. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院.Specification". Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. http://www. 6. et al.5555/jaoi.) -. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". Retrieved 10 November.com http://www.com/AOAC/doi/abs/10.Botanical nomenclature". (2006).iso.crazychefs. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". doi:10. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. ^ Lederer.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. 18 May 2009 2. http://www.1542/peds. ^ Joshi.net/ .88. Vaishali C.htm?csnumber =4844. 3. PMID 15492355. http://www. ^ International Organization for Standardization.703.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods.chinaios. ^ Louisa Lim.3. f.

crazychefs. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. native from the east Mediterranean to East India.com http://www.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.net/ . pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. locally called "Kermun". and yellow-brown in colour. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". the story goes. maduru. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. Kerman. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. longitudinally ridged. being oblong in shape.crazychefs. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. parsley and dill. a member of the parsley family.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. cumin is known as kimyon. In Northern India and Nepal. in Turkey. in Iran and Central Asia. in northwestern China. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle".[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. including kamūnu in Akkadian. cumin is known as zireh.net/ . the white variety being suduru and the large variety. In Arabic. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni .)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu).com http://www. cumin is known as ziran (孜然).

cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. Morocco. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. Egypt. and Chile. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. Mexico. In South Asia. and this practice continues in Morocco. India.com http://www. Uzbekistan. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. Syria. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony.crazychefs. Tajikistan. when added to hot milk and consumed.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. In Sri Lanka. Seeds. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times.net/ . today it is mostly grown in Iran. Turkey. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems.

containing a single seed. garam masala. Northern Mexican cuisines. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. It is an herbaceous annual plant. curries. but are smaller and darker in colour.com http://www. Cuban. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. either ground or as whole seeds. Today. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. thread-like leaflets. sofrito.crazychefs. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sri Lankan. and other Middle-Eastern. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. popular in Indian. adobos. and borne in umbels. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). curry powder. Pakistani. and in some traditional breads from France. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. It is traditionally added to chili. pinnate or bipinnate. white or pink. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. and bahaarat. Middle Eastern. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. tacos. enchiladas. North African. Indian. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese.net/ . The flowers are small. and is found in achiote blends. Contrary to popular belief in the US.

with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F). B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.5 g Fat .25 g . Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. It is grown from seed.com http://www.7 mg Vitamin E 3. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish.Sugars 2. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. hot summer of 3–4 months.net/ .435 mg Folate (Vit. well-drained soil.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. 64 μg 44. it is drought-tolerant. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes. B3) 4.crazychefs.saturated 1.81 g 8.33 mg Vitamin K 5.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.very common in Mexican cuisine.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.24 g 22.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . and needs fertile.27 g 17. Cultivation of cumin requires a long. However.Dietary fiber 10. B2) 0.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. sown in spring. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.

Zinc 4. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin".v.a small cat). a chemical found in turmeric. In Polish the difference is even less significant. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). to eat.com http://www. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. For example.net/ . another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. from the Swedish word "spisa". unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix.a cat and 'kotek' . Not related to curcumin. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. lighter in colour. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin.). as in 'kot' .crazychefs.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. However. In Swedish. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q.

206 5. doi:10. doi:10. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L." premiumwanadoo.html 6. (2009).1002/ffj. Lu et al. ^ http://www.aca. http://www. and Carum carvi L.pl?12617.1302. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). ^ "KMN.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. et al. 3." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition).crazychefs.05.com. 2. p.313. 9.net/ .ars-grin.77. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. ^ a b Iacobellis. ^ Growingtaste. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. Retrieved 2008-03-13.1016/j. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. www.arsgrin. Nicola S. Essential Oils".com http://www.1021/jf0487351. ^ a b c Li. Domestication of plants in the Old World.com 7. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 .2009. Rong. from China". ^ "Kamūnu. 2000). ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN".com/html/fcumin.030. 4.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. 8. 2000. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. third edition (Oxford: University Press. (2005).". Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.gov. doi:10.foodreference. ^ a b Wang.

crazychefs.net/ .Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.

[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. cineol.com http://www. West Africa and the Caribbean. cardamom. In laboratory animals.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). and galangal. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. sedative. shogaols and gingerols. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic.net/ . medicine. and citral) have also been identified. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. or spice. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene.

Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. Inji in Tamil. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common.net/ . stimulating the production of saliva. salt. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. [edit] Regional use In India. in Gujarati. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. Ginger has a sialagogue action. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. cookies. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. In South India. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. or frozen for longer term storage. ghee. which makes swallowing easier. crackers and cake. Adrak. and Aduwa in Nepali. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. ginger ale. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. and sugar.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds.crazychefs. Additionally. to which honey is often added. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. nuts. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. in Tamil Nadu. especially in the Tanjore belt. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. particularly gingerols and shogaols. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil.com http://www. Ginger is also made into candy. Alay in Marathi. enchi in Malayalam. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. For storage. and tender green chili peppers.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. and ginger beer. Allam ( ) in Telugu. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days.

ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. In Vietnam. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. and a variety of nuts and seeds.net/ . 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. In the traditional Korean kimchi. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. France. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. In the Caribbean. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. In Japan. In Arabic. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. Greece.com http://www. In Burma. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. In Western cuisine. ginger is called gyin. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. In China.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. In the Ivory Coast. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. gingerbread. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. a type of ginger beer. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. during their occupation of the islands. However. On the island of Corfu. and making drinks such as sorrel. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. parkin and ginger biscuits. is made. ginger snaps. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season.

cough and cold. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. morning sickness and chemotherapy. though it does interact with some medications. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines.crazychefs.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. though studies been inconsistent. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. which several scientific studies support. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile.net/ . including warfarin.com http://www.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.

inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. In Indonesia. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. in food etc. and although it's generally recognized as safe. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice.net/ . bloating. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. clotting. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness.com http://www. belching and nausea. In India.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. ginger can cause heartburn. people use ginger for making tea.[14] In Congo. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. gas. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. In China. which is considered a panacea. and individuals who have had ulcers. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement.crazychefs. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. In Burma. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. reducing "winds" in the blood. In the United States. it is considered good for a sore throat. and heart rhythms.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. particularly if taken in powdered form.

Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. now leads in global production of ginger. applied generally to the older and poorer roots.000 158. Production trends India. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. Nepal(~11. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting.net/ .000 F 177. it is immediately scalded. replacing China.crazychefs. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). washing and scraping gives white ginger. produces black ginger. with over 30% of the global share. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. the root is gathered when the stalk withers.com http://www. followed by Indonesia(~12. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. Scalding. or washed and scraped. which has slipped to the second position (~20.5%).000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. Traditionally.7%). but this generally reduces its value.

000 28.270 1.000 8.gov.pl?42254. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is used in cooking and medicine. Retrieved 2008-03-03.387. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. galangal. A = Aggregate(may include official. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. a carcinogenic compound. the flower buds are the part eaten.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . Asarum canadense. and its root has similar aromatic properties. www. http://www. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. Galangal is also called Thai ginger. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). F = FAO estimate.000 42. semiofficial or estimates).Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138.arsgrin.000 34.crazychefs. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan .net/ .com http://www.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. but it is not related to true ginger.ars-grin. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure.000 57. Also referred to as galangal. is also known as "wild ginger".contains ginger material References 1. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".

Retrieved 2007-08-02. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice".library.2. Retrieved 2007-08-06. Retrieved 2007-0808.1016/j.). http://www. MD. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. MD. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. ^ MD O' Hara.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. ^ Al-Amin.013.amaassn. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)".2006. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. New York: Scribner pp. http://unitproj. 3. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). doi:10. Jaw-Chyun. et al. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger".ucla. ^ Ernst. 8. http://www. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153.oxfordjournals. ^ Chen. 9. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006).org/cgi/content/full/7/6/523. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy.com/china_blog/2007/01/the_beverage_of_champions_1. Retrieved 5 November. http://timeblog.umm.com 5. "Beverage of Champions".H. Kathi Kemper. PMID 10793599. Shih-Lu Wu.com 12.cfm?displayID=15. ^ Jakes. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". Retrieved 2006-09-06. David Kiefer. 425-426. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. Sheng-Chu Kuo. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. MD. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". http://bja. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". (2006).7. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). http://www.cambridge. ^ McGee. ^ Al-Achi.com 7. Zainab M. E.6. Retrieved 2007-08-02. PMID 9821826. doi:10.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25).asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2.com http://www.com/oldformat.mayoclinic.. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). Mary.foodchem. Ali Taghizadeh et al. 10.edu/biomed/spice/index. 4.uspharmacist. & Pittler. http://archfami. Kim Farrell. & MSt. Antoine. 15.com/health/ginger/NS_patient-ginger. ^ Afshari. M. Li-Jiau Huang. (2007).1021/jf071460f. 6. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch. Retrieved 2007-08-02.html. "Ginger". doi:10. Tin-Yun Ho. http://journals.1001/archfami. Susan (2007-01-15). 11.523. 13.crazychefs. (01 Mar 2000). doi:10.01.html.net/ . This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-08-02. MPH (1998). Harold (2004). 14.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716.org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367.

and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy.net/ . and to impart color to mustard condiments. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. slightly bitter. Erode. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. In medieval Europe.com http://www. Zingiberaceae. For these reasons. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.crazychefs.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. for dyeing. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed].

sweets. Although usually used in its dried. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. or Textile City. biscuits. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. cake icings.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders.net/ . relishes. yogurt.com http://www. much like ginger. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. Over-coloring. but also in masak lemak. etc. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. gelatins. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. yellow cakes. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. dairy products.crazychefs. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. and many more. rendang.Yellow City. ice cream. cereals. In non-South Asian recipes. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. custardlike yellow color. Turmeric City. not only in curry. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. popcorn color. such as in pickles. turmeric is also used fresh. orange juice. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products.[citation needed] Sangli. powdered form.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. sauces. and mustard.

use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. arthritis [5] and liver disorders.crazychefs. winter butter and margarine. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. an uncurable and debilitating disease. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. a traditional dish in South Asia. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). is also treated with turmeric powder. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. turmeric has been used to color cheeses.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. are spiced with turmeric. salad dressings. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color.net/ . and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. and other digestive disorders. It is unknown why it works.[4] cancer. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. dry mixes. Indians. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. Within one week of using turmeric. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices.In combination with annatto (E160b). but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. Japan. yogurt. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts.com http://www. burns and bruises. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

com http://www. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. multiple myeloma. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. which supports nerve growth. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. Snake Bite Anti venin. improves the absorption of turmeric. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. John‘s Medical College. and the U. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. or BDNF.net/ . making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. Bangladesh. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. In 1998 researchers at St. Alzheimer's.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. research activity into curcumin is exploding. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. and Pakistan.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. with no adverse effects. Bangalore. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer.crazychefs. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.S. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. and colorectal cancer. found in black pepper.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would.

Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown.com http://www. and coconut and cooked in steam. such as saris.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as a part of the marriage ritual. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. and it is used for power and purification rites. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state.net/ . However. Also. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud.crazychefs. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. During the south Indian festival Pongal.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. jaggery.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). In southern India. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. part of the Bengali wedding. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. This happens in economically lower situations. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently.

W. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C. 75300.1016/j. http://www.thieme-connect. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. www.stm 5.172.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. ^ Chan. 2. keto and enol. http://www.com/condition-center/heart-disease/surviving-a-heart-attack. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . Srinivas PS.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. 64(4):353-6. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. doi:10. 1998 May. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. 6.ars-grin.090. a polyphenol.net/ . ^ [|Ketteler.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1. Notes 1. The systematic chemical name is (1E.foodchem. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain".aolhealth. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. E.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. Majeed M.6E)-1. Joy D. ^ http://news.07.2008. Rajendran R. Judy] (June 2009).C. (2009). Planta Med.de/DOI/DOI?10.com http://www. AOL Health. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". ^ http://www.bbc.pl?12676. et al.I. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution.6-heptadiene3.co.ars-grin. Joseph T.uk/1/hi/health/1668932. or Natural Yellow 3. Retrieved 2008-03-04. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".de Shoba G. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers.gov.5-dione.crazychefs. Retrieved June 2009.

Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans.9–7. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. 10–20 centimetres (3. The leaves are pale green. The nut is round. which allows its use as a candle (see below). also known as Candleberry.) Willd.crazychefs.com http://www. flowers.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. Euphorbiaceae. simple and ovate.6–2. 4–6 centimetres (1. Indian walnut. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics.4 in) in diameter. Kemiri. hence its name. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. with an acute apex.net/ . It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana).9 in) long.

they are mildly toxic when raw. the nuts. pounded seeds. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. is quite different. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke.com http://www. In Java. including: leis from the shells. In Malaya. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. swollen joints. giving them greater underwater visibility. The flavor.net/ . leaves and flowers. ulcers.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. burned with charcoal. fevers. In Hawaiʻi. a varnish with the oil. The seed kernels have a laxative effect.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. however. as the candlenut is much more bitter. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. Outside of Southeast Asia. and gonorrhea. are applied around the navel for costiveness. lit one end. ink for tattoos from charred nuts.crazychefs. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. In Sumatra. named kukui were burned to provide light. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. On the island of Java in Indonesia. This led to their use as a measure of time.

50-51. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. In plantations. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. p. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. 26.[5] In Tonga.html. http://books. 4.com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment.com/books?id=PpKyFZXO_jEC.com/books?id=WOdrGIP3zksC&client=firefox-a.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). Susan.google. http://books. "Chapter 4: Canoes". http://canoeplants. ISBN 9781573061377. One of the legends told of a woman who. used as soap or shampoo. Honda.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. ^ Scott. was routinely beaten. ripe nuts. Finally. University of Hawaii Press. Being a kind and just woman. 2.google. despite her best efforts to please her husband.com http://www.com/kukui. pp.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). she was given new life. Beatrice H. Liana I. the god of agriculture. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. University of Hawaii Press. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. Lilinoe Andrews. This larva is eaten by some people. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood.[citation needed] References 1. http://books. ^ Dunford. Mikiala Ayau.net/ . the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. (1993). Betty. ISBN 9780824822514. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 5. ^ "Kukui". ^ Krauss. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. and the husband was eventually killed. protection and peace.crazychefs. tukilamulamu. Bess Press. 122. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. still nowadays. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono.google. p. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil.). Craig Thomas (2000). A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). Julie Stewart Williams (2002).

red pepper (as in bell or chile).Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. unrelated plants. dark red when fully mature. known as a peppercorn when dried. The terms pink peppercorns. may be described as black pepper. Konkani:miriya konu.net/ . 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. . cultivated for its fruit. Telugu:miriyam. Malayalam:kurumulaku. white pepper.crazychefs. Peppercorns. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. . . green pepper.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. containing a single seed. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. and very often simply pepper. Kannada:meNasu. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. The fruit. . However. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions.

com http://www. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days.S. In the 16th century. the spice is called black peppercorn. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. White pepper consists of the seed only. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. Once dried.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. French poivre. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. including decortication. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. Dutch peper. this was shortened to pep. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. chemical or biological methods. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. and the naked seed is dried. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. often alongside table salt. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world.net/ .crazychefs. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. in the early 20th century.[4] In the U.. wrinkled black layer. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. with the skin of the pepper removed. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. and other similar forms. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier.

com http://www. from Bangka Island. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. particularly Thai cuisine. which is mostly no longer an issue. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper.Black. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. the Peruvian pepper tree.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. are used in some Asian cuisines. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius).[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". Schinus molle. green. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. also green. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra.net/ . largely unknown in the West. unpreserved green pepper berries. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. Schinus terebinthifolius. with a bright aroma. like black. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper.crazychefs. made from the largest.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fresh.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. is made from the unripe berries. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. Pickled peppercorns.

com http://www. The cuttings are usually cultivars. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. if allowed to ripen. but when full grown and still hard. Competing plants are cleared away. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun.[11] Black pepper is native to India. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. well-drained and rich in organic matter. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. poles.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. the berries lose pungency.[12][13] Within the genus Piper.net/ . produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. or trellises. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. entire. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. It is a spreading vine. and before the fruit is mature. moist.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. The leaves are alternate. The flowers are small.crazychefs. and ultimately fall off and are lost.

the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. In fact. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. particularly the Malabar Coast. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[14] J. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper.net/ .com http://www. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. Chile peppers. its most important source was India. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. in what is now the state of Kerala.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times.crazychefs.

[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. Madagascar. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. but these areas traded mainly with China. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Sunda. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. Black pepper.net/ . Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. By the 16th century. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. pepper was also being grown in Java. Trade routes of the time were by land. this trade advantage. barged to Alexandria. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. Malaysia. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country.Until well after the Middle Ages. changed the course of world history. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. Returning from India. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. the Middle East.com http://www. growing in the north-western part of India. Long pepper.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. Sumatra. or used the pepper locally. nor how it reached the Nile from India. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea.crazychefs. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE.

a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. After the fall of Rome. clad in a wrinkled cover. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. the banquets of kings. if expensive. I wonder. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. and the luxuries of the table. it is sometimes their sweetness. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency.. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. affordable only to the wealthy. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. Similarly.crazychefs. whereas. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. is fifteen denarii per pound.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. first the Persians and then the Arabs. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. while that of white pepper is seven. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces.[22] In addition. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. Yet within I bear a burning marrow." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N.H. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". Apicius' De re coquinaria. Edward Gibbon wrote. especially Venice and Genoa. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. Once into the Mediterranean. and the prices reflected it. who travelled east to India. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. seasoning in the Roman Empire. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. There is no evidence to support this claim. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. seeing that in other substances which we use. pepper was a luxury item. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm.com http://www.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. four.net/ . Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency.. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . 12. and of black. I season delicacies.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages.

In 1498.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. and salt-cured meats were common fare. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). However. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. Pepper harvested for the European trader. Pepper. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663.crazychefs. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. A depiction of Calicut. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice.net/ . asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. has some antimicrobial properties. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. the effect is small. especially in winter. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. Today. "we seek Christians and spices. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. as well as around Africa.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. In the 17th century. his representative replied. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated.com http://www.

Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. lung disease.[26] By the 12th century. gangrene. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful.. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). hoarseness. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. but if this estimated 10. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant).500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth.com http://www. Like many eastern spices. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. insomnia. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. indigestion. joint pain. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. earache.crazychefs.. He was told it came from the markets of Shu.000 pounds (4. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel".[25] In the 3rd century CE. being stronger. Long pepper. including long pepper. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". heart disease.net/ . liver problems. however. each load being equal to 223 lbs. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. but both were used. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. as hujiao or "foreign pepper"."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. hernia. was often the preferred medication. Note the cook's pepper mill. diarrhea. oral abscesses. as well as she could for sneezing. insect bites. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. either long or black.

[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems.net/ . There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. if any. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. chapter five. tooth decay. sabinene. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. a substance present in black pepper. caryophyllene. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed.com http://www. limonene. Few. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. left on black pepper. and linalool. and toothaches. milligram-for-milligram.sunburn. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. vitamin B.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. causing the sneezing. Some sources say that piperine. irritates the nostrils. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. which is stripped of the fruit layer. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. which give citrusy. woody. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. Refined piperine.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. and floral notes.crazychefs. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta.[31] Also. a mildly carcinogenic compound. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. The outer fruit layer.[31] As a medicine. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene.

India. India (19%).com http://www.net/ . Thailand (4%). Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). but has fallen to just over 271. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. Brazil (13%). The price of pepper can be volatile. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi.000 short tons). slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. Sri Lanka (6%). As of 2008. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. for example.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. are used for this. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. the most widely traded spice in the world.crazychefs.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. Malaysia (8%). so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998.[33] Once ground. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008.000 t (299.[35] By weight. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. and China (6%). Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355.000 t (391. by monetary value. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders").000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year.

http://www.pl?28589. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". 7. p 94. from Penzey's Spices. 2006-1120. p. http://www. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. 200803-27.000 t (99. Retrieved 2009-01-29.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. 19. 93. 4. ^ Dalby p.gov. Black pepper is marica. ^ Translation from Turner. ISBN 0375407219.com 9.ph/wps/wcm/resources/file/ebb81841763712b/black%20pepper.[36] Notes 1. 12. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. http://www. 11.efloras.htm. The Hindu Business line. ^ Ochef. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus".google.arsgrin. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. 8.000 short tons). ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary.crazychefs.M1. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. ISBN 075653836X. Retrieved 17 October 2006.gov. ^ a b Jaramillo. Retrieved 13 November 2005. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. Text online. Using fresh green peppercorns. Gernot (2006).org/cgi/content/full/88/4/706 14. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". 3. http://books. Pepper.ars-grin. 80 16. ^ Innes Miller. 6. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 6 November 2005.2307/2657072.da. and Builder. http://www. 10. 20. disease and weather. ^ Katzer. ^ J. 88. Retrieved 12 August 2006. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. Random House. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Flora of China. using almost none of its production domestically. 18. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 13. Warrior.thehindubusinessline. Compass Point Books.com http://www. Alejandra (2001). Innes Miller. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. ^ Peppercorns.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF).pd f. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 83 21. Spice.com/2008/03/27/stories/2008032751741300.amjbot. Egyptian Pharaoh.com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Retrieved 2008-01-29.poor crop management. 17. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). http://www. The Spice Trade. p. www. 5. PMID 11302858. 1969). M. doi:10. Ramses II.net/ . p. 2.org/florataxon. Vietnam dominates the export market. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08).

which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods.1046/j. ISBN 9781580084178. 34. Steven (2004). Vol. Andrew (2002).net/ . Berkeley: University of California Press. Deans (2000). Buddhist Monastic Code II. 726. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Dalby pp. 2008-05-15. ^ Montagne. 10. http://www. CRC Press. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". ^ a b McGee p. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. 108–109. ^ Jaffee p. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . ISBN 0849336201.com/books?id=7IHcZ21dyjwC.com/books?id=tg7R4hU8hkC&pg=PA395&lpg=PA395&dq=Pepper+safrole&source=web&ots=38F TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result.crazychefs. "Spices. Jaffee. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. 31.com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01. 171. 428.pdf. ISBN 0521367085. Dorman and S. ISBN 0600-60235-4. 77. Hamlyn. Cambridge University Press.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2/bmc2. 35.2000. ^ Turner p. Alan (2002). 12. 395." 24. ^ Turner p. "Mill". Duke (1993-08-16). ^ U. Karvy Comtrade Limited. doi:10. 33. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank).google. http://books. Larousse Gastronomique. Retrieved November 12. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. Full text at Blackwell website.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices. ISBN 0520236742.accesstoinsight.ch05.pdf. ^ Dalby p. Davidson. p. http://www. http://siteresources. 26.karvycomtrade. 74–75. ^ a b James A. Retrieved 2008-01-29. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. References Dalby.. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires.google. p. 30. 36. ^ Jaffee p. also Turner pp. purchase required. Dangerous Tastes. 28. 204. ^ Dalby p. 156.html. 32.S. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). Retrieved 2009-01-29. D.22.x.00969. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". 23. 2005. G.com http://www. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. 2. Dover. 27. pp.worldbank. 29.1365-2672. J. Prosper (2001). 160. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. table 2. ^ H. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. http://books. 25.

OCLC 61213802. Scribner. Spice: The History of a Temptation. Jack (2004). Turner.com http://www. ISBN 0375707050.crazychefs. OCLC 56590708. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Harold (2004).net/ . 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). ISBN 0-684-80001-2. London: Vintage Books. 427–429. pp. "Black Pepper and Relatives".McGee.

Peppers are native to Mexico. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 1. B1) 0.40 g . green and orange.64 g 0. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. sweet. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .crazychefs. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. yellow. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.17 g 0.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Sugars 2.Pepper.224 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. B3) 0.057 mg 4.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0. Today.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. including red.com http://www.net/ . Central America and northern South America.

The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. Indiana. and "Maalu" means Vegetable.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants.crazychefs. like pasta.com http://www. "Miris" is Chilli. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket.. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. or "piment. Malaysia and New Zealand. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). Sweden. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". respectively). instead of using as a spice. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "red pepper". In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". meaning pepper-fruit. "groene paprika". the term "paprika". the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. It is eaten with fried noodles. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. "green pepper"). In British English. meaning Big pepper. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. Across Europe. an unrelated plant. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. such as Australia. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. With the similar meaning. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. In Norway.net/ . former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". which has its roots in the word for pepper. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. the fruit of Piper nigrum. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. which are green and yellow. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. India. and Pennsylvania. "gele paprika". the word ピーマン ("pîman. In the United States and Canada. g. they are called "capsicum". in Dutch. At that time peppercorns. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. regardless of their color. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version.g." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). were a highly prized condiment. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. meaning Bulgarian pepper. In France it is called "poivron". Grilled. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). In parts of Ohio. " In Japan. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". When cut off. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries.

depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". yellow. maroon. more rarely. violet. blue. black and brown. It is eaten as a raw snack. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. yellow or orange peppers. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. white.com http://www. pink. in various soups and stews. rainbow. red. in salads. purple. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. Varieties The color can be green. aqua.crazychefs.net/ . and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. orange and.

also known as M. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. The plant.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . It is found wild occasionally with its parent species.crazychefs. balsamea Willd.foodreference. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).com/html/fmango.net/ . Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita.com http://www. [1]) is a hybrid mint.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ http://www. indigenous to Europe.

115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The chromosome number is variable. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. forming thick. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid.31 in) long. he treated it as a species. Being a hybrid. it can grow anywhere. fleshy.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. 6–8 mm (0. dark green with reddish veins. Flowering is from mid to late summer. If placed. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. The flowers are purple. square in cross section. including stream sides and drainage ditches. and 120 recorded.5–4 cm (0.net/ . with 2n counts of 66. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. noted since 1843[8]. and bare fibrous roots.com http://www. with a few exceptions.20 in) diameter. 84.5 in) long and 1.6 in) cm broad.crazychefs. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. with smooth stems.59–1. it is usually sterile. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. 72. The rhizomes are wide-spreading.24– 0.6–3. spreading by its rhizomes. blunt spikes. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region.

compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. and toothpaste.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3.[10] Similarly. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. confectionery. chewing gum. ice cream. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter.com http://www. and is often used as a flavouring in tea. thus promoting belching. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . particularly menthyl acetate.crazychefs.1. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.

[18]. it is advisable to plant it in a container. as a natural insecticide. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. If you choose to grow peppermint. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. Leaves wrinkled. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Foliage lime-scented. the Galápagos Islands. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. Leaves aromatic. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Stems reddish. In addition to that. [16]. A mild. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. New Zealand." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. and it is considered invasive in Australia.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. which they then call "after-dinner mints. hairless.net/ . [21]. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15].com http://www. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'.[12] Outside of its native range. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. Eau De Cologne Mint). It needs a good water supply.[13] and in the United States.crazychefs. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint.

& Grey-Wilson. (1753). In: Stace. ^ a b Huxley.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. ed. Mentha L.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 .. http://whqlibdoc. M. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. http://www. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'.glu..crazychefs. Thomson Healthcare. 4th Edition. 11.org/en/node/199. G. ^ Harley. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2".who. C. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. (1992). Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. C. Retrieved 2009-02-07.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. ^ World Health Organization. (1975). 5. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12.2007. ^ Linnaeus. doi:10. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. M. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". 6.dld. A. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. page 640. et al. Retrieved 3 June 2009. 7. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.006.. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". (2007). ^ a b Blamey. (1989).net/ . 9. ISBN 978-1563636783 10.pdf.int/publications/2002/9241545372. ed. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . Flowers open from bottom up. R. 2. a popular confection. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". C. ^ a b Akdogan.com http://www. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. A. ^ Cappello.1016/j.02. Mehmet (2004). reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints.

Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .iso. ^ a b c Jullien. 21. http://www.159. Mehmet et al.. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. Ambika et al. Australia". ^ Edwards.htm?csnumber=4844.10): 119 . et al.org/iso/catalogue_detail.1071/AP99036.16.257. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". http://tih.S.com/journal/118500486/abstract.sagepub.actahort. Bienvenu (1998). V.. on kidney tissue in rats". http://www. paraquat. Retrieved 3 June.com/cgi/content/abstract/23/1/21. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria.sagepub.htm.28. ^ International Organization for Standardization.)". ^ Akdogan. Zheljazkov. doi:10.org/books/249/249_8. 18.htm?csnumber=32041. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". Retrieved 3 June.htm. populations.crazychefs. http://www.sagepub. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 . "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.iso.wiley. S. Retrieved 6 June 2009. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .net/ .interscience. doi:10.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119.iso. 23. ^ Farley. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. Retrieved 7 June 2009.D. http://www.E.224.org/books/629/629_21.Specification". Retrieved 3 June. Valerie Howland (2006). doi:10. ^ International Organization for Standardization. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . J. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. ^ Adamovic. 25. Mehmet (2003)..com http://www. 19.)".org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. http://het. http://www. 17. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . F.219. Retrieved 6 June 2009.1002/jsfa. http://het. Bienvenu (1999).com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213. ^ International Organization for Standardization.. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". (2004). Retrieved 7 June 2009.1151. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. Derek R.htm?csnumber=11633.122. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1023/A:1006185103897. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". (2007). D. Plant Cell.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. and Mentha spicata L. http://www3. Frédéric et al. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". 27. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. Retrieved 3 June.E. ^ Sharma. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide.. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". 26. 22. ^ Akdogan. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 .actahort. Retrieved 8 June 2009.2740311104. 20. 24. F.

Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.) J. is a vegetable which belongs. porrum (L.Gay The leek. also sometimes known as Allium porrum. ampeloprasum var. to the Alliaceae family. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A.com http://www.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. Two related vegetables. although different in their uses as food.crazychefs. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var.). along with the onion and garlic. porrum (L. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. Allium ampeloprasum var.net/ . the elephant garlic and kurrat.

121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. and they have few pest or disease problems. Growing Leek field in Houthulst.com http://www. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months.crazychefs. to be planted out as weather permits. intended for harvest in the season when planted. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. Once established in the garden. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. and overwintering leeks.net/ . the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. leeks are hardy.

The slices have a tendency to fall apart. which turns it soft and mild in taste. due to the layered structure of the leek. but. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. carrots and potatoes and different meats. Raw. along with leek soup. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. which can be used in salads. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. Fried. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn.com http://www. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. as the leek ages. In its raw state. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. Lamb is the most popular. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten.Cuisine Leeks for sale.net/ . The tender core may be eaten. although less bitter than scallion. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. The onion-like layers form around a core.

Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B1) 0.C. as well as other recipes with leeks.E.monounsaturated 0. 83 μg 14.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .saturated 0. In her book.C. B2) 0. as well as wall carvings and drawings. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.E.crazychefs.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.9 g .06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.8 g Fat . B3) 0. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.com http://www. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.15 g 0.4 mg Vitamin B6 0. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.233 mg Folate (Vit. Cultural significance Raw Leeks. who consumed it most often in soup.004 g . onwards.04 g .03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.polyunsaturated 0.net/ .[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.3 g 1. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.Dietary fiber 1.Sugars 3.

King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field.Vitamin E 0.com http://www. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. representing Wales.net/ . Shakespeare. According to one legend. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales.crazychefs. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods.12 mg recommendations for adults. you know. In the play. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. good countryman.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. David‘s Day. for example.

Domestication of plants in the Old World. 3. 1978. Knopf. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. 2000).com http://www. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Mireille. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. French Women Don't Get Fat. ^ Guiliano.net/ .p.Notes 1. (Penguin Books. ^ Jane Grigson..crazychefs. third edition (Oxford: University Press.

either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.net/ .Sugars 2 g 3g .Dietary fibre 1. dulce) or celeriac (var.com http://www.2 g 0.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. with fewer than 100 individuals left.6 g Fat Protein Water 0.crazychefs. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates . raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Celery. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

onions. Celery is a staple in many soups.net/ . such as chicken noodle soup. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. Actually very small fruit. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. and small rodents.com http://www. often used as a base for sauces and soups. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. dogs. and in Old Bay Seasoning.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats.In temperate countries. 30 AD. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. Celery. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. onions. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as celery salt. horses.crazychefs. on the Chicago-style hot dog. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. birds. Celery. celery is also grown for its seeds. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. squirrels. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots.

father of the Cabeiri. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery.net/ .[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. Celery contains androstenone.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets.com http://www. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides.[8] In the European Union.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures.crazychefs." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. making avoiding such foods difficult.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. In Homer's Iliad. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. at Kastanas. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. Lemnos and Thebes. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. even in trace amounts. however. foods that contain or may contain celery. However. have to be clearly marked as such. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. for people with celery allergy. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. M.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they note "since A. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos.

By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. 2–3 mm diameter. insect damage and rot). The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. due to extremely uniform crop growth. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. Under optimal conditions. cracks. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. splits. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. as the Grace of the whole Board". In the past. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease.com http://www. but the leaves may be used in salads. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. from the Latin selinon. sweetish. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose.crazychefs. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. The wild form of celery is known as smallage.5–2 mm long and wide. straightness and thickness of petiole. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. at our Great Mens tables. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. The flowers are creamy-white. fields are harvested only once. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. seleri. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. The plants are raised from seed.. produced in dense compound umbels.net/ . The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). In North America. and the most crisp and tender. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. 1.. shape. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. white and red. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. They are ranged under two classes. and Praetors feasts. many of which differ little from the wild species.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. borrowed from Greek.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. apium Italicum. and a distinctive smell.[14] With cultivation and blanching. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. earthy taste. the whole plant having a coarse.

Lee LG..crazychefs.L. et al. 2003. Wilson IBH. and proper sanitation. (2005).shtml. M. Hopf.. (3rd ed. P. de Medicina. Retrieved 2009-05-03.edu/Produce/ProduceFacts/Veg/celery. 2. Heiner DC. ^ R. Radauer C. ^ "Smallage". Post-harvest technology research and information center.202.[16] References 1. Thomson. Species Plantarum: Tomus I.17:1697-1699. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. 10. (Laurentii Salvii). "Celery". 12.com: Celery and Negative Calories 6. ^ Celsus. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. ^ William Robinson and W. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay.46. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed.com/edible. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. Ko SN. ^ Bublin M. Scheiner O. 13. ^ OED. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. West J. http://www. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. 227. 2000) p. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. ^ Calcium sources 7. Western Journal of Medicine 158. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). M. T. 14. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis".v. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens".between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F).net/ . ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. 1920).practicallyedible. ^ D. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. 16. (2002-06-10). C (1753). 3. Zohary and M. Retrieved 2008-03-04.6 (June 1993): 610-611. ^ Teng CM. p. http://postharvest. Thayer translation [1] 4.ucdavis. Suslow.. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ snopes. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". Kraft D. 11. ^ a b Fragiska. ^ Celestin J. 8. gentle handling. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. 9. Natural History XIX.nsf/pages/smallage. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. s. ^ Cantwell.com http://www. ^ Pliny. Holmiae. 15.

For the common table sugar. (Discuss) For other uses. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars. B2) 0.net/ . Sugar.com http://www.98 g 0g 0g 0.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 99.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.crazychefs. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.21 g .Sugars 96. Magnification of grains of sugar. see Sugar (disambiguation). granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3. see sucrose.91 g .Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.

sugar maple (in maple syrup). sorghum. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1.com http://www.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.Water 1.crazychefs.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. honey.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. but also appears in fruit. It forms the main ingredient in candy. and in many other sources.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. and fructose.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B2) 0.026 mg Folate (Vit. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. B3) 0.082 mg Vitamin B6 0.77 g Thiamine (Vit. lactose. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.net/ . obesity and tooth decay. B1) 0. mainly sucrose. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar.

Scientific Scientifically. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. In this informal sense. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. and texture) of beverages and food. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. etc. such as glucose. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. Spanish and/or Italian. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit).crazychefs.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. the Italian word zucchero. zahari. Generically known as "syrups". Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. molasses or treacle.net/ . the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). preservation. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. the Spanish word azúcar. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (Compare the OED. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. In a list of ingredients. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey".Popular In non-scientific use. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. Etymology In the case of sugar.com http://www.) The Greek word for "sugar".) will likely denote a sugar. "dextrose". "fructose". the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit.[4] It came to English by way of French. means "pebble". including palm sugar and fructose. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars").

Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption.net/ . All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. 2. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right).crazychefs. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). cook or consumer.Culinary sugars Grainier. syrups and fruit juices. disaccharides. A notable exception. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. plus sugars naturally present in honey. making the sugars reactive.containing 1. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. important molecules in the body.com http://www. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Sugars include monosaccharides. has a "missing" oxygen atom. raw sugar. as its name suggests. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. 3. This includes all the sugars referred to above. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. deoxyribose. Natural sugars come in fruit.

After digestion and absorption. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. and galactose. fructose. including NADH and ATP. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised.net/ . As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. sweeter than the original sucrose. proteins connected to one or more sugars. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose.crazychefs. Monosaccharides include fructose.com http://www. galactose and mannose. which is made of glucose. glucose. sugar will burn with a blue flame. producing invert sugar. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. In these closed-chain forms. with less than 0.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. which has the formula C6H12O6. which form part of nucleic acids. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. This resulting syrup.water (H2O) per bond. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. Note for example glycoproteins.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). lactose (milk sugar . Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. or DNA. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. If combined with fine ash.made from one glucose and one fructose).

James.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. ^ scientificpsychic. OCLC 44493265.Bulk Density Chart. Temple University Press. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. OCLC 51837990 84251137.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4.webmd. 5. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan." Powder and Bulk References Adas.htm 3. ISBN 063205476X. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Wuebben.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. Sugar Blues. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History.com http://www.com/worldofsugar/internationalSugarStats. Cambridge: Woodhead.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. ISBN 1566398320. 4." http://men. The International Sugar Trade. A C Hannah.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0.com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6.net/ . Blackwell Publishing.illovosugar.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0.crazychefs. ^ "Engineering Resources . Michael (January 2001). Joseph and Mike Carlson.80 g/ml Notes 1. Sugarcane. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. History of Science and Technology in Islam. Glyn (2004).70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. ^ International sugar statistics http://www.com/features/sugar-what-kinds-eat-when 2. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. 1996.

because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. however. Products for industrial use (e. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. without mixing them separately.35 mm. It is. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. Brown sugar contains from 3.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals.25% of the total volume). especially in the Netherlands.crazychefs.net/ . The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. for light brown sugar.g. Although in some areas.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). sugar beet molasses is used. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience.com http://www.

dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. History In the late 1800s. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. much like adding molasses would do. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. which did not have full control over brown sugar production.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. White and Deadly" . Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nutritionally.[1] However. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar.[2] John Yudkin. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. In other applications. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. The effort was so successful that by 1900. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. apart from pure carbohydrate.com http://www.crazychefs. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume.net/ . suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. as opposed to white sugar.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. in his studies (cited in "Pure. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types.

where sugar cane was grown. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www.com/PressRelease. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. 4. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. Muscovado.3 fao. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. resulting in the characteristic large. 6. centrifuged. or Demerara sugar. ^ New Scientist. References 1. http://www.com/brands/Wholesome_Sweeteners/Organic_Tur binado_Sugar.". Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. Harvey.com/muscovado_sugar. cane sugar. Retrieved 2008-09-20. which is then crystallized.fao.csrwire. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. largecrystalled. Retrieved 2008-09-20. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar.wholesomesweeteners. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. giving it a higher mineral content. but most is now produced in Mauritius. 2003. 2.php?id=3026. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press.net/ .1.wildernessfamilynaturals. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. 7.org ^ Levenstein. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. http://www. an island off Africa.crazychefs. 3. Retrieved 2008-09-20. crystals. light brown.html.htm#bm07. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar".com http://www.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. light brown.htm#sugarmade. 32-33 5. Demerara is another unrefined.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left).

140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which some use to prevent caking. Chloride and sodium ions. including high blood pressure. the two major components of salt. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures.net/ . Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). white.crazychefs. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice.com http://www. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. pale pink or light gray in color. It is a crystalline solid. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. refined salt (table salt). but toxic to most land plants. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). including humans.[citation needed] Conversely. and iodized salt. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content.

[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi.com http://www. the caravans still transported some 15.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. however. especially for meat. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. in the millennia before then.net/ .000 tons of salt.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. China dates back to at least 6000 BC.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC. glass. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure. as were salted birds and salt fish. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. In 1960. and the dye Tyrian purple.crazychefs. salt provided the best-known food preservative.

Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork".com http://www. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.net/ . who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26)." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6).[1] It is widely. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. Greek. began open pan salt making. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. though incorrectly. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. the Hallstatt Celts. Hallstatt. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. In many Pagan religions esp. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. water. During the first millennium BC. salz. Halych in Ukraine. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. God sent down four blessings from the sky .fire. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria.Salzburg. taking their names from hal(l)-. who had heretofore mined for salt. a root for salt found in Celtic. which was illegal under British rule. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100.[citation needed] The root hal(l). the Roman exonym for the Celts. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted.crazychefs.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people.also gave us Gaul. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea.) In the Sermon on the Mount. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. (Judges 9:45.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. and Egyptian. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle.

to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. such as in Sumo Wrestling.net/ .[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. Halite.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. In Aztec mythology. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water.crazychefs. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people.com http://www.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Purification usually involves recrystallization. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things.Different natural salts have different mineralities.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. One example are bath salts.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals.5% of salt production. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). setting dyes in textiles and fabrics.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected.crazychefs.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the making of soaps and detergents. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. natural sea salt harvested by hand. After the raw salt is obtained. which are kiln-dried. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. Injected water dissolves the salt.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. is mainly sodium chloride. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. Today. In recrystallization. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. Fleur de sel.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. Refined salt. which is most widely used presently. food uses account for 17. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight.[12] However.net/ . The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. and thus is rarely eaten. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. giving each one a unique flavor.com http://www.

[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. calcium or magnesium carbonates.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. Table salt Table salt is refined salt.154 g/cm3. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. Table salt has a particle density of 2.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. but was determined to be unnecessary. silicon dioxide.165 g/cm3. magnesium oxide. Single-serving salt packets.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures.[29] However. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. fatty acid salts (acid salts). Some people also add a desiccant. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. condiments such as soy sauce.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity.crazychefs. calcium silicate. however. sodium aluminosilicate. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] .com http://www.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. and a bulk density (dry. such as a few grains of uncooked rice.net/ . for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. and calcium aluminosilicate.

is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. In the United States. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. fluorinated table salt is available. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment.net/ .fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body.com http://www. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. potassium. neurological problems. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. which can cause goitre. especially important for pregnant women. In Canada. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. which gives the table salt a yellow color. which can cause severe. or sodium iodate. magnesium. iodized salt is more common in the United States. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cretinism in children. dizziness. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). or even an electrolyte disturbance.[33] Drinking too much water. In France. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. and myxedema in adults.[32] Another additive. with insufficient salt intake. even fatal. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. specifically endemic goiter. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. sodium iodide. The reason for this is unclear.[31] Today. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women.crazychefs. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt.

Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. forced salt intake.net/ .[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality." ([41] p3).[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. independently of blood pressure effects.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. p18) However.[38] heartburn. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults.crazychefs. in Japan.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. salt consumption is higher. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real." ([41]. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). the risks have been exaggerated for most people. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. can cause hypernatremia." ([41]. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. combined with an inadequate intake of water. since salt was quite valuable). there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways." ([44]. such as in treatment of dysautonomia.com http://www. It can exacerbate renal disease.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma.

but achievable population goals.6 g or 70 mmol sodium).[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. A salt mill for sea salt. Some isolated cultures. SACN states.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium.crazychefs.com http://www. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.net/ . However. such as the Yanomami in South America. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time.[50]. for a typical adult. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. have been found to consume little salt.

8 g salt) per day.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium." In the UK. When other health claims are made about a food (e. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. Australia. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. One manufacturer.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia.).[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005.1g sodium). If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. or Green (Low).[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride.com http://www. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). Those who have kidney failure. Low is 0.net/ . the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation. low in fat.'[55] Campaigns In 2004. which will increase potassium intake. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2.300 mg of sodium (= 2.g. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High).5g salt per 100g (or 0.6g sodium). then that is a medium level of salt. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it".[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. Amber (Medium). It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day.[51] In the United States.[57] In March 2007.crazychefs. without recourse to salt substitutes. etc.3 g sodium = 5. LoSalt. calories. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. "low". a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt.

Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. Dytac. ^ "Salt". 4th edition".com. http://www.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. 7.net/ . 1913. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. and by mining rock salt. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction.3 million tonnes). ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. 2. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone).7). Catholic Encyclopedia. Costs can reach staggering amounts. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test.wikisource. such as brine wells and salt lakes.3). and Hall in Austria. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9).crazychefs. and Canada (12. the top five producers being the United States (40.answers. Triamterene.in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. Answers. 5. In 2002. 8. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.5). called halite.com http://www. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. China (32. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. 4. Notes 1. 3. Eplerenone and Inspra. Germany (17. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company. India (14.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Salt.com/salary.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. http://en. Retrieved 2008-12-14.

ISBN 9780309056663. ^ Gary Taubes.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt).interscience.9. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". p. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38.wiley. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21.pdf 33. ^ Nauticus . ^ What is Salt?. Mason (2006-12-19). ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. "The (Political) Science of Salt". 2008 29. 281. Retrieved 200907-08. Transportation Research Board. sodium. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. 28.newton. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. http://books.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/393201. Retrieved 2009-0708. salt uses. 11.dep. ^ http://www.stm 38.anl.roskill. Victoria) Salt 34. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans".afssa.uk/aboutsaltwhat01.907 37. 10. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. 14 August 1998. ^ Iodized Salt 32. 12.co.com http://www. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35.saltsense. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. Vol. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. pp. J.Weather Curriculum 18. ^ References on food salt & health issues.htm. sodium.htm 19. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations.9% sodium chloride 25. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. Retrieved 2008-07-29.co. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. ^ Table 27. salt history. salt manufacture. http://www. Ask a Scientist. ^ Iodized Salt 31.gov/askasci/gen01/gen01420. salt uses.eu-salt. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. Fall/Winter 2006 10. ^ David A. http://www3. Salt Institute. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. Science. ^ a b http://news.com/index3. no. ^ Salt made the world go round 17.com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effe ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. 898 . salt history. Salt Institute.htm 15. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www.com/reports/salt 16. ^ HE-620 24.bbc. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/journal/114028130/abstract. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. 5379.net/ . ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. ^ B. 14.crazychefs. Kuemmel (1994). salt manufacture. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.fr/Ftp/Afssa/26447-26448.google. Epikouria Magazine.9% sodium by weight which equals 98.

Norton & Co. The Story of Salt. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. ^ Understanding labels 55. OCLC 48426519. 47-50. D.1002/0471238961.ac.a01.2004. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. ^ U. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63.40. Salt: A World History. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). 62. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45.. ISBN 0393320197. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. http://www. ^ Susan R. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. Schindler. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. Published online 2005. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). Further reading Kurlansky. The Mummies of Ürümchi. OCLC 48573453. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43.uk/cash/.guardian. doi:10. Obarzanek E et al. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51.1016/j. New York. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values.1915040902051820.co. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods".P. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk.06. ^ Salt TV ads 59. 28 January 2008. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57.com http://www. S.hyp. BMJ. Legal Medicine 2005.005 48. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. Sodium 52. Inc. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt.334(7599):885. 2006. (accessed13 January 2007) 49. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. New York: W. Mark. Putnam's Sons. 2007. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47.. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". and S. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. John Wiley & Sons. ^ Cook NR. doi:10. Feldman. ISBN 0802713734. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases.crazychefs. Barber. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. Mark (2002).uk/society/2008/jan/28/foodanddrink.net/ . Cutler JA. ^ Salt Matters 60.legalmed. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. 7. NY: G. Sodium chloride.healthandwellbeing.pub2 References Kurlansky. New York: Walker & Co. Friedrich Schulz. Erwin Koops. 61.W.

Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters .talk by Dr Trevor Beard. Salt: Grain of Life. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Department of Health. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy .crazychefs.Laszlo. Pierre.net/ . Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. The Stationery Office. New York: Columbia University Press. Arts and traditions of the table. 2001.com http://www.

crazychefs. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. mainly Kerala. such as Cambodia. Malaysia. Indonesia. found commonly in Thailand. It can also be found in India.net/ . phrik khi nu(lit. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. the Philippines and Singapore. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. phrik thai. Vietnam. as well as in neighbouring countries. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C.com http://www. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century.

Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. Although small in size compared to other types of chili.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant.000 on the Scoville pungency scale.000 to 100. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili.net/ ." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region.com http://www.crazychefs." which can best be described by the English equivalent. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. "Big things come in small packages.

and among the group of capsicum annuum. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. but slightly less pungent variety. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. and then red. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit.wikipedia. phrik khii nuu ( . orange. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. Thai). Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian).net/ . Siling Labuyo (Filipino). African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. has peppers that point upward on the plant. Thai hot. Ladâ. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name).crazychefs.org/wiki/Thai_pepper" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam.com http://www. The more decorative. and go from green to yellow. creating a rainbow effect.As well as the Malay word.

crazychefs. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. which store a large amount of starch. about the size of a large potato. furrowed. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. or used in casseroles. It has a tough.com http://www. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. usually mashed. Unlike other root vegetables.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. it can also be used on its own. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Celeriac has a celery flavour.net/ . and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. It is a kind of celery. gratins and baked dishes.

Sugars 1. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. 'Ibis'. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates .The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths.6 g 9.net/ .crazychefs.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. especially in Europe. and 'Kojak'. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3 g 1. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 1. Among them are 'Prinz'. Celeriac. Celeriac soup.2 g . rinsed.com http://www. There are a number of cultivars available. 'Diamant'. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk.

Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S.net/ . Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad.com http://www. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. and see text The eggplant. As a nightshade. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. The stem is often spiny. It bears a fruit of the same name. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. aubergine. The flowers are white to purple. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India.

the fruit is known as a "brinjal. The name eggplant. History Solanum melongena.com http://www. In the Caribbean Trinidad. New Zealand. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. from Arabic al-badinjan. which are edible. 1500 CE. used in the United States. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. The name aubergine. but much larger in cultivated forms. In Indian and South African English.net/ . Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family." Aubergine and brinjal. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia.crazychefs.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. and contains numerous small. which is used in British English. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". soft seeds.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. flower The plant is native to India. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. Australia. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). The fruit is fleshy.

Traditional. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze.com http://www. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Ichiban. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. shape and color. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred.crazychefs. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Pingtung Long. Black Magic. Classic. or white. and Tycoon. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. A much wider range of shapes. Burpee Hybrid. in white skin Dourga. There are even orange varieties. green. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. Dusky. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. especially purple. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. and Black Beauty. whiteskinned. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Some cultivars have a color gradient.net/ . slightly pendulous cucumber.

the Arabian moussaka. complex flavor. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. it is called Begun ( ). then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. In Iranian cuisine. allowing for very rich dishes. and masala and then cooked in oil. The fruit flesh is smooth. rice. In some parts of India. as they are far less bitter. or other fillings and then baked. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. or Eggplant Parmesan. In Bangladesh. It is often stewed. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. curries. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子).net/ . so that peeling is not required. The thin skin is also edible. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit.com http://www. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. tahini. as in the related tomato. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. and garlic. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. tahini. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. for example in sambhar. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. In the Caucasus. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. It. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. braised (紅燒茄子). miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. As a native plant. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. peanuts. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. for example. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. or tamarind. as in the French ratatouille. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. It can be sliced. along with the fish Hilsa.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. In one dish. battered. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste.crazychefs. chutney. tomatoes. and deep-fried. and achaar. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana.

Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. are also troublesome to eggplants.crazychefs. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. pepper (capsicum). Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. depending on cultivar. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. containing both female and male structures. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants.com http://www. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. Flowers are complete. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. and potato.) between rows. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. such as tomato. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. aphids. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. and spider mites. For this reason. (Adults can be removed by hand. flea beetle. showing the inside.) between plants. the most serious of which is Verticillium.net/ . and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. Egypt. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. This is called Beguni ( ). and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae.) to 60 cm (24 in.

4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .043.039 mg 5.19 g 1. semi-official or estimates).net/ . raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B1) 0. F = FAO estimate.Dietary fiber 3.Sugars 2. New Jersey is the largest producing state. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.35 g .crazychefs. P = official figure. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.(2.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5] In the United States.7 g 0.com http://www. B2) 0. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.

Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.net/ .[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. while 1. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals.crazychefs.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0. Brazil. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. However.Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.[8] On average. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant.16 mg Manganese 0.084 mg Folate (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.com http://www. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours.01 mg/100g). but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported.

an unrelated plant described by Ortega. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. trongum. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. stenoleucum. such as agreste.com http://www. There is an actual S. lasiocarpum. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. sinuatorepandum. variegatum. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. Dunal.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. racemiflorum. S. aethiopicum. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. divaricatum. ovigerum and S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. Scopoli's S. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. multifidum. and (invalidly) by Sweet.net/ . that of Blanco to S. violaceum and viride. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. album. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. luteum. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. oblongo-cylindricum. globosi. esculentum. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. aethiopicum. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. Solanum oviferum Salisb. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. brownii.Varieties Solanum melongena var.C. capsicoides).F. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. rumphii. which used to include Dunal's S. But this is not correct.crazychefs.-Lag. racemosum. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. edule. giganteum. On the other hand. leucoum. inerme. esculentum.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. insanum. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. ruber. violaceum. Solanum longum Roxb. subrepandum. mainly by Dikii. tongdongense. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. H. ovigera. Names for various eggplant types. Similarly. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). inerme and subinerme at that time.

Footnotes 1. D. CRC Press. Hui (2006). ISBN 1574445510. (2001). S.com http://www. 2. Technology. ^ Doijode. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). common.net/ . Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant.crazychefs. and Engineering by Yiu H. Handbook of Food Science. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology".Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant.

Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 202 4. Erich Hornbach. volume 82 (nº 3). http://faostat. A.fao.* YP Venkatesh. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. Bruno Caramelli. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. 2008 10.50(2):101-102 11. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. 7. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). ^ Westerfield. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". 5. Tsenge Demana. 6. ^ SN Pramod. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). ^ Solanum melongena var.com http://www. Robert (2008-11-14). P. Arq Bras Cardiol. ^ Edward F. pp.net/ . 2004. Toorenenbergen AW.133(42):2081-3 12. Vol.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. ^ B. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L.Aubergine 8. 273-6. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite.edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/C934. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. P. FAO. Retrieved 2007-04-24. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. Mahesh † and Y. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. Ebury Press.) reveals female predominance. 18(1): 59-62 13.uga. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. Miyachi Y. N. ^ Kabashima K. Volume 329:437 August 5. Andréa Thomaz. 1993 Number 6 9. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. Harish Babu * . ^ Health24. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. ^ "FAOSTAT". Retrieved 2009-07-01. 2008-11-11.caes.3. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. http://pubs. Domino. Dieges PH. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça.pdf. The New England Journal of Medicine.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.com .crazychefs.

odd pinnate. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. The tomato is native to South America. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy.com http://www. and have a weak. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long.4–0. One species. It is a perennial.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today.net/ . with a serrated margin. see section Fruit or vegetable below). the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. with five pointed lobes on the corolla.8 in) across. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. syn.crazychefs. yellow. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. woody stem that often vines over other plants. Solanum lycopersicum.

an Italian physician and botanist. The exact date of domestication is not known. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. lumpy tomato. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). However. according to Smith. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. a barber-surgeon. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. a mutation from a smoother. corn and salt. means "wolf-peach". the other by currant tomatoes. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. earlier in 1493. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. such as Florence. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. now Mexico City in 1521. cerasiforme. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. They also took it to the Philippines. ancestor of L. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. meaning plump thing with a navel. was the first European to take back the tomato. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit.com http://www. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. likely to be the original salsa recipe.crazychefs. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. However. tomatl. smaller vegetable . Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. lycopersicum.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America.[6] Gerard's Herbal. who named it pomo d‘oro.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates.[4] The large. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. and cultivation began in the 1540s. The specific name. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived.net/ . golden apple. in certain areas of Italy.

M. 1799 – c. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. broths. In Victorian times.[6] Nonetheless. British consul in Aleppo c. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. Charles M. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. who ate tomatoes in Paris. The University of California. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. By the mid-18th century. Gerard's views were influential.net/ . several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies.[6] But by the mid-1700s. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. and to the market gardens south of Chichester.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. Over the past 15 years. particularly Florida and California. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. sent some seeds back to America. but the fruit is safe). he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. Rick.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum).crazychefs. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. California. The C. Thomas Jefferson.largely plagiarized from continental sources. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. ―within the last forty years. and as a garnish. most famously in Worthing. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. Paella. The Spanish tomato dish. and in general.com http://www. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. and before the end of that century. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. Currently. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish.

followed by United States and Turkey.4 in) diameter range. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion.com http://www.0 in) diameter. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. It may be deleted after Friday. Most cultivars produce red fruit.crazychefs. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. and have a lower water content. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. production and 35% of world production. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. through cherry tomatoes. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. 18 September 2009.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. China.S.6–2. but a number of cultivars with yellow.[12] According to FAOSTAT. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. For processing tomatoes. black. California accounts for 90% of U.0–2.net/ . the largest producer. accounted for about one quarter of the global output.4–0. orange. they are known as plum tomatoes.8 in) size as the wild tomato. about 5mm in diameter. or white fruit are also available. green. pink. purple.

oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks.[18] and productivity. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. based mostly on shape and size. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. but unlike commercial hybrids. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. along with zucchini.net/ .2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. As in most sectors of agriculture. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. as well as heirloom tomatoes.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. and are shaped like large strawberries.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague.crazychefs. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. plum tomatoes. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating.

including yellow.net/ . ivory. etc. including Brandywine (biggest red). Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. Burracker's Favorite. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. white. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). but are smaller than plum tomato. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. low acidity. Green Zebra (top right). orange. but must be bought as seed. disease and pest resistance. Lucky Cross). home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. they are often good choices for container growing. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate".com http://www. or bush. black. et cetera. pink. As an intermediate form.cherry tomatoes are small and round. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced.especially heirlooms . campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. some tomato cultivars .[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. Determinate. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. Black Krim (lower left corner). although some determinate heirlooms exist. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. often via mail-order. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. Red Boar). types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. and lack of mealiness. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape.produce fruit in colors other than red. and purple. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. A variety of specific cultivars. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. which usually discourages fruit set. or home growers interested in canning. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate.crazychefs. brown. multiple colors (Hillbilly.

The most common letters are: V .com http://www. and A . which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions.net/ . ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. N nematodes. cutworms.alternaria. carried by the beet leafhopper. whiteflies. red spider mite. slugs. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. tomatoes required cross-pollination. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. which interrupts the lifecycle. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping.tobacco mosaic virus. T . The stamens were.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. As a floral device to reduce selfing. tomato fruitworms. As the name implies. F . FF . Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. too.crazychefs. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. their traditional pollinators. aphids. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. original state. cabbage loopers. entirely within the closed corolla. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. and remain.verticillium wilt. but manure or compost work well.fusarium wilt strain I & II. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. flea beetles.fusarium wilt strain I. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. In the wild.

In an outside setting. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. or more often today. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. as with most species. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. Unripe tomatoes are firm. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. However. depending on variety. by cultured bumblebees. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. They may be recognized by their color. This is not the same as self-pollination. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. In more temperate climates. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait.com http://www. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so.net/ .crazychefs.

has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim.6 g 4g . but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. In some studies lycopene.Sugars 2. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene).2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. anthocyanin. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. a subset of fruit.com http://www. as tomato sauce. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. and other antioxidants.Recently. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars.crazychefs.net/ . carotene. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. The tomato is acidic. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. especially in cooked tomatoes. Though it is botanically a berry. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). They contain lycopene. or paste.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. in pieces.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0.

and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. Known for its tomato growth and production. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. generally three feet tall or shorter. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. They are bred to continue ripening. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. Determinate types are annual in all climates. annually celebrates La Tomatina. Spain.com http://www.5 °C (54.crazychefs. or pickled. such as rugose leaves. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. Embracing it for this protest connotation. Of regular leaves. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes).[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. it will not continue to ripen. These hairs facilitate the vining process. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. often by sun. vines. Tomato plants are dicots. and grow as a series of branching stems. although erect bush varieties have been bred. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. The fruit is also preserved by drying. fully functional. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. meaning covered with fine short hairs. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root.[citation needed] Once fully ripe.net/ . although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. initially decumbent. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported.make salsa.[28] In October 1965. When that tip eventually stops growing. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. lateral buds take over and grow into other. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). there are variations.5 °F). with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. whether because of pruning or flowering.

Technically. angora leaves. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. very small cavities.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. Similarly. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). However. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. called locular cavities. would be more correct.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules.net/ . As a true fruit. (derivation.com http://www. wolf. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. butterflies. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. have the anthers fused along the edges. i. Despite this. "wolf-peach"). other insects. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. However. Other species in that family are potatoes. moths. Therefore. making the Linnaean name correct. plus 'persicum'. tobacco. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon.e. These vary. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. 'lyco'. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. peach. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. which frequently used it and still do). its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. Some smaller varieties have two cavities..g. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus.deeply grooved. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. or other external forces that present in the Americas.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. chili peppers. while paste tomatoes have very few. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. This is because they are native to the Americas. among cultivated species. according to type. with both names found in the literature.Karst. appearing on the apical meristem. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. variegated.[31] Their flowers. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style.) H. and be dried/fermented before germination.. genetic evidence (e.crazychefs. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

However. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. In 1887. nutritional value. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals.S. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. The U. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. cucumbers. size. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. etc. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. AVRDC.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project.W. University breeding programs are active in Florida.S. A. Monsanto. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. together with its seeds.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. disease tolerance. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v.crazychefs. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations.S. Ohio. flavor. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. corporations. 1883. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. of Reynoldsburg. shape. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. 304)). Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. from a culinary standpoint. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. pest tolerance. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. U. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. universities. North Carolina. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. In 2006. U. as are vegetables. However.com http://www. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. Hedden (149 U. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.S. New York. Oregon. color. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. a tomato is the ovary. Corporations including Heinz. BHNSeed. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. As noted above.net/ . Bejoseed. and organizations. and numerous other traits. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. Livingston. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require.

The fresh fruit is. which is toxic to humans and animals. Kentucky. Maine. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. Pennsylvania. Speakers from the British Isles.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the U. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Connecticut.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant.com http://www.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. 2006. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes.crazychefs.net/ . In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . Minnesota. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. Massachusetts. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. Tennessee. Vermont and Wisconsin. Indiana. harmless. Ohio."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. Michigan. New Hampshire. contain the poison Solanine. Rhode Island.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. On October 30. North Carolina. stems. Virginia.S. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. Georgia. however.[36] The affected states included Arkansas.

crazychefs.S. the District of Columbia.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival.000 kilograms (250. Lake Buena Vista. with 49.273 illnesses from this outbreak. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. and Arizona (49). The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. Florida. French and Germans. with a harvest of more than 32. Lancashire. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa.6:1). grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond.1 reported cases per million. China. 40. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. Oklahoma in 1986. Illinois (100).51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). and Canada. from April 10. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. New Mexico (98). Yong Huang.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. such as raw tomato.151.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. discovered the unique plant in Beijing. and fresh cilantro. fresh serrano pepper. the U. respectively. UK. 2008. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. 2008.[38] As of July 8. As of July 2008. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. it caused at least one death. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. On August 30." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38.net/ . It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19.com http://www. 2007. one would arrive at an estimated 40. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak.8 m (65 ft) length.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. fresh jalapeño pepper. in 2000.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1.7 and 16. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.84 pounds (522 kg). The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants.

cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially.net/ .com http://www. Fusarium. Derived from Cherokee Purple.crazychefs. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink.S. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. indeterminate. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W.S.

good for Tomatoes on a vine.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak.com http://www. pickling. in Korea.net/ . 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato Flower. Tomato fruit.crazychefs. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Tomato plants in the garden. Tomato slices. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. Young tomato plant.

crazychefs.net/ .com http://www.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

html. M. October 26.smithsonianmag. Smith.edu/news/article/4319. p. Retrieved 2009-04-02. ^ "C. page 57: ". 1876. it handles more than 1. F. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. 3. ^ "http://www. 519 [1] 9.C.html. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. 2009-01-26. Appleton and Co. culture." See: Natural History Museum..crazychefs. Universityofcalifornia. G.html".uk. et al. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. 13.17. and cookery. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ^ "UC Newsroom. ^ Acquaah.. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. Retrieved 2009-04-02. I. Yourarchives.gov. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). http://www. ^ The Friend.M. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. Processing Tomato Production in California. http://tgrc. 7. ^ Tomato history 4. The Tomato in America. S. USA: University of South Carolina Press. ^ "http://www. ISBN 1-57003000-6. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27.nationalarchives.smithsonianmag. ^ a b Smith. Retrieved December 11 2009. and Cookery.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. http://www. A. Easthamptonstar. T. (1994).Smith. ^ http://faostat.ucdavis.smithsonianmag.com http://www. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. University of Illinois Press. Andrew F. Cyphomandra. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. Footnotes 1. http://www. Columbia. Wettst.The East Hampton Star .fao.Food & Wine". Culture. ISBN 0252-07009-7.edu. ^ a b Hartz.universityofcalifornia.com/dnn/Archive/Home20080814/FoodWine/Seasons/ta bid/6280/Default.easthamptonstar." 15. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . webpage: books-google-TTp17. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. 5. Horticulture: Principles and Practices.aspx." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.html". Appletons' journal Published by D.nationalarchives. 2002-05-08. & Spooner.aspx?PageID=567 14. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . Retrieved December 11 2009. 1881. 6.uk/index. Andrew F (1994). 1994. section Lycopersicon Mill.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. 12. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. http://yourarchives. (2002). and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum.gov.edu/.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.edu.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.five tons to the acre. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. Retrieved 2009-04-02.ucdavis. E. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. (2001). (2002-0508)". p. 2008. The tomato in America: early history. 2. Normania. 8.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. 223 10. During the three months of the local harvest. D. Tgrc..com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Subsection Lycopersicon).smithsonianmag. Peralta. 11.net/ . p.com.Your Archives".

28. ^ http://www.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt.html.gardenweb. Retrieved December 11 2009.com.ucdavis. Retrieved July 14. Retrieved June 30.edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome. ^ "http://www.ufseeds. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-27.osu. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.gob.sinaloa. 33. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. 24.com.html.com/faq/lists/tomato/2004111539004321.smithsonianmag.plants. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. http://www. ^ http://www.html".html.smithsonianmag. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.smithsonianmag.edu. ^ http://www. http://www.smithsonianmag." 18.edu/sustainable/profiles/bot_tom.edu. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips.kr. 29. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". Faq. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'". HYG-5532-93".crazychefs.smithsonianmag. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention". Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved December 11 2009.16. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. http://faq. 31. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes".com/genpage.umn. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". Retrieved 2008-10-27.8M". Ncsu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5532.edu/stories/Jan07/SolanacaeNSF.html. http://www.uk/2/hi/health/7370759.plants. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. ^ "http://www.html". ^ "Crop Profiles .html 23.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more.Tomato". Retrieved 2008-10-27." 20.com/science-nature/passion-fortomatoes.cornell.ncsu.gardenweb. http://www.html. http://www.com/All-About-Tomatoes_a6fd3933f91c4.org/pub_releases/2007-05/aafc-nmt051607. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.news. http://wwwplb. http://www. Sinaloa.smithsonianmag.gob.html.mx.smithsonianmag. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once.mx.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.html. Retrieved 200810-27. http://ohioline. http://www. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. Retrieved 2009-04-02.net/ . ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.html".eurekalert. Retrieved December 11 2009. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007). News. 30.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. 2006.edu.com http://www.whfoods. 25.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. 32.ucdavis. page 57: "The plants are still growing. ^ "Selecting." 19. Ohioline.bbc. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension.osu.edu. ^ "http://www. "Tomato genome project gets $1. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes.cornell. http://www. 27. http://www. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine". 17.am/wiki/Tomato#Early_tomatoes 21. Retrieved 200705-24.edu. Retrieved 2007-05-24.stm. http://news. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.html.umn.php. which are carried in the wind.am/wiki/Tomato#Novelty_tomatoes 22.html. Smithsonianmag.co.edu. Plb. 2006. 26.

36.1086/381578.html.CBS News".crazychefs.com/highestperch8. http://itn. ISBN 1879906546. 643.shtml.cbsnews.uk. Foodsafetynetwork. United States. http://www.co. 2007-08-30.edu/doi/full/10.com. http://www. Dennis R. p.com/news/canada/story. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". 35. 2004. ^ a b Pittenger. http://www.net/ . ANR Publications.ca/en/article-details.ca. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. 42.vegparadise.com. ^ "August 8. http://www. 38.gov. (2004-04-15). 40.uchicago.com/stories/2006/10/30/national/main2138331. by state". http://www. 37.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/. Retrieved 2008-10-27. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"".cdc.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. Cdc.com. (2002). 39.journals. http://www.html. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC".html?id=585498. http://www. Retrieved 2009-0402.cdc.uk/news/9a5a1671ceba4f43741dc008f237c1ea. Retrieved 2009-0721. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". Itn. Retrieved 2008-1027. Tomato Nutrition. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. Vegparadise.nationalpost. 41.foodsafetynetwork. Tomato Recipe".co. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/books?id=WhWjHB1Zjf8C&pg=PA643. ^ Voetsch. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-27.com http://www.uk. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".html.34. California Master Gardener Handbook. ^ "ITN.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/map.google. Nationalpost. Clinical Infectious Diseases.co. http://www. 9781879906549. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. Retrieved 200904-02. 38:S3. et al. Cbsnews. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce .

called Jaiphal in Hindi. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices.2 and 0. In Indonesia. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. malabarica from India.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. and Bombay Nutmeg M. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. or sliced finely. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. the fruit is also made into jam.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0.4 oz) dried. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). Species About 100 species. especially in Grenada.6 to 0. extracted oleoresins. both are used as adulterants of M.7 in) wide. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. or Spice Islands. including essential oils. fragrans products.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov.com http://www.net/ . native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia.crazychefs. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. argentea from New Guinea. called selei buah pala. It also grows in Kerala. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. a state in the south part of India. and nutmeg butter (see below). nutmeg and mace.

nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. and string beans. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. In the Caribbean. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. Painkiller. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. and eggnog. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. In Indian cuisine. mulled wine. cauliflower. In Penang cuisine. sauces. and Barbados rum punch. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes.com http://www. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. green. saffronlike hue it imparts.crazychefs. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products.net/ . Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. In Arabic. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. and baked goods. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In European cuisine. "Lau Hau Peng". nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. they are also used in soups.

and tastes and smells of nutmeg. preserving agents. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. used as flavourings. reddish brown in colour. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is semi-solid.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. 758 – ca. although this is disputed. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. and has applications as an industrial lubricant.net/ .com http://www. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The oil is colourless or light yellow. for instance.crazychefs. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. and sweets. beverages. medicines. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. syrups. in toothpaste. which can be turned into myristic acid.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation
needed]

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

Footnotes
1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". http://emj.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/22/3/223. 5. ^ "Erowid". http://www.erowid.org/plants/nutmeg/. 6. ^ "MDMA". http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=5469. 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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References
Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

Commercialization
The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. yeast extract.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. based on anecdotal reports. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates." However. not reproducible.crazychefs.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. or molasses.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. particularly processed foods. with 4% annual growth expected. sugar beets. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. Canned. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties.com http://www. frozen. sugar cane. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. and protein isolate. autolyzed yeast. being an amino acid. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. However. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. Fermented products such as soy sauce. steak sauce. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. hydrolyzed yeast. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. About 1.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms.net/ . it also said that. soy extracts." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

MSG. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture.com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes.com http://www. [monosodium glutamate]. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. In the hydrolysis method. Albert Y.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. such as hydrolyzed protein. concentration. or its International Numbering System (INS) number.. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people.celiac. In 1993. New York: Wiley. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation.crazychefs. For this reason. Foster. followed by either the name of the food additive. (2) synthesis. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. In the 2004 version of his book. age 40–59 years. acidification. Drugs. and converted to its monosodium salt." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. flavour enhancer). ^ Leung.html 2. 373-375. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. and crystallization. "Monosodium Glutamate". and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. Steven (August 2003).". and (3) microbial fermentation. even in large amounts. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate.g. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies].net/ .inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. and mineral ions and growth factors.7% women). ^ http://www. purified.). The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. 621. dextrose or citrate). References 1.2. On Food and Cooking.g. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. pp. The label must bear the food additive class name (e..

Beiser A. Linda.a16 711. "The significance of excursions above the ADI.cfsan. Guo.org/stable/3421360 5. Jordan (2005).274. ^ Moskin. Ka. Martha L. ^ http://www. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1111/j. 6. Yamaguchi. Chiaki. ^ a b Tarasoff L. PMID 8282275.1002/14356007.com/amino/eng/product. ^ a b Rundlett.1002/chir. Takehara.pdf 9. Stamler. Ren C.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. (October 2006). Garside. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121.5.2008.ajinomoto. Tetsuya.com http://www. Linguang.com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute. doi:10.ncbi.co. Regul. Kimber L. Daviglus. Daniel. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Zhu. Shioya. PMID 18497735. PMID 16999713. Jeremiah (August 2008). "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". the Secret Behind the Savor". ^ http://vm. ^ Sand.html 4. Alan R. doi:10. 16. 14. "Monosodium Glutamate". 13. ^ a b Geha RS.530060410. doi:10. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids.html 12. Toxicol. PMID 10736382. 8.4. http://jn.gov/entrez/query. (1993). PMID 10597625.crazychefs. Dongshuang. Inc. Wu. 11. Kelly M. Sano.F. 38–49.ca/Articles/Fall1990-1. doi:10.2005.nytimes. Beifan.net/ . ^ Walker R (October 1999). "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review".nutrition. Shizuko (2005).1337. MSG.fda.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10736382.ajinomoto.jstor. ^ Kawakita. 277–282. Anjimoto Co. "Yes.00160.celiac.1525/gfc. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract.html. Yangfeng. Zhou. (April 2000).1006/rtph.. Masahiro. doi:10. http://www. New York Times. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". Toxicol. "A Short History of MSG". Case study: monosodium glutamate". http://www. doi:10. Zhao. ^ He. Liancheng. Dyer.17457599. doi:10. Chirality 6 (4): pp. 15.gov/~lrd/msg.nih. Julia (2008-03-05). et al. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.nlm.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. ^ http://www. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.jp/ajinomoto/ACompany/company/zaimu/pdf/fact/food_biz.. 10. Pharmacol. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study".1999. Nutr. J. 7. ^ http://www.2006.x. ^ "Production process". Shigeru. Food Chem.1038/oby.38. Armstrong. Van Horn. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. ^ Freeman M.3. Daniel W (1994). http://www. 1875–1880. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S.

豆油 3.crazychefs. 荳油 3. 酱油 2. 醬油 2. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1.com http://www. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .

[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. [4] By the mid-19th century.[3] In the 18th century. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West.net/ . and salt. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product.com http://www. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). water. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version.500 years.crazychefs. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. Soy sauce was invented in China. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. In its various forms.

Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions.crazychefs. sojae) and other related microorganisms. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. Today.com http://www. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. literally "delicious taste"). They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). such as in giant urns and under the sun. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table.net/ . and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. Although there are many types of soy sauce. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring.

but it also adds flavour. Since it is lighter in color. Despite their rather similar appearance. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. since it is saltier.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. consistency.net/ . thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. lighter brown soy sauce. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. Touchōu is sold at a premium because.crazychefs. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. one of the two types. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. It has a richer.3-DCP (1. Thai. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. like extra virgin olive oil.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. and Chinese cuisine. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. ): A thin (nonviscous). soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. opaque. slightly sweeter. with relatively low amounts of other grains. pinyin: jiàngyóu. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). Korean. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. In traditional Chinese cooking. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. traditional Chinese: 醬油. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. fragrance and saltiness.com http://www. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". Another type. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. An additional classification of light soy sauce. shuānghuáng (雙璜). or a mixture of both. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition.

and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. for example sashimi. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. due to the addition of alcohol in the product.crazychefs. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. where it is known as "shōyu". This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. Usukuchi (淡口?. that is used in its production. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. Technically. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient.net/ .[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate".Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. or 醤油). They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. Shiro (白?. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. It contains little or no wheat. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi.com http://www.

205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Consequently. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. Amakuchi (甘口?. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol.Saishikomi (再仕込?. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. 1 litre bottles. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. not pasteurized. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized.com http://www.net/ . This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it.crazychefs.

in a pinch. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar.com http://www.crazychefs. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. which has a thick. powder. usually implies limited quantity. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes.net/ . In Indonesia. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. It is a unique variety. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce").4% of soy sauce purchases. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. Malaysia.com http://www. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. 조선간장. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin.crazychefs.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. lit. WanJaShan(萬家香). Later. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. Founded in 1909. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. (called Joseon ganjang. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. is made entirely of soy and brine. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). Joseon ganjang. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. O'Long(黑龍).net/ . President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. thin and dark brown in color. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce.

and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. and caramel. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces.com http://www. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. salt.crazychefs. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. it is also a table condiment.[6] Furthermore. pronounced SOO-kah). or sometimes simply tương. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. wheat.3-DCP (1. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet.net/ . It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). China. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. nước tương. It can also be very salty. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar.

tw/newsdetail.) In March 2008.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. Vol. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. 2.gmp. 2 (January 2000). Celiac disease. No. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. III.miyajimasoy. King Imperial. 4. including six samples with up to 11. 2nd edition. http://www. marinades and other types of sauces. ^ Titsingh. ^ http://www. Golden Mark.org. ^ http://www. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. Despite these being small in number in the UK. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan.com.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. ^ http://www. 6. Press release.[1] Notes 1. 7. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004.gov. Kimlan.htm. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001.food. ^ Tanaka.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007.co. p.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol.org. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". Retrieved 2008-01-07.jp/science/kouenkai/kouenkai. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). Individuals with a wheat allergy. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). Golden Swan. 6.Kong and Taiwan.crazychefs.tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9.000 to 18. p. XXVII. ^ Tanaka. Soon Teck• and Kang.tw/60anniversary/century-gofun. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. 7. http://www. OCLC 9752305 5. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce.net/ . Lee Kum Kee.asp?id=7598 10. Isaac. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce.tcoc.[citation needed] In Vietnam. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. 8. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). that affected the brands Golden Mountain. 3.uk/news/pressreleases/2001/jun/soysaucerecall. ^ Jung. pp. ^ Tanaka.smartfood. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits.317 2. Norio.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (1781). Sinsin."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. Jammy Chai. an increase over 23 to 5. p. Retrieved 200801-07. Pearl River Bridge. Seong-Gook (2002).com http://www. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations.

Florence. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". ^ Toxic soy sauce.48. 186.com http://www. Stephen (2006-06-06).com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15. 18. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. http://www. Edition 2. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". p. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". Retrieved 2008-01-07. 103. ^ Bamford. doi:10. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. p. ^ Daniells. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Makio (2005-04-18). 12. ^ Shahidi.nutraingredients.com/news/ng. http://books.100. 13. ISBN 0632059877.2323/jgam. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19.net/ . et al. Hoboken. 14. Somboon (2002-06-18).144. chemical veggies -. fermentation and micro-organisms. Kentucky: CRC Press. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. ^ Tanasupawat.crazychefs. Food.1263/jbb. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209.11.food scares hit Vietnam 20. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. PMID 12469319. nutraingredients.google.com.201. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. Fereidoon. PMID 16198255. Naczk. 16. Charles W (2005). ^ Kobayashi. ISBN 1587161389. doi:10. Marian (2003).

5–5.3–3.5% Linoleic acid: 3.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.4677–1.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.8% Behenic acid: <0.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.9180 (@ 15.9150–0.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.net/ .3% Myristic acid: <0.5–20.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.5–21.crazychefs.0–83.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.5 °C) 84 cP 1.0% Arachidic acid: <0.0% Stearic acid: 0.com 211 | P a g e http://www.

in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. and Manzanilla de Jaén. Leccino Pendolino. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide.net/ . Italy and Greece. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. Alberquina. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. In 2006.6 million tonnes. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. in France. Australia.000 tons of olive oil annually. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit.6 (refined and pomace) 0. and Moraiolo. which produce approximately 350.[3] Of the European production. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. World production in 2002 was 2. Koroneiki. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives.com http://www. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio.crazychefs.4680–1. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. but especially in the Mediterranean. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. Japan and China. family Oleaceae). 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. 93% comes from Spain. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. Hojiblanca.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. Picholine. as well as in Crete. pharmaceuticals. principally Italy. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. cosmetics. Olive oil is used throughout the world. North Africa and the Near East. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. in Greece.

California. and monitoring authenticity. a private trade group. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. In North America.net/ . Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. The California Olive Oil Council. Galega. in Croatia.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy.800. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil).[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. Spain. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). of which 34. Mission.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. After extraction the remnant solid substance. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in Portugal.600.000 m3) came from Italy. and by its flavor.com http://www.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid.000 US gallons (131. IOOC terminology is precise.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. Oblica and Leccino.crazychefs. by its chemistry. Spain. Spain. The USDA uses a different system. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). with production increasing to meet demand. The US imported 47. often in "prestige" packaging. defining quality standards.000 US gallons (181. still contains a small quantity of oil. with 23 member states. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. and Turkey. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. called pomace.

Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. measured by weight.[15] Under EU rules." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents.[16] In April 2008. is extremely lax and corrupt. but safe.net/ .[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. defined as the percent. for blended oils. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. but there are no guarantees. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. 25.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids).[14] In February 2008. product as superior olive oil. and by heat. it is believed. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.[14] In March 2008.[12] In some cases. however.crazychefs. mostly hexane. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. EU officials took issue with the new law. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. Almost 700 people died. both in Italy and abroad. of free oleic acid it contains.com http://www. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). particularly in Italy.

Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil.net/ . increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. contains no more than 0. expressed as oleic acid. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market.5% acidity. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. It has a free acidity. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. and is judged to have a good taste. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only.crazychefs.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. and is judged to have a superior taste. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides.com http://www. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure.3 grams per 100 grams (0. another cause of rancidity. and are based on acidity. absence of defects. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only.S. has an acidity less than 2%. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. Used on salads. It is fit for consumption. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pure olive oil. The U. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. These grades were established in 1948. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions.8% acidity. The US is not a member. but may not be described simply as olive oil. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. This is also called its organoleptic quality. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product.the oil degrades. In order to classify it by taste. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. of no more than 1. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. of not more than 0.

[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. which may be as low as 10-15 °C.S.0% and is "fairly free from defects". Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.S.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. U. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. Grade C or U.S. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. Grade C".crazychefs.S. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.U.S. (34 kJ/ml). with less flavour. Grade A or U.S.S. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used.5% and is "reasonably free from defects".S. U. First of all. U.com http://www.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. Grade B or U.4% and is "free from defects". A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed".net/ . These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis. This is incorrect. Grade D or U. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.S. "cold" does not define any precise temperature. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.

Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13.1 1.com http://www. around 0. Spain and Italy. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. so the term "first press" is meaningless. around 8 l.8 7.net/ .62 12. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country.pressed". Tunisia. around 14 l.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.7 11. Portugal and Lebanon.1 0. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.35 23. Northern Europe and North America consume far less. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.2 7 1. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil.7 l. over 26 liters per year.

Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. suggesting a different taste.net/ . The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). 1. then placed into the press. This is done in specialised chemical plants. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). 2.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. which is much faster and more accurate. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. After grinding. no or very little organoleptic defects). Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. not in the oil mills. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method).18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means.com http://www. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. 3.34 1. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. 4. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. and overripe olives produce rancid oil.crazychefs. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. After grinding. Green olives produce bitter oil. If ground with mill stones. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before.

monounsaturated 73 g . including oleocanthal and oleuropein.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.7%) and sterols (about 0. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.polyunsaturated 11 g . To achieve this possible benefit.net/ .[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. The composition varies by cultivar.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. time of harvest.com http://www. along with traces of squalene (up to 0. and extraction process.5 g .omega-6 fat 3.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat .5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids.omega-3 fat <1.2% phytosterol and tocosterols).crazychefs. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. most notably oleic acid. region. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. In the United States. altitude.

This way. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. During the second phase. at least in part. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. During the first stage. and oleuropein.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity.crazychefs. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. and that it exerts antiinflamatory.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. rather than its fatty acid profile. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol. 2004.This decision was announced November 1. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats.com http://www. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. For example. This could.net/ .[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. antithrombotic. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. in the long term. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. The study was conducted in two stages. It is theorized that.

Used cold. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. For example. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. Also. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. oils deteriorate and become stale. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils.crazychefs. as available in an oil producing region. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. like salads. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere.net/ . When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F).) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed]. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. etc. In time.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. A very fresh oil. Also.com http://www. cookware. blenders. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. not for foods to be eaten cold. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed].

com http://www. acting as a stool softener. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. It is also good for the management of pain. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. It does have demulcent properties. and mild laxative properties.net/ . Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil.crazychefs. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen.

Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. olive oil.com http://www. magical.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. drawn and engraved by J. It. olio). Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal.N. as a fuel in oil lamps.. from Gk.net/ . The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. huile).Fr. Besides food. soap-making. 1175. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. oile (12c.Fr. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. Mod. from O. from L. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oleum "oil. and skin care application.crazychefs. olive oil" (cf. medicines. from Anglo-Fr. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power.Fr. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. olie." In ancient Greece.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". and O. Homer called it "liquid gold. elaion "olive tree".

from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. olive presses became common. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. In the centuries that followed. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.net/ .[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. Bodrum.com http://www. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC.

over 4.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies.000 and 3. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. when the oil had risen to the top. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1.com http://www. According to legend. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. oil containers are preferred. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete.net/ . According to the historian Pliny. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah.[46] Until 1500 BC.000 tons of olive oil per season.[citation needed].. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. together with naked appearance of athletes. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). the fertile crescent. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests.crazychefs. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC.[dubious – discuss] During this time.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. where it is thought to have represented wealth. "the best in the Mediterranean". The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. wrote of abundant olive trees. and area consisting of present day Palestine. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. Sinuhe. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. he maintained. drained the water from the bottom. stored in special containers.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. allowing more time for more oil to be made. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). and Israel. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. Lebanon. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. during the 13th century BC.

Retrieved 2007-05-25. 3. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. 158. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. neither Eastern nor Western. Louise Ferguson.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. ^ USDA. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. Joann L Coviello. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil.com http://www.usda. p.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047".org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. the tourch is in a glass bulb. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table.net/ . 4. References 1. ^ "findarticles.gourmetretailer. even without fire touching it.internationaloliveoil. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. http://www. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. http://www. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick)." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. its oil almost glows. "The Olive Tree. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. and this secure city.html. ^ International Olive Oil Council.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". In Islam. ^ G. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. 2. 5. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-07-04. traditionally. Margaret Lindstrand (2005). light upon light. http://www.gov/nass/pubs/agr05/05_ch3. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. and the Mount of Sinai. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". Steven Sibbett.crazychefs. originating from King David. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. http://findarticles."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. ANR Publications. in the consecration of altars and churches." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. Olive Production Manual.com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display.imitate the original Menorah. To douse the flame. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. and.PDF. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047. ^ USDA. Retrieved 2007-05-25.

M.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705.jp. 12. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".010.Telegraph". PMID 3776973. G.co.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. Tripoli. Tabacchi. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05.uk/news/main. 19 CFR 134. Am. Tom. 23. Retrieved 2008-11-09.htm. ^ "www. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.html. Giammanco. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. http://news. and Maurizio La Guardia. 18. 7. http://aje.telegraph. ^ a b McGee.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889.internationaloliveoil. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28.htm. ^ "EUbusiness.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705.htm".com http://www.).org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling.46. ^ Durant. Retrieved 2008-11-16. http://www.uk/news/main.phrs. The New York Times (H.crazychefs.com/gst/fullpage.Scotsman. 13. 2004.xml.23/. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. United States Department of Agriculture. 11. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8.4005000. 20.html".org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini.01.6. 15.telegraph. ^ a b "Telegraph article". ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27.1079/NRR200495 24.co. 2007-08-13.com News". (December 1986). PMID 17321749. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". http://www. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure.net/ . 19. Karvonen MJ.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institutionini. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis. Slippery Business The New Yorker. Retrieved 2008-11-16. S. http://www. ^ Keys A.23/.nytimes. http://www.eubusiness. ^ Covas MI (March 2007).com/news-eu/1204304521. http://oliveoilonly. J. 55 (3): 175–86. Dennis.usda.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. Res. ^ "Eubusiness. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. John.ams. 10. Menotti A. Pharmacol. Di Majo. 16. D. Raymond & Co.eubusiness.southafrica. 25. http://www.internationaloliveoil. 17. ^ Riding.com/world/Forty-arrested-in-new-39fake39. Alan (1989-05-21). biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".1016/j. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9.gov/AMSv1. 124 (6): 903–15. ^ Mueller.xml. Giammanco. US Customs Department. http://query. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". ^ "www.com". ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22.oxfordjournals. et al. ^ New York Times.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3776973.southafrica. Epidemiol.com/news-eu/1204304521. November 2. J.com". Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. http://www. 14. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam .scotsman.2007. 21.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. http://www. doi:10.

11. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". PMID 17110467.28.net/ . ^ Rosenblum.videojug. ".. d'Episcopo L. 19. p. Masamitsu Ichihashi. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". pp. Ahmed." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. Gruendel S.xml. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. ^ Pagnol. De Castro A (February 2007).61. Suppl. ssp. ^ http://www. PMID 15830923. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. Toshinori Bito. "olive" and "oil" 40.. 45.co. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. N U : Budiyanto. et al.html. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". (27 March 2000). p. No. 37. Vol.tchain. 21 (1): 45–52. s. ^ Ehud Galili et al. M : Osawa. JDermatol-Sci. et al. A : Wu. http://www. ^ Ferrara LA. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. 29.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. Nov. Alonso MG. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. Olea europaea L. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. PMID 10737284. Use Olive Oil. Israel". 43.tchain. ^ Turner R. ^ "www.1021/jf0630217. 44.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. Medina E.com http://www. s. doi:10. M : Ahmed. ^ a b Davidson.uk/portal/main. (January 2007). p. Brenes M. 19 November 2007 30. doi:10.com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. 1S45-50. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842.v.1.ama-assn.Telegraph". Mar. J Agric Food Chem.75. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". (January 2005). 10. Poulsen HE. 35. Osamu Nikaido. Vol. ^ Mayo Clinic. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. 55 (3): 680–6. doi:10.telegraph.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. 2000. Marotta T. but cites no source. Vargas J.06-6328com. 23. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?.crazychefs. "New Year's Resolution No. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. 2000. ^ [2] Ichihashi. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. Faseb J. Carcinogenesis. 1: Prevent Cancer. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori".v. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000).". ^ Romero C. 34. Raimondi AS. Pagnol. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. A : Bito. T. T : Ueda.1096/fj. Dello Russo A. Guida L. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. ^ "Quite Interesting . 21. Etienne N. 19. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte.html". Olives 41. Masato Ueda. 2085-2090. André Bervillé. An Wu." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. Nazim U. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. http://www. Toshihiko Osawa. PMID 17263460. Catherine Breton. "[19 INSERT TITLE]".1024/0300-9831.org 31. ^ Machowetz A. 39. 38. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ .youngmuslims.reshafim. pp119–33 50.46. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece".ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. http://www.com http://www. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West.org.il/ad/egypt/texts/sinuhe. http://www.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95.R. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Nigel M.). C. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil".crazychefs. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48.htm. 2005 49. Kennell. B. Harrington Park Press. Scanlon. ^ Thomas F. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". Verstraete and V. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. ed. 47. Processing methods. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. ^ "www.htm". "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. 2001. ^ F.youngmuslims.htm. Riley. Provencal.

these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. crocin. A C. sativus flower bears three stigmas.or hay-like fragrance.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform.[4][5] A carotenoid dye.crazychefs. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. Saffron has further medicinal applications. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus).[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia.com http://www. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. Saffron.Saffron Saffron crocus C. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. each the distal end of a carpel. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . ən] / [ˈsæf. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L.

[11] Upon flowering.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. broken apart. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants.98–1." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). reproduction depends on human assistance: corms.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. in Central Asia.crazychefs. as was once generally believed. which means "yellow.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ).net/ .[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. purple buds appear. A corm survives for one season. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. and replanted. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild.5 centimetres (1. In autumn. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. Being sterile. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. must be dug up. It is a sterile triploid form. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds.com http://www. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2 in) in length. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. Only in October.

are critical factors affecting yields. where annual rainfall averages 1. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested).[16] Furthermore.9 in) deep. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production.500 mm (39–59 in). and corm rot pose other threats. rats. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates.e. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover.crazychefs. in concert with climate.8–5. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. low-density.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. Nematodes. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer.000–1. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. they fare poorly in shady conditions. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. Greek. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. and birds. well-watered. Moroccan. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. loose. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere).. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage.com http://www.net/ . and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. leaf rusts. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. maximizing sun exposure. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. Planting depth and corm spacing. where hot. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal.

[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8.[19] Meanwhile. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. lycopene. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.2 oz of dried saffron).[19] many of which are carotenoids.8-diapo-8.com http://www. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). a product results that is itself water-soluble. It also has many nonvolatile active components.8-carotenoic acid).0.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. and thus oil-soluble. including zeaxanthin.11 gr) of dried saffron.net/ . However. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.crazychefs. and various α.and β-carotenes. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass.

0 10.0 6.com http://www.crazychefs.5 40.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 6.0 6.0 1.0–15.0–14.0 12.0 1.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0–8.5 10.0 9.0 8.0–1.0 6.0 1.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 4.0 3.0 11.0 12.0–7.0 2.0–13.net/ .0 0.

and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents.5-cyclohexadien-1-one.6. dried hay like".[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2.3-diene-1. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.crazychefs. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. p.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. Santorini.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen.0 Source: Goyns 1999. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma.6-trimethyl-2.net/ .com http://www. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. the heat. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties.Fiber (crude) 5. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri. Significantly. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.4. combined with enzymatic action. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat.6. incidentally.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal.[18] Safranal. a volatile oil.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. When saffron is dried after its harvest.

[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.com http://www. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus.[28][29] Later.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. and in the mithridatium.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . cough.crazychefs.[33] potpourris. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt.000 years. C. sativus.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. and scabies. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. Since then. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. a sterile mutant form of C. cartwrightianus. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. mascaras.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos. townspeople in Rhodes. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. physicians in Gaza. divine offerings. and medical treatments.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. ointments. In late Hellenistic Egypt. colic. There.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. Thus.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.

and body washes. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. At such sites. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.[51] However.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece.Asia The 17. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. a Chinese medical expert. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. and used in dyes. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. medicines. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50.[44] During his Asian campaigns.net/ . rice.[42] ritually offered to divinities. a less expensive dye.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. saffron threads were woven into textiles. Wan Zhen.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. or jackfruit. perfumes. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC.crazychefs. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. For example.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. dating to 978–993 AD. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. Isfahan.[39][40] Later.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death.[43] Thus. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.com http://www.[53] On the other hand.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak.[44] From there. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

com http://www. However. especially Norfolk and Suffolk.[59][60] Only in southern France. did significant cultivation endure. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. under which saffron adulterators were fined.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. France.[62] By 1730. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. indeed. named for its new specialty crop. and Italy.[58] Soon after. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall.saffron is in Kashmir. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". tea.net/ .[55] During the 14th century Black Death. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. imprisoned. and executed. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. coffee. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. In Europe. It can be used to aromatise wine. and Spain. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. which grew prosperous."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. Italy. and then the saffron is obtained. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center.crazychefs.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline.

crazychefs. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. Turkish. and Cornish cuisines. Indian. immunomodulating. Pennsylvania. noodles.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. and antioxidantlike properties. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa).net/ .[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. European. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. and chicken or trout dishes. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian).[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). Arab. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. and in perfumery.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Medicinally.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Central Asian. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. particularly in China and India. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing).com http://www.

elasticity.100/€1. flavour. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.com http://www.000 flowers. Spain. Annually.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. For example. England.[5] Iran.100–11. Greece. Morocco. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'.000-170.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide.000 and 200.net/ . and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. Vivid crimson colouring. in decreasing order of production. they are graded by government-imposed standards. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.000 flowers. the average retail price is $1.crazychefs. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. and aroma. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Azerbaijan.[2] A pound comprises between 70. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. Switzerland. the United States. Aside from these.550 per kilogram).[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. are the major producers of saffron.500/€7. In Western countries.200/£1. and Italy.500 per kilogram. France.000 threads.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand.000–75.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram).[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. are generally mellower in colour. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. Spain's varieties.000 per pound (US$1. India. and other countries. slight moistness.

net/ . In the U. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. shape. and colourative effect. picrocrocin (taste). for quality and quantity. aroma. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. contribute to its high prices. among the world's darkest. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0.some organically grown.S. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. and crop failures in Kashmir. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain.com http://www. near L'Aquila. combined with an Indian export ban. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour).. Repeated droughts. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. There. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. is in San Gavino Monreale. picrocrocin. and safranal content. Sardinia. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content.crazychefs. and safranal (fragrance) content. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). it also has very high crocin. unusually pungent aroma.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). blights.79 in).

III.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). II. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. and other powders used as diluting fillers.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. paprika. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste.[80] Thus.crazychefs. with turmeric. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. traders. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code.net/ . Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. in India. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. and thus a greater colourative intensity. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. red-dyed silk fibers. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages.com http://www.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. many growers.national standards bodies. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. pliability. aroma. However.[77] However. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. and I (finest quality). pomegranate fibers.

21. 20. 103. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. 53. ^ M. ^ Dharmananda 2005. ^ DPIWE 2005. ^ a b Deo 2003. 5. 4. 423. ^ Deo 2003. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. ^ Willard 2001. 15. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. p. ^ Rau 1969.com/books?id=AaTpWEIlgNwC. 2. http://www.cababstractsplus. 7. 6.cababstractsplus. http://books. p. 16. 272.". ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 4. 14. p. 17. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. p. 8. in mice. 3. ^ Kumar V (2006). www. 4. p. 287.Saffron reproductive biology 11. p. ^ Willard 2001. p. 18. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ Willard 2001. pp. 422. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 2.asp?AcNo=20043148643. ^ Harper 2001. ^ a b McGee 2004. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. stigma extracts and their constituents. 12.google. Honshū. 9. Grilli Caiola . ^ a b c Hill 2004. pp. 3.org. 3. 22. ^ Grigg 1974. 2–3. 23. 19. 13. 3–4.com http://www. p. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. p. p. Kansai. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. 1. p.crazychefs. crocin and safranal.net/ . Retrieved 2007-12-01. 1.org/google/abstract. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. ^ McGee 2004. ^ a b Deo 2003. Sterling.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). 1. pp. p. 24. 3. p.

^ Willard 2001. 138–139. 28. Random House. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. 2. pp. 11. ^ a b Willard 2001. 422. 20. ^ Willard 2001. 44. ^ Goyns 1999. 138. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Dalby 2003. 29. Kuo & Wang 1964. 128. p. p. ^ a b Willard 2001. 30 AD. ^ a b Willard 2001. p. 67. p. ^ Honan 2004. p. 56. ^ Fletcher 2005. ^ http://www. 68. ca. 132–133.vision.crazychefs. ^ Hill 2004. ^ Willard 2001. 46. p. 1. 17–18. ^ Willard 2001.com http://www. 32. 1. 2. 70. p. ^ McGee 2004. pp. 57. Victoria (30 December 2002). p. 52. ^ Deo 2003.pdf 71. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 43. p. p. pp. 1935 [1] 38. de Medicina. ^ Humphries 1998. p.pdf 70. pp. p.org/cgi/content/abstract/49/3/1254 69. 12. ^ Willard 2001. 61. 50. p. 36. 58. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ Willard 2001. 1. ^ Rau 1969. p. ^ Willard 2001. 59. 143.iovs. 72. ^ Willard 2001. 35. ^ Finlay. ^ Honan 2004. p. p. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Willard 2001. 95. 1. 41. 39. 101.au/AnnualReports/ACEVS%20Report%202007. 138.au/news/acevs%20saffron. 35. ^ Ferrence 2004. p. 42. 55. p. 6. 47. ^ Celsus.25. 31. ^ Dalby 2002. p. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. ^ http://www. p. p. ^ Willard 2001. 40. p. 34–35.edu. 117. 58. 37. pp. 64.net/ . 2–3. p. 273. 26. 2. p. 142–146. 41. 60. 30. p. ^ Lak 1998b. 99. 33. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. 63. ^ Chang. ^ a b Dalby 2002. ^ Willard 2001. 48. 224. ^ Willard 2001. 73. 66. pp. 1. 41. 27. p. Loeb Classical Library Edition. p. 133. transl. 54–55. p. ^ http://vision. 62. 103–104. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. p. p. ^ Willard 2001. 63. 51. pp. 55. ^ Willard 2001. 256. 34. ^ Willard 2001. 54. 49. 59. ^ a b c Willard 2001. 45. pp. p. ^ Hayes 2001.edu. ^ Willard 2001. 65. p.

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"Saffron (Crocus sativus L.tas.nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>. Wiley. ISBN 0-521-09843-2. Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1). ISBN 0-471-21423-X. <http://books. saffron". <http://news. "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. <http://www.au/inter. SC (2004). Cambridge University Press.)". 2006.st m>. Hasegawa. N (2005).stm>. Leffingwell. Ten Speed Press. Retrieved on January 10. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron". Ferrence. <http://news. Jessie.com http://www. 2006. PMID 16180089 Katzer.etymonline. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron". "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron". JH. SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995).dpiwe. The Essential Saffron Companion. 2006. PMID 8590890 Hayes. 2006[dead link]. 2006. PMID 15259204 Fletcher.bbc. Lak. Fotedar. The Agricultural Systems of the World. Retrieved on January 10. Humphries. ISBN 0-312-34068-0. 2006. ISBN 90-5702-394-6. "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress". 2006.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/213043.pdf>. Saffron. JC (2002).com/index.pdf>. Hill.co. J (1998). Honan. 2006. AW (2001).uni-graz. A (2005). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2). Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). <http://www. Food & Agriculture. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. Taylor & Francis.org/pdf/Vitasta1998-1999. BBC News. WH (2004). Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. Retrieved on January 10.ikashmir.leffingwell.bbc.stm>. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5).com/2004/03/02/science/02MEDI.co. Taylor & Francis. <http://www. Martin's Press.com/download/saffron. 2006. "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". The New York Times. D (2001). Retrieved on January 10. ISBN 1-58008-024-3. Retrieved on January 10.crazychefs.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/212491. BBC News. 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2006. <http://www. "Saffron". Retrieved on January 10.net/ . Retrieved on January 10. D (1998b). Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4).html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>.google. Retrieved on January 10. ISBN 1-56032-814-2.gov.html>. G (2001). BBC News. SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005).co.bbc. S (1998–1999). <http://www. "Saffron". Retrieved on January 10.at/~katzer/engl/Croc_sat. Online Etymology Dictionary.DPIWE (2005). Harper.php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>. MH (1999). The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution".com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=l-QJaUp31T4C>. D (1998).nytimes. Hussain. Lak. <http://news. <http://www. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine". T (2004). DB (1974).uk/2/hi/south_asia/4216493. "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera". St. Grigg. Goyns. Retrieved on January 10.

Retrieved on January 10.".newscientist. <http://www.reconstructinghistory.com/classification. Willard.com http://www. PMID 2025883 Park. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/saffron.com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>.gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b. JB (2005). Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice.html>. The Cooking of India. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". 2006.cfm?chemic al_id=140>. Scribner. 2006. 2006[dead link].crazychefs. Rau.usda. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Tarvand (2005b). ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005).google. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www.barc. 2006.htm>. Retrieved on January 10. "Grading and Classification". <http://books. F (2005).com/irish/saffron. USDA Phytochemical Database. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 2006. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3.google. Cancer Letters 57 (2). Pearce. SC. Tarvand Saffron Company. K (2003). <http://www. H (2004). SR (1969). Tarvand Saffron Company. <http://www.html>. Retrieved on January 10. "Saffron". P (2001).tarvandsaffron.com/channel/earth/mg18524831. New Scientist. Retrieved on January 10. 2006.McGann. Nair. 2006.htm>. Retrieved on January 10.tarvandsaffron.000. <http://www. Beacon Press. <http://books.net/ . Reconstructing History. Retrieved on January 10. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". McGee. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). Time Life Education. "What is Saffron?".pl.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>.

Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.crazychefs.net/ .com http://www.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L. Dead Sea.

olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. from Lebanon. endives. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. the olive."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. referring to their wooden material. The small white flowers.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. Asia and parts of Africa. It is short and squat. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. are borne generally on the last year's wood. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. by a spring. olives. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. ca 170 AD.[1] and in the Iliad. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. Theophrastus. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. Though. the olive suckers readily from the stump. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet.net/ . with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. they were reverently preserved for centuries. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. which he describes as very simple: "As for me.[9]. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains.(XVII. and smooth mallows provide sustenance."[7] indeed. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. In Homer's Odyssey. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature.com http://www. called xoana. Its fruit. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. two stamens and bifid stigma.crazychefs. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars.5 cm long.

crazychefs.The leafy branches of the olive tree . It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and one of the most significant. in On the Nature of Plants. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive.[12] After the 16th century. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. Over the years. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. Chile and Argentina.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. olives were grown commercially in Crete. fertility. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. glory and peace . kotinos.net/ . Theophrastus. wild-type olives. the olive has been the symbol of peace. Peru. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. as well as olive oil and olives. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. power and pureness. The Book of Jacob 5. As far back as 3000 BC. in both the New and Old Testaments.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. The olive tree itself.16.com http://www. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. As emblems of benediction and purification. Today. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. the pits give rise to thorny. but he makes clear (in 1. For example. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. and then in the 18th century in California. for which the Greeks had a separate name.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. play an important role in the Bible. and its cultivation began in Mexico. wisdom. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. glory. spread far and wide by birds. indeed.

[16] An olive tree in west Athens.net/ . and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. The older an olive tree is.crazychefs. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. The age of an olive tree in Crete. Montenegro. Istria in Croatia.600 years old.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. disease. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). has been calculated to be about 1.com http://www. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14].and fire-resistant.000 years old. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. which is made into top quality olive oil. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. drought-. named "Plato's Olive Tree". the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. One olive tree in Bar. claimed to be over 2. and can live for very long.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca.

though showing a preference for the coast. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. called the "Peisistratos Tree". Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. Specifically.crazychefs. and the olive fruit.2. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. both in Galilee region. 1600-2000 years old. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. olive leaf. Italy.com http://www. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. A supposedly even older tree. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. and.400 years ago.6 km) as the limit. According to a recent scientific survey. a few other millenary trees can be admired.net/ . Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. In the same natural garden. fine wood. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. see Olive (fruit). Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. Modern experience does not always confirm this. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. All seven trees continue to produce olives.

northwest Africa) where winters are mild.net/ .[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. Argentina. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. Sudan. laperrinei (Algeria. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand.crazychefs. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). such as South Africa. Niger. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp.com http://www.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. the Mediterranean Basin. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. Australia. Olive plantation in Andalucia. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. Israel. Chile. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp.

crazychefs.net/ .com http://www.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.net/ .crazychefs. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.

It is used mostly for oils. with purple-green skin.Cailletier cultivar. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. Rich taste and thick pulp. anchovies. a large.com http://www. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . which consists of 1. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. in southern Spain. A prolific bearer. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. originating in Dos Hermanas. stuffed (with pickled pimento. 'Bosana'.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. The olive grove of Amfissa. often after being pitted. Seville.net/ . Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction.200. rounded-oval fruit. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. 'Manzanilla'.crazychefs.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In recent times. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. but only a few are grown to a large extent. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. grown around the world.

and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf.crazychefs. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. another modern Israeli. originating in the south of France (Aude département). 'Empeltre'. though difficult to cultivate. a small. Spain. and elongated. disease-resistant. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. 'Kalamata'. They grow in any light soil.com http://www. a large. used as a table olive. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. The olive is medium sized. Spain. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. It is used both for oil and for table olives. The flavour is mild and nutty. They are green. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant.[23] 'Barnea'. 'Picual'. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. Their flavour is mild and nutty.[21] 'Koroneiki'. medium size. round. It is green. which. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. They are black and generally used for table consumption. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. It is mainly used for oil. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. large. and coastal climate conditions. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). originating in the province of Córdoba. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. Spain. originating in the south of France. originating from the southern Peloponese. brown olive grown in Catalonia. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. 'Cornicabra'. 'Souri'. good for eating and for oil.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. even on clay if well drained. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. and elongated. 'Nabali'. good for eating and for oil. 'Arbequina'. 'Hojiblanca'. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. This small olive. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. Due to their highly valued flavour. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). Greece. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. It has a strong but sweet flavour.net/ . named after the city of Kalamata. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. Moreover. originating in Toledo.

The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. the trees are regularly pruned. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. Olives grow very slowly. embryonic buds. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. removing fruit from the tree.poorer soil. but the time varies in each country. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. More specifically. to facilitate germination. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. In southern Europe. being very hard and close-grained. Another method uses an electric tool. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .com http://www. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. In Greece. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers.crazychefs. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. and with the season and the cultivar. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. In Italy. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. This method is used for olives used for oil. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. They tolerate drought well. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. In some places in Italy and Greece. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. and can remain productive for as long. it is valued by woodworkers. Occasionally. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. However. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. as in Languedoc and Provence. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. P. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. 114). soon vegetate. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. the oliviera. Olives are propagated in various ways.) Olives like hot weather. A. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. up to several centuries. which form small swellings on the stems. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder.

which leads to a superior finished product.crazychefs. Typical yields are 1.5-2. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. or green with hints of colour). Olives can be used green.net/ . American black ("California") olives are not fermented. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. large fruit (e. a bitter carbohydrate. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. the creation of lactic acid. which is a natural preservative. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. through to full purple black ripeness. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. After some weeks.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. the fruit is not bruised. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is why they taste milder than green olives. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. As a result. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. The olives are soaked in water to wash.com http://www. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. then drained. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. The method also involves sawing off branches. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. Fresh are often sold at markets. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. which is healthy for future production. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container.g. which can be eaten fresh.2 kg of oil per tree per year..

The ten largest producing countries. juniper berries and anchovies.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. In France and north-central Italy.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. vinegar. oleae[27].6 to 8. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. lemon zest. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. Pests. causing great damage to plantations.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. lemon juice. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. garlic cloves. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. spices. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. diseases. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. A species of bacterium. chili. salt-curing. and weather A fungus.net/ . Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive.com http://www. Cycloconium oleaginum. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. or removing the pit and stuffing them. Lye-curing. wine. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. an unnatural method.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. Sometimes. olive oil. capsicum (pimento). A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. but can be left to cure for up to three months. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. induces tumour growth in the shoots. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. leaving sawtooth damage.crazychefs. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. of which the water is changed daily. Popular flavourings are herbs. feta. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. their main predators are wasps. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. especially to young trees. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. olives suffer occasionally from frost.

8 16.100 3.000 8. book 5".800. 1992.000 1.400. 2. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves. ^ Theophrastus. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. and to cultivate olive-trees. Ancient Greek Agriculture. most notably South Australia.5 6. 7.3 8." (Herodotus.000 470.981 1.988 500. 82.160.5. 5. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.4 30. 38. 3. 1. 81. 4.597.000 280.6 31.064 2.13.000 49.com http://www. 1 ). In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens..3 20. Description of Greece 1.1 25. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants." (Diodorus Siculus.000 318.000 430.888 178.0 3. 3.crazychefs.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.14. p.9 6. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication. Odyssey.000 1.. 6.[31] References 1.685 765.5 63. 1). An introduction.000 498.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.149.089 6. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.000 250.. On the Causes of Plants. ^ "..000 594.1).317.000 275. Bibliotheke.7 27. 27.830 2. 4. 4.000 998.000 20.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced. and was the first to instruct men in these matters. ^ Homer.300.000 550.339 300.net/ .500. ^ Pausanias. to make bee-hives.140. 5.

Apps3. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 23. 1996. Retrieved 2007-03-10. Volume 18:27-35 20. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. 13.net/ . 2004". Rackham. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. Ellen. 105.jsp. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. 32:166–169.15. N.. EspasaCalpe S. 29. 1982. R. Brijuni National Park.htm. J. (1999) Ancient Trees. ^ a b M. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. 1779. nom.cit. pp 110–113. M. J.pasoroblesolivefestival. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. Cavagnaro P.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". Fall/Spring (2005) 12.org/wiews/olive/intro." Horace. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol.fao. ^ Gooch. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. ^ Muncipality Bar. cited in F. rev. 27. Leshonenu (Hebrew). ^ Burr. ^ Fotiadi. 1981. Syst.. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. Available through Google Books 11. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. Y. A. Riley (2002). p.com/ 25. AGRISCIENTA. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. Bacteriol. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. 24. Australian Olives. Retrieved 2009-05-18.. http://apps3.brijuni. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Int. 35.A. ^ [1] 21. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine".springerlink. Masuelli. & Parker. nov. ^ Balfour. 29 April. ^ http://www. me cichorea levesque malvae. J. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. Spring/Summer 2006 26. ca 30 BC 9. Epikouria Magazine. Moody. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares.com/study.. 4th edition. & Ouazzani. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. Zatoun. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. John Hutton. ^ Lewington. Simhoni. Epikouria Magazine. J. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. vol.zatoun. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives".aspx?PageID=151.31. Juárez.com/content/dlb533pw9cbwc59e/.W. 2001. Odes 1. D. Number 4).279 18. op. ^ Lumaret. R. Tabak & O. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. Volume 15.org. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil.com http://www.8. Kislew. ^ Riley. 30. http://www. Madrid.hr/Home. http://www. ^ Janse. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. (September 2002). 1999. ^ Belaj et al. ^ "Old Olive Tree". M Bauza & R. ^ "FAO. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". Processing methods.fao.crazychefs. 28. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". p. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana.. E. 17.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. 69. ^ O. Elena "Unusual Olives". http://www.

western North America. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. and south to northern Mexico. The leaves are lanceolate. (French tarragon." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. L. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen.com http://www.31. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. Corresponding to its species name. however. with an entire margin. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad.R. glossy green.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L.net/ . seldom produces flowers.crazychefs.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with slender branched stems. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901.

it normally goes dormant in winter. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. A perennial. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. fish and egg dishes. Persian and Russian word for .crazychefs. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. but cannot be grown from seed. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. sunny spot. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Russia and Ukraine. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. Georgia and. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking.com http://www. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. without excessive watering. and particularly suitable for chicken.[1] Russian tarragon (A. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. Fresh. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer.net/ .[1] It likes a hot.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen.[1] However.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. Spreading plant can be divided easily. due to the presence of estragole. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. by extension. It is normally purchased as a plant. which is the Armenian. dracunculoides L.

Horst. ISBN 9783527607891.net/ .com http://www. Properties and Uses. The Bountiful Container. Ley JP. ^ Surburg.Cis-Pellitorin. Foerstner J. 2. Maggie (2002). References 1. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Machinek A. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Workman Publishing.crazychefs. Stuckey. 233. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Gatfield IL. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Krammer G. Johannes Panten (2006).[3] In Slovenia. 3. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. Wiley-VCH. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Rose Marie Nichols. ^ a b c d McGee. pp.

though other species. Common sage. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. Lamiaceae. Garden sage. In the United States. Purple sage. Broadleaf sage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking.com http://www. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. and some drinks. Culinary sage. In Western cooking. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub.crazychefs. It is a member of the mint family. it is used when roasting mutton. Dalmatian sage. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. and blue to purplish flowers. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Kitchen sage. grayish leaves. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade).Salvia officinalis (Sage. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sage has a slight peppery flavor. cheeses (Sage Derby). Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. In French cuisine. Britain and Flanders. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. with woody stems. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. In the Balkans and the Middle East.net/ .

ursolic acid. The Latin name for sage. niacin. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. antifungal. chlorogenic acid.com http://www. salvia. The underside of a sage leaf . ursonic acid. fumaric acid.more trichomes are visible on this side. flavones. hypoglycemic. cornsolic acid. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.crazychefs. caffeic acid. and estrogenic substances.trichomes are visible. means ―to heal". and thujone. which contains cineole. nicotinamide. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. antibiotic. and tonic. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. antispasmodic. flavonoid glycosides. randomized and placebo-controlled trial.net/ . astringent. estrogenic. borneol.[1] In a double blind. oleic acid. cornsole.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf .

(2003). doi:10. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. http://www. randomized and placebo-controlled trial".[4] It was sometimes called S. 'Alba'. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value.x. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. and for low ground cover. a white-flowered cultivar. especially in sunny dry environments.1365-2710. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves.com http://www. and used as a diuretic. 'Tricolor'. a local anesthetic for the skin. 2. Khani M. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. a cultivar with large leaves. Mohammadi M. Applied Health. and tonic.00463.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. Ohadinia S. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. Retrieved 2008-02-04. Dioscorides.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. a purple-leafed cultivar. and for other uses. 'Lavandulaefolia'. ^ Akhondzadeh S. and more. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. snakebites. a styptic. a cultivar with white. yellow and green variegated leaves. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9.com/nutri/page8453. Pliny.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages.2003. 'Icterina'. Noroozian M. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. PMID 12605619. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine.net/ .[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. Jamshidi AH. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. a small leaved cultivar. emmenagogue. OBeWise Nutriceutica. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. increasing women's fertility. hemostatic.appliedhealth. They are easily raised from summer cuttings.1046/j. 'Extrakta'.crazychefs.php. 'Berggarten'. References 1. ^ a b c "Sage".

^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. ISBN 9789058230058.crazychefs. CRC Press. ^ a b Kintzios.3.net/ . Spiridon E. (2000). 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pp.com http://www. 10-11. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. Deni Bown (New York: DK. Sage: The Genus Salvia. p. 4.

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