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Cooking Ingredients

Cooking Ingredients

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  • Taxonomy
  • History/Region of Origin
  • Taste and aroma
  • Uses
  • Medicinal Value
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  • Cultivation
  • Gallery
  • Culinary use
  • Medicinal use
  • Important species
  • Popular cultivars
  • Varieties
  • Usage
  • Health risks
  • Uses Culinary
  • Other plants called oregano
  • Etymology
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  • Cinnamon and cassia
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  • Shallots in Persian Cooking
  • Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
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Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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Depending on how it is used in a dish. As a rule of thumb. in a bouquet garni). so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. storage life is rarely more than a week. soups and stews. the whole sprig may be used (e. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. While summer-seasonal. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. Libyan. Spanish. cuttings. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). or the leaves removed and the stems discarded.g. fresh thyme is often available year-round. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. while flavourful. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. and of herbes de Provence. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. Dried. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. In some Levantine countries. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Thyme. assume that it means fresh. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). or by dividing rooted sections of the plant.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. tomatoes and eggs. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient.com http://www.a little less if it is ground. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. In French cuisine. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme.net/ . Lebanese.crazychefs. Persian. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. which is due to its content of thymol. and Turkish cuisines. It tolerates drought well. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. Leaves are often chopped. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Syrian.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. Greek. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. and in those derived from them. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . It can be propagated by seed. Italian. Albanian. or by the sprig. Portuguese. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs.

The dried equivalent is 1:3. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed].[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. It also has medicinal uses. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. but is grown as a ground cover. Because it is antiseptic. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. etc. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. an antiseptic. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice.crazychefs. pulegioides × T. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol.[6] Thymol.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics.net/ .[5] As with bay.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. tisane.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. salve. All thyme species are nectar sources. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. hybrid T. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb.com http://www. it was used to medicate bandages.

Variegated lemon thyme.net/ . ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme.com http://www. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.crazychefs. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity.

Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.com http://www.net/ .

B3) 1.0 mg Iron 6. B1) 0.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.Dietary fiber 3. It is common in Middle Eastern. European.9 g . and American cooking.1 mg Folate (Vit. B2) 0. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.net/ .crazychefs.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0. although parsley has a milder flavor.2 mg Magnesium 50. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.3 g 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .1 mg recommendations for adults.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.8 g 3.Sugars 0. often used as spice.com http://www.0 mg Phosphorus 58.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.1 mg 6.0 μg Calcium 138.

Green parsley is often used as a garnish.com http://www. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. However. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". like flat leaf parsley or chervil. Although little known in Britain and the United States. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. For example. not blooming until its second year. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. neapolitanum). Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. Like many other umbellifers.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. which helps accommodate the long taproot. reducing pest attraction. or flat leaf (P.net/ . While parsley is biennial. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. it is not related to real turnips. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian.crazychefs. which then tend to protect plants nearby. used in soups and stews. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. tuberosum). they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. it attracts predatory insects. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds.

fried chicken. lamb or goose. ^ a b c John W. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies.com http://www. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. http://www. 2007. "That Devilish Parsley. In Southern and Central Europe. In addition. "Parsley on plucodes. http://www. Parsley as an oil. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon.crazychefs. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. and sauces. Jett. parsley is part of bouquet garni. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine.com/npc/parsley.plucodes. e. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. [1]) in oxalic acid.g. a mixture of parsley.net/ . root. leaf. Ossobuco alla milanese.aspx?id=1075&s=4. steaks. soups. garlic.com/PLUdetails." West Virginia University Extension Service.html. 4.com". 2. References 1. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés.70% by mass. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. Last retrieved April 26. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3.com". ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. with fish. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf).. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or 4900. and lemon zest.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries.drugs.[3] Parsley is high (1.

Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.net/ .crazychefs.

vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.net/ .crazychefs. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O.

It is the leaves that are used in cooking. spicy flavor. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. Oregano growing in a field. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. Together with basil. of the mint family. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. and lovage leaves. Unlike most Italian herbs.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. and grilled meat. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. e. and to add a nice. It is a perennial herb.g.net/ .[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. 3-4 mm long. as well as cultivars.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. Spanish and in Italian cuisine.crazychefs. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. O vulgare gracile. each with distinct flavours. capers. fried vegetables.com http://www. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. native to Europe. Greek. The flowers are purple. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. which is popular in southern Italy. produced in erect spikes. growing to 20-80 cm tall. Oregano is an important culinary herb. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes.

season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. salt and pepper. especially for mutton and lambs meat. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes.com http://www. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. differs significantly in taste. which. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. warm and slightly bitter taste. The influence of climate. It has an aromatic. Balkan peninsula. together with paprika. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. In Turkish Cuisine. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. useful for relieving children's coughs. It varies in intensity. however. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. In the Philippines. Oregano growing in a pot. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. West Asia) have similar flavors. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. heracleoticum (Italy. The related species Origanum onites (Greece.net/ . Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids.crazychefs.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries.[5][6] Additionally. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. it can be usually found on table. Asia Minor) and O.

showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. Aqueous extracts.uni-graz. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. thymol. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. carminative.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). ocimene. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. In the Philippines. including Poliomintha longiflora. diaphoretic.html. Used topically. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. oregano. expectorant. antispasmodic. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses.[12] References 1. capsules. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. useful for relieving children's coughs. Plectranthus amboinicus. but is usually stronger. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. Coleus aromaticus).Main constituents include carvacrol. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. limonene. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. influenza. pinene.crazychefs. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. stimulant. and caryophyllene. cholagogue. also called Cuban oregano. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep.at/~katzer/engl/Orig_vul.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. fungal infections.net/ . enteric parasites. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. stomach upsets. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which simply referred to "an acrid herb".[8] Hippocrates. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. this substitution would not work the other way round. ^ Organic Gardening 2. mild fevers. emmenagogue.[7] and painful menstruation. indigestion. ^ http://www. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. especially in the United States. A Cretan oregano (O. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. Lippia berlandieri. the father of medicine.com http://www. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. stomachic and mildly tonic. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant.

28. et al.dmannose. et al.asp?item=1374&year=2008. draft revision for "organum". Retrieved 2008-11-26. Fall/Spring 2007 5.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. Medical News Today. University of the West of England. Agric. 53 (21): 8162–8168. ^ ["http://www. 24 November 2008. http://jn. March 2009. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. ^ Epikouria Magazine.uwe. PMID 12730411. ^ Epikouria Magazine. 11.php. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. Leonor.com/articles/130620. June 2008. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project".". vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.nutrition. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".crazychefs. Food Chem. ^ Dragland. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9.10. (01 May 2003).co. 133 (5): 1286–1290. doi:10.com http://www.medicalnewstoday. draft revision for "origanum". http://info. http://www. Fall/Winter 2007 10.net/ . June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. 12. 7. Retrieved 200811-26.2008.uk/news/UWENews/article. 6. J Nutr. ^ a b Faleiro. Steinar.ac. PMID 16218659. Draft revision for "oregano". (Cav.) and Origanum vulgare L.uk/wild-oregano-oil-carvacrol.3.org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. J. (2005).1021/jf0510079.

that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". umbelliferous herb. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists).Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. perennial.com http://www.[2] In Greek mythology. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. Also. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). however. Ferula communis.net/ . which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. it was from the giant fennel.crazychefs. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. In Ancient Greek. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. it seems. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. It is a hardy. recorded in the 10th century. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). meaning "hay".[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world.

Dietary fiber 3. B1) 0.5 mm wide. and grooved. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). B3) 0. It is erect. but thinner. about 0.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0.01 mg 7.20 g 1.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. half as wide or less. and grows to heights of up to 2.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B2) 0. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.crazychefs.5 m.047 mg Folate (Vit.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. glaucous green.net/ . bulb. with hollow stems. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long.29 g 0.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. they are finely dissected.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.com http://www.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.

which is also known by several other names. though usually not as strong. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel.crazychefs. "bronze-leaved" fennel. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. in pastures.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.net/ . In North American supermarkets.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but is more aromatic and sweeter. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island).[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise.com http://www. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. the United States. and in other open sites in many regions.20 mg Manganese 0. It is of cultivated origin. syn.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. for its edible. by the late 19th century. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. both raw and cooked. notably the Italian name finocchio. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. including northern Europe. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. F. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. both in its native range and elsewhere. it is often mislabelled as "anise".[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. It propagates well by seed. vulgare var.

For cooking. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. stewed.com http://www.crazychefs. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. both raw and cooked. variyali in Gujarati. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. brown or green in colour when fresh. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. Many egg. badesoppu in Kannada. sompu in Telugu.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. or cooked in risotto. braised. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. anise-flavoured spice.net/ . pastas. foliage. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). salads. and risottos. fish. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. grilled.Fennel. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. though smaller. in side dishes. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. mouri in Bengali. or eaten raw. where bulbs and fronds are used. It may be blanched or marinated. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. The bulb is a crisp. green seeds are optimal. which are very similar in taste and appearance. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. but also the most expensive. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. often tossed with chicory and avocado. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb.

as it is said to improve eyesight. although not supported by direct evidence.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. This use. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. also employed as a carminative. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[12] For adults.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. sometimes with some sweetener. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother.crazychefs. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. or its polymers. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma.com http://www. used to ease flatulence in infants. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. act as phytoestrogens. Fennel tea.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche.net/ .

Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments.com http://www. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which promote growth of breast tissue.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.[17] However. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.net/ .crazychefs. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. fennel and coriander.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. followed by India. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. badian (star anise).

it is known as "DalChini ( )". which are often called cinnamon too. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them.crazychefs. In Telugu. it is called Dalchina Chakka. in the original Sinhala. synonym C. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.[3] In Sri Lanka.[5] In Malayalam. Ceylon. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. native to Sri Lanka. Chakka meaning bark or wood.com http://www.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera.C. and in Gujarati taj. the "real' cassia. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. it is called "Darchini" ( ). In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. In Bengali. it is called darchin (‫.net/ . itself ultimately from Phoenician. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni .(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Urdu. cinnamon is known as kurundu. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. Hindi. In Farsi (Persian).[2] In Marathi.

but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. and in Song of Solomon.net/ .crazychefs. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. aloe and cinnamon. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus.com http://www.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. in Proverbs. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . to protect their monopoly as suppliers. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. a song describing the beauty of his beloved.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh.

in a letter of about 1292. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. 7–18 cm (2.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis.net/ .com http://www. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. tea.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. and have a distinct odor. The flowers. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers.2 feet) tall. and used them to construct their nests. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32.8–49. They established a trading post in 1638. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. "The shores of the island are full of it". sugar. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. which are arranged in panicles. and coffee. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. a Dutch captain reported. have a greenish color. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas.Ages. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. p." (Braudel 1984.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. took control of the factories by 1640. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. However. although in the first century. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese.1 inches) long. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape.75–7. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.

Brazil. Zanzibar.crazychefs. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. and Vietnam. Chips are trimmings of quills. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. Madagascar. Sumatra. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. Vietnam. which is left to dry. The next year. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. followed by China. According to the International Herald Tribune. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs.net/ .5 mm) inner bark is used. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. Java. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. and Egypt. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. eg. the outer woody portion is removed. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. Bangladesh. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Only the thin (0. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India.com http://www. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. verum). in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon.[15] According to the FAO.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. the West Indies. India.

and more crumbly texture. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". hard and woody in texture. and is considered to be less strong than cassia.com http://www.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. However.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw.crazychefs. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. or "Indonesian cinnamon". the related species. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. using only the thin inner bark. zeylanicum). many websites. for example. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. has a finer. "Vietnamese cinnamon". Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum).rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon.net/ .[16] Ceylon cinnamon. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). as all of the layers of bark are used. is generally a medium to light reddish brown. less dense.

[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. but when cassia is present.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. True cinnamon. tea. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material.crazychefs. are easily distinguished. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. It is used in the preparation of chocolate.net/ . especially apples. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. In the United States.5% to 1% of its composition. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. bread-based dishes. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. macerating it in seawater. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. ‫. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals.com http://www. especially in Mexico. drinks. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. when whole. and liqueurs. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. and sweets. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. It is of a golden-yellow color. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. a deep-blue tint is produced. such as apple pie. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. The two barks.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. and fruits. used in a variety of thick soups. In the Middle East. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. rather than cassia. hot cocoa. and then quickly distilling the whole.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice.

net/ . "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans.com http://www.crazychefs. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. However. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves).[34] Notes 1. The Cinnamon Challenge.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. who failed. eugenol.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. 2008. cinnamaldehyde.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. linalool. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. love. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. few seem able to succeed. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. beta-caryophyllene.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. and money. Sri Lanka (Ceylon).[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde.and a very hot aromatic taste. Encyclopaedia Britannica. and anethole. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. cassia.0. cinnamyl acetate. luck. ^ a b "Cinnamon". although it remains untested. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). In Hoodoo." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Myanmar (Burma).

also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour. p. 4. 53 (20): 7749–59. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. Sun M." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents".co. 23. Mancini DA. Sánchez C.html. Cinnamomum. ^ http://links. ^ Mancini-Filho J.ac. ^ Tennent. revised ed. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. ^ López P.za/index. Agric. The History of Food.en.henriettesherbal.org/tennent/v1_p5_c02.. http://lakdiva. http://www. 2009. Anthea Bell. p. Sir James Emerson.html. ^ "Cassia.com/spices/vietnamese-cassia-saigon-cinnamon-wholecracked-ground thespicehouse. Breyne) extracts".bbc. 53 (17): 6939–46. ^ [1] 16. Cozzolino FF. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.net/ . An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. ^ http://news. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. doi:10. Corke H (October 2005). 8. http://dsr.com/Spices/cinnamon. Robert. PMID 16104824.stm 3.437. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. Nerín C (August 2005). 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ http://findarticles. Cai YZ. http://www. Van-Koiij A. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009. PMID 16190627. Emily. 9. http://www.htm 20. PMID 10077878. J. Torres RP (December 1998). ^ Knox. ^ http://www. p. ^ Harris. tr.com 17. Agric. Col.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/south_asia_sri_lanka0s_spice _of_life/html/1.jp/toyobunko/III-2F-b-2/V-1/page/0487. 437f.html.theepicentre. ^ http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/ae017e/ae017e12. ^ Shan B. Batlle R. J.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_June/ai_3289703 13. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. 437).com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. ^ http://www. p.npr.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14.htm. ^ [2] 18. Henry. retrieved 200705-01 21. Cathay and the Way Thither.com/eclectic/kings/cinnamomum.CO%3B2-N 15. 22.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains".jstor.org/sici?sici=00754358(1970)60%3C222%3ATSTOTR%3E2.crazychefs.html#pg598. 437 7. retrieved 2008-07-15 11.—Cinnamon.php?storyId=6672644. Harvey. "Solid.iol. Account of the Island of Ceylon. ^ Felter. 10. Encyclopedia of Spices. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report.1021/jf050709v.1021/jf051513y. http://www. doi:10.co. Food Chem.thespicehouse. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. Food Chem.0. Cinnamon. p.org/templates/story/story.nii. retrieved 200807-15 6.ihaystack. ^ The Epicentre.com http://www. ^ Yule.2.

et al.1.whfoods. Eugen J.1643. Medicinal Seasonings.12.2217/14750708.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14633804. ^ Yronwode. Braudel.. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). http://www. http://www. Corn. doi:10.3. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). 27.. Retrieved 200805-11. Muhammad et al.luckymojo. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". ^ Ranjbar. Ali Khan MM. Khattak KN.htm. Agricultural Research magazine.1016/00219673(88)90035-0. Charles (1998). "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". Retrieved 2008-05-11. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". Cinnamon.my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH. Alan W.2337/diacare. July 2000. Kristof et al. retrieved 200705-01 25. PMID 14633804.utm. http://care. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276.sciencedaily. http://www. doi:10.. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde.2217/14750708. ^ Beck. Archer (1988).com. 30. ^ [3]. Akram et al. Retrieved 200808-05. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. ^ Taher. 26. 33.com/genpage. Eleventh Edition.pdf. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".. Leslie.com/doi/abs/10. ^ Vanschoonbeek. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". ground. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. doi:10.113.com http://www.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. www.3215.lesliebeck. a publication now in the public domain.. Cat. Research: Thalido.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/977. http://www. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.redorbit. (2005). retrieved 200705-01 32. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). ^ George Mateljan Foundation.nutrition. doi:10.html?source=r_health. Retrieved 2007-12-17. Retrieved 2008-05-11. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food.php?featured_food=80.113. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. http://jn. ^ Khan A.1002/ptr. ^ Verspohl.sciencedaily. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206.crazychefs.3.diabetesjournals. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade.com/ingredient_index. The Perspective of the World.com/news/health/803646/chillies_are_the_spice_of_life__pepper s_have_been/index.com.com/releases/2004/07/040716081706.. Safdar M. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro".net/ . New York: Kodansha International. 34. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8.26. Anderson RA (December 2003). http://eprints. 29. http://www.futuremedicine. Fernand (1984).24. http://www.1.

and dehydrated forms. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. which it is not. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage.com http://www.net/ . cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. pickled.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. They are known by the common name "onion" but. They are now available in fresh."[3] Uses Onions. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. Onions can be used. frozen.M. used without qualifiers. it usually refers to Allium cepa. one of the oldest vegetables. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. and Allium asarense R. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. powdered. canned. chopped. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion.Department of Export Agriculture.crazychefs. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures.

[5] However. However. an onion can be sharp. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. recent evidence has shown that dogs. due to toxicity during digestion. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets.net/ . and other animals should not be given onions in any form.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. In ancient Greece. coughs. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. Depending on the variety. spicy. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. cats. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack.com http://www. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. transported and stored. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. In Bronze Age settlements. and also to relieve headaches. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet.chopped or sliced. snakebite and hair loss. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions".[5] The onion is easily propagated.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage.crazychefs. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts.

1 g 1. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.21 mg Magnesium 0.7 g Fat . B3) 0.34 g 0.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. 0 μg 9.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.Dietary fiber 1.saturated 0.1 g 89. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .monounsaturated 0.crazychefs.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .24 g .polyunsaturated 0.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.042 g .129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.013 g .116 mg Vitamin B6 0.com http://www.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.Sugars 4. B1) 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.02 mg Vitamin K 0.4 mg Vitamin E 0.

Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. anticancer.com http://www. and Vidalia. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. Western White. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. Peruvian Sweet. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. diabetes. For all varieties of onions. Peruvian Sweet. In general. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins.[10] In many parts of the world. and other diseases. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. Mexico. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. some studies have found their action to be ineffective.crazychefs. Imperial Valley Sweet.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. Mexico.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. followed by Western Yellow. Empire Sweet. In the United States. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. osteoporosis. Northern Red. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. Empire Sweet. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. Peruvian Sweet. Texas 1015. eleven times the amount found in Western White. Imperial Valley Sweet. Northern Red. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. pungent yellow (New York Bold). However.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. Shallots have the most phenols. Empire Sweet. Texas 1015. Mexico. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. and Vidalia. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. onions are used to heal blisters and boils.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. If you are allergic to onions. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). Western Yellow. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat.net/ .Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. Imperial Valley Sweet. anticholesterol. Western White. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. Texas 1015. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability.

mouth and throat ulcerations. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. ginger. nausea. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. allylpropyldisulfide. cells are broken. breathing difficulties.net/ . differs among Allium species. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). where it binds to sensory neurons. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. creating a stinging sensation. leeks. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. and bananas. Eye irritation can. diarrhea.include reactions to onions. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. On January 31.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. 2008. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. shallots. allylmercaptan and allicin. garden lilies. all present in garlic. chives. limiting the amount of gas generated.com http://www.crazychefs. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. and the irritation effect.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. garlic. it can lead to an allergic reaction. therefore.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. As onions are sliced or eaten. The volume of sulfenic acids released.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

which is said not to produce dry bulbs. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. from sets started from seed the previous year. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned.com http://www. Finally.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. which can be planted directly in the ground. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. which have been developed in more recent times. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. the Welsh onion.crazychefs. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur.net/ . requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. Allium fistulosum. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. "short-day" onions. more commonly today.

Vale.750 South Korea 1.500 China United States 3.net/ .149 Spain World Total 64.764 Pakistan 1. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.220 Turkey 1.crazychefs.637 Japan Egypt 1. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9. each of which forms a bulb. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions. Oregon (USA). Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.758 Russia 1.com http://www.793 India 5. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.346 2. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.Produce bulblets in the flower head.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.302 1. a hybrid of Allium cepas. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .

It remains in effect as of 2009.The Onion Futures Act.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices.com http://www. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. passed in 1958. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.crazychefs. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.net/ .

known as garlic. and chive. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes.[1] A bulb of garlic. Medical Botany. leek. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. shallot. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. It has a characteristic pungent. Its close relatives include the onion.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. Allium sativum. commonly known as garlic.crazychefs. from William Woodville. 1793. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking.net/ . is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae.com http://www. the most commonly used part of the plant.

Allium vineale. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. which grows wild in southwestern Asia.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "crow garlic". They can suffer from pink root. In cold climates.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005.Yunnan province of China. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. respectively. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. and Allium oleraceum. In North America. India (4.[5] The "wild garlic". and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually.com http://www. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). and for medicinal purposes. accounting for over 77% of world output. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. The cloves are used as seed. with Russia (1. The leaves.net/ . Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. with approximately 10. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. according to Zohary and Hopf. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. the so-called elephant garlic. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates.crazychefs. Garlic is grown globally.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". Garlic plants can be grown close together. The papery. are common weeds in fields. for consumption (raw or cooked)."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. stems (scape). Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator.

C = calculated figure. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.810 168.000 221.com http://www. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. California. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". northern Africa.crazychefs.000 254.000 142. tomato.000 645. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. P = official figure.400 140.000 15. and parts of South and Central America. It is often paired with onion.000 125.000 325. southern Europe. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. Southeast Asia. semiofficial. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. or ginger. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods.686.net/ . including eastern Asia. the Middle East.000 128. A = aggregate (may include official. or estimates).088. south Asia.4%). Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.Alaska) in fifth place (1. F = FAO estimate.

the resulting product.crazychefs. oil. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. "stems". In some cuisine. oil. Garlic. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. They are also known as "garlic spears". 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. and is now being sold in the United States. almond. and spices. crostini and canapé. Blending garlic. or vegetables. meats. meat. and then stir-fried with eggs. Immature scapes are tender and edible. bruschetta.com http://www. garlic toast. In Japan and Korea. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. salt. or "tops". In eastern Europe. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. cleaned. called black garlic. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic.net/ . Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. The leaves are cut. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. and a chunky base produce skordalia. United Kingdom and Australia. breads and pasta. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. and roast them in an oven. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. is sweet and syrupy. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—theheart.org, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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making garlic much more potent than onions. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. where it is excreted. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. When eaten in quantity. The herb is. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. garlic could be worn. chives.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. leeks. and vampires. or leeks. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. and bananas. included in many garlic recipes. Among the members of the onion family. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. hung in windows. however. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. ginger.in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. garlic.[51] To ward off vampires. However. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. werewolves. and release of AMS several hours more.net/ . therefore. shallots. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. and worms from eating the plant. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Humans. allylmercaptan and allicin. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. deterring animals like birds. such as pistou. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. However. It is carried to the lungs and the skin.[50] In Europe.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. insects.crazychefs. shallots. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. Since digestion takes several hours. forming allyl methyl sulfide. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. thus mellowing its spiciness.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. persillade. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. usually enjoy these sensations. garden lilies. all present in garlic. including onions.com http://www.[48] Due to its strong odor. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. allylpropyldisulfide. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood.

Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. bleeding. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. if appropriate. and menstrual irregularities. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). nausea. and no FDA-approved study has been performed.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. Editing help is available. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. antiplatelets.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. and diarrhea. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. You can help by converting this article to prose. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. sweating. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation.In Daoism mythology. Garlic can thin the blood. indicated Muhammad. emesis.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. saquinavir. are largely unknown.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. at worst.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. antiparasitic value of garlic. calcium channel blockers. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. as well as other medications. minimal risks to normal individuals. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque".crazychefs. In connection with the odor associated with garlic.net/ . However. allergic reactions.com http://www. indigestion. and hypoglycemic drugs. dizziness. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. similar to the effect of aspirin. if any exist.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. antihypertensives.

^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). ^ McGee p. split.htm. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. et al. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 397 6. et al. ^ a b Lee. Domestication of plants in the Old World. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. ^ http://www. 3. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. topical use of raw garlic. (2004). ^ a b c d Tabor. garlick)". http://www.at/~katzer/engl/Alli_sat. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. ^ http://www.net/ . Ethiopia". "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. Retrieved 2007-08-28. p. J. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection".[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns.crazychefs.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. 112 7.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. Retrieved 5 June 2009. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. including burns to children. In particular. http://www. Notes 1. 2000). so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. 4.nj.com/alternative-therapies/herbs-for-health/medicinal-garlic/ 9. 2. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. G.net/10113/877.unigraz. bigger. http://hdl.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. (2005).natural-holistic-health.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came.com/warrenreporter/index. is discouraged.com http://www. third edition (Oxford: University Press.org/Vol79/79_6/8. 197 5.handle.jhortscib. A bulb of garlic.html 8. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. Retrieved 5 June.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes.html. one the bulbs will grow peeled.

Dent. 31. Natl.200700058. Maud. et al (June 2004). (Mrs. N. 2005 ^ Groppo. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci.10. PMID 17966136. 16. PMID 17123684. ^ Benavides GA. Squadrito GL. 22. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. Capasso R. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Intern.lehoux/Tropes. ^ Chan KC. Sci. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. http://archinte.4. ^ Goodbye. 5:109–115.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. Arch. ^ Kojuri J. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). Ramacciato. PMID 15157944.pdf. Herald Publishing Co. 24. ^ Gardner CD. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-6-5. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". Sartoratto. 23.net/ . Paul B. 5. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. 32. J. Block E.1001/archinte. PMID 17951430. 33.ama-assn. 104 (46): 17977–82.. doi:10. doi:10.A. and Empiricism" (PDF). Garlic.200700072.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. ^ Charlson M. doi:10.346. Güven C (2002). ^ Mader FH (October 1990). Vosoughi AR. PMID 2291748. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345.A 400 Year History. 35.1162/106361403773062678. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats".1073/pnas. Better Nutrition.manchester. PMID 15218732. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. 167 (4): 346–53. 20." Int. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. Akrami M (March 2007).jnutbio. 17. 34.01. doi:10. J.org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346. Ferraresi. Acad. 18. doi:10. Kavutcu M. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". "Garlic (Allium sativum L. PMID 17328819. Chao WJ (March 2007). Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6.C. Lawson LD. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97.. 15 (6): 373–7.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. doi:10. [2] ^ Hamel. Sylva. A Modern Herbal. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". Lin RS (June 1998). Sova P (May 2004).ama-assn. et al (February 2007).0705710104.). 28. Accessed: December 18. 19. and Mary U. Oztürk HS. Aytaç B. Biochem.005. Daryn (2003). Nutr. Facts.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. 11. ^ a b Steiner M.4. 12.2004. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". 21. http://personalpages. ^ Borrelli F. 26. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". 30. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". http://archinte. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". Arch. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Yin MC. P.org/cgi/content/extract/167/4/325. 14. F. 27.com 54 | P a g e http://www. PMID 17325291. "Tropes. 13.. Mills RW. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. doi:10. U.uk/staff/daryn.1016/j. 2006. Izzo AA (November 2007).1002/mnfr. 29. PMID 17325296.crazychefs. Olcay E. Hyg. McFerren M (February 2007). PMID 9641475.325. 167 (4): 325–6. 15. 25.. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. J. ^ Durak I. Proc. PMID 15277094. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. July 1.S.167. Motta. (p. doi:10. Intern. PMID 17918162.ac.1002/mnfr.167. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech)..1001/archinte. et al (November 2007). Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. A. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . ^ Durak I. R. Med. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. Med.

^ a b c Yamasaki T. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ http://lem.1128/AAC. Book 65 57. Pickering p. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".asm. Steckelberg JM. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. "Garlic burns". Passa O.net/ .".Vol 9 No. 2007. Sumida T..) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65.uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2.".blogspot. ^ http://washokufood.1.ukmi.. Matuura H.com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582. ^ John S. ^ Macpherson et al. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6.jp/JST.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. Microbiology (Reading. Yoshida S. ^ Shuford JA.html 46. garlic advisory 63. http://linkinghub. ^ Health Canada . section "Conclusion" 48. Long D. http://linkinghub.473. (1991-08-01). Patel R (January 2005).. Houghton Mifflin. Shishido C. Agents Chemother. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. ^ Macpherson et al. 39. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. PMID 11481410.unito. Ronen M (November 2001). Itakura Y.jlc. p. Retrieved 2009-01-30. Sterling Publishing. ^ a b McNally.com/topic-t6335-a1-6Allium_sativum.) 62.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. 43. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".January 29. 122. Castro C..elsevier.. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. H. ^ Pickering.it/didattica/infochimica/2006_aglio/pagine/agronomy. Aon MA. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. PMID 16207909. Thomson M. David (2003). ^ Bukhari. ^ http://www. Bordia T.49. 52. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter.htm 44. National Health Service. PMID 11600262.2005. p. PMID 15616341. http://aac. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. PMID 8441577. 120. "Effect of allixin.. 58. NLM Gateway. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". ^ Baruchin AM.0.com/a/Garlic. ^ McNally p. Retrieved December 7.html 54. ^ http://www. PMID 8644128.sgmjournals. PMC: 538912. Nishino H. 42. Volume 7. Jennifer (2002-12-13). W. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. a phytoalexin produced by garlic.nhs. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). 64. on mutagenesis. Yoffe B.go. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. 41. ^ a b c d Hogg. 2007.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. 049 .28095-0. Imafuku M. Lett. James.1099/mic.economicexpert. ^ McGee p. et al (October 2005). Fuwa T. Nishimura S. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55.36. 38. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). ^ Lemar KM. Sanders N. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Retrieved 2007-0707. http://www. Jordan W. doi:10. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. http://joi.com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic. Scolaro M. ^ Fareed G. Toxicol. 37. Teel R.com http://www. doi:10.. 49.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ^ Oi Y. ISBN 0-30436561-0.pdf. Raymond T (1994). Engl. Lau B.jp/JST. 85 (3): 157–64. 53. 40.go.crazychefs. 66.com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390. 65. Chesson C.jlc. Summer 2005 . 1988. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". Slattery M. UK Medicines Information.elsevier. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. 49 (1): 473..Garlic-in-Oil 61.jst. 211.html 45. 211 51. Complementary Medicines Summary.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. http://mic.ch. ^ Kodera Y. "Allixin. Iwai K. Ali M (June 1996). ^ Garlic . http://joi. Kominato Y. Sagi A. "Garlic burns".goldbamboo. Retrieved December 7. (2001). (1989-01-30).org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257. a stress compound from garlic. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet.jst. 310–311 47. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. Antimicrob. 4 . In Search of Dracula.

H. H. I. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. Med. L. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study".. http://linkinghub. Williams & Wilkens. Hamilton. and H. Hort.. 50.. Vargas R. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. (2000). 'Kyolic'. D.crazychefs. Prescription for Nutritional Healing.. E. Makoto Ichikawa. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. 3rd ed. Sci.. Lawson. Ling M. Soc. A. Yukihiro Kodera.ahajournals. Vol. Jain AK.P. Am. Andy (2004). R.. ISBN 0-683-18147-5.jp[青森県産].. 354-363 (2002). Kozue Ogasawara. J. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. Campbell JH (July 1997). (1996). C. Naoki Kashimoto. Shafir. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. PMID 8506890. A. Naoto Uda. and Related Species (Second Edition). Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Chem. Bull. Balise. Balch. Garty BZ (March 1993).net/ . Hile.com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Susumu Yoshida. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). New York: Avery. Rabinowitch (2004). C. Retrieved 1 May 2005. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. S. P. Zhang. Shan. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖.. Chem. L. E. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. [4] Lawson. Block. H. Efendy JL. D.com http://www. A. Garlic. R.elsevier. Belz GG (October 1997). M. (1985).... "The effect of the aged garlic extract.. G. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. Barzilay. Zemah. Kamenetsky. (2004). Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Gotzkowsky S. Z. PMID 8441577. (1992). 94 (6): 632–5. The chemistry of garlic and onions. Masanori Ayabe. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. D. Vol. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". PMID 9247357. E. Z. D.. J. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Lloyd. L. L. Koch. Lawson.References Japanese garlic. A. http://circ.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9355906.-Z. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. Block. "Garlic burns". M. Lemar. 50. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Kraemer. R. Simmons DL. Turner. Isao Sumioka. Block.. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Kiazand. E. P. Selfsufficientish . 129: 144–151. D. PMID 9355906. Wang..Garlic. Bull. Boudoulas H. Breithaupt-Grögler K. Chatterjee. 405-407 (2002). McMahon FG (June 1993). Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. (2001). Pharm. K.M. L. Gardner. Jiro Yoshida.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Campbell GR. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. J. Am. D. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. Block. Pharm. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9.

49. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention.asm. In: Ohigashi. Abstract. et al. PMID 15616341. et al. Patel R (January 2005). Salunkhe. Cardiovasc. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".S. doi:10. pp. Lin RS (June 1998).K. Silagy C. http://meta. Eid.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. Marcel Dekker. H. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. Agents Chemother. SunWook Hwang. Harold (2004). Pharmacol. "The Onion Family: Onions. D. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets.. (1998). Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. Yeh.com/pt/pt-core/templatejournal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.12. J. Y-Y. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Scribner.net/ . PMC: 538912.com http://www. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". Garlic. (eds). Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. Samer R.1. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". PMID 9641475.crazychefs.Lindsey J. McGee. PMID 8169881.1128/AAC.wkhealth.473. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). 31 (6): 904–8. Geierstanger. Y-Y.. Steiner M. Leeks".2005. http://aac. Shuford JA. Steckelberg JM. Kadam. Michael Bandell. Mader FH (October 1990). Yeh. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. S. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Veena Viswanath. (1999). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin".htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904.. Antimicrob.. 49 (1): 473. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Bernhard H. PMID 2291748. Macpherson. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. et al. (1997). Neil A (1994). 310–3. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4.

Zanzibar. and consist of a long calyx. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. syn. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Pakistan.net/ . Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. In Vietnam. Cloves are harvested when 1. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. it is called đinh hương. and Sri Lanka.crazychefs. terminating in four spreading sepals. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. after which they develop into a bright red. when they are ready for collecting. Madagascar.5-2 cm long.

warm and aromatic. spleen and stomach meridians. which sells Djarum Black. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. it is used in almost all dishes. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. they are used sparingly. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. but as they are extremely strong.com http://www. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. but with the addition of other spices). often in combination with cumin. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. especially for digestive problems. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis.crazychefs.net/ . Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture.[1] In north Indian cuisine. cloves are often used to season pho broth. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. In Vietnamese cuisine.000 tonnes). 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cloves are used in cheeses. along with other spices. entering the kidney. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. In south Indian cuisine. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). Cloves are used as a carminative. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. During Christmas. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas.

uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. mainly from the Maluku Islands.[6] History Until modern times. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). their cultivation was introduced into Guiana.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. Khalsa. including for multiple sclerosis. and Tidore.[7] Cloves. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. In the late fifteenth century. pimples etc. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. Makian. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. most of the West Indies. and Zanzibar. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. along with nutmeg and pepper.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. It is also used in severe burns.[5] In West Africa. including Bacan.crazychefs. RH (AHG). to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. including cloves. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. vomiting and diarrhea. Ternate. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe.P. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. Subsequently.direct stomach qi downward. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. were highly prized in Roman times. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. a kg costing around 7 g of gold.com http://www. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne.net/ . Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. Moti. Brazil.[7] Nevertheless. Ayurvedic herbalist K. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin.

and eugenitin. ^ a b Turner.org/questions/question_44. Jack (2004). Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Steven Clavey. pp. Erich Stoger. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. gallotannic acid. Special Diets for Illness 6. the flavonoids eugenin. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. ^ Dorenburg. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. ©2000. ^ http://oneearthherbs.nih.htm. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. tannins. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Alan. 3. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. 5. ^ Balch. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. ^ "TibetMed .html Tilotson. due to the high price of importing them. and several sesquiterpenes.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Erich Stoger.html National Institutes of Health.crazychefs. 3rd ed. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. kaempferol. crategolic acid. Spice: The History of a Temptation.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. James. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. 8. Phyllis and Balch. Vintage Books. http://www. Steven Clavey. Andrew and Page. ^ http://www. rhamnetin.squarespace. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4..gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-clove.nlm.[8] Notes and references 1. methyl salicylate (painkiller).com http://www. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. stigmasterol and campesterol. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". 2. pg.. comprising 72-90%. and Andrew Gamble. Medicine Plus. ©2003.net/ . xv.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". Karen. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. 94.tibetmed. Avery Publishing.com/diseases/special-diets-for-illness.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer. Rediff.com, 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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doi:10. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook.atypon-link. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. f.iso. ^ Lederer.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.703. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". Retrieved 8 June 2009. NPR. et al. Retrieved 8 June 2009. http://www. doi:10.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. ^ International Organization for Standardization. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". http://www. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". 5. 4.org/iso/catalogue_detail. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS.net/ . have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species.3. 3.chinaios. f. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706.Specification".htm?csnumber=19183. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. PMID 15492355. Ines et al. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook.crazychefs.) -. (2006). Retrieved 8 June 2009. http://www.com/AOAC/doi/abs/10.iso.Botanical nomenclature". "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice".1542/peds. ^ Louisa Lim.1021/jf058156b. Vaishali C. 6.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. Retrieved 10 November.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. 18 May 2009 2.5555/jaoi.com http://www. ^ Joshi. (2005). "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. ^ International Organization for Standardization.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 .htm?csnumber =4844.com/BZ-shuju/standshow. while Lederer et al. http://www. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2005.88.2004-0058. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -.

ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum.crazychefs. native from the east Mediterranean to East India.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.com http://www.

being oblong in shape. locally called "Kermun".)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. the story goes. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. including kamūnu in Akkadian. and yellow-brown in colour. in Iran and Central Asia. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. In Arabic. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. in Turkey. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . cumin is known as kimyon. In Northern India and Nepal. a member of the parsley family. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. maduru.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. cumin is known as zireh. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. longitudinally ridged. in northwestern China. parsley and dill. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. the white variety being suduru and the large variety.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages.net/ . Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu).crazychefs. Kerman. cumin is known as ziran (孜然).

cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. In South Asia. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. Morocco. In Sri Lanka. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists.crazychefs. when added to hot milk and consumed.com http://www. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). Syria. Mexico. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23).History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. Tajikistan. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. India. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. Turkey.net/ .[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. Seeds. have been dated to the second millennium BC. today it is mostly grown in Iran. Egypt. and this practice continues in Morocco. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. Uzbekistan. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. and Chile.

warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. curry powder. and in some traditional breads from France. pinnate or bipinnate. thread-like leaflets. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. sofrito. North African. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. It is an herbaceous annual plant. popular in Indian. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. curries. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. tacos. garam masala. Pakistani. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. Northern Mexican cuisines.crazychefs. white or pink. but are smaller and darker in colour. either ground or as whole seeds. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. Indian. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). and other Middle-Eastern.net/ . containing a single seed. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. adobos. The flowers are small. It is traditionally added to chili. and borne in umbels.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Today. Sri Lankan. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. Middle Eastern. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. Cuban.com http://www. Contrary to popular belief in the US. enchiladas. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. and is found in achiote blends. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. and bahaarat.

saturated 1.33 mg Vitamin K 5.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates .535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.81 g 8. It is grown from seed. Cultivation of cumin requires a long. and needs fertile.435 mg Folate (Vit. well-drained soil. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. it is drought-tolerant. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66. sown in spring.Sugars 2.7 mg Vitamin E 3. hot summer of 3–4 months.Dietary fiber 10.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. B3) 4.crazychefs.net/ . Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).5 g Fat . It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish.25 g . and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.27 g 17.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. However. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.24 g 22.very common in Mexican cuisine.com http://www. 64 μg 44. B2) 0.

as in 'kot' . In Swedish. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi).com http://www.net/ . In Polish the difference is even less significant. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q.). However. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".v.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. lighter in colour. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin.Zinc 4.crazychefs. a chemical found in turmeric.a cat and 'kotek' . from the Swedish word "spisa". Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. to eat.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.a small cat). Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. Not related to curcumin. For example. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron.

doi:10. 2000. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L.com 7. ^ a b Wang. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.arsgrin. Nicola S. ^ Growingtaste.05." premiumwanadoo.foodreference.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. http://www.com http://www.html 6. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. third edition (Oxford: University Press.77.1302. www. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). 2000). Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . Essential Oils". 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Rong.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. p. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". ^ http://www. ^ a b c Li.crazychefs. doi:10. 206 5. et al. 3.313. (2005). whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1.net/ .gov.". ^ "KMN. doi:10.1021/jf0487351. from China". ^ "Kamūnu.com/html/fcumin. and Carum carvi L.2009. Lu et al.pl?12617. 8. (2009). 2. 9. 4." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition).030. Retrieved 2008-03-13. ^ a b Iacobellis. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . Domestication of plants in the Old World. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L.1016/j.1002/ffj.ars-grin.com.aca.

Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.com http://www.crazychefs.net/ .

Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. cineol. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. and citral) have also been identified.net/ .[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. cardamom.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells.crazychefs. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). In laboratory animals. sedative.com http://www. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. and galangal. West Africa and the Caribbean.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. shogaols and gingerols. or spice. medicine. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene.

Allam ( ) in Telugu. in Tamil Nadu. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. particularly gingerols and shogaols. and ginger beer. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. and sugar. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked.crazychefs.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. Inji in Tamil. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. stimulating the production of saliva. Ginger has a sialagogue action. in Gujarati. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. and Aduwa in Nepali. [edit] Regional use In India. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. cookies. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. salt. ginger ale. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. In South India. Additionally. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. crackers and cake. which makes swallowing easier. especially in the Tanjore belt. Ginger is also made into candy. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. and tender green chili peppers. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. For storage. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. or frozen for longer term storage. Adrak.net/ . although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Alay in Marathi. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine.com http://www. enchi in Malayalam. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. to which honey is often added. ghee. nuts. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes.

ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. is made. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. Greece. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee.net/ . ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. ginger snaps. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. On the island of Corfu. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. In the Ivory Coast. In China. In the traditional Korean kimchi. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. In the Caribbean. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). a type of ginger beer. In Japan. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. ginger is called gyin. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. and a variety of nuts and seeds. In Burma. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. In Vietnam. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. during their occupation of the islands. gingerbread. However. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. In Western cuisine. parkin and ginger biscuits. and making drinks such as sorrel. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British.crazychefs. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh.com http://www. France. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. In Arabic.

morning sickness and chemotherapy. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.net/ . it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.com http://www. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic.crazychefs. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. though studies been inconsistent.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. including warfarin. which several scientific studies support. though it does interact with some medications. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. cough and cold.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries.

In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. bloating. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use.crazychefs.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. clotting. people use ginger for making tea. In China. In India. and although it's generally recognized as safe. In Burma.net/ . In the United States. reducing "winds" in the blood. and heart rhythms.[14] In Congo. particularly if taken in powdered form.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. which is considered a panacea.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice.com http://www. it is considered good for a sore throat. and individuals who have had ulcers. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. in food etc. ginger can cause heartburn. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. belching and nausea. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. In Indonesia. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. gas. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue.

The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. Production trends India. with over 30% of the global share. replacing China.7%). but this generally reduces its value.net/ .000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. followed by Indonesia(~12.com http://www. washing and scraping gives white ginger.5%). in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Traditionally. produces black ginger.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers.000 F 177. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. Scalding.000 158. Nepal(~11. now leads in global production of ginger.crazychefs. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. which has slipped to the second position (~20. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. the root is gathered when the stalk withers.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). it is immediately scalded. or washed and scraped.

000 57. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine.000 34.270 1. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan .com http://www.ars-grin.crazychefs. is used in cooking and medicine.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure.arsgrin.gov. semiofficial or estimates). a carcinogenic compound. and its root has similar aromatic properties. but it is not related to true ginger. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. Asarum canadense.net/ .contains ginger material References 1. A = Aggregate(may include official.000 28. Galangal is also called Thai ginger.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. Retrieved 2008-03-03. Also referred to as galangal. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. galangal. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".387. is also known as "wild ginger". is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine.000 42. www.pl?42254. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).000 8. F = FAO estimate. the flower buds are the part eaten. http://www.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

edu/biomed/spice/index. Li-Jiau Huang. ^ Al-Achi. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. PMID 9821826. http://www.net/ . ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.7. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). 9.cambridge.org/cgi/content/full/7/6/523. "Beverage of Champions". Ali Taghizadeh et al. "Ginger". 8. Tin-Yun Ho.library. MD. Shih-Lu Wu. doi:10.com 7. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006).html.html. http://journals. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats".01. ^ McGee.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)".523.com http://www.com 5. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). ^ Al-Amin. New York: Scribner pp.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716. Sheng-Chu Kuo. Harold (2004). http://www. Retrieved 2007-08-02. E. (2007). 13. ^ MD O' Hara. PMID 10793599. ^ Chen.edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch.. Retrieved 2007-08-06. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. 3. Kathi Kemper. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". doi:10. ^ Afshari. Retrieved 2007-0808.6.org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367. Retrieved 5 November.cfm?displayID=15. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01).2. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. 4.com/health/ginger/NS_patient-ginger. Antoine.amaassn. http://www.foodchem. 6. ^ Ernst. MPH (1998). (01 Mar 2000). ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. 15. Zainab M. http://unitproj. doi:10. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. MD.com/china_blog/2007/01/the_beverage_of_champions_1.com/oldformat. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. et al. doi:10. & Pittler. Mary.ucla. Kim Farrell.com 12. Jaw-Chyun. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Retrieved 2007-08-02. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". 14. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. ^ Jakes.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2.uspharmacist.1021/jf071460f. MD. http://archfami. http://bja.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25).).crazychefs. 11.umm. Susan (2007-01-15).2006. 425-426. M. David Kiefer. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". Retrieved 2006-09-06.1001/archfami. 10.oxfordjournals. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. http://timeblog. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger".mayoclinic. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. & MSt.013.1016/j. (2006). Retrieved 2007-08-02.H.

a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Zingiberaceae.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Erode. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes.com http://www. For these reasons. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. In medieval Europe. for dyeing. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens.crazychefs.net/ . is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. slightly bitter. and to impart color to mustard condiments.

as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf.[citation needed] Sangli. but also in masak lemak.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. popcorn color. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. Over-coloring.com http://www. much like ginger. yogurt. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. ice cream. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes.Yellow City. sauces. orange juice. relishes. powdered form. It is used in canned beverages and baked products.net/ . rendang. Although usually used in its dried. custardlike yellow color. biscuits. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. gelatins. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. and mustard. Turmeric City. sweets. In non-South Asian recipes. cereals. dairy products. etc. yellow cakes. or Textile City. and many more. not only in curry. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. cake icings. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. such as in pickles. is sometimes used to compensate for fading.crazychefs. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. turmeric is also used fresh.

It is unknown why it works. an uncurable and debilitating disease. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. yogurt.net/ . Japan. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. a traditional dish in South Asia.com http://www. and other digestive disorders. is also treated with turmeric powder. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color.In combination with annatto (E160b).crazychefs. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. dry mixes. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. are spiced with turmeric. Within one week of using turmeric.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day.[4] cancer. Indians. burns and bruises. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. salad dressings. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. winter butter and margarine.

Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India.S. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. Snake Bite Anti venin. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. or BDNF. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. Bangalore. improves the absorption of turmeric. and colorectal cancer. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. and the U.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. which supports nerve growth. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. Bangladesh. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University.com http://www. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. Alzheimer's.net/ . National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. found in black pepper. research activity into curcumin is exploding. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world .crazychefs. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. and Pakistan. John‘s Medical College. multiple myeloma. with no adverse effects.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. In 1998 researchers at St.

com http://www. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. such as saris.net/ . but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. as a part of the marriage ritual. During the south Indian festival Pongal. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. In southern India. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. Also. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. and it is used for power and purification rites. and coconut and cooked in steam. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. However. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure).crazychefs. This happens in economically lower situations. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. jaggery.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. part of the Bengali wedding.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown.

co.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1.com http://www. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". E. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms.foodchem.stm 5.6E)-1. ^ http://news. Joy D.pl?12676. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance.aolhealth. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".net/ . keto and enol. www.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect.gov. ^ Chan.com/condition-center/heart-disease/surviving-a-heart-attack.crazychefs.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.6-heptadiene3. et al. 6.07. ^ [|Ketteler.C.5-dione. Srinivas PS. (2009). ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". 75300.172.thieme-connect. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . 64(4):353-6. | accessyear = 2009}} 3.ars-grin.bbc. Majeed M. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.090. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. AOL Health. 1998 May.ars-grin. doi:10.uk/1/hi/health/1668932.de/DOI/DOI?10.W. or Natural Yellow 3. Notes 1. http://www. Retrieved June 2009. The systematic chemical name is (1E.2008.I. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C. ^ http://www. Retrieved 2008-03-04. a polyphenol. Joseph T.de Shoba G. 2. Planta Med. http://www.1016/j. Judy] (June 2009). Rajendran R.

The leaves are pale green. The nut is round.net/ .6–2. flowers.9–7. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. with an acute apex.9 in) long. Kemiri. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). Indian walnut. also known as Candleberry. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics.4 in) in diameter. 10–20 centimetres (3. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. is a flowering tree in the spurge family.crazychefs. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. Euphorbiaceae. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree.com http://www. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.) Willd. simple and ovate. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. which allows its use as a candle (see below). 4–6 centimetres (1. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). hence its name.

One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. are applied around the navel for costiveness. leaves and flowers. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. fevers. In Sumatra.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. pounded seeds.crazychefs. swollen joints. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. and gonorrhea. including: leis from the shells. a varnish with the oil. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Java. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. burned with charcoal. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. ulcers. In Malaya. In Hawaiʻi.net/ . The flavor. the nuts. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. Outside of Southeast Asia. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. is quite different. This led to their use as a measure of time. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. lit one end. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. On the island of Java in Indonesia. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. The seed kernels have a laxative effect.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. named kukui were burned to provide light. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol.com http://www.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. as the candlenut is much more bitter. however. they are mildly toxic when raw. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. giving them greater underwater visibility.

).html. 2. Honda. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. ISBN 9781573061377. "Chapter 4: Canoes". http://books.google. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the god of agriculture. Julie Stewart Williams (2002).google. tukilamulamu. Bess Press.com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a. ripe nuts.com/books?id=WOdrGIP3zksC&client=firefox-a.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). p. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. ISBN 9780824822514. 50-51. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. ^ Krauss. http://canoeplants. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. still nowadays. p.com/kukui. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. and the husband was eventually killed. (1993).crazychefs. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade.[citation needed] References 1. was routinely beaten.net/ .[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. Mikiala Ayau. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. http://books. In plantations.com/books?id=PpKyFZXO_jEC. Lilinoe Andrews. One of the legends told of a woman who. despite her best efforts to please her husband. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. ^ "Kukui". Betty. protection and peace. http://books. 5. This larva is eaten by some people. ^ Dunford. Craig Thomas (2000).[5] In Tonga. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. used as soap or shampoo. 26.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). Being a kind and just woman. Liana I. University of Hawaii Press. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. ^ Scott. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants.google. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. pp. 4. Retrieved 2009-03-06. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. Beatrice H. Finally. University of Hawaii Press. she was given new life. Susan. 122. Plants in Hawaiian Culture.com http://www.

However.net/ .crazychefs. . The fruit. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. . Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. The terms pink peppercorns. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. dark red when fully mature. Telugu:miriyam. red pepper (as in bell or chile). green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. and very often simply pepper.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. green pepper.com http://www. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. cultivated for its fruit. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. may be described as black pepper. Kannada:meNasu. unrelated plants. Konkani:miriya konu. . known as a peppercorn when dried. Malayalam:kurumulaku. white pepper.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. Peppercorns. containing a single seed. .

S. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. with the skin of the pepper removed.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor.net/ . during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. in the early 20th century. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. and other similar forms. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. Once dried. chemical or biological methods.. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine.[4] In the U. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. the spice is called black peppercorn. and the naked seed is dried. White pepper consists of the seed only. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. including decortication. this was shortened to pep. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier.com http://www. French poivre. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. In the 16th century. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. often alongside table salt.crazychefs. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. wrinkled black layer. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. Dutch peper. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days.

Schinus terebinthifolius. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. Fresh. particularly Thai cuisine.Black.net/ . Schinus molle. Pickled peppercorns.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. unpreserved green pepper berries. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. which is mostly no longer an issue.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. from Bangka Island.com http://www. is made from the unripe berries. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. green. the Peruvian pepper tree. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. like black. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". made from the largest. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. with a bright aroma. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo.crazychefs. are used in some Asian cuisines. largely unknown in the West. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. also green.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family.

[11] Black pepper is native to India. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. Competing plants are cleared away. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes.com http://www. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. entire. well-drained and rich in organic matter. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. the berries lose pungency. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. if allowed to ripen. It is a spreading vine. The cuttings are usually cultivars. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. but when full grown and still hard. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and before the fruit is mature. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. or trellises. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. and ultimately fall off and are lost. The leaves are alternate.crazychefs. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. poles. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. moist. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. The flowers are small.net/ . it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum.

were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. In fact. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today.[14] J. in what is now the state of Kerala.crazychefs. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". its most important source was India. Chile peppers.net/ . some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. particularly the Malabar Coast.

By the 16th century.crazychefs. but these areas traded mainly with China. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. or used the pepper locally. Long pepper. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. barged to Alexandria.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. this trade advantage. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. Madagascar. Returning from India.com http://www. Black pepper. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. pepper was also being grown in Java. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. along with other spices from India and lands farther east.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. Trade routes of the time were by land. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. the Middle East. Sumatra. Malaysia. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea.Until well after the Middle Ages. Sunda. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. nor how it reached the Nile from India. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. growing in the north-western part of India. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.net/ . changed the course of world history. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine.

if expensive. Edward Gibbon wrote. who travelled east to India. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. Once into the Mediterranean. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. 12. seasoning in the Roman Empire. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. is fifteen denarii per pound. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. especially Venice and Genoa. and the luxuries of the table.. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. and of black. clad in a wrinkled cover. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen.H. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. whereas. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pepper was a luxury item. four. After the fall of Rome. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. it is sometimes their sweetness. the banquets of kings. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. affordable only to the wealthy. and the prices reflected it. Yet within I bear a burning marrow.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. I season delicacies.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade.com http://www. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. seeing that in other substances which we use. I wonder. while that of white pepper is seven.[22] In addition. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages.net/ . as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". first the Persians and then the Arabs.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. Apicius' De re coquinaria. There is no evidence to support this claim. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery"." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion.crazychefs..[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. Similarly. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm.

pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. "we seek Christians and spices.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. has some antimicrobial properties. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. Today. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. especially in winter.net/ . and salt-cured meats were common fare. as well as around Africa. Pepper harvested for the European trader. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. A depiction of Calicut. In 1498. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. Pepper. However.crazychefs.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. his representative replied. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. the effect is small. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come.com http://www. In the 17th century. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long.

being stronger. Long pepper. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper.net/ . but both were used. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine.[25] In the 3rd century CE. as well as she could for sneezing.. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. Note the cook's pepper mill. insect bites. however. as hujiao or "foreign pepper".000 pounds (4. including long pepper. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. indigestion. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". — Alice in Wonderland (1865).[26] By the 12th century. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful.. either long or black. lung disease. each load being equal to 223 lbs. was often the preferred medication. joint pain. diarrhea."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself.crazychefs.com http://www. Like many eastern spices. hoarseness.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. gangrene. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. but if this estimated 10.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. hernia. liver problems. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. oral abscesses. earache. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). insomnia. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. heart disease.

caryophyllene. which give citrusy. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. milligram-for-milligram.crazychefs. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. Some sources say that piperine. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. a mildly carcinogenic compound. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. chapter five. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems.[31] Also.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit.net/ . it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. woody. a substance present in black pepper. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. if any. causing the sneezing. which is stripped of the fruit layer. The outer fruit layer. Refined piperine. vitamin B. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients.sunburn. tooth decay. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. irritates the nostrils. and toothaches. and linalool.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all.com http://www. left on black pepper. limonene.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing.[31] As a medicine. and floral notes. sabinene. Few.

so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. Sri Lanka (6%). Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. Malaysia (8%). Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). for example. by monetary value.[33] Once ground.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. and China (6%). India. the most widely traded spice in the world. As of 2008. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well.crazychefs. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. India (19%).net/ . slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. Brazil (13%). are used for this.000 t (299. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. but has fallen to just over 271. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi.com http://www. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper.000 short tons). which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. The price of pepper can be volatile. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002.[35] By weight. Thailand (4%).000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 t (391. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light.

aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper.pl?28589. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". The riddle's answer is of course pepper. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ Ochef. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. The Spice Trade. 83 21.000 t (99. 1969). ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production".google. Retrieved 6 November 2005. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. disease and weather. Spice. 6. Black pepper is marica.com/2008/03/27/stories/2008032751741300.poor crop management.thehindubusinessline. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. http://www. Retrieved 13 November 2005. 10. 93.ars-grin. PMID 11302858. doi:10. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.pd f. http://www. 2006-1120. 13. 4.M1. p.efloras. Gernot (2006).htm. Using fresh green peppercorns. Alejandra (2001).gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. 2. 17. 5. Ramses II. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. p 94.ph/wps/wcm/resources/file/ebb81841763712b/black%20pepper. The Hindu Business line.2307/2657072. ^ Dalby p. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Compass Point Books. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. Egyptian Pharaoh.[36] Notes 1. ^ Peppercorns. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". Retrieved 17 October 2006. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0375407219. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). and Builder. ^ a b Jaramillo. 80 16. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF).000 short tons). ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary.gov. from Penzey's Spices. using almost none of its production domestically. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). 88. http://books. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90.org/florataxon. Retrieved 12 August 2006. p.com 9. 12. Warrior. ^ Translation from Turner. Retrieved 6 November 2005. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. ^ Katzer.crazychefs. ^ J. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". Text online. Innes Miller. 18. 20. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. Vietnam dominates the export market.org/cgi/content/full/88/4/706 14. http://www. p. ISBN 075653836X. M.arsgrin. 8. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Retrieved 2008-03-02.com http://www. 19.da. Pepper. http://www. www.gov. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. Random House. 200803-27. 7.amjbot. http://www. ^ Innes Miller. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. Flora of China.net/ .com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. 3. 11. Retrieved 2009-01-29.

http://siteresources..ch05. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. ^ Jaffee p. 33.accesstoinsight. 204. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 726.google.com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01. 35.pdf. J. 30. 2008-05-15. Karvy Comtrade Limited. ^ H. Buddhist Monastic Code II. ISBN 0520236742. Dangerous Tastes. ^ Dalby p. 160. Dorman and S. Prosper (2001).google.S. CRC Press. also Turner pp." 24. "Spices. ISBN 0849336201.crazychefs. ^ Dalby p. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . 74–75. http://books. Dover. 395. http://www.1046/j. 2. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". p. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant.x. Cambridge University Press. 29. 26. Retrieved 2008-01-29. table 2. ISBN 0600-60235-4. Deans (2000). ISBN 0521367085. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. Andrew (2002). 25. D.2000. 156. Alan (2002). 10.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". ISBN 0-486-27587-6. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. ^ U. 428. http://books.net/ . doi:10. purchase required. ^ Jaffee p. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). 23. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Retrieved 2008-01-29.22. pp. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. 12. Larousse Gastronomique.karvycomtrade.pdf.com http://www. 31.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". 36. Hamlyn. 2005.00969. ISBN 9781580084178. Retrieved November 12. 28. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). 32. References Dalby. p. Jaffee. Davidson.com/books?id=tg7R4hU8hkC&pg=PA395&lpg=PA395&dq=Pepper+safrole&source=web&ots=38F TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. 108–109. Duke (1993-08-16). CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. 171. ^ a b James A. Full text at Blackwell website. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. 34.1365-2672. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. Steven (2004). which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. "Mill". http://www. 27. ^ Turner p.html. Vol. 77. G. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). ^ Montagne. ^ Dalby pp. ^ a b McGee p. Why does pepper make you sneeze?.com/books?id=7IHcZ21dyjwC. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. ^ Turner p. Berkeley: University of California Press.worldbank.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2/bmc2.

OCLC 61213802. Scribner.net/ . London: Vintage Books. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. ISBN 0375707050. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.McGee. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red.crazychefs. 427–429. "Black Pepper and Relatives". Spice: The History of a Temptation. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Turner. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Jack (2004). OCLC 56590708. Harold (2004). pp. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C.com http://www.

13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.net/ . Central America and northern South America.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 1. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". Peppers are native to Mexico.17 g 0. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries.64 g 0. yellow.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.224 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.057 mg 4. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.crazychefs.Pepper. B1) 0.40 g . Today. sweet.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.Sugars 2.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.com http://www. including red. B3) 0. B2) 0. green and orange.

With the similar meaning. Sweden. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". g. Malaysia and New Zealand. they are called "capsicum". In British English. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. meaning pepper-fruit. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. such as Australia. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. the word ピーマン ("pîman.crazychefs. which are green and yellow.g. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. the term "paprika".." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. In parts of Ohio. Indiana. and Pennsylvania. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). It is eaten with fried noodles. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. "Miris" is Chilli. "red pepper". were a highly prized condiment. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). In France it is called "poivron". " In Japan. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. which has its roots in the word for pepper. Across Europe. India. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". in Dutch. or "piment. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. In Norway. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. instead of using as a spice. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket.com http://www.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. When cut off. regardless of their color. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. meaning Big pepper. Bell peppers are botanically fruits.net/ . " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. an unrelated plant. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. "gele paprika". In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. the fruit of Piper nigrum. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. respectively). At that time peppercorns. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". "groene paprika". Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. like pasta. In the United States and Canada. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. meaning Bulgarian pepper. Grilled. "green pepper"). 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

crazychefs. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. black and brown. purple.com http://www. in various soups and stews. violet. yellow. red. maroon. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". rainbow. It is eaten as a raw snack. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar.net/ . yellow or orange peppers. white. orange and. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. in salads. aqua. more rarely. pink. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Varieties The color can be green. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. blue.

[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.net/ .foodreference.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1.com/html/fmango. indigenous to Europe. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. ^ http://www. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). [1]) is a hybrid mint. also known as M. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita.crazychefs. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. balsamea Willd. The plant.

72. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1.crazychefs. spreading by its rhizomes.5–4 cm (0. forming thick. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. If placed. The flowers are purple. with a few exceptions.59–1. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region.5 in) long and 1.31 in) long. with 2n counts of 66. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.20 in) diameter.net/ . they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. he treated it as a species. it can grow anywhere. fleshy. 84. including stream sides and drainage ditches. and bare fibrous roots. blunt spikes. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England.6–3. square in cross section. and 120 recorded.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. with smooth stems.6 in) cm broad.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. Flowering is from mid to late summer. Being a hybrid. The chromosome number is variable. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. noted since 1843[8].com http://www. dark green with reddish veins. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0.24– 0. it is usually sterile. 6–8 mm (0.

and is often used as a flavouring in tea. confectionery.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content.net/ . ice cream. chewing gum.1. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo.com http://www. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms.[10] Similarly. and toothpaste. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. particularly menthyl acetate.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3.crazychefs. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. thus promoting belching. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.

Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. New Zealand. Eau De Cologne Mint)." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'.crazychefs.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. If you choose to grow peppermint. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants.[13] and in the United States. [21]. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Leaves aromatic. hairless. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. [16]. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. Stems reddish. it is advisable to plant it in a container. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. [18]. In addition to that.[12] Outside of its native range. as a natural insecticide.net/ . They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. Foliage lime-scented. the Galápagos Islands. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. and it is considered invasive in Australia. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. It needs a good water supply. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. Leaves wrinkled. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. which they then call "after-dinner mints. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons.com http://www. A mild.

(1753). C. (1975).ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. ^ a b Huxley.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". 6. 9. R.. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. 4th Edition.int/publications/2002/9241545372. ^ a b Blamey. M.org/en/node/199. & Grey-Wilson. ^ Cappello. (1992). ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. C. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. G. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. http://www.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . Retrieved 2009-02-07. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". 2.02.. C.1016/j.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . page 640. 7.com http://www. In: Stace. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. http://whqlibdoc.dld. M. 5. a popular confection.2007. ISBN 978-1563636783 10. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. ^ World Health Organization.glu. ^ a b Akdogan. ed. Mentha L. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. (1989)..pdf. ^ Linnaeus. A. Mehmet (2004). A. et al. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . 11.net/ . Flowers open from bottom up.006. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. Retrieved 3 June 2009. ^ Harley. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. (2007). ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. doi:10. Thomson Healthcare. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines.who. ed.crazychefs.

org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.219.htm.htm?csnumber=32041.2740311104.224.Specification".159. Bienvenu (1999).1151. Retrieved 3 June.. Bienvenu (1998). ^ Farley.S. http://www3. Retrieved 7 June 2009. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. 25. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 .wiley.1071/AP99036. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. Retrieved 3 June.actahort. Retrieved 6 June 2009. http://www. Ambika et al. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. 17. ^ a b c Jullien.sagepub.28. http://het. (2007). 22. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 ..org/books/249/249_8. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. Retrieved 3 June.sagepub. Retrieved 6 June 2009.com/cgi/content/abstract/23/1/21. populations. http://www. ^ Akdogan. Australia".actahort.D. http://het. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". Retrieved 8 June 2009. Zheljazkov. D.iso.257. Frédéric et al. Retrieved 7 June 2009.10): 119 . Valerie Howland (2006). Retrieved 3 June.htm.122. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.)". Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .interscience. ^ International Organization for Standardization. 27. (2004).com http://www. 23. http://www. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats".iso.htm?csnumber=11633. 24. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . doi:10.1002/jsfa. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". S. 21. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev.E.)". Mehmet (2003). on kidney tissue in rats". F. J. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". paraquat. ^ Adamovic.16. doi:10.. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .net/ . et al. ^ Akdogan. 19. Plant Cell.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.. ^ Sharma. http://www.com/journal/118500486/abstract.htm?csnumber=4844. ^ Edwards. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . ^ International Organization for Standardization. doi:10.sagepub. 18. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)".crazychefs. V. http://www. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint".. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119. http://tih. 20. 26. F.1023/A:1006185103897.org/iso/catalogue_detail. Derek R. ^ International Organization for Standardization.org/books/629/629_21.E.iso. Mehmet et al. and Mentha spicata L.com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213.

also sometimes known as Allium porrum. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum var.com http://www.crazychefs. the elephant garlic and kurrat.Gay The leek. to the Alliaceae family. porrum (L. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk.net/ . along with the onion and garlic. porrum (L. Allium ampeloprasum var. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. is a vegetable which belongs.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. although different in their uses as food. Two related vegetables. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.).) J.

Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. to be planted out as weather permits. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). leeks are hardy. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Once established in the garden. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. and overwintering leeks. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue.net/ . intended for harvest in the season when planted.com http://www. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses.crazychefs. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. and they have few pest or disease problems. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed.

Cuisine Leeks for sale. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. which can be used in salads. although less bitter than scallion. as the leek ages. along with leek soup. The tender core may be eaten. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. The slices have a tendency to fall apart.com http://www. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. but. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). Lamb is the most popular. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten.crazychefs. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. Fried.net/ . Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. carrots and potatoes and different meats. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. In its raw state. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. The onion-like layers form around a core. due to the layered structure of the leek. which turns it soft and mild in taste. Raw. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine.

Dietary fiber 1.saturated 0. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.8 g Fat . Cultural significance Raw Leeks.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. as well as wall carvings and drawings.crazychefs. as well as other recipes with leeks.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates . Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.polyunsaturated 0.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.15 g 0.233 mg Folate (Vit.C. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B3) 0. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.3 g 1.monounsaturated 0.9 g . pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.004 g .5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.04 g .‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. B2) 0. In her book.C. onwards.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. B1) 0. 83 μg 14. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.Sugars 3.net/ . who consumed it most often in soup.E.E.

1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. In the play. Shakespeare.crazychefs. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton.Vitamin E 0. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards.com http://www. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. representing Wales. According to one legend.12 mg recommendations for adults. for example. good countryman. you know.net/ .‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. David‘s Day.

1978.crazychefs. ^ Guiliano. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2000).p. third edition (Oxford: University Press. Mireille. ^ Jane Grigson. Knopf. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. 3. Domestication of plants in the Old World. French Women Don't Get Fat. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.net/ .com http://www.Notes 1.. (Penguin Books.

com http://www. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.net/ . raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe. dulce) or celeriac (var.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .6 g Fat Protein Water 0.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable.crazychefs. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.Dietary fibre 1.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. with fewer than 100 individuals left.2 g 0. Celery. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Sugars 2 g 3g . either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.

Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. Celery salt is used as a seasoning.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. celery is also grown for its seeds. Celery. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. often used as a base for sauces and soups. Celery is a staple in many soups. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca.In temperate countries.net/ . birds. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. as celery salt. and small rodents. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. 30 AD. Celery. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. dogs. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt.com http://www. and carrots make up the French mirepoix.crazychefs. horses. squirrels. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. onions. onions. and in Old Bay Seasoning. such as chicken noodle soup. Actually very small fruit. on the Chicago-style hot dog.

net/ .Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. In Homer's Iliad. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Lemnos and Thebes. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated.com http://www. foods that contain or may contain celery. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine.[8] In the European Union. However. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. father of the Cabeiri.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. for people with celery allergy. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms.crazychefs. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. however. they note "since A. at Kastanas. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. even in trace amounts. have to be clearly marked as such. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. making avoiding such foods difficult. M.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. Celery contains androstenone.

Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. splits. produced in dense compound umbels. The flowers are creamy-white. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. fields are harvested only once. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. sweetish.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. seleri. and the most crisp and tender.5–2 mm long and wide. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. insect damage and rot). earthy taste. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. In the past. shape. many of which differ little from the wild species. straightness and thickness of petiole. white and red. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. Under optimal conditions.net/ . due to extremely uniform crop growth. and Praetors feasts. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. apium Italicum. The plants are raised from seed. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. They are ranged under two classes. and a distinctive smell.[14] With cultivation and blanching. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). cracks. as the Grace of the whole Board". the whole plant having a coarse. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. 2–3 mm diameter. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose.com http://www. borrowed from Greek. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. In North America.crazychefs. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild..[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. from the Latin selinon. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but the leaves may be used in salads. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring.. at our Great Mens tables. 1.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. mainly in having stouter leaf stems.

^ Celestin J. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. 14.[16] References 1. Thayer translation [1] 4. 11. ^ Bublin M.com: Celery and Negative Calories 6. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". Retrieved 2008-03-04. 8. and proper sanitation. (2002-06-10).. Holmiae. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. s. ^ Calcium sources 7. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". P. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo.. Hopf. 12. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". Natural History XIX. http://postharvest. gentle handling.crazychefs. 2003. ^ Teng CM.nsf/pages/smallage. ^ snopes.net/ . Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay.202. ^ "Smallage". Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia.17:1697-1699. Wilson IBH. ^ William Robinson and W. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. Heiner DC. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. M.46. 15. Lee LG. 2.ucdavis. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. T. 16. M.com http://www. Suslow. ^ Pliny. http://www.. de Medicina. ^ OED. C (1753). (2005). Thomson. (3rd ed. ^ Celsus. ^ D. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. et al. ^ R.edu/Produce/ProduceFacts/Veg/celery. Ko SN. Radauer C. 9. West J. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. Western Journal of Medicine 158. Post-harvest technology research and information center.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F).com/edible.practicallyedible. Scheiner O. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". 227. 10. 3. ^ Cantwell. "Celery". Zohary and M. Kraft D. p. 13. (Laurentii Salvii). Retrieved 2009-05-03.v.6 (June 1993): 610-611. 2000) p.L. 1920). ^ a b Fragiska. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed.shtml.

Sugars 99.Sugars 96.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .net/ .019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. Magnification of grains of sugar.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sugar.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose. B2) 0. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3. see Sugar (disambiguation). see sucrose.21 g .03 g Riboflavin (Vit. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3. (Discuss) For other uses. For the common table sugar.98 g 0g 0g 0.91 g .crazychefs.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars.com http://www.

B1) 0. lactose.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. honey.026 mg Folate (Vit. but also appears in fruit.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. sorghum. sugar maple (in maple syrup).18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. mainly sucrose.Water 1. B2) 0. and in many other sources. and fructose.net/ . It forms the main ingredient in candy. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.082 mg Vitamin B6 0.com http://www. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. B3) 0. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet.77 g Thiamine (Vit. obesity and tooth decay.crazychefs.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.

they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water.) The Greek word for "sugar". In a list of ingredients. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods.[4] It came to English by way of French. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. "fructose".[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. Etymology In the case of sugar. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). Spanish and/or Italian. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. and texture) of beverages and food. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist.net/ . Generically known as "syrups". the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. etc. Scientific Scientifically. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar.) will likely denote a sugar. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. the Spanish word azúcar. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup.crazychefs. the Italian word zucchero. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. zahari. including palm sugar and fructose. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. "dextrose". any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". such as glucose. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. molasses or treacle. (Compare the OED. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. In this informal sense. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. preservation. means "pebble".Popular In non-scientific use.com http://www.

2. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Natural sugars come in fruit. syrups and fruit juices. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. 3. raw sugar. cook or consumer. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. Sugars include monosaccharides.net/ .crazychefs. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). deoxyribose. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. making the sugars reactive.com http://www. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. plus sugars naturally present in honey. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7.Culinary sugars Grainier. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. A notable exception. disaccharides.containing 1. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. This includes all the sugars referred to above. important molecules in the body. has a "missing" oxygen atom. as its name suggests.

creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. including NADH and ATP.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. If combined with fine ash. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group.made from one glucose and one fructose). Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. which is made of glucose.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). After digestion and absorption. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. which has the formula C6H12O6. proteins connected to one or more sugars. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose.net/ . so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. and galactose. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures.com http://www. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. Monosaccharides include fructose. sweeter than the original sucrose. fructose. glucose. lactose (milk sugar .[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . producing invert sugar. with less than 0. or DNA. sugar will burn with a blue flame. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. which form part of nucleic acids. Note for example glycoproteins. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. galactose and mannose.crazychefs. In these closed-chain forms. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. This resulting syrup. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose.water (H2O) per bond.

^ scientificpsychic.net/ . Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. Blackwell Publishing. ^ "Engineering Resources . 1996. Michael (January 2001)." http://men. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan.80 g/ml Notes 1.webmd. ^ Wuebben.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. A C Hannah. OCLC 51837990 84251137. The International Sugar Trade. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. 5.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty.com/features/sugar-what-kinds-eat-when 2.com/worldofsugar/internationalSugarStats.illovosugar. ISBN 1566398320. Glyn (2004).Bulk Density Chart. Joseph and Mike Carlson.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. OCLC 44493265.com http://www.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. 4. ISBN 063205476X.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. Sugar Blues.crazychefs.htm 3.com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6." Powder and Bulk References Adas. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. James.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. Sugarcane. Temple University Press. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. Cambridge: Woodhead. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. History of Science and Technology in Islam.

crazychefs. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. without mixing them separately. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. however.g. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0.25% of the total volume). sugar beet molasses is used. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar.35 mm. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. for light brown sugar. Products for industrial use (e. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6.5% molasses (dark brown sugar).com http://www. It is." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Brown sugar contains from 3. Although in some areas. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals.net/ . It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. especially in the Netherlands.

"[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. much like adding molasses would do.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. in his studies (cited in "Pure. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). The effort was so successful that by 1900. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. In other applications. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. White and Deadly" . One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories.[2] John Yudkin. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect.[1] However. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified.com http://www.crazychefs.net/ . as opposed to white sugar. History In the late 1800s. Nutritionally. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. apart from pure carbohydrate. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar.

7. Harvey. cane sugar. http://www.fao. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. light brown. largecrystalled.com/PressRelease.php?id=3026. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". References 1. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. an island off Africa. Demerara is another unrefined. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. 2.htm#sugarmade. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar.". http://www.1. Retrieved 2008-09-20.csrwire.html. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes.wildernessfamilynaturals. light brown. 4. 2003. which is then crystallized. giving it a higher mineral content. crystals. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". Muscovado. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana.com/brands/Wholesome_Sweeteners/Organic_Tur binado_Sugar.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. where sugar cane was grown. centrifuged. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. but most is now produced in Mauritius. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.net/ .htm#bm07. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals.crazychefs. ^ New Scientist.3 fao. Retrieved 2008-09-20.org ^ Levenstein. 3. resulting in the characteristic large. 32-33 5. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. Retrieved 2008-09-20. or Demerara sugar.com/muscovado_sugar. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. 6.wholesomesweeteners. http://www. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar.

crazychefs. but toxic to most land plants.[citation needed] Conversely.com http://www. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life.net/ . the two major components of salt. white. including high blood pressure. It is a crystalline solid. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. which some use to prevent caking. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. pale pink or light gray in color. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. and iodized salt. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). Chloride and sodium ions. refined salt (table salt). Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. including humans.

History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. In 1960. especially for meat. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans).[2]:38 From about 2800 BC. the caravans still transported some 15.com http://www.[2]:44 Along the Sahara.net/ .000 tons of salt. and the dye Tyrian purple. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. salt provided the best-known food preservative.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. glass.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. China dates back to at least 6000 BC.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as were salted birds and salt fish. in the millennia before then. however.crazychefs.

[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. salz. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. God sent down four blessings from the sky . though incorrectly. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error.crazychefs.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. which was illegal under British rule.[citation needed] The root hal(l). water. Greek.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. Halych in Ukraine. Hallstatt. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church.also gave us Gaul. and Egyptian. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. a root for salt found in Celtic.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6).[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. began open pan salt making.Salzburg.) In the Sermon on the Mount. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah.[1] It is widely.net/ . 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". During the first millennium BC. the Roman exonym for the Celts. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. taking their names from hal(l)-. who had heretofore mined for salt. the Hallstatt Celts. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.com http://www. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth"." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. (Judges 9:45. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. In many Pagan religions esp.fire. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle.

In Aztec mythology.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. Halite. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. such as in Sumo Wrestling. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea.crazychefs.net/ .

which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. Fleur de sel. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. Injected water dissolves the salt. One example are bath salts. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. which are kiln-dried.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. which is most widely used presently. and the making of soaps and detergents.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt.5% of salt production.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide.crazychefs. natural sea salt harvested by hand. After the raw salt is obtained. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. Today. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Refined salt. Purification usually involves recrystallization.Different natural salts have different mineralities.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. is mainly sodium chloride.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. food uses account for 17.[12] However.com http://www. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases.net/ . and thus is rarely eaten. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. In recrystallization. giving each one a unique flavor. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts).

com http://www. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom.165 g/cm3.net/ . however. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. calcium silicate.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. and calcium aluminosilicate. Some people also add a desiccant. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1.crazychefs.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. Table salt has a particle density of 2. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. but was determined to be unnecessary.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . calcium or magnesium carbonates.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures.154 g/cm3. silicon dioxide. magnesium oxide. sodium aluminosilicate. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. fatty acid salts (acid salts). Single-serving salt packets. condiments such as soy sauce. and a bulk density (dry.[29] However.

is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. or even an electrolyte disturbance. with insufficient salt intake. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. or sodium iodate. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. potassium. which can cause severe. fluorinated table salt is available. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. In the United States. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101.[32] Another additive. sodium iodide. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. and myxedema in adults. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans.[33] Drinking too much water. even fatal. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. neurological problems. In Canada. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. iodized salt is more common in the United States. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. magnesium. The reason for this is unclear. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. which gives the table salt a yellow color.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). which can cause goitre. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps.[31] Today. specifically endemic goiter. cretinism in children. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. dizziness. In France.com http://www. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. especially important for pregnant women.crazychefs.net/ .

A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia)." ([44]. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. forced salt intake. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. can cause hypernatremia. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. p18) However. the risks have been exaggerated for most people.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. in Japan." ([41] p3). Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. combined with an inadequate intake of water. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process.crazychefs. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults.com http://www." ([41]. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. such as in treatment of dysautonomia. salt consumption is higher." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention)." ([41]. independently of blood pressure effects.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways.[38] heartburn. It can exacerbate renal disease. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality.net/ . there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. since salt was quite valuable).

[50].crazychefs.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. but achievable population goals.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. A salt mill for sea salt. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time.net/ . average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. such as the Yanomami in South America. However. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. SACN states. for a typical adult. Some isolated cultures.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. have been found to consume little salt.com http://www.6 g or 70 mmol sodium).

Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.8 g salt) per day. Amber (Medium). etc. Those who have kidney failure.6g sodium). Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium.'[55] Campaigns In 2004.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. calories. Low is 0.3 g sodium = 5.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia.).crazychefs. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2.[57] In March 2007. Australia.[51] In the United States.5g salt per 100g (or 0. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. "low". which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it".1g sodium). foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. then that is a medium level of salt.g.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation. which will increase potassium intake. LoSalt. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free".[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. or Green (Low)." In the UK. without recourse to salt substitutes. One manufacturer.net/ .[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. When other health claims are made about a food (e. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.300 mg of sodium (= 2.com http://www. low in fat.

^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. Germany (17.answers. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. Costs can reach staggering amounts. 5. Retrieved 2008-12-14.5). and Hall in Austria. India (14. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). ^ "Salt". 3. Catholic Encyclopedia.crazychefs.com http://www. Triamterene. Answers.7).org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Salt. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. 1913.3). called halite. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 4th edition". and by mining rock salt. Dytac. Eplerenone and Inspra. http://en. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction.com. In 2002. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company.net/ . the top five producers being the United States (40. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application.wikisource. Notes 1. 6.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride.3 million tonnes).com/salary. http://www. 4. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. 2. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. and Canada (12.9). 8.in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. such as brine wells and salt lakes. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). China (32.

^ Gary Taubes.com http://www. Mason (2006-12-19). ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia.newton.com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effe ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1.wiley. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. Kuemmel (1994). ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. Salt Institute.stm 38.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt).gov/askasci/gen01/gen01420. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. ^ HE-620 24. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. Epikouria Magazine.htm 15. Retrieved 2008-07-29. Retrieved 2009-0708.dep. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. Fall/Winter 2006 10.htm.google.net/ . sodium.interscience. 12.anl. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. ^ What is Salt?. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. 10. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". salt history. ^ Iodized Salt 31. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22.9% sodium chloride 25.crazychefs. 2008 29.9. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. ISBN 9780309056663. 898 . 14. sodium. Retrieved 200907-08. Transportation Research Board.saltsense.roskill. ^ B. ^ References on food salt & health issues. ^ Nauticus .com/journal/114028130/abstract. ^ Table 27.907 37. salt history. Victoria) Salt 34.uk/aboutsaltwhat01. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. http://www.Weather Curriculum 18. J.co. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. 5379.com/index3. Salt Institute. 14 August 1998.bbc.htm 19. "The (Political) Science of Salt". salt uses. salt uses. ^ a b http://news. salt manufacture. 28. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans".co. no. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. Vol. 11.com/reports/salt 16. ^ David A. p. ^ http://www.afssa. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20.eu-salt. 281. http://books. pp. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. salt manufacture. Science. Ask a Scientist.9% sodium by weight which equals 98.fr/Ftp/Afssa/26447-26448.pdf 33. ^ Iodized Salt 32. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/393201. http://www3.

ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. OCLC 48426519. Mark. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. Elizabeth Wayland (1999).healthandwellbeing.W. 62. Feldman. The Mummies of Ürümchi. New York: Walker & Co.1915040902051820. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk.net/ . Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos.1016/j. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. ^ Cook NR. ^ Understanding labels 55. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. 47-50. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. 2007. 28 January 2008. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. Legal Medicine 2005.a01. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. and S. Mark (2002). 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.co. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ Salt TV ads 59. NY: G. 61. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47.06. Sodium 52. Norton & Co. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43.guardian. Obarzanek E et al.005 48. S. Erwin Koops.2004. BMJ.ac. http://www. (accessed13 January 2007) 49. doi:10.40. 2006.legalmed. doi:10.334(7599):885. Sodium chloride. New York: W. New York. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". ^ U. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values.pub2 References Kurlansky. D. ^ Salt Matters 60. Schindler. Published online 2005. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. ISBN 0393320197. ISBN 0802713734.com http://www. ^ Susan R. The Story of Salt.. Cutler JA.hyp. Friedrich Schulz. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42.. 7. Further reading Kurlansky. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia.P. Putnam's Sons. Salt: A World History.uk/society/2008/jan/28/foodanddrink. Barber. Inc. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt".crazychefs. John Wiley & Sons. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. OCLC 48573453.uk/cash/.1002/0471238961. http://www.

New York: Columbia University Press. The Stationery Office. Arts and traditions of the table. Salt: Grain of Life. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.talk by Dr Trevor Beard.net/ . Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy .com http://www. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . 2001. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above.Laszlo. Department of Health.crazychefs. Pierre. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round.

com http://www. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . found commonly in Thailand. the Philippines and Singapore. such as Cambodia. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. Malaysia. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). mainly Kerala.crazychefs. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. as well as in neighbouring countries. phrik thai. It can also be found in India. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. Vietnam. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century.net/ .Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. Indonesia. phrik khi nu(lit. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper.

crazychefs. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries.net/ . but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. Although small in size compared to other types of chili.000 to 100. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 on the Scoville pungency scale.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine." which can best be described by the English equivalent. "Big things come in small packages. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50.com http://www. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red.

essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en.As well as the Malay word. and go from green to yellow. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws).net/ . Thai). and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). but slightly less pungent variety. and among the group of capsicum annuum.wikipedia. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. creating a rainbow effect. and then red. The more decorative. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. has peppers that point upward on the plant. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. Thai hot. Siling Labuyo (Filipino).crazychefs. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. orange. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. phrik khii nuu ( . African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. Ladâ.org/wiki/Thai_pepper" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.

Celeriac has a celery flavour. gratins and baked dishes. about the size of a large potato. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. Unlike other root vegetables. furrowed. it can also be used on its own.crazychefs. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. It has a tough. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'.net/ .com http://www. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. which store a large amount of starch. usually mashed. It is a kind of celery. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. or used in casseroles.

'Ibis'.Dietary fiber 1. Among them are 'Prinz'.crazychefs.6 g 9.net/ . Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. There are a number of cultivars available. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. 'Diamant'. especially in Europe. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk.com http://www.3 g 1.2 g . and 'Kojak'.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. rinsed. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Celeriac.Sugars 1. Celeriac soup.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail.

it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India.net/ . with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The flowers are white to purple. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir.com http://www. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. It bears a fruit of the same name. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. As a nightshade. The stem is often spiny. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). and see text The eggplant. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. aubergine.

unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco." Aubergine and brinjal.com http://www. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. flower The plant is native to India. History Solanum melongena. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. soft seeds. and contains numerous small. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. New Zealand. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). which are edible. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. In the Caribbean Trinidad. Australia. The name aubergine. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The fruit is fleshy.crazychefs. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". the fruit is known as a "brinjal.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names.net/ . which is used in British English. In Indian and South African English. from Arabic al-badinjan. 1500 CE.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. used in the United States. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. but much larger in cultivated forms. The name eggplant. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids.

crazychefs. slightly pendulous cucumber.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. and Black Beauty. There are even orange varieties. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. green. Traditional. Pingtung Long. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. Classic. Ichiban. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. A much wider range of shapes. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Burpee Hybrid. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. especially purple. in white skin Dourga. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Black Magic. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. whiteskinned.net/ . shape and color. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Dusky. Some cultivars have a color gradient.com http://www. or white. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. and Tycoon.

and garlic. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. rice. complex flavor. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). tahini. it is called Begun ( ). or tamarind. tomatoes. In Bangladesh. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. In one dish. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. In Iranian cuisine. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. chutney. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. and deep-fried. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. In some parts of India. It can be sliced. braised (紅燒茄子). but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. and achaar. peanuts. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. The fruit flesh is smooth. It is often stewed. so that peeling is not required.net/ . or other fillings and then baked. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. for example. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. for example in sambhar. or Eggplant Parmesan. the Arabian moussaka. as they are far less bitter. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. allowing for very rich dishes. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. as in the related tomato. tahini. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. as in the French ratatouille. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred.crazychefs. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. The thin skin is also edible. along with the fish Hilsa. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. As a native plant. In the Caucasus. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. curries. It. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani.com http://www. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. and masala and then cooked in oil. battered.

Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. and potato. containing both female and male structures. are also troublesome to eggplants. showing the inside. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. and spider mites. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control.crazychefs. such as tomato. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. flea beetle.net/ .com http://www. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. This is called Beguni ( ). aphids. For this reason.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack.) to 60 cm (24 in. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. Egypt.) between plants. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants.) between rows. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. the most serious of which is Verticillium. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. pepper (capsicum). with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. depending on cultivar. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. Flowers are complete. (Adults can be removed by hand. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing.

Dietary fiber 3.19 g 1. New Jersey is the largest producing state.crazychefs.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.net/ . semi-official or estimates). F = FAO estimate.(2.043. P = official figure. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.com http://www. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.Sugars 2.[5] In the United States.35 g .5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.039 mg 5.7 g 0. B1) 0.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B2) 0.

However. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.Niacin (Vit.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[8] On average.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.crazychefs.16 mg Manganese 0.084 mg Folate (Vit.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.com http://www. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. B3) 0. Brazil. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.01 mg/100g). Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. while 1.net/ .649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.

Dunal. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var.net/ .crazychefs. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. rumphii. multifidum. inerme and subinerme at that time. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. There is an actual S. esculentum. racemiflorum. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. aethiopicum. inerme. trongum. such as agreste. Names for various eggplant types. ruber. sinuatorepandum. violaceum and viride. violaceum. stenoleucum. Solanum oviferum Salisb. variegatum.com http://www. edule. ovigera. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. that of Blanco to S. giganteum. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. aethiopicum. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. S. On the other hand. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. lasiocarpum. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. ovigerum and S. insanum. Scopoli's S. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. divaricatum.-Lag. Similarly. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. brownii.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. tongdongense. album. and (invalidly) by Sweet.F. which used to include Dunal's S.Varieties Solanum melongena var. subrepandum. H. racemosum. mainly by Dikii. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. oblongo-cylindricum. esculentum.C. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. Solanum longum Roxb. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. leucoum. globosi. capsicoides).[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. But this is not correct. luteum. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium).[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties.

Handbook of Food Science. D. common. Hui (2006). CRC Press.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". 2. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). and Engineering by Yiu H. S. ^ Doijode. ISBN 1574445510.crazychefs. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. (2001). Technology.net/ . Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Footnotes 1.com http://www.

Retrieved 2007-04-24. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. http://pubs. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province.com http://www.edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/C934. 1993 Number 6 9. ^ Kabashima K. Toorenenbergen AW. Vol. 2008 10. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. Robert (2008-11-14). "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). ^ Gerth van Wijk R. Ebury Press.) reveals female predominance. P. Retrieved 2009-07-01. Bruno Caramelli. Domino. 18(1): 59-62 13. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". Harish Babu * .3. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. ^ SN Pramod. volume 82 (nº 3). Dieges PH.uga. Arq Bras Cardiol. ^ Westerfield. 202 4.caes. A.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. The New England Journal of Medicine. ^ "FAOSTAT". Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. 7. 273-6. P. 2008-11-11. 2004. ^ Health24. Andréa Thomaz. 5. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. FAO.50(2):101-102 11. Tsenge Demana.com .Aubergine 8. http://faostat. ^ Solanum melongena var. ^ B.* YP Venkatesh.133(42):2081-3 12. Erich Hornbach.net/ . Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners.crazychefs. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. N. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. Mahesh † and Y.pdf. Volume 329:437 August 5.fao. pp. ^ Edward F. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 6.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. Miyachi Y. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802.

net/ . was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption.4–0. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. yellow. The tomato is native to South America. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. syn. and have a weak. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. odd pinnate. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. with a serrated margin. It is a perennial. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. One species. see section Fruit or vegetable below).[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S.com http://www.8 in) across. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. Solanum lycopersicum. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. woody stem that often vines over other plants. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable.crazychefs.

Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli.[6] Gerard's Herbal. in certain areas of Italy.net/ .[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. meaning plump thing with a navel. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. a barber-surgeon. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. the other by currant tomatoes. lycopersicum. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). such as Florence.crazychefs. They also took it to the Philippines. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. lumpy tomato. likely to be the original salsa recipe. earlier in 1493.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. However. an Italian physician and botanist. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. who named it pomo d‘oro. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. cerasiforme. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The specific name. golden apple. according to Smith. now Mexico City in 1521. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. and cultivation began in the 1540s. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. However. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. a mutation from a smoother. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. corn and salt.com http://www. tomatl. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. The exact date of domestication is not known. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. ancestor of L. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. smaller vegetable . In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. means "wolf-peach". originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed].[4] The large. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. was the first European to take back the tomato. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe.

Gerard's views were influential. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). Rick. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. California. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations.M. The University of California. broths. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. and as a garnish. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies.com http://www.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. particularly Florida and California.[6] Nonetheless. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. British consul in Aleppo c. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. most famously in Worthing. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. Charles M. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. sent some seeds back to America.net/ . a pioneer in tomato genetics research.crazychefs. The C. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710.[6] But by the mid-1700s. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum).largely plagiarized from continental sources. Over the past 15 years. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. and before the end of that century. and in general. ―within the last forty years. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. In Victorian times. Paella. but the fruit is safe). In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. Currently. By the mid-18th century. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. who ate tomatoes in Paris. Thomas Jefferson. 1799 – c. The Spanish tomato dish.

Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. and have a lower water content.S. followed by United States and Turkey. green. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. China. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. orange.4 in) diameter range. Most cultivars produce red fruit.0–2. production and 35% of world production. For processing tomatoes.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008.[12] According to FAOSTAT. or white fruit are also available. about 5mm in diameter. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. pink. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 18 September 2009. through cherry tomatoes.com http://www. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.8 in) size as the wild tomato. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2.net/ . the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. black. the largest producer. they are known as plum tomatoes. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. but a number of cultivars with yellow.crazychefs. It may be deleted after Friday. purple. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter.6–2. California accounts for 90% of U.0 in) diameter.4–0.

but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. as well as heirloom tomatoes. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. As in most sectors of agriculture. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower.com http://www.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. plum tomatoes. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. along with zucchini.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life.crazychefs. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. and are shaped like large strawberries. based mostly on shape and size. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications .[18] and productivity. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. but unlike commercial hybrids. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes.

Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars.especially heirlooms . They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. or bush. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). but must be bought as seed. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. A variety of specific cultivars. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. although some determinate heirlooms exist. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. Lucky Cross). there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". and lack of mealiness. including yellow. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. brown. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. ivory. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. As an intermediate form. etc.crazychefs. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. Red Boar). but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool.com http://www. they are often good choices for container growing. et cetera. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. multiple colors (Hillbilly.produce fruit in colors other than red. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. Burracker's Favorite. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. pink. and purple. low acidity. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. Green Zebra (top right). orange. black.net/ .[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. or home growers interested in canning. disease and pest resistance. Black Krim (lower left corner). often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. including Brandywine (biggest red). Determinate.cherry tomatoes are small and round. white. often via mail-order. which usually discourages fruit set. some tomato cultivars . but are smaller than plum tomato.

The most common letters are: V . carried by the beet leafhopper. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. aphids. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them.alternaria. As the name implies. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance.fusarium wilt strain I. slugs. cabbage loopers. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. In the wild. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. original state. red spider mite. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. T .com http://www. The stamens were.fusarium wilt strain I & II. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. which interrupts the lifecycle. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. and A . entirely within the closed corolla. but manure or compost work well. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. FF . N nematodes. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. tomatoes required cross-pollination. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. too. As a floral device to reduce selfing. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.tobacco mosaic virus. their traditional pollinators. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top.crazychefs. and remain. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. F .verticillium wilt. whiteflies. cutworms. tomato fruitworms. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. flea beetles.net/ . tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions.

depending on variety. This is not the same as self-pollination. However. by cultured bumblebees. Unripe tomatoes are firm.com http://www. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. or more often today. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. They may be recognized by their color. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator.crazychefs. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. as with most species. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so.net/ . That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. In an outside setting. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. In more temperate climates. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops.

anthocyanin. carotene.net/ . Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich).Sugars 2.crazychefs.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium).Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0.6 g 4g . Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars.com http://www. They contain lycopene. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. and other antioxidants. especially in cooked tomatoes. In some studies lycopene. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable.Recently. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). or paste. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). Though it is botanically a berry. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. in pieces. The tomato is acidic. a subset of fruit. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". as tomato sauce.

Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature.5 °F). When that tip eventually stops growing. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. Determinate types are annual in all climates. initially decumbent. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants.make salsa.[28] In October 1965. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. there are variations. The fruit is also preserved by drying. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. Known for its tomato growth and production. lateral buds take over and grow into other. Of regular leaves. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. They are bred to continue ripening. generally three feet tall or shorter. such as rugose leaves.com http://www. Tomato plants are dicots.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). often by sun. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. or pickled. These hairs facilitate the vining process. Spain. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .[citation needed] Once fully ripe. and grow as a series of branching stems. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo.5 °C (54. meaning covered with fine short hairs. it will not continue to ripen. whether because of pruning or flowering. annually celebrates La Tomatina. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. although erect bush varieties have been bred. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. Embracing it for this protest connotation. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. fully functional.crazychefs. vines.

deeply grooved. making the Linnaean name correct. Other species in that family are potatoes. genetic evidence (e. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. However. butterflies. with both names found in the literature.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. according to type. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). would be more correct. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. other insects. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization.[31] Their flowers. or other external forces that present in the Americas.com http://www. 'lyco'. i.. As a true fruit.crazychefs. appearing on the apical meristem. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. This is because they are native to the Americas. very small cavities. wolf. (derivation. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. Despite this. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five.Karst. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. These vary. while paste tomatoes have very few. and be dried/fermented before germination. angora leaves. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world).e. Similarly. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). However. plus 'persicum'. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. moths. called locular cavities. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. have the anthers fused along the edges.net/ . variegated. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. among cultivated species. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. Therefore.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. Some smaller varieties have two cavities.) H.g. which frequently used it and still do).[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. Technically. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. chili peppers. peach.. tobacco. "wolf-peach"). The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture.

com http://www. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. In 1887. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. The U.S.S. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. disease tolerance. etc. from a culinary standpoint. color. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. corporations. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. 304)). Ohio. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. size. flavor. Oregon. University breeding programs are active in Florida. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. nutritional value. AVRDC. cucumbers. Corporations including Heinz. Monsanto. pest tolerance. In 2006. and organizations. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. North Carolina. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. As noted above. BHNSeed. shape.crazychefs. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. a tomato is the ovary. and numerous other traits. U. A. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. universities. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2].net/ . and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. together with its seeds.S. as are vegetables. Bejoseed. 1883. of Reynoldsburg. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. Livingston.S. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. New York. Hedden (149 U.W. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. However.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. U. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. However. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable.

Minnesota. Virginia. Ohio. Connecticut. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant.com http://www. Vermont and Wisconsin. the U. Kentucky."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. On October 30. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). North Carolina. stems. Pennsylvania. Speakers from the British Isles.crazychefs.net/ . North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. Indiana. harmless. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. however.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade).[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Georgia. contain the poison Solanine. Rhode Island. New Hampshire.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. The fresh fruit is.S. Maine. which is toxic to humans and animals. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. 2006. Massachusetts. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. Tennessee. Michigan.

from April 10.crazychefs. Lancashire. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. the District of Columbia. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. Lake Buena Vista.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. fresh serrano pepper.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. such as raw tomato. and fresh cilantro. discovered the unique plant in Beijing. with 49.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.1 reported cases per million. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. 2008. As of July 2008.8 m (65 ft) length.S. China. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. Illinois (100)." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). UK. with a harvest of more than 32.[38] As of July 8. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants.84 pounds (522 kg). Oklahoma in 1986.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. Epcot's manager of agricultural science.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. French and Germans. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. Yong Huang.net/ .000 kilograms (250. and Canada.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. On August 30. 40.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fresh jalapeño pepper. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world.273 illnesses from this outbreak. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. Florida. 2008. the U. one would arrive at an estimated 40. and Arizona (49). in 2000.151. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States.6:1). it caused at least one death. 2007. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz).com http://www.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. respectively.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. New Mexico (98).7 and 16.

Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. Derived from Cherokee Purple.crazychefs.S.com http://www. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. indeterminate. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. Fusarium. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry.S. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France.

'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak.com http://www. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . Tomato fruit. pickling. Tomato Flower.crazychefs. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. good for Tomatoes on a vine. Tomato plants in the garden. Young tomato plant. Tomato slices. in Korea. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo.

crazychefs.net/ .com http://www.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

edu. 1994. Columbia. ^ http://faostat.five tons to the acre.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Appletons' journal Published by D. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. Retrieved December 11 2009. 11. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . Andrew F (1994).. 223 10. Footnotes 1. and cookery. F.com http://www. ^ a b Hartz. Easthamptonstar. Culture.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Peralta. (2002). Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. ^ "http://www. ^ "C.html". Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L.Your Archives".nationalarchives.edu. http://www.fao. 3.M. ^ a b Smith. I.smithsonianmag. M. 1876. 6. Retrieved 2008-10-27. (2001). (1994). 2009-01-26. Retrieved 2009-04-02. ^ Acquaah. it handles more than 1. http://www.aspx. http://yourarchives. ^ "UC Newsroom. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. 7. 519 [1] 9. S.ucdavis. A. D. et al.. Wettst. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. Andrew F.com. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. October 26.gov." 15. Normania.net/ . The tomato in America: early history. webpage: books-google-TTp17.easthamptonstar. 2002-05-08.smithsonianmag. University of Illinois Press.C.html. G." See: Natural History Museum. USA: University of South Carolina Press. Appleton and Co.com/dnn/Archive/Home20080814/FoodWine/Seasons/ta bid/6280/Default. http://www.Smith.crazychefs.gov. & Spooner. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. Smith. Subsection Lycopersicon). In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. (2002-0508)". 13.smithsonianmag.html". Retrieved December 11 2009. Tgrc.ucdavis.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ^ Tomato history 4. ISBN 1-57003000-6.smithsonianmag. E. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). Cyphomandra. 12.uk. p.uk/index. T.html. page 57: ".edu/. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo .The East Hampton Star . Universityofcalifornia. 5.17. 1881.aspx?PageID=567 14. and Triguera are nested within Solanum." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "http://www.Food & Wine". Retrieved 2009-04-02.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. Retrieved 2009-04-02. p.universityofcalifornia. 8. During the three months of the local harvest. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. culture. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. http://tgrc.nationalarchives. Processing Tomato Production in California.edu/news/article/4319. ^ The Friend. Yourarchives. The Tomato in America. section Lycopersicon Mill. 2.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. http://www.. 2008. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. p. and Cookery. ISBN 0252-07009-7. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon.

http://www. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips.smithsonianmag.html.com. Ncsu. 29. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more.whfoods. 25. Retrieved 2008-10-27. which are carried in the wind. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes." 19. Retrieved 2008-10-27.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. Retrieved December 11 2009. http://www.edu/stories/Jan07/SolanacaeNSF." 18. 28. 2006.16. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes.ucdavis. Retrieved 200810-27. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".com/genpage.gardenweb. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". Plb. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. http://www. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like.com/faq/lists/tomato/2004111539004321.html. http://www. ^ "Crop Profiles .sinaloa.edu.co. ^ "http://www.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.html".ncsu.am/wiki/Tomato#Novelty_tomatoes 22. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. http://www.smithsonianmag.com http://www. Retrieved 2009-04-02.ufseeds.html.mx. http://www. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. Retrieved 2007-05-24.gob. Retrieved December 11 2009. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". page 57: "The plants are still growing.uk/2/hi/health/7370759. Ohioline. 17.smithsonianmag. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.smithsonianmag.umn. http://wwwplb. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.html.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. http://faq. 2006.smithsonianmag.html.crazychefs.umn. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes.smithsonianmag. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties.php.Tomato". 27.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5532.osu.edu/sustainable/profiles/bot_tom.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.com/science-nature/passion-fortomatoes. ^ http://www. HYG-5532-93". http://www.ucdavis.html".html.plants. http://ohioline.mx.com/All-About-Tomatoes_a6fd3933f91c4.stm. 32.edu.edu.com. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. 26.8M". Retrieved 200705-24.html.cornell.edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome. http://www.gardenweb. Retrieved June 30.eurekalert.html. Retrieved July 14.plants. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. "Tomato genome project gets $1. Sinaloa. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt.osu. 30. 24. 31. ^ "Selecting. ^ "http://www. ^ http://www. 33.html".bbc. Faq. News. http://www.gob. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'"." 20.smithsonianmag.html 23. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium.edu. Smithsonianmag.edu.am/wiki/Tomato#Early_tomatoes 21.net/ . ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ^ http://www.news. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.cornell. Retrieved December 11 2009. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague.org/pub_releases/2007-05/aafc-nmt051607. http://news. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ "http://www.kr. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention".edu.

html. Dennis R.journals. p. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce .edu/doi/full/10. 2007-08-30. 2004. ANR Publications. 42. 643.cbsnews.com. 38.cdc. http://itn. Foodsafetynetwork. ^ "August 8. Retrieved 2008-1027.uk.com http://www.com/stories/2006/10/30/national/main2138331. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. http://www.com. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". Retrieved 2009-0721. Retrieved 2009-0402.html?id=585498.crazychefs. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC".co. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 35.shtml.1086/381578. 37. Cbsnews. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 1879906546. (2002).ca/en/article-details. 40. Itn.html. California Master Gardener Handbook. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".com/books?id=WhWjHB1Zjf8C&pg=PA643. Retrieved 2008-10-27.com/news/canada/story.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. United States. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. Tomato Recipe". Vegparadise. http://www.co.com.vegparadise. Nationalpost. ^ "ITN. et al. http://www. Retrieved 200904-02. by state". http://www.google.co. http://www. http://www.foodsafetynetwork. http://www. 39. Retrieved 2008-10-27.net/ . (2004-04-15). Tomato Nutrition. 41.nationalpost.CBS News". http://www. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. 36.gov. 9781879906549.uk/news/9a5a1671ceba4f43741dc008f237c1ea.com/highestperch8.34.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/. 38:S3.uchicago. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus".uk.cdc.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/map.html.ca. ^ a b Pittenger. ^ Voetsch. Cdc.

fragrans products. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. especially in Grenada. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. the fruit is also made into jam. In Indonesia. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. including essential oils. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.4 oz) dried.net/ . Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. extracted oleoresins. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice".[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree.com http://www. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. malabarica from India. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets").crazychefs. both are used as adulterants of M. Species About 100 species. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. a state in the south part of India. It also grows in Kerala. nutmeg and mace. and Bombay Nutmeg M. called selei buah pala.2 and 0. or Spice Islands. and nutmeg butter (see below).6 to 0.7 in) wide. argentea from New Guinea. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. called Jaiphal in Hindi. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. or sliced finely.

it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. green. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. In the Caribbean. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. Painkiller. In Indian cuisine.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. In Penang cuisine. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. and string beans. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. and Barbados rum punch. cauliflower. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. sauces. saffronlike hue it imparts.com http://www. "Lau Hau Peng". In Arabic. and baked goods.net/ . nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. In European cuisine. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. and eggnog. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. they are also used in soups.crazychefs. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. mulled wine. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient.

and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups.com http://www. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food.crazychefs. beverages. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. in toothpaste. medicines. and sweets. preserving agents. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. reddish brown in colour. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. It is semi-solid.net/ .Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. for instance. The oil is colourless or light yellow. used as flavourings. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. although this is disputed. 758 – ca. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. which can be turned into myristic acid. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. syrups.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". http://emj.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/22/3/223. 5. ^ "Erowid". http://www.erowid.org/plants/nutmeg/. 6. ^ "MDMA". http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=5469. 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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sugar beets. based on anecdotal reports. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. However. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. Canned. and were not observed when MSG was given with food." However. steak sauce. Fermented products such as soy sauce. with 4% annual growth expected. About 1. and protein isolate. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. not reproducible.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods.crazychefs.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels.net/ .[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. being an amino acid.com http://www. sugar cane. hydrolyzed yeast. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. it also said that. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. or molasses. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. particularly processed foods. frozen. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. yeast extract." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. soy extracts.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. autolyzed yeast. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99.

com http://www. [monosodium glutamate]. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. ^ http://www. and mineral ions and growth factors.crazychefs. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people.. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea.g.g. concentration. age 40–59 years.7% women). The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. Albert Y. Drugs. even in large amounts. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. Foster. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. acidification. and converted to its monosodium salt..html 2. In the hydrolysis method. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food.). followed by either the name of the food additive. dextrose or citrate). pp. and (3) microbial fermentation. In 1993. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product.com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. 621. Steven (August 2003). and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients.net/ . and Cosmetics (2nd ed. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. purified. On Food and Cooking.". New York: Wiley. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. For this reason. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e.celiac. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. MSG. and crystallization. (2) synthesis. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. ^ Leung. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as hydrolyzed protein. 373-375. flavour enhancer). ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8.2. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. In the 2004 version of his book. References 1. "Monosodium Glutamate". the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48.

530060410. the Secret Behind the Savor". Tetsuya. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.gov/~lrd/msg. J.2008. Dyer. 10. Chiaki. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.4. ^ a b Tarasoff L. Zhou.ncbi. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study".nih. Inc. PMID 10597625.html 12. 6. Garside. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study".org/stable/3421360 5. Van Horn. 38–49.ajinomoto. doi:10. Wu.jp/ajinomoto/ACompany/company/zaimu/pdf/fact/food_biz.html.gov/entrez/query.nytimes. Beiser A. MSG.1525/gfc. http://www. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Shioya.html 4. doi:10. Jeremiah (August 2008).fda. ^ Walker R (October 1999).com/amino/eng/product... 277–282. "A Short History of MSG".5. PMID 10736382. 7. 16.17457599. "Yes. Liancheng.net/ . "The significance of excursions above the ADI.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Food Chem.crazychefs. doi:10. ^ http://www. Linda. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ^ Sand. ^ http://vm. doi:10.1038/oby.co.3.1002/chir. Anjimoto Co.com http://www.2005. Kelly M. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.jstor. ^ http://www. Beifan. Jordan (2005).1006/rtph.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract.ca/Articles/Fall1990-1. (April 2000). "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". Takehara.00160. Linguang.1999. Zhao. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. doi:10. ^ "Production process". Daviglus. ^ Moskin. Daniel W (1994). PMID 18497735. Stamler. Ren C. doi:10. (1993). 1875–1880.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. 11. Masahiro. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Shizuko (2005). ^ a b Rundlett. Alan R.nutrition. Case study: monosodium glutamate".ajinomoto.1111/j. Martha L. 8. Julia (2008-03-05).a16 711. PMID 16999713.celiac.nlm. ^ a b Geha RS. Regul. 15. ^ http://www. Kimber L. (October 2006).F.2006.com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S.38.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10736382.1337. "Monosodium Glutamate". ^ Kawakita. Chirality 6 (4): pp. Dongshuang. PMID 8282275. Pharmacol.1002/14356007. ^ He. Armstrong. Sano.pdf 9. Zhu. Toxicol. et al. Shigeru. http://jn. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". Nutr.x. Ka.cfsan. doi:10. Daniel. Guo. http://www. ^ Freeman M. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". http://www. 14.274. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Yangfeng. 13. Yamaguchi. Toxicol. New York Times.

Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. 荳油 3.crazychefs. 酱油 2.net/ .Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. 醬油 2. 豆油 3.

[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West.crazychefs. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2.500 years. and salt. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. water.[3] In the 18th century.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. In its various forms. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. Soy sauce was invented in China.net/ . "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product.com http://www. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. [4] By the mid-19th century.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version.

net/ . the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. such as in giant urns and under the sun.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. Today. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1.crazychefs.com http://www. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. Although there are many types of soy sauce. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). literally "delicious taste"). These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. sojae) and other related microorganisms. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments.

slightly sweeter. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. pinyin: jiàngyóu. lighter brown soy sauce. Korean. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. or a mixture of both.crazychefs. one of the two types. Since it is lighter in color. with relatively low amounts of other grains.com http://www. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. ): A thin (nonviscous). and Chinese cuisine. consistency. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). since it is saltier. opaque.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. but it also adds flavour. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. fragrance and saltiness. In traditional Chinese cooking. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. Another type. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce.3-DCP (1. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. Thai. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. Despite their rather similar appearance. like extra virgin olive oil.net/ . the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. It has a richer. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. traditional Chinese: 醬油. An additional classification of light soy sauce. shuānghuáng (雙璜). or 酱清 "jiàng qing".

Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. where it is known as "shōyu". Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. Usukuchi (淡口?. that is used in its production.net/ .crazychefs. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). for example sashimi. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. Shiro (白?. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Technically. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. It contains little or no wheat. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. or 醤油). The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. due to the addition of alcohol in the product.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?.com http://www.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso.

Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it.Saishikomi (再仕込?. Consequently. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. Amakuchi (甘口?. not pasteurized.net/ . "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process.com http://www. 1 litre bottles. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman.crazychefs. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist.

Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. which has a thick. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. In Indonesia. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce.crazychefs.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. It is a unique variety. usually implies limited quantity.com http://www. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. in a pinch. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes.net/ . powder.

which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. lit. Malaysia. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. WanJaShan(萬家香). which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. (called Joseon ganjang. O'Long(黑龍). Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). Founded in 1909.com http://www. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce.crazychefs. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce.net/ . According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. is made entirely of soy and brine. thin and dark brown in color. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan.4% of soy sauce purchases. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. 조선간장. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장).[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. Joseon ganjang. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. Later.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce.

Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. It can also be very salty. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). China. salt. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided.3-DCP (1. and caramel. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. or sometimes simply tương.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food.[6] Furthermore. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential.crazychefs. nước tương. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. pronounced SOO-kah).net/ .[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. wheat. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce.com http://www.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. it is also a table condiment. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines.

OCLC 9752305 5.miyajimasoy. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application.tw/60anniversary/century-gofun. Golden Mark.gmp."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed".net/ .org.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. ^ http://www.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.food.asp?id=7598 10. 7. ^ http://www.[citation needed] In Vietnam. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce").uk/news/pressreleases/2001/jun/soysaucerecall. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce.htm. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. marinades and other types of sauces. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. Retrieved 2008-01-07." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. p.com.317 2. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. Vol.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. Pearl River Bridge. that affected the brands Golden Mountain.000 to 18. XXVII. ^ Jung. Celiac disease. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. King Imperial. 6.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. including six samples with up to 11.co. Retrieved 200801-07.Kong and Taiwan.) In March 2008. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. Norio. http://www. Individuals with a wheat allergy. 2. ^ Tanaka. Isaac. http://www.org. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20).crazychefs. pp.smartfood. 7. Golden Swan.tcoc.[1] Notes 1. Jammy Chai. 3. No. Lee Kum Kee. Kimlan. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. ^ Titsingh. III. 2 (January 2000). 2nd edition. Seong-Gook (2002).jp/science/kouenkai/kouenkai. ^ Tanaka. Soon Teck• and Kang. Despite these being small in number in the UK. p. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce.tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9. 4. 6. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption.tw/newsdetail. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). Press release. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. 8. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". p. (1781). "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. Sinsin.com http://www.gov. ^ Tanaka. ^ http://www. an increase over 23 to 5.

et al. 18. ^ Bamford. fermentation and micro-organisms. Kentucky: CRC Press. doi:10. ISBN 0632059877. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand".1263/jbb. ISBN 1587161389.48. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology.com http://www. ^ Toxic soy sauce. 103. p. 13. 14. Naczk. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151.100.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. Hoboken. PMID 16198255. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Makio (2005-04-18).com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15. p. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. 186. PMID 12469319. 16. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals.2323/jgam. chemical veggies -. ^ Tanasupawat. ^ Shahidi.11.google. Stephen (2006-06-06). ^ Daniells. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. Edition 2. Food. Fereidoon. 12. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209.nutraingredients. Somboon (2002-06-18). "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce".food scares hit Vietnam 20. nutraingredients.net/ . Retrieved 2008-01-07.com/news/ng. Florence. doi:10.crazychefs. ^ Kobayashi. Marian (2003). Charles W (2005).144. http://www.com.201. http://books. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD".

9150–0.3% Myristic acid: <0.0% Stearic acid: 0.5% Linoleic acid: 3.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.0–83.5–21.0% Arachidic acid: <0.com 211 | P a g e http://www.4677–1.3–3.crazychefs.8% Behenic acid: <0.5 °C) 84 cP 1.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9180 (@ 15.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.5–20.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.net/ .5–5.

with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. principally Italy.com http://www. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Australia. and Manzanilla de Jaén. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. Koroneiki.000 tons of olive oil annually. in France. and Moraiolo. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. pharmaceuticals. cosmetics. 93% comes from Spain. World production in 2002 was 2. family Oleaceae). Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. which produce approximately 350. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. Olives are grown for oil in Greece.4680–1. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities.crazychefs. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Japan and China.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. In 2006.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. Hojiblanca. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. Alberquina. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. North Africa and the Near East. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. as well as in Crete. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. but especially in the Mediterranean. Picholine. Leccino Pendolino.net/ .6 million tonnes. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production.6 (refined and pomace) 0. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. Olive oil is used throughout the world. Italy and Greece. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio.[3] Of the European production. in Greece. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics.

In North America.com http://www. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). The US imported 47. The California Olive Oil Council. defining quality standards. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. and monitoring authenticity.800. still contains a small quantity of oil. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. Spain.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. often in "prestige" packaging.crazychefs. The USDA uses a different system. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. by its chemistry. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. After extraction the remnant solid substance. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. and by its flavor. in Portugal. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. in Croatia. Mission. IOOC terminology is precise. of which 34. Spain. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. called pomace.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest.000 US gallons (181. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. with 23 member states. Spain.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. a private trade group. Oblica and Leccino.000 US gallons (131. with production increasing to meet demand.California. Galega. and Turkey. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method).600.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC.000 m3) came from Italy.

of free oleic acid it contains. however." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids).[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.[15] Under EU rules. and by heat. EU officials took issue with the new law. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. particularly in Italy. Almost 700 people died. is extremely lax and corrupt. it is believed. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13.crazychefs. mostly hexane. measured by weight. but there are no guarantees. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. for blended oils. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. product as superior olive oil.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification.[12] In some cases. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). both in Italy and abroad.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used.net/ . This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported.[14] In March 2008. 25. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents.[16] In April 2008. but safe. defined as the percent.com http://www. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[14] In February 2008. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.

Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. has an acidity less than 2%. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. and is judged to have a good taste. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. Pure olive oil. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. and is judged to have a superior taste. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. of no more than 1. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. contains no more than 0.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product.3 grams per 100 grams (0.S. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. This is also called its organoleptic quality.8% acidity. The US is not a member. Used on salads. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps.crazychefs. It is fit for consumption. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food.the oil degrades. The U.com http://www. In order to classify it by taste. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. absence of defects.net/ . Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail.5% acidity. but may not be described simply as olive oil. another cause of rancidity. It has a free acidity. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. expressed as oleic acid. and are based on acidity. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. of not more than 0. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. These grades were established in 1948.

S.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel.4% and is "free from defects".S.net/ .0% and is "fairly free from defects". with less flavour.S.5% and is "reasonably free from defects".crazychefs. Grade C or U. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.S. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. Grade B or U. (34 kJ/ml). Grade A or U. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.S. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. U.S. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. Grade D or U. This is incorrect.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label.com http://www.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning.S. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed".[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.S. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.U. Grade C". Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. U. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which may be as low as 10-15 °C. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis. "cold" does not define any precise temperature. U.S. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. First of all. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3.

2 7 1.1 0.7 l.com http://www. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. Tunisia.35 23. so the term "first press" is meaningless. Portugal and Lebanon.8 7.pressed". it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.1 1.net/ . Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. Spain and Italy. over 26 liters per year. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.62 12.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. around 8 l. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.7 11. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. around 0. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. around 14 l.crazychefs.

and overripe olives produce rancid oil. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. 4. After grinding. 1. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity.34 1. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. which is much faster and more accurate. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). no or very little organoleptic defects).net/ . After grinding. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil.crazychefs. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. Green olives produce bitter oil. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. not in the oil mills. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered.com http://www. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. then placed into the press. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. 2. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. suggesting a different taste. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. 3. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. This is done in specialised chemical plants. If ground with mill stones.

and extraction process. To achieve this possible benefit. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.polyunsaturated 11 g . olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.com http://www.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. altitude.2% phytosterol and tocosterols).7%) and sterols (about 0.net/ .5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. including oleocanthal and oleuropein.omega-3 fat <1. most notably oleic acid.crazychefs.monounsaturated 73 g . along with traces of squalene (up to 0.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3. region.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .omega-6 fat 3. In the United States.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. The composition varies by cultivar.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 g . Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . time of harvest.

It is theorized that. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. This could. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. The study was conducted in two stages. at least in part. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. antithrombotic. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood.com http://www. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. This way. For example. rather than its fatty acid profile. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). and oleuropein. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols.crazychefs.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. During the first stage. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. in the long term. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure.This decision was announced November 1. During the second phase.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. 2004.net/ .[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.

Also. A very fresh oil. as available in an oil producing region. etc. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. In time. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods.com http://www. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses.net/ .[citation needed]. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish.crazychefs. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. oils deteriorate and become stale. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). Used cold. not for foods to be eaten cold. cookware. For example. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. blenders. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. like salads. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Also.

[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. acting as a stool softener. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. It is also good for the management of pain. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and mild laxative properties. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil.crazychefs. It does have demulcent properties.net/ .Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan.com http://www. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients.

and skin care application. from Anglo-Fr. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. medicines. from Gk. elaion "olive tree". drawn and engraved by J. olive oil.crazychefs.N." In ancient Greece. from O.Fr.net/ . The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c.com http://www. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. huile).. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power.Fr. soap-making. and O. Amman in the Sixteenth Century.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. olive oil" (cf. Mod.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". as a fuel in oil lamps.Fr. 1175. magical.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. oile (12c. Besides food. olio). 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oleum "oil. olie. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. It. from L. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. Homer called it "liquid gold.

The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.net/ . olive presses became common. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean.crazychefs.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Bodrum. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times).[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.com http://www.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. In the centuries that followed.

According to the historian Pliny. when the oil had risen to the top. Sinuhe. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. stored in special containers. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. the fertile crescent. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt.com http://www. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. he maintained. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests.[dubious – discuss] During this time.000 and 3. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). allowing more time for more oil to be made. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. and Israel. during the 13th century BC. drained the water from the bottom.[46] Until 1500 BC. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. where it is thought to have represented wealth.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. "the best in the Mediterranean". where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. Lebanon.over 4. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan.crazychefs. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. According to legend. together with naked appearance of athletes. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential.net/ . A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. wrote of abundant olive trees.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt.. and area consisting of present day Palestine. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. oil containers are preferred.[citation needed].000 tons of olive oil per season.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). which is where the expression pure olive oil originates.

"The Olive Tree. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". even without fire touching it. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". ^ International Olive Oil Council. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. http://findarticles. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. and this secure city.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. originating from King David.net/ . References 1. Margaret Lindstrand (2005)." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. the tourch is in a glass bulb. In Islam. 2. and. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047". the float is carefully pressed down into the oil.com http://www. p. 158. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. ^ USDA.internationaloliveoil.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 3. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out.gourmetretailer. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings.com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display. Retrieved 2007-05-25. ^ G. ANR Publications. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. Louise Ferguson. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. neither Eastern nor Western. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). http://www.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash.usda. in the consecration of altars and churches. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. its oil almost glows.gov/nass/pubs/agr05/05_ch3. 4. and the Mount of Sinai. Retrieved 2008-07-04. Steven Sibbett.html. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath.crazychefs.imitate the original Menorah."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. traditionally. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). http://www. Joann L Coviello. light upon light. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches.PDF. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ USDA.org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo. To douse the flame. http://www. 5. ^ "findarticles. Olive Production Manual. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF).

"Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".htm. ^ Riding.usda. Karvonen MJ. Epidemiol. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10.1016/j. 10.4005000. PMID 3776973. Giammanco. http://oliveoilonly.Scotsman.01.xml. ^ New York Times. 16. 17. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". Tabacchi.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07.com/world/Forty-arrested-in-new-39fake39. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . http://www. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. 23.com http://www. Raymond & Co. ^ Mueller. Dennis.ams.eubusiness. 18. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".telegraph.2007.com".internationaloliveoil. Slippery Business The New Yorker.oxfordjournals.com/news-eu/1204304521. J. D. 12. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institutionini. Giammanco.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . 19.Telegraph". Alan (1989-05-21). US Customs Department.com/gst/fullpage. http://news. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. Di Majo.phrs. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. http://query.010. 19 CFR 134. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27.23/. 7. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27.org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. 2007-08-13. 55 (3): 175–86. ^ "Eubusiness. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. G. Retrieved 2008-11-16. et al. 20. ^ a b "Telegraph article".6.co. 13.).uk/news/main.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. http://www.23/. http://www. doi:10.nytimes. M. and Maurizio La Guardia. The New York Times (H.telegraph. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". United States Department of Agriculture. 15. Pharmacol. PMID 17321749.html".net/ . Am.1079/NRR200495 24.southafrica.internationaloliveoil. 2004. Tripoli.southafrica. ^ "www.46. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3776973. ^ Keys A. 11.com".com News". ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. John. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.gov/AMSv1.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105.xml.uk/news/main. Retrieved 2008-11-16. ^ a b McGee. November 2. http://www.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. http://www. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini. ^ "www. http://www.htm".com/news-eu/1204304521.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. S. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". J. Menotti A.html. http://www.co. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. 124 (6): 903–15.eubusiness. 14.scotsman. http://aje. (December 1986). 21. Tom.jp. Retrieved 2008-11-09.crazychefs.htm. Res. ^ Durant. ^ "EUbusiness. 25.

Israel". "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. Olives 41. ". ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. et al. "olive" and "oil" 40.html.v. ^ Turner R. Olea europaea L. http://www.61. 29. Masamitsu Ichihashi.1024/0300-9831. JDermatol-Sci.ama-assn. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. Masato Ueda.tchain.xml. d'Episcopo L. Vol. T. 2085-2090. Etienne N. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". 44. Suppl. 11. 39. 2000.. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". ^ Ehud Galili et al. Gruendel S. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. An Wu.". "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease.Telegraph". 35.com http://www.videojug. T : Ueda. 19.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. s. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". 23. ^ Machowetz A. but cites no source. 2000. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. (January 2005). Ahmed. PMID 10737284. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. Guida L. Vol. p. Mar. M : Osawa. 1S45-50. 38. Medina E. doi:10. "New Year's Resolution No.com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36. Dello Russo A. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. M : Ahmed. ^ Ferrara LA. 1: Prevent Cancer. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé.telegraph. De Castro A (February 2007). ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary.1096/fj. Use Olive Oil. ^ Romero C. Osamu Nikaido. PMID 17110467. 10. ^ [2] Ichihashi. Raimondi AS. 21. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). A : Wu. 37. 34.28. Toshihiko Osawa. Marotta T. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". André Bervillé.1021/jf0630217. A : Bito. 21 (1): 45–52.1. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". Alonso MG. doi:10. http://www. PMID 15830923. Poulsen HE.uk/portal/main. 43.v. 45.crazychefs.. Pagnol. ^ a b Davidson.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". Carcinogenesis. J Agric Food Chem. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster.org 31.tchain. s." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics"." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33.75. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.html". ^ Rosenblum. Nov.co. PMID 17263460. ^ http://www. Toshinori Bito. Brenes M. et al.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. (January 2007). p. ^ "Quite Interesting . p. No. N U : Budiyanto. 19. ^ "www.06-6328com. pp. 19 November 2007 30. Vargas J. (27 March 2000). Nazim U. ^ Pagnol. Faseb J.net/ . doi:10. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". Catherine Breton." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. ssp. ^ Mayo Clinic. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. 55 (3): 680–6.

"Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.reshafim. Provencal.youngmuslims. ^ F. http://www. ^ "www. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". Riley. C. ed. ^ Thomas F.net/ .ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. B. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. 2005 49. http://www.com http://www. Processing methods.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. ^ Nigel M.il/ad/egypt/texts/sinuhe. Harrington Park Press.htm".htm. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". 2001.htm. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48.46.). v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Scanlon. 47. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". Kennell. pp119–33 50. Verstraete and V. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland.R.youngmuslims.crazychefs.org. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed.

[4][5] A carotenoid dye. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. Saffron.Saffron Saffron crocus C. ən] / [ˈsæf. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. each the distal end of a carpel. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight.crazychefs. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent.net/ . ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. sativus flower bears three stigmas. crocin. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf.or hay-like fragrance. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. Saffron has further medicinal applications.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia.com http://www. A C.

do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. broken apart. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. purple buds appear. must be dug up.crazychefs.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. which means "yellow. In autumn. A corm survives for one season.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. Being sterile.98–1. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). It is a sterile triploid form. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. as was once generally believed." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). and replanted. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms.5 centimetres (1.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs.net/ .[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. Only in October. in Central Asia.com http://www. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas.2 in) in length.[11] Upon flowering. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not.

Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. where hot. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. Planting depth and corm spacing. low-density.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir.[16] Furthermore.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture.. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. rats. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral.com http://www. well-watered. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. are critical factors affecting yields.500 mm (39–59 in). Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. where annual rainfall averages 1.crazychefs.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. maximizing sun exposure. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. Nematodes.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields.000–1.8–5. in concert with climate. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. Moroccan. leaf rusts. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. Greek.e. loose. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands.net/ . Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. they fare poorly in shady conditions. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. and birds.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer.9 in) deep. and corm rot pose other threats.

0. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.net/ . and thus oil-soluble. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).8-diapo-8.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. including zeaxanthin. However.[19] Meanwhile.11 gr) of dried saffron. It also has many nonvolatile active components.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. and various α. lycopene. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. a product results that is itself water-soluble.2 oz of dried saffron).crazychefs. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.[19] many of which are carotenoids.com http://www. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic.and β-carotenes. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.8-carotenoic acid). The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.com http://www.0–1.0 1.0 8.0 3.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 6.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 4.0 1.0–7.0–15.5 40.0 0.0 1.0 6.5 10.0–8.0–13.0 11.0 6.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 2.0–14.0 6.crazychefs.0 12.net/ .

It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. dried hay like".6. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels.4. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. combined with enzymatic action. a volatile oil. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.com http://www.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building.[18] Safranal. Santorini. Significantly. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. the heat. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.net/ .6.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. When saffron is dried after its harvest.6.crazychefs.3-diene-1.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron.0 Source: Goyns 1999. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. incidentally. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. p.5-cyclohexadien-1-one.Fiber (crude) 5.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.6-trimethyl-2.

[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. sativus. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall.[33] potpourris.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. There.crazychefs.[28][29] Later. In late Hellenistic Egypt. divine offerings. physicians in Gaza.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. and scabies. colic. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. cough.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. townspeople in Rhodes. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. and in the mithridatium.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. Thus. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. a sterile mutant form of C. and medical treatments.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. Since then.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest.000 years. C. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4.net/ . emerged in late Bronze Age Crete.com http://www.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. cartwrightianus. mascaras. ointments.

[44] During his Asian campaigns. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50.crazychefs. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts.com http://www.[42] ritually offered to divinities. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia.[44] From there. At such sites. saffron threads were woven into textiles. rice.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. and used in dyes. For example.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. and baths as a curative for battle wounds.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. and body washes.[53] On the other hand.[51] However.Asia The 17. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. or jackfruit.net/ . the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. a less expensive dye. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions.[43] Thus. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. Isfahan. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. dating to 978–993 AD.[39][40] Later.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. medicines. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. a Chinese medical expert. perfumes. Wan Zhen.

such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. coffee. imprisoned.[58] Soon after. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. and executed. did significant cultivation endure. and Italy. tea. Italy. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. It can be used to aromatise wine. and Spain. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour.com http://www.[59][60] Only in southern France. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania.[62] By 1730.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. named for its new specialty crop. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. France. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. which grew prosperous." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days.[55] During the 14th century Black Death.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. In Europe. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. and then the saffron is obtained. especially Norfolk and Suffolk.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. under which saffron adulterators were fined.crazychefs.net/ .saffron is in Kashmir. indeed. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. However.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel.

and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. and antioxidantlike properties.crazychefs. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa).grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes.com http://www. and in perfumery.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. immunomodulating. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Turkish.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. Central Asian. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. and chicken or trout dishes. Indian. noodles. Medicinally. and Cornish cuisines. Arab.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian).[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. Pennsylvania. particularly in China and India.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. European.net/ .[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Spain.000 and 200. they are graded by government-imposed standards. Morocco. and Italy. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.200/£1.crazychefs. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'.100/€1. the United States. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. Azerbaijan. and other countries. and aroma. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. Vivid crimson colouring.[2] A pound comprises between 70. are generally mellower in colour. Switzerland.500/€7. Spain's varieties. elasticity.000-170. Aside from these.000 flowers.000 per pound (US$1. A pound of dry saffron requires 50.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. are the major producers of saffron. For example.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad.100–11. flavour. in decreasing order of production.000–75. Greece. slight moistness.net/ . In Western countries.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.550 per kilogram). India. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110. England.com http://www.[5] Iran. the average retail price is $1.500 per kilogram.000 threads. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2.000 flowers. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. France. Annually.

for quality and quantity. blights. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). picrocrocin (taste). shape. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). combined with an Indian export ban. contribute to its high prices. and colourative effect. There.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma).some organically grown.S. Sardinia. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. picrocrocin. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. among the world's darkest. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. and safranal (fragrance) content. and safranal content. is in San Gavino Monreale.. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization.79 in). Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. it also has very high crocin. In the U. aroma. and crop failures in Kashmir. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation.com http://www. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. Repeated droughts. near L'Aquila. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. unusually pungent aroma.net/ . Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0.crazychefs.

an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance.[77] However. II. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). red-dyed silk fibers. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. and I (finest quality).[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. traders. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages.national standards bodies.[80] Thus. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0).[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration.crazychefs. aroma.com http://www.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and thus a greater colourative intensity. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. However. III. in India. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. paprika. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. and other powders used as diluting fillers. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron.net/ . with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. pomegranate fibers. with turmeric. many growers. pliability.

www.cababstractsplus. ^ Rau 1969. 8. p. 12. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. 13. p. ^ Grigg 1974. ^ M.google. 3.org. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. http://books. ^ a b Deo 2003. 53. 2–3. 22. p. stigma extracts and their constituents. 14. 3. pp. p. 3. 4.com/books?id=AaTpWEIlgNwC. 423. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. ^ Dharmananda 2005. ^ Willard 2001. 19. 7. 24. p. http://www. Honshū. 6. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 272. 21. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 287.com http://www. ^ a b Deo 2003. 1. ^ Willard 2001. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Harper 2001. 20. 4. p. 3–4. 9. Grilli Caiola .Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). 15. p. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. 4.". 23. 16. in mice. 1.net/ . p. ^ a b McGee 2004.cababstractsplus. p. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. 18. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. ^ Kumar V (2006). crocin and safranal.Saffron reproductive biology 11. Sterling. ^ Willard 2001. 5. ^ a b c Hill 2004. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. p. pp. 1. 422. ^ McGee 2004. p. p. ^ Willard 2001. p.org/google/abstract. 3. ^ DPIWE 2005. 103. Kansai. 2. ^ Deo 2003. pp. p. 17.crazychefs. 2.asp?AcNo=20043148643.

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SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995). Hussain. Retrieved on January 10. saffron". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2). "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera".google. The Essential Saffron Companion. "Saffron (Crocus sativus L. J (1998). ISBN 1-56032-814-2.leffingwell. Taylor & Francis. A (2005).co. Hill. Cambridge University Press. T (2004). MH (1999). ISBN 0-312-34068-0. SC (2004). Fotedar. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2).html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>. <http://www. <http://news.com http://www. 2006.net/ .com/index. BBC News.dpiwe. <http://news. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution".php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>. <http://www.bbc. ISBN 1-58008-024-3.bbc. "Saffron".org/pdf/Vitasta1998-1999.nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>. <http://www. Retrieved on January 10.bbc.)". SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005).au/inter.com/download/saffron. ISBN 0-471-21423-X.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4216493.stm>.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/212491.etymonline. Wiley. N (2005). "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress". Humphries. WH (2004). Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting.nytimes. ISBN 90-5702-394-6. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5). S (1998–1999). Saffron.at/~katzer/engl/Croc_sat. 2006[dead link]. Retrieved on January 10. Online Etymology Dictionary.com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=l-QJaUp31T4C>. AW (2001). Grigg. PMID 16180089 Katzer.html>. BBC News. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron".pdf>. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. 2006. BBC News. Retrieved on January 10.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/213043. PMID 8590890 Hayes. "Saffron". Retrieved on January 10. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4). <http://www. 2006.tas.gov. Leffingwell. 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved on January 10. "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". Martin's Press. D (1998).crazychefs.stm>. Lak.co. <http://books. Lak. PMID 15259204 Fletcher. 2006. The New York Times. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine". The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen. D (1998b). Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1). St. Taylor & Francis.st m>. Ten Speed Press. Harper. 2006. Jessie. Retrieved on January 10. 2006. Ferrence.DPIWE (2005).pdf>. DB (1974). <http://www. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. JC (2002).uni-graz. Honan. G (2001). Retrieved on January 10. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron".com/2004/03/02/science/02MEDI. D (2001). "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. 2006. Goyns. ISBN 0-521-09843-2. Retrieved on January 10. "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron". Hasegawa. JH.ikashmir. 2006. Food & Agriculture. 2006. <http://news. The Agricultural Systems of the World.co.

Cancer Letters 57 (2).pl. Retrieved on January 10. Scribner. 2006. "Saffron". "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity".newscientist. Retrieved on January 10. Tarvand (2005b). 2006. <http://www.htm>. Willard. USDA Phytochemical Database. F (2005). Nair.000. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved on January 10.htm>.tarvandsaffron.McGann. Retrieved on January 10. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). P (2001).html>. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. 2006. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice.com/classification.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>. 2006.com/saffron. Tarvand Saffron Company. SR (1969). <http://www.". "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus).google. SC. JB (2005).html>. <http://www.net/ . 2006. Pearce.barc.com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". New Scientist.crazychefs. "What is Saffron?".com http://www. "Grading and Classification".google. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). Reconstructing History. Retrieved on January 10.cfm?chemic al_id=140>.usda. K (2003).tarvandsaffron.gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b. Time Life Education. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Beacon Press. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Rau. <http://www. McGee.reconstructinghistory. <http://www. 2006[dead link]. Tarvand Saffron Company.com/channel/earth/mg18524831. The Cooking of India. 2006.com/irish/saffron. Retrieved on January 10. H (2004). <http://books. PMID 2025883 Park. <http://books. Retrieved on January 10.

net/ . Dead Sea.crazychefs.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea.com http://www. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.

and smooth mallows provide sustenance. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. they were reverently preserved for centuries. are borne generally on the last year's wood. The small white flowers. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea.com http://www. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil.(XVII. from Lebanon. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape.[1] and in the Iliad. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. Asia and parts of Africa. by a spring. the olive. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD.crazychefs.[9]. ca 170 AD. endives. referring to their wooden material. the olive suckers readily from the stump. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. Theophrastus. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. In Homer's Odyssey. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. olives. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. two stamens and bifid stigma. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. Its fruit."[7] indeed. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. Though.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. called xoana.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. It is short and squat. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it.net/ . Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive).[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis.5 cm long. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

com http://www. For example. wild-type olives. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. in On the Nature of Plants. play an important role in the Bible. for which the Greeks had a separate name.The leafy branches of the olive tree . Over the years.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. Peru. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. The Book of Jacob 5.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. indeed.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health.[12] After the 16th century. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. Chile and Argentina.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance.crazychefs. The olive tree itself. As emblems of benediction and purification. As far back as 3000 BC. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. and its cultivation began in Mexico. olives were grown commercially in Crete. spread far and wide by birds. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb.16. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. power and pureness. Today. kotinos. the olive has been the symbol of peace. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. wisdom. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. and then in the 18th century in California. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. and one of the most significant. glory. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. the pits give rise to thorny.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. glory and peace . fertility. as well as olive oil and olives. in both the New and Old Testaments. Theophrastus.net/ .were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. but he makes clear (in 1. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over.

com http://www. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. has been calculated to be about 1. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. and can live for very long. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. Istria in Croatia. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. Montenegro. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy.and fire-resistant. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. which is made into top quality olive oil.net/ . The older an olive tree is. named "Plato's Olive Tree". drought-. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. claimed to be over 2.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). One olive tree in Bar. disease.600 years old.000 years old. The age of an olive tree in Crete. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis.[16] An olive tree in west Athens.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar.crazychefs. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated.

[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. have been determined to be over 3000 years old.crazychefs.6 km) as the limit. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. a few other millenary trees can be admired.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv.400 years ago.2. olive leaf. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. Modern experience does not always confirm this. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. Italy. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. and the olive fruit. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. called the "Peisistratos Tree". there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. see Olive (fruit). Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. both in Galilee region. and. A supposedly even older tree. 1600-2000 years old. In the same natural garden. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. though showing a preference for the coast. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region.net/ . it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. According to a recent scientific survey. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest.com http://www. All seven trees continue to produce olives. fine wood. Specifically.

[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp.crazychefs. northwest Africa) where winters are mild.com http://www. Israel. laperrinei (Algeria. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. Niger.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. Chile. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. Australia. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. such as South Africa. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. the Mediterranean Basin.net/ . Olive plantation in Andalucia. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. Argentina. Sudan. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas.

net/ .crazychefs.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.

net/ .com http://www.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.crazychefs. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

The olive grove of Amfissa. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. originating in Dos Hermanas.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. but only a few are grown to a large extent. often after being pitted. which consists of 1. It is used mostly for oils. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. with purple-green skin. anchovies. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so.crazychefs. Seville. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. 'Bosana'. grown around the world. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. stuffed (with pickled pimento. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. 'Manzanilla'. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. rounded-oval fruit. a large. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. Rich taste and thick pulp. In recent times.200. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . A prolific bearer. in southern Spain.net/ . The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape.Cailletier cultivar. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops.

originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. and elongated. 'Souri'. It is mainly used for oil. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. originating from the southern Peloponese. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. named after the city of Kalamata. Due to their highly valued flavour. a small. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. used as a table olive.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. Greece. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. This small olive. It is used both for oil and for table olives. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. large. 'Cornicabra'. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. The flavour is mild and nutty.net/ . its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. Spain. medium size. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits).[23] 'Barnea'. 'Empeltre'. originating in Toledo. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. which. originating in the south of France (Aude département). but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Moreover. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. a large. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. originating in the province of Córdoba. even on clay if well drained. round. brown olive grown in Catalonia. The olive is medium sized. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. Spain. 'Kalamata'. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. They grow in any light soil. 'Arbequina'. originating in the south of France. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. 'Nabali'. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world.[21] 'Koroneiki'. 'Picual'. though difficult to cultivate. Spain.com http://www. another modern Israeli.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. It is green. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. They are black and generally used for table consumption. 'Hojiblanca'. It has a strong but sweet flavour. They are green. disease-resistant. and elongated. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. good for eating and for oil. good for eating and for oil. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. and coastal climate conditions.crazychefs. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. Their flavour is mild and nutty.

Where the olive is carefully cultivated. being very hard and close-grained.crazychefs. P. In southern Europe.poorer soil. Occasionally. In some places in Italy and Greece. and with the season and the cultivar.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. it is valued by woodworkers. In Italy. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. More specifically. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. but the time varies in each country. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. to facilitate germination. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. the trees are regularly pruned. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. A. the oliviera. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. soon vegetate. In Greece. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. up to several centuries. which form small swellings on the stems. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. as in Languedoc and Provence.net/ .) Olives like hot weather. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. embryonic buds. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. and can remain productive for as long. Olives grow very slowly. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. 114). Another method uses an electric tool. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. Olives are propagated in various ways. removing fruit from the tree. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. They tolerate drought well. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. This method is used for olives used for oil. However. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down.com http://www. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit.

The method also involves sawing off branches. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. which can be eaten fresh. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. or green with hints of colour). The olives are soaked in water to wash. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating.net/ . which is a natural preservative. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. Typical yields are 1. then drained..crazychefs. the creation of lactic acid. After some weeks.5-2.g. Fresh are often sold at markets. which is why they taste milder than green olives.com http://www. a bitter carbohydrate. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. the fruit is not bruised. which is healthy for future production. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. which leads to a superior finished product. As a result. Olives can be used green. through to full purple black ripeness.2 kg of oil per tree per year. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. large fruit (e. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife.

In France and north-central Italy. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. wine. Lye-curing. Pests. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. especially to young trees. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. The ten largest producing countries. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. feta. but can be left to cure for up to three months. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. causing great damage to plantations.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. A species of bacterium.com http://www. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. induces tumour growth in the shoots. Cycloconium oleaginum. Popular flavourings are herbs. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. olives suffer occasionally from frost. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. juniper berries and anchovies. or removing the pit and stuffing them. lemon juice.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. diseases. of which the water is changed daily. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. oleae[27].salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. and weather A fungus. spices. chili. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. lemon zest.crazychefs. their main predators are wasps. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. capsicum (pimento).[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. vinegar. Sometimes. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor.6 to 8. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. an unnatural method. olive oil. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. leaving sawtooth damage. salt-curing. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. garlic cloves. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month.net/ . Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world.

Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves." (Herodotus.149. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.000 250.5.000 1.000 318.000 20. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 498.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard. An introduction. 1. 3.14.597.000 998. 81. Odyssey. 82. 5. 4. On the Causes of Plants.9 6.339 300.[31] References 1.000 280.500.888 178.4 30." (Diodorus Siculus.8 16. ^ Theophrastus.981 1. 6.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.1 25.000 1. and to cultivate olive-trees.685 765. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees..317. 4.3 20. 4.13. Description of Greece 1. most notably South Australia.000 594.160.830 2.com http://www. Bibliotheke.6 31. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.000 470. 38. Ancient Greek Agriculture.0 3.400.. p. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.000 275. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.000 430.5 6.000 49. to make bee-hives. 5.3 8.1). ^ Pausanias.000 8. 3.140.crazychefs. 1).089 6.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.7 27.5 63. 27.100 3. book 5". ^ Homer.064 2. 7. ^ ". and was the first to instruct men in these matters..5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.000 550.800. 1992. 2.988 500. 1 ).300.net/ ..

Cavagnaro P. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. op. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol..net/ . Rackham. ^ Lewington. 32:166–169. Epikouria Magazine. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. 1982. 29. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. Retrieved 2007-03-10. ^ Fotiadi. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. Spring/Summer 2006 26. N. ^ Gooch.com/study.com http://www. Y. 1996. Bacteriol. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Masuelli. John Hutton. 23. AGRISCIENTA.aspx?PageID=151. J.W. J. ca 30 BC 9.. Moody. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". ^ http://www. ^ "Old Olive Tree". p. ^ Burr. nom. 69." Horace.htm. 27. Juárez.31. ^ [1] 21. 13. ^ Lumaret. http://www.cit. 4th edition. ^ "FAO. ^ Riley. 105. Madrid. 1999. & Ouazzani. D. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. Leshonenu (Hebrew). M.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading.zatoun. 2004". ^ Muncipality Bar.279 18. Volume 15. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. EspasaCalpe S. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. 1779. ^ Janse. vol. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". Epikouria Magazine. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. Int. ^ a b M. Apps3. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. Australian Olives. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. Ellen. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". p. & Parker.. ^ O. cited in F.A. Pseudomonas syringae subsp.org/wiews/olive/intro. 24. pp 110–113. Syst. rev. ^ Balfour. Available through Google Books 11. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. J.fao. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. (1999) Ancient Trees. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. Tabak & O. Kislew. Processing methods. 1981. me cichorea levesque malvae. http://apps3. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. R. Number 4). Fall/Spring (2005) 12. Riley (2002). E. http://www.fao. 30. Zatoun. A. http://www. 17. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Elena "Unusual Olives".. nov.hr/Home..springerlink.15. R. Brijuni National Park. Odes 1. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope.org.pasoroblesolivefestival. 28. Retrieved 2009-05-18.brijuni. 29 April. M Bauza & R. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15.com/content/dlb533pw9cbwc59e/. (September 2002). ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". J.jsp.com/ 25. Retrieved 2007-08-31.8. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Simhoni. 2001. Volume 18:27-35 20. 35. ^ Belaj et al.crazychefs.

L. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. western North America. with an entire margin. however." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. and south to northern Mexico.R. with slender branched stems. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. Corresponding to its species name. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood.net/ .31.com http://www. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. The leaves are lanceolate. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb.crazychefs. (French tarragon. glossy green. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. seldom produces flowers.

crazychefs. Persian and Russian word for . Russia and Ukraine. by extension. without excessive watering. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. it normally goes dormant in winter.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. which is the Armenian. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. It is normally purchased as a plant. Fresh.[1] It likes a hot. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant.[1] Russian tarragon (A.net/ . spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. dracunculoides L. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. sunny spot. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). Georgia and.[1] However. fish and egg dishes. and particularly suitable for chicken. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. due to the presence of estragole. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but cannot be grown from seed. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. Spreading plant can be divided easily. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. A perennial.com http://www. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased.

^ a b c d McGee. 2. Rose Marie Nichols. pp.com http://www. 3. ISBN 9783527607891. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Horst. Maggie (2002). Foerstner J. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. Wiley-VCH. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. Workman Publishing.Cis-Pellitorin. Properties and Uses. Ley JP. Machinek A. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Stuckey. ^ Gatfield IL. Johannes Panten (2006).crazychefs. The Bountiful Container.[3] In Slovenia.net/ . 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. References 1. 233. ^ Surburg. Krammer G.

Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. cheeses (Sage Derby). It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. Garden sage. In the Balkans and the Middle East. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. it is used when roasting mutton. Dalmatian sage. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. Purple sage. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. In the United States. Kitchen sage.com http://www. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. and blue to purplish flowers. Broadleaf sage. It is a member of the mint family. In French cuisine. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia).net/ . with woody stems. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub.Salvia officinalis (Sage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. Lamiaceae. Culinary sage. though other species. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. grayish leaves. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. sage has a slight peppery flavor. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. In Western cooking. Common sage. Britain and Flanders.crazychefs. and some drinks.

net/ .trichomes are visible. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. cornsole. chlorogenic acid.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. means ―to heal". The underside of a sage leaf . cornsolic acid. antifungal. antibiotic.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . Sage leaf contains tannic acid. ursonic acid. caffeic acid.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. nicotinamide. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. niacin. The Latin name for sage.more trichomes are visible on this side. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. astringent. ursolic acid. flavones. and thujone. and estrogenic substances. which contains cineole. borneol. and tonic. salvia. antispasmodic. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate.[1] In a double blind. oleic acid. estrogenic. hypoglycemic.crazychefs. flavonoid glycosides.com http://www. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. fumaric acid.

[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. OBeWise Nutriceutica. ^ Akhondzadeh S. doi:10. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. and for low ground cover. a local anesthetic for the skin.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. Dioscorides. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. a wild undershrub he called sphakos.com/nutri/page8453.00463. yellow and green variegated leaves. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. 'Icterina'. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. 'Alba'. hemostatic. Mohammadi M. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. 2. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. snakebites.com http://www. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. especially in sunny dry environments. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages.x. Retrieved 2008-02-04.1046/j. a styptic.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. a white-flowered cultivar.crazychefs. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. a purple-leafed cultivar. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. ^ a b c "Sage".1365-2710.php. and tonic. http://www.appliedhealth. 'Berggarten'. Khani M. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil.2003.net/ .[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. 'Lavandulaefolia'. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. a cultivar with white. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (2003). randomized and placebo-controlled trial". An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. emmenagogue. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. a small leaved cultivar. Pliny. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. Noroozian M. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). and for other uses. 'Tricolor'. 'Extrakta'. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. References 1. and more.[4] It was sometimes called S. Applied Health. increasing women's fertility. a cultivar with large leaves. PMID 12605619. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. Ohadinia S. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. and used as a diuretic. Jamshidi AH. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages.

pp. 10-11. Deni Bown (New York: DK. (2000). Sage: The Genus Salvia. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. CRC Press.net/ . 4.crazychefs. ISBN 9789058230058. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b Kintzios. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses.3. Spiridon E. p.com http://www.

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