Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. Portuguese. and in those derived from them. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). In some Levantine countries. storage life is rarely more than a week. Libyan. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dried. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. It tolerates drought well. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. Italian. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a .com http://www. While summer-seasonal. cuttings. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. Leaves are often chopped. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. and of herbes de Provence. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient.g. the whole sprig may be used (e.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Albanian. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. fresh thyme is often available year-round. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. soups and stews. Thyme. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. Depending on how it is used in a dish. It can be propagated by seed. Greek. assume that it means fresh. in a bouquet garni). It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. and Turkish cuisines.crazychefs. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. In French cuisine. tomatoes and eggs. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Spanish. Lebanese. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). Syrian. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. while flavourful. As a rule of thumb.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. or by the sprig. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. which is due to its content of thymol. Persian.a little less if it is ground.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices.

[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 http://www. but is grown as a ground cover. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. hybrid T. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. Because it is antiseptic.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb.crazychefs. All thyme species are nectar sources. It also has medicinal uses. The dried equivalent is 1:3. salve. it was used to medicate bandages.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. pulegioides × T. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed].estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5] As with bay. etc. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. tisane. an .[6] Thymol.

Variegated lemon thyme. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used http://www. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/ . good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity.crazychefs. http://www. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/ .Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.

5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates . B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133. and American cooking.Sugars http://www. European.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. often used as spice. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.Dietary fiber 3.1 mg recommendations for adults. B3) 1.0 μg Calcium 138.9 g . Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro). although parsley has a milder flavor.3 g 0.2 mg Magnesium 50.0 mg Iron 6.0 mg Phosphorus 58.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. It is common in Middle Eastern.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.1 mg Folate (Vit.1 mg 6.8 g 3.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B2) 0.2 mg 13% Niacin ( . B1) 0.crazychefs.

tuberosum). Like many other umbellifers. not blooming until its second year. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. reducing pest attraction. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. For example. used in soups and stews. Although little known in Britain and the United States. it is not related to real turnips. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic http://www. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. While parsley is biennial. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. or flat leaf (P. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. it attracts predatory insects. However. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European . which then tend to protect plants nearby. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. neapolitanum). which helps accommodate the long taproot.

with fish.drugs. e.[3] Parsley is high (1. [1]) in oxalic acid. 2." West Virginia University Extension Service. parsley is part of bouquet garni. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). Jett. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. leaf. and sauces. steaks. garlic. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. soups. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks.html. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. http://www. fried chicken. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. a mixture of parsley. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew.plucodes.g. root. In Southern and Central Europe. Parsley as an oil. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. lamb or". In addition. http://www. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon.crazychefs. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Last retrieved April 26.70% by mass. Ossobuco alla milanese. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European http://www. and lemon zest. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. 4. References". Goulash or Chicken paprikash). on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. or 4900. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook .of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. ^ a b c John W. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. "That Devilish Parsley. "Parsley on plucodes. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon).aspx?id=1075&s=4.. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads.

com http://www.crazychefs.Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . http://www. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum . vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.

3-4 mm long. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and to add a nice. Varieties There are a number of subspecies.crazychefs. e.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. and lovage http://www. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. as well as cultivars. each with distinct flavours. Unlike most Italian herbs. capers. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. spicy flavor. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. of the mint family. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. O vulgare gracile. Oregano growing in a field. It is a perennial herb. Spanish and in Italian cuisine.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. The flowers are purple. Oregano is an important culinary herb. which is popular in southern Italy. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. and grilled . produced in erect spikes. Greek. growing to 20-80 cm tall. Together with basil. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. native to Europe.g.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . fried vegetables. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano).

It has an aromatic. Oregano growing in a pot. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. heracleoticum (Italy. it can be usually found on table. In Turkish Cuisine. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Balkan peninsula. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. which.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. salt and pepper. useful for relieving children's coughs. The influence of climate. differs significantly in taste. however. In the Philippines. especially for mutton and lambs meat.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue.[5][6] Additionally. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal http://www. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. together with paprika. warm and slightly bitter taste. West Asia) have similar . Asia Minor) and O.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor.crazychefs. It varies in intensity. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖.

is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. and caryophyllene. fungal infections. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses.[8] Hippocrates. emmenagogue.uni-graz. pinene. Plectranthus amboinicus. influenza. the father of medicine. limonene. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. useful for relieving children's coughs. Used topically.[7] and painful menstruation.html. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. this substitution would not work the other way round. Aqueous extracts. stomachic and mildly tonic. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. Lippia berlandieri. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[12] References 1. capsules. A Cretan oregano (O. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. ^ http://www. mild fevers. enteric . cholagogue. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. including Poliomintha longiflora. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". stimulant. antispasmodic. carminative. but is usually stronger. especially in the United States. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. expectorant. thymol.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). indigestion. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore http://www. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. Coleus aromaticus).[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. oregano. ^ Organic Gardening 2. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. ocimene. diaphoretic. In the Philippines. also called Cuban oregano.crazychefs. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. stomach upsets. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United constituents include carvacrol.

http://jn.2008. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". PMID 16218659. draft revision for "organum". et al.1021/jf0510079. Draft revision for "oregano".ac. ^ Dragland. ^ Epikouria Fall/Winter 2007 10. and Origanum vulgare L. (01 May 2003). draft revision for "origanum". Leonor. et J. 6.10. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum . 28.nutrition. 12. Steinar. 133 (5): 1286–1290. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". 11. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". University of the West of England. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L.asp?item=1374& http://www. Retrieved 2008-11-26. ^ ["http://www. Food Chem. ^ a b Faleiro. J Nutr.crazychefs.3. Medical News Today. (2005). PMID 12730411. http://www. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/ Retrieved 200811-26. (Cav. 24 November 2008. 7.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. 53 (21): 8162–8168. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online.php. doi:10.uwe.medicalnewstoday.". ^ Epikouria Magazine. March 2009. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. June 2008.dmannose. Fall/Spring 2007 5.

John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). perennial.[2] In Greek mythology. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. meaning "hay".com http://www. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. it was from the giant fennel. recorded in the 10th century. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. umbelliferous herb. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 . that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. it seems. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. It is a hardy.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Ferula communis. Also. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. however. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae).[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. In Ancient Greek.

crazychefs.29 g 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. with hollow stems.5 mm wide.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . half as wide or less.01 mg 7. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill. B3) 0. It is erect.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. B1) 0. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. and grooved. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike).Dietary fiber 3.5 m. about 0. they are finely dissected. . and grows to heights of up to 2.20 g http://www.047 mg Folate (Vit. but thinner.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B2) 0.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. glaucous green. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.

which is also known by several other names. vulgare var. it is often mislabelled as "anise".com http://www.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. "bronze-leaved" .191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. both raw and cooked. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. though usually not as strong. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). but is more aromatic and sweeter.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. in pastures.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. It is of cultivated origin.crazychefs. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. by the late 19th century. the United States. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. both in its native range and elsewhere. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. including northern Europe. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant.20 mg Manganese 0.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. syn. In North American supermarkets. notably the Italian name finocchio. for its edible.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. It propagates well by seed. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. F. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. and in other open sites in many regions. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds.

badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. or eaten raw. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. where bulbs and fronds are used. mouri in Bengali.crazychefs. and risottos. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. It may be blanched or marinated. pastas. For http://www. variyali in Gujarati. badesoppu in Kannada. The bulb is a crisp. in side dishes. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. foliage. but also the most expensive. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. grilled. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. Many egg. green seeds are optimal. stewed. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam . vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. sompu in Telugu. anise-flavoured spice. braised. or cooked in risotto. which are very similar in taste and appearance. both raw and cooked. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. brown or green in colour when fresh. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. often tossed with chicory and avocado. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. though smaller. fish. salads.Fennel. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ).

sometimes with some sweetener. although not supported by direct evidence.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. Fennel tea. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[12] For adults. This use.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. or its polymers.crazychefs. used to ease flatulence in infants. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. act as phytoestrogens.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. also employed as a carminative. Fennel seeds are also eaten http://www. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. as it is said to improve eyesight.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding .

Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast http://www. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. badian (star anise).justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. fennel and coriander. which promote growth of breast tissue. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. followed by India. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum . and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.crazychefs.[17] However.

[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's http://www.C. native to Sri Lanka. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon.[2] In Marathi. itself ultimately from Phoenician.crazychefs. synonym C. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.[5] In Malayalam.[3] In Sri Lanka. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. the "real' . cinnamon is known as kurundu. Ceylon. Hindi.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. and in Gujarati taj. it is called Dalchina Chakka. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. in the original Sinhala. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. it is called "Darchini" ( ). In Bengali. which are often called cinnamon too. it is known as "DalChini ( )". Chakka meaning bark or wood. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. In Urdu. In Telugu. it is called darchin (‫. In Farsi (Persian). and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni .)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade.crazychefs. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. and in Song of Solomon. aloe and cinnamon. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 . from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew .[8] Before the foundation of Cairo.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. in Proverbs. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. where the lover's bed is perfumed with http://www. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. a song describing the beauty of his beloved.

was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. a Dutch captain reported. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. took control of the factories by 1640. p. tea. and used them to construct their nests. have a greenish color. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. in a letter of about 1292. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. and http://www. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more.1 inches) long. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. and have a distinct odor.crazychefs. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman . the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate.75–7. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. However.Ages. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. 7–18 cm (2. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. sugar. which are arranged in panicles. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew.2 feet) tall. "The shores of the island are full of it". The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. They established a trading post in 1638. although in the first century." (Braudel 1984.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. The flowers. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years.8–49. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers.

which is left to dry. Brazil. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. Java. and Vietnam. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C.5 mm) inner bark is used. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. Chips are trimmings of quills.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. Vietnam. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. Madagascar. the outer woody portion is removed. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. India. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on . each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. about a dozen shoots will form from the http://www. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. Sumatra. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[15] According to the FAO. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. Only the thin (0. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. the West Indies. followed by China. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. Zanzibar. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. verum). Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. The next year. eg.crazychefs. According to the International Herald Tribune. Bangladesh. and Egypt. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon.

also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. as all of the layers of bark are used.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. the related species. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon.crazychefs. zeylanicum). for example. or "Indonesian cinnamon".[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[16] Ceylon cinnamon. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). However. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. using only the thin inner . Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). and is considered to be less strong than cassia. "Vietnamese cinnamon". Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. has a finer. hard and woody in texture. less dense. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. and more crumbly texture. many websites.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. and thicker (2–3 mm thick).com http://www. is generally a medium to light reddish brown. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu .

European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. It is of a golden-yellow color. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered http://www. and then quickly distilling the whole. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. which is the main importer of true cinnamon.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. and sweets. when whole. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. are easily distinguished. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bread-based dishes.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. and liqueurs. rather than cassia. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. and fruits. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into . capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. ‫. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. a deep-blue tint is produced.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. In the Middle East. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. tea. especially apples. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. hot cocoa. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. especially in Mexico.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). whereas cassia sticks are much harder. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. macerating it in seawater. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. used in a variety of thick soups.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. In the United States. drinks.5% to 1% of its composition. The two barks. but when cassia is present. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. such as apple pie. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). True cinnamon.

Sri Lanka (Ceylon). "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). who failed.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). The Cinnamon Challenge. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh.crazychefs. linalool. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. Encyclopaedia Britannica." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. ^ a b "Cinnamon".[34] Notes 1. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber http://www.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. In Hoodoo. beta-caryophyllene. and anethole.and a very hot aromatic taste. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. few seem able to succeed.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. 2008. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. eugenol. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. cinnamyl acetate.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. although it remains untested. luck. and money. and Myanmar (Burma).net/ . However. cassia.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. cinnamaldehyde. love. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations.

^ http://news.html. Torres RP (December 1998).html.fao. 53 (20): 7749–59. http://www.html. Sir James Emerson. Agric. ^ Mancini-Filho J. 8. 437). 437f. Van-Koiij A. Sun M. ^ http://www.iol. ^ http://www. revised ed. retrieved 2008-07-15 11.thespicehouse.theepicentre. retrieved 200705-01 21. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. ^ Yule. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ Shan B. ^ Tennent.—Cinnamon. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour. ^ Toussaint-Samat thespicehouse. 10. PMID 16190627. http://dsr.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14.htm. Account of the Island of Ceylon. 22. ^ Knox. retrieved 2008-07-15 5.jstor. http://www. The History of Food. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum.henriettesherbal. http://lakdiva.1021/jf051513y. Cozzolino FF. ^ The Epicentre.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". ^ [1] 16. http://www. ^ López P. Col. Cathay and the Way Thither. Henry. ^ http://findarticles.1021/jf050709v. Food Chem. doi:10. ^ 17. Food Chem. 23.CO%3B2-N 15. Cai YZ. J. retrieved 200807-15 6. 2009. 53 (17): 6939–46. doi:10.en. ^ Harris. J.htm _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/ . "Solid. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". PMID 16104824. PMID ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Anthea Bell. p.crazychefs. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. ^ Felter. p. tr. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Robert. Breyne) extracts". ^ [2] 18.nii." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. ^ http://www. 13. p. Encyclopedia of Emily. Harvey. Sánchez C. Nerín C (August 2005).ac. ^ " 437 7. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. 9. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. Corke H (October 2005).com/Spices/cinnamon. http://www.2. Cinnamomum. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.ihaystack. Batlle _of_life/html/1. retrieved 2007-05-01 19.php?storyId=6672644. Mancini DA.

redorbit. Fernand (1984).com. Medicinal Seasonings. ^ Ranjbar. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. ^ Verspohl.2217/14750708. Retrieved 2007-12-17. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. et al. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". Retrieved 2008-05-11. The Perspective of the World. Eugen J. Braudel. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206.2217/14750708. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). Eleventh Edition. 34.3. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. 26. a publication now in the public domain.php?featured_food=80. http://www. July 2000. Charles (1998). Research: Thalido. http://www.2337/diacare.113. ground. doi:10. Cinnamon. http://www. 28. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". Retrieved 200805-11.diabetesjournals.crazychefs.24. s_have_been/index.. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. www...futuremedicine. http://www. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). ^ Vanschoonbeek. Retrieved 2008-05-11. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".. ^ Beck.utm. Archer (1988).com. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".sciencedaily. Alan W..html? Cat.3.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. ^ Taher.1016/00219673(88) Akram et al. http://care.pdf. 33.nutrition. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000).1. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr.1643. Khattak KN.12. Muhammad et al. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.sciencedaily. retrieved 200705-01 .113. ^ Yronwode. ^ Khan A.luckymojo. Corn. Kristof et al.1. PMID 14633804.26. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". Safdar M. http://www. retrieved 200705-01 32. 27. Ali Khan MM. ^ George Mateljan Foundation.3215. http://eprints.htm. http://www. Anderson RA (December 2003). "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". Retrieved 200808-05. New York: Kodansha International. doi:10. doi:10.1002/ptr. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured ^ [3]..lesliebeck. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". Agricultural Research doi:10. (2005). Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism.whfoods. Leslie.

Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. and dehydrated forms. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus http://www.crazychefs.M. powdered. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Allium asarense R. which it is not. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. . used without qualifiers. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.Department of Export Agriculture. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. They are now available in fresh. frozen. one of the oldest vegetables. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. They are known by the common name "onion" but.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. pickled. chopped."[3] Uses Onions. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. it usually refers to Allium cepa. Onions can be used. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved.

com http://www.crazychefs. an onion can be sharp. In Bronze Age settlements. coughs. cats. and also to relieve headaches. recent evidence has shown that dogs. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". and other animals should not be given onions in any form. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women.chopped or sliced. In ancient Greece.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. due to toxicity during digestion. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish.[5] The onion is easily propagated.[5] However. snakebite and hair loss.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. spicy. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for . The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. transported and stored. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. However. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. Depending on the variety.

11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.042 g .017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.1 g 1.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.4 mg Vitamin E 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .saturated 0.1 g 89.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.7 g Fat . Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.116 mg Vitamin B6 .21 mg Magnesium 0. B1) http://www.34 g 0.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.monounsaturated 0.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.12 mg Folate (Vit.Dietary fiber 1. 0 μg 9.013 g . B2) 0.24 g . B3) 0.Sugars 4.polyunsaturated 0.02 mg Vitamin K 0.

Empire Sweet. Texas 1015. anticholesterol. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. Northern Red. Western White. osteoporosis. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. and Vidalia. Shallots have the most phenols.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). . However. Empire Sweet. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting http://www. For all varieties of onions. followed by Western Yellow. Imperial Valley Sweet. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). Peruvian Sweet. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. Texas 1015. anticancer. Northern Red. and Vidalia. Peruvian Sweet.[10] In many parts of the world. In the United States. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. Peruvian Sweet. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. Imperial Valley Sweet.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. In general. Mexico. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. Imperial Valley Sweet. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. Empire Sweet. some studies have found their action to be ineffective.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. Western Yellow.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. eleven times the amount found in Western White.crazychefs. Texas 1015. Mexico. and other diseases.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. pungent yellow (New York Bold). onions are used to heal blisters and boils. Western White. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. If you are allergic to onions. diabetes.

or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). garlic. cells are broken. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. diarrhea. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. The volume of sulfenic acids released. differs among Allium species. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology.crazychefs. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. all present in garlic. where it binds to sensory . 2008.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. Eye irritation can. it can lead to an allergic reaction. creating a stinging sensation. garden lilies. chives.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. nausea. mouth and throat http://www. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. and the irritation effect. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. limiting the amount of gas generated. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. As onions are sliced or eaten. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. allylmercaptan and allicin. ginger.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. On January 31. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. therefore. leeks. shallots. and bananas. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking.include reactions to onions. breathing difficulties. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. allylpropyldisulfide.

are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one . their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. the Welsh onion. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. more commonly today. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. which have been developed in more recent times. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. Finally. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. from sets started from seed the previous year. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. Allium http://www. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. which can be planted directly in the ground. "short-day" onions. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions.

each of which forms a bulb. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring .346 2. Oregon (USA).758 Russia 1.793 India 5. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .Produce bulblets in the flower head.302 1. Vale. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet http://www.149 Spain World Total 64.637 Japan Egypt 1. a hybrid of Allium cepas. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.crazychefs.500 China United States 3.764 Pakistan 1.220 Turkey 1.750 South Korea 1.

after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. It remains in effect as of 2009. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United http://www.crazychefs.The Onion Futures Act. passed in 1958. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near .

Medical Botany. 1793. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Its close relatives include the onion. commonly known as garlic.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with http://www. the most commonly used part of the plant. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes.crazychefs. and chive. shallot. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. leek.[1] A bulb of garlic. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called . is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. from William Woodville. It has a characteristic pungent. Allium sativum. known as garlic.

a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. stems (scape).1%) and South Korea (2%) follow.[5] The "wild garlic". The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength . They can suffer from pink root. Allium vineale. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. In North America. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth.crazychefs. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. and Allium http://www. for consumption (raw or cooked). There are different types or subspecies of garlic. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. The papery. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are common weeds in fields. In cold climates. "crow garlic". The leaves. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). India (4.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. The cloves are used as seed. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. Garlic plants can be grown close together. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic.Yunnan province of China. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. accounting for over 77% of world output. the so-called elephant garlic. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. Garlic is grown globally. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. according to Zohary and Hopf. with approximately 10. respectively. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. and for medicinal purposes. with Russia (1. which grows wild in southwestern Asia.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually.

400 140. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.4%). and parts of South and Central America.000 645. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. C = calculated figure. the Middle http://www. A = aggregate (may include official. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. or ginger. semiofficial. P = official figure. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or estimates).000 128.000 221. south Asia.000 254. including eastern Asia. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. northern Africa.810 168. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world".000 125. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12.000 325. It is often paired with onion. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.088. southern Europe.Alaska) in fifth place (1.686. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. F = FAO estimate. California. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. Southeast Asia. tomato.000 142.000 15.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global .

"stems". The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. Immature scapes are tender and . and a chunky base produce skordalia. called black garlic. oil. breads and pasta. and roast them in an oven. In some cuisine. Garlic. Blending garlic. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. meat. In eastern Europe. They are also known as "garlic spears". cleaned.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. is sweet and syrupy. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. the resulting product. or vegetables. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. garlic toast. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. or "tops". almond. salt. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves are cut. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. In Japan and Korea.crazychefs. and is now being sold in the United States. and spices. and then stir-fried with eggs. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. United Kingdom and Australia. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. http://www. crostini and canapé. bruschetta. meats.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. persillade. or leeks.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. garlic. leeks. forming allyl methyl sulfide. however. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. When eaten in quantity. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. and bananas. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. deterring animals like birds. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. Humans. all present in garlic. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. garlic could be worn. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. hung in windows. such as pistou. However. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. usually enjoy these sensations. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. and release of AMS several hours more. thus mellowing its spiciness. . allylpropyldisulfide. The herb is. Among the members of the onion family. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. including onions. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. included in many garlic recipes. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic.[50] In Europe. where it is excreted.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. ginger. garden lilies. Since digestion takes several hours. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. werewolves. shallots. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. allylmercaptan and allicin. and worms from eating the plant. http://www. However. and vampires. making garlic much more potent than onions. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. insects. therefore. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic.[48] Due to its strong odor.crazychefs.[51] To ward off vampires.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic.

It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. You can help by converting this article to prose.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. http://www. indicated Muhammad. if any exist. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. are largely unknown. as well as other medications. . which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. Editing help is available. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. antiplatelets. However. bleeding. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. and hypoglycemic drugs. minimal risks to normal individuals. nausea.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. emesis. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi".[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved.crazychefs. allergic reactions. antiparasitic value of garlic. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). saquinavir.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.In Daoism mythology. calcium channel blockers.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. similar to the effect of aspirin. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. if appropriate. and menstrual irregularities. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque".[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. and diarrhea.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. Garlic can thin the blood. at worst. sweating.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. dizziness.

^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Notes 1.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). (2004).com http://www. ^ http://www. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". 112 7. one the bulbs will grow peeled. ^ McGee p. A bulb of have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. Retrieved 5 June. 2000). In particular. 3. Retrieved 2007-08-28. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came.natural-holistic-health. http://hdl. et al. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. 2. ^ a b c d Tabor.html. ^ a b Lee. 197 5. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. G.nj. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Domestication of plants in the Old World.jhortscib. including burns to children.htm. split. third edition (Oxford: University Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. bigger.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns.) cultivars at Debre Zeit.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable.html 8.crazychefs. J. topical use of raw garlic. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. Retrieved 5 June 2009. garlick)". et al. (2005). maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum 9.handle. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. 397 6. Ethiopia". p. ^ http://www. is discouraged. 4. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876.

005. 25. Akrami M (March 2007). Motta. doi:10. 104 (46): 17977–82. Natl. et al (February 2007). garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. Kavutcu M. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5.1162/106361403773062678. July 1. A Modern Herbal.346.1002/mnfr. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. Block PMID 17123684.A 400 Year History. 2006. Intern. ^ a b Steiner M. doi:10. Maud. 22. PMID 17325296. ^ Kojuri J. Garlic.167. N. Olcay E.jnutbio. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. [2] ^ Hamel. http://archinte. 21. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). ^ Mader FH (October 1990).. PMID 15157944. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". 32.4. Proc. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol".1001/archinte. 12.. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic".2004. 13. PMID 17966136. Paul B. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. 24.ama-assn. 17. and Mary U. et al (November 2007).0705710104.1186/1476-511X-6-5. 167 (4): 346–53. ^ Charlson M. doi:10. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). (p. doi:10. ^ Borrelli F. 28. ^ Goodbye. et al (June 2004).1016/j. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health .A. 31. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. Güven C (2002). J. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97.C.S.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. ^ Durak I. 14. Acad. ^ Gardner CD. doi:10.200700058. http://personalpages. PMID 17951430. Mills RW. A. 15. PMID Ferraresi. Aytaç B. ^ Durak I. 5. PMID 17325291.. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. Sci. PMID McFerren M (February 2007). Capasso R. Izzo AA (November 2007). Dent. ^ Chan KC.manchester.1002/mnfr. 167 (4): 325–6.200700072. PMID 17918162. 20. 23. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". 27. doi:10. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats".ama-assn. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. 18. 26. Med.10. Facts. Herald Publishing Co. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345.325. F. 2005 ^ Groppo. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6.pdf. P. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. 5:109–115. PMID 15218732.1001/archinte.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. Squadrito GL. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study".). Yin MC. doi:10. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. and Empiricism" (PDF). 15 (6): 373–7. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. Intern. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . 35.4. Sartoratto. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know".. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". 16. doi:10. Lawson LD. Arch. Chao WJ (March 2007). "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. 34. Oztürk HS. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci.167. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44.lehoux/Tropes.1073/ 54 | P a g e .. 19. PMID 9641475. Arch. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". Sova P (May 2004). ^ Benavides GA. 33. 29. Daryn (2003). Lin RS (June 1998). Better Nutrition. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (Mrs." Int. Ramacciato. Sylva. J. PMID 15277094. 11. Accessed: December 18.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. Biochem. Nutr. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". doi:10. Vosoughi AR. U. "Tropes. J. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. Hyg.01. http://archinte. R. Med.

Ronen M (November 2001).uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. Toxicol. UK Medicines Information.January 29.go. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. ^ http://www. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6.goldbamboo. Antimicrob.jst. Lau B.1128/AAC. garlic advisory 63..sgmjournals.htm 44.pdf. (1989-01-30). Engl. 41. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. ^ Oi Y. PMID Sumida T. Houghton Mifflin. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. ^ McNally p.. Itakura Y. Retrieved 2007-0707. 42. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. PMID 16207909. ^ Health Canada .) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65.unito. et al (October 2005). 85 (3): 157–64. ^ McGee p. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] http://www. ^ Baruchin AM. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. ^ Bukhari. 64. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2.1099/ 54. doi:10. Teel R.28095-0.html Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. 049 . http://joi. Complementary Medicines Summary. Shishido C. ^ Lemar KM. Castro C. ^ http://washokufood. Kominato Y. 58.jst. 37. "Allixin. Nishimura S. Summer 2005 . Bordia T. ISBN 0-30436561-0. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. "Garlic burns". (1991-08-01). Volume 7. In Search of Dracula. ^ Garlic .jlc. Fuwa T. section "Conclusion" 48. http://joi. ^ John ^ a b c d Hogg.Garlic-in-Oil 61. 49 (1): 473. Retrieved December 7. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. p.crazychefs. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 65.0. Matuura H.asm.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. Agents Chemother.36. Sterling Publishing. on mutagenesis.2005.. "Garlic burns". Jennifer (2002-12-13). Chesson C. Book 65 57. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats". Nishino ^ http://www. 310–311 47. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30".473. Sagi A.nhs. Imafuku M. http://mic. 211 51. Retrieved December 7. (2001).1.. PMID 11481410. PMID 11600262. ^ Mosquito Repellents "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. 40. a stress compound from garlic.html 45. ^ Pickering. 211.. ^ Fareed G. Thomson M. Yoshida S. ^ Macpherson et al.". 38. Long D. ^ Shuford JA.go. Lett. PMID 8441577. Scolaro M.ukmi. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. Pickering p. Steckelberg JM. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". 52. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. http://aac. "Effect of allixin. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). Slattery M.economicexpert. ^ Kodera Y.blogspot. 49.49. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic . ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. PMID 15616341. 2007. Passa O.. ^ a b McNally. 122.. http://www. Yoffe B. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). W. Raymond T (1994). ^ http://lem. Microbiology (Reading. http://linkinghub. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. National Health Service. H. Sanders N. 4 . http://linkinghub. Iwai K. 1988. Jordan W. 39. Aon MA. Patel R (January 2005).Vol 9 No. PMC: 538912. 43. p. ^ Macpherson et al. Ali M (June 1996). 2007.) 62. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans".com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582. NLM Gateway. a phytoalexin produced by garlic..JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.elsevier.". David (2003).

Koch. PMID http://www. (1992). Bull. A. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Vol. D. R. L. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. R. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Bull. C. Shafir.. Block. Z.. K. (1985). Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian 354-363 (2002). ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. http://circ. Campbell JH (July 1997). 94 (6): 632–5. Am. Kozue Ogasawara. Chatterjee. D. Rabinowitch (2004). Block. Jain AK. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". D. D. Belz GG (October 1997). Jiro Yoshida. Block. Hile. A. Chem. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. D. Naoki Kashimoto. Andy (2004).. L. S. Med.. Efendy JL. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Selfsufficientish . Lawson.. Vargas R.-Z.. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial... Shan. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3)..Garlic. Balise. E. Ling M. (2004). Naoto Uda. 3rd ed. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Chem. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". (1996). Zhang. J. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis.crazychefs. 50. Hort. Gardner. http://linkinghub. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. Garlic. Kraemer. Isao Sumioka. H. Z. Zemah. M. PMID 8441577. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. L. Campbell GR.M. PMID 8506890.[青森県産]. Simmons DL. Block. New York: Avery. (2000). "The effect of the aged garlic extract. P. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Balch. Pharm.. J. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. Pharm. McMahon FG (June 1993). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Retrieved 1 May 2005. .. Susumu Yoshida. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. Lemar. I. R. Masanori Ayabe.elsevier. and Related Species (Second Edition). (2001). Sci. Makoto Ichikawa. Williams & Wilkens. Breithaupt-Grögler K. E. 405-407 (2002).P. The chemistry of garlic and onions. 50. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Garlic burns"..にんにく専門のにんにく屋. and H. 'Kyolic'. Boudoulas H. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. A. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. L. 129: 144–151. [4] Lawson. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. M. Hamilton. Kamenetsky. Barzilay. Turner. Vol. Garty BZ (March 1993).ahajournals. Am. Lloyd.References Japanese garlic. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Kiazand. G. PMID 9355906. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L.. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". J. Lawson. A. C.. Yukihiro Kodera. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono.. D. Wang. H. E. L. Gotzkowsky S. E.

http://meta.1128/AAC. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. http://aac. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Y-Y. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin".12. (eds).Lindsey PMID 8169881.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. (1997). PMID 9641475. Cardiovasc. Abstract. 310–3. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. 31 (6): 904–8. "The Onion Family: Onions. PMID 2291748. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. (1998).473. Shuford JA. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Silagy C. Eid. PMID 15616341.S. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".49. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Veena Viswanath.. J. et al. Scribner. S.asm. Bernhard H. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Steckelberg JM. Yeh. Mader FH (October 1990). Kadam. doi:10. Agents Chemother. Macpherson.. et al.. Steiner M.1. Y-Y. H. SunWook PMC: 538912. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. Garlic. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".. Leeks". Geierstanger. 49 (1): 473. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Pharmacol. Samer http://www. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study".wkhealth. (1999). pp. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Marcel Dekker. D.2005. Patel R (January 2005) . In: Ohigashi. et al. Yeh. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Lin RS (June 1998). Antimicrob. Neil A (1994). FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. Salunkhe. McGee. Michael Bandell. Harold (2004).

) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. In Vietnam. Pakistan. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. and Sri Lanka. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. after which they develop into a bright red. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. syn. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. Zanzibar. it is called đinh hương. when they are ready for collecting. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu.crazychefs. http://www.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. it is also grown in India under the name . Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. and consist of a long calyx.5-2 cm long. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. terminating in four spreading sepals. Cloves are harvested when 1. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green.

Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. cloves are often used to season pho broth. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental .[1] In north Indian cuisine. they are used sparingly.000 tonnes).[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. especially for digestive problems. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. Cloves are used in cheeses. but with the addition of other spices). but as they are extremely strong. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. along with other spices. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. Cloves are used as a carminative. warm and aromatic. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. In Vietnamese cuisine. entering the kidney.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. often in combination with cumin. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. In south Indian cuisine.crazychefs. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. spleen and stomach meridians. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. it is used in almost all http://www. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. which sells Djarum Black. During Christmas.

60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Makian. Khalsa. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. This is also found in Tibetan . skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. including cloves. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang.[6] History Until modern times. and Tidore. pimples etc.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. including for multiple sclerosis.[7] Nevertheless." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. Moti. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness.[5] In West Africa. It is also used in severe burns. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. Brazil.P. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. including Bacan. RH (AHG). which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases.crazychefs. vomiting and diarrhea.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. along with nutmeg and pepper. were highly prized in Roman times.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. mainly from the Maluku Islands. Ayurvedic herbalist stomach qi downward. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. most of the West Indies. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. Ternate. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. Subsequently. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. and to a lesser extent for fever http://www. In the late fifteenth century. and Zanzibar. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces.[7] Cloves. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency.

^ http://oneearthherbs. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7.nlm. ^ Balch. 8. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". Avery Publishing. methyl salicylate (painkiller).[8] Notes and references .Question: Multiple Sclerosis". Andrew and Page. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. and several sesquiterpenes. ^ http://www. stigmasterol and campesterol. ^ "TibetMed .tibetmed. 3. pp. Special Diets for Illness 6. Third Edition by Dan Bensky..In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.html Tilotson.html National Institutes of Health. comprising 72-90%. Jack (2004). 2. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. Alan. John Wiley and Sons Inc.htm. James. Erich Stoger. Steven Clavey. pg.crazychefs. due to the high price of importing them. tannins. Vintage Books. and Andrew Gamble. the flavonoids eugenin. ^ Dorenburg. Third Edition by Dan Bensky.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. http://www. gallotannic acid. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. Medicine Plus. 94. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. ©2000. 5. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. ^ a b http://www.squarespace. kaempferol. ©2003.nih. Spice: The History of a Temptation. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. Phyllis and Balch.. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. and eugenitin. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Steven Clavey. Erich Stoger. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 3rd ed. crategolic acid.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. 18 May 2009 2.asp?table=gbtwo& 4. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise".1542/ http://www.3. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". 6. ^ Joshi. 3. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. (2005). ^ Lederer. http://www. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species.5555/jaoi.Specification".net/ .Botanical nomenclature". et al.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . Vaishali C.crazychefs. ^ International Organization for Standardization. while Lederer et al.iso. (2006). Retrieved 10 November. http://www. http://www. ^ Louisa Lim. doi:10. http://www. 5. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS.703. PMID 15492355.atypon-link. Retrieved 8 June 2009.) f. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. Retrieved 8 June 2009.2005.88. Ines et al. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院.com/BZ-shuju/standshow. NPR.htm?csnumber=19183.2004-0058. doi:10. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al.chinaios. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. Retrieved 8 June 2009.1021/jf058156b. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography".iso.htm?csnumber =4844.

native from the east Mediterranean to East India.crazychefs. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum http://www. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.

longitudinally ridged. In Arabic. In Northern India and Nepal. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. and yellow-brown in colour. in Iran and Central Asia. a member of the parsley family.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. cumin is known as kimyon. in Turkey. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. being oblong in shape. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. in northwestern China. cumin is known as zireh. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. maduru. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. parsley and dill.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . Like many other Arabic words in the English language. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. including kamūnu in Akkadian. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as http://www.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). the story goes.crazychefs. Kerman.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological . The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. locally called "Kermun".

and this practice continues in Morocco. In Sri Lanka. In South Asia. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Uzbekistan. Mexico.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. excavated at the Syrian site Tell . Turkey. Egypt. India. when added to hot milk and consumed. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common http://www. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Tajikistan.crazychefs. Syria.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. and Chile. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. Morocco. Seeds. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). today it is mostly grown in Iran.

and is found in achiote blends. curries. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. enchiladas. containing a single seed. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. popular in Indian. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. white or pink. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common http://www. Middle Eastern. Indian. sofrito. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. garam masala. Today. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. Northern Mexican cuisines. It is an herbaceous annual plant.crazychefs. and in some traditional breads from France. Cuban. pinnate or bipinnate. but are smaller and darker in colour. and other Middle-Eastern. North African. thread-like leaflets. Contrary to popular belief in the US. The flowers are small. and bahaarat. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). . Cumin can be used to season many dishes. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. It is traditionally added to chili.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. Sri Lankan.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. and borne in umbels. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. tacos. curry powder. adobos. either ground or as whole seeds.

Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.24 g 22.crazychefs. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).27 g 17. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.Sugars 2.5 g Fat .Dietary fiber 10.435 mg Folate (Vit.very common in Mexican cuisine. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.33 mg Vitamin K 5. and needs fertile. Cultivation of cumin requires a long.25 g . However.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. sown in spring.7 mg Vitamin E 3. well-drained soil. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. B3) 4. 64 μg 44.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates .saturated 1. it is drought-tolerant.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/ . and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates.81 g 8. hot summer of 3–4 months. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes. It is grown from seed.579 mg Vitamin B6 http://www.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.

For example.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the http://www. from the Swedish word "spisa". Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with . Not related to curcumin. In Polish the difference is even less significant. However. as in 'kot' .Zinc 4. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.a small cat).v. a chemical found in turmeric. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. In Swedish. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix.a cat and 'kotek' . Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin.crazychefs. to eat.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). lighter in colour. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste.).

^ http://www. 2000. p. 7." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). . 9. (2005). ^ "KMN.1021/jf0487351. 3. ^ Growingtaste. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). Lu et al.77. Nicola S." premiumwanadoo. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. doi:10. and Carum carvi (2009). "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. Essential Oils".1016/j. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. 8.". et al. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . from China". ^ "Kamūnu. ^ a b c Li. http://www.1302.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 2. ^ a b "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. Rong. Domestication of plants in the Old World. 2000). third edition (Oxford: University Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 .crazychefs. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. doi:10. 206 5.html 6.313. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". ^ a b 4.

Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal .com http://www.crazychefs. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cardamom. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β http://www. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. or spice. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. In laboratory animals. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. shogaols and . It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). sedative. and galangal. antipyretic and antibacterial properties.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. medicine. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. cineol.crazychefs. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. West Africa and the Caribbean. and citral) have also been identified. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger.

Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. and sugar. to which honey is often added. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. in Tamil Nadu. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. crackers and cake.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. Inji in Tamil. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. and Aduwa in Nepali. or frozen for longer term storage. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. enchi in Malayalam. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. cookies. salt. Allam ( ) in Telugu. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat . Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. Adrak. For storage. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Alay in Marathi.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. especially in the Tanjore belt. in Gujarati. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in http://www. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. and tender green chili peppers. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. particularly gingerols and shogaols. Ginger has a sialagogue action. [edit] Regional use In India. nuts. Additionally. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. ginger ale. ghee. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. which makes swallowing easier. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations.crazychefs. In South India. and ginger beer. Ginger is also made into candy. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. stimulating the production of saliva.

In Vietnam. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. In Japan. and making drinks such as sorrel. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. gingerbread. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. parkin and ginger biscuits. In Arabic. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. during their occupation of the islands. In the traditional Korean kimchi. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ginger snaps. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. On the island of Corfu. Greece. a type of ginger beer. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. is http://www. In Burma. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. ginger is called gyin. It is also consumed as a salad dish called . and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. However. France. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. In China. In the Ivory Coast. In the Caribbean. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. Indonesians also use ground ginger root.crazychefs. In Western cuisine. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. and a variety of nuts and seeds.

Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. which several scientific studies support.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. morning sickness and chemotherapy. though it does interact with some medications. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. though studies been inconsistent. including warfarin. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. cough and cold. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger.crazychefs.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by .com http://www. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation.

In Burma. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce http://www. people use ginger for making tea.crazychefs. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness.[14] In Congo. and heart rhythms. In India. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. In Indonesia. in food etc. ginger can cause heartburn. In the United States. which is considered a panacea. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. particularly if taken in powdered form. In China. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. . Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. clotting. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. it is considered good for a sore throat. belching and nausea.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. reducing "winds" in the blood. and individuals who have had ulcers. and although it's generally recognized as safe.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. bloating. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement.

net/ . followed by Indonesia(~12.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. Scalding.000 158. Production trends India. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting.000 F http://www. but this generally reduces its value. produces black ginger. it is immediately scalded.5%) and Nigeria(~10%).7%). It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. with over 30% of the global share. which has slipped to the second position (~20.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. washing and scraping gives white ginger. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. the root is gathered when the stalk withers.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. now leads in global production of ginger. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. Traditionally. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420.5%). Nepal(~11. replacing China. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. or washed and scraped.

and its root has similar aromatic properties. is used in cooking and medicine. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. a carcinogenic compound.000 28. Retrieved 2008-03-03.000 34. is also known as "wild ginger". 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.270 1. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae www.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138.000 42. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. semiofficial or estimates). is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine.crazychefs.contains ginger material References 1. F = FAO estimate. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan .000 . Also referred to as galangal. A = Aggregate(may include official. Asarum canadense. galangal. http://www.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . The plant also contains aristolochic acid. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. but it is not related to true the flower buds are the part http://www.387. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).pl?42254. Galangal is also called Thai ginger. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".000 8.ars-grin.

amaassn. Mary. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". Retrieved E. Jaw-Chyun.foodchem.library. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1016/j. (2006).htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. PMID 9821826. ^ Zainab M.cfm?displayID=15. et al. & MSt. .crazychefs. Retrieved 2007-0808.html.oxfordjournals. ^ Jakes. Retrieved 5 November. Li-Jiau Huang. 13. MD. PMID 10793599. Sheng-Chu Kuo. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 4. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). Antoine. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. 6.H. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". doi:10. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. http://timeblog. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". Shih-Lu Wu. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by http://archfami. Susan (2007-01-15). 10.01. ^ Chen. Retrieved "A Current Look at Ginger Use". http://journals.523. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). ^ MD O' Hara. doi:10. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. & Pittler. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006).1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). http://www.html. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. 8. Ali Taghizadeh et al. Retrieved 2007-08-02. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. (2007). http://www.cambridge. ^ Afshari. 5. Kathi Kemper. Harold (2004).2006. New York: Scribner ^ Ernst.1001/archfami. 14. 425-426. doi:10. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. 15. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01).org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". MPH (1998). MD.2. Retrieved 2006-09-06. ^ Al-Amin. doi:10. ^ Al-Achi. (01 Mar 2000).mayoclinic. Kim Farrell.7. "Ginger".1021/jf071460f. Tin-Yun http://www. David 7. 3. "Beverage of Champions".com 12. http://www. http://unitproj.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2.013.umm. http://bja.ucla. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". MD.

com . turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Zingiberaceae. and to impart color to mustard condiments. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. Erode.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. In medieval Europe. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. for dyeing. slightly bitter. For these reasons.

cereals. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. custardlike yellow color. much like ginger. sauces. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). biscuits.Yellow City. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. rendang. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. yogurt. sweets. cake icings. etc. relishes. and many more. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern http://www. Over-coloring. In non-South Asian recipes. not only in curry. Although usually used in its dried. and mustard.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. orange juice. dairy products. popcorn color.crazychefs. ice cream. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. or Textile City. yellow . a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. gelatins. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. but also in masak lemak. turmeric is also used fresh.[citation needed] Sangli.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. such as in pickles. powdered form. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. Turmeric City. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products.

yogurt.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. is also treated with turmeric powder. Indians. winter butter and margarine. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern . and other digestive disorders. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. Within one week of using turmeric. Japan. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring.[4] cancer. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices.In combination with annatto (E160b). use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments.crazychefs. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). are spiced with turmeric. burns and bruises. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. It is unknown why it works. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. a traditional dish in South Asia. salad dressings. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. dry mixes. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. It is popular as a tea in http://www. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. an uncurable and debilitating disease. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. arthritis [5] and liver disorders.

India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. research activity into curcumin is exploding. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. In 1998 researchers at St. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world .S. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. Alzheimer's. found in black pepper.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric .crazychefs. Snake Bite Anti venin. with no adverse effects. or BDNF. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. and Pakistan. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. improves the absorption of turmeric. Bangalore. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. which supports nerve growth. Bangladesh. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin http://www.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. John‘s Medical College. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. multiple myeloma. and the U. and colorectal cancer. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric.

a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently.crazychefs. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. such as saris. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. However. as a part of the marriage ritual. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. Also. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . In southern India. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. This happens in economically lower situations. jaggery.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. part of the Bengali wedding. During the south Indian festival Pongal. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant http://www. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. and it is used for power and purification rites. and coconut and cooked in steam.

7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1. 2. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ 6. ^ [|Ketteler. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain".ars-grin. Srinivas PS.6E)-1. keto and enol.5-dione.stm 5.aolhealth. et al.I. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". AOL Health. ^ http://news. doi:10. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.172. ^ http://www. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. or Natural Yellow 3. The systematic chemical name is (1E. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. ^ Chan.crazychefs. Retrieved 2008-03-04.foodchem. http://www. Judy] (June 2009). 1998 Planta Med.1016/j. Joy D.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. www.C. Rajendran R.07.thieme-connect. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Notes Majeed M. Joseph T.1055/s-2006-957450 . (2009). a Shoba G. http://www. 64(4):353-6. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 .com/condition-center/heart-disease/surviving-a-heart-attack. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. Retrieved June 2009.

Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed.9–7.) Willd. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. also known as Candleberry.crazychefs. Kemiri. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with an acute apex. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. http://www. 10–20 centimetres (3.6–2. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). with wide spreading or pendulous . flowers.9 in) long. The nut is round. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. hence its name. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. which allows its use as a candle (see below). The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). Indian walnut.4 in) in diameter. simple and ovate. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. 4–6 centimetres (1. The leaves are pale green.

are applied around the navel for costiveness. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. ulcers. is quite different.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. Outside of Southeast Asia. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. On the island of Java in Indonesia. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. as the candlenut is much more bitter. burned with charcoal.crazychefs. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. In Sumatra. a varnish with the . One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. lit one end. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. swollen joints. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. named kukui were burned to provide light. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. In Malaya. however. giving them greater underwater visibility.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. The flavor. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. including: leis from the shells. they are mildly toxic when raw. and gonorrhea. leaves and flowers. the nuts. In Hawaiʻi. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. pounded http://www. fevers. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. In Java. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. This led to their use as a measure of time.

Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. Liana I. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. Beatrice H. 2. This larva is eaten by some people. named tuitui are pounded into a paste.[citation needed] References 1. was routinely beaten. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. Bess Press. ^ Scott.). Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. ^ Dunford.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). In plantations. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. used as soap or shampoo. p. ripe Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. University of Hawaii Press. 122. http://books. . ^ Krauss. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. still nowadays. and the husband was eventually killed. 26.html. Betty. University of Hawaii Press. Honda. Being a kind and just woman.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. despite her best efforts to please her husband. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. Retrieved 2009-03-06. ^ "Kukui".google. http://books. she was given new life. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in Craig Thomas (2000).com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a. One of the legends told of a woman who. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. pp. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. http://canoeplants. the god of agriculture. p. Lilinoe Andrews. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. Mikiala Ayau. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment.crazychefs.[5] In Tonga. http://books. Susan. protection and peace. ISBN 9780824822514. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). (1993). ISBN 9781573061377. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. http://www. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ 50-51. "Chapter 4: Canoes". 5.

Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. green pepper. cultivated for its fruit. The fruit. The terms pink peppercorns. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. unrelated plants. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Telugu:miriyam. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. Kannada:meNasu. .com http://www. dark red when fully mature. . may be described as black pepper. known as a peppercorn when dried.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. Peppercorns. and very often simply pepper. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in . red pepper (as in bell or chile). containing a single seed. Malayalam:kurumulaku. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. .crazychefs. white pepper. Konkani:miriya konu. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. .

"Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. wrinkled black layer.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor.crazychefs.. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. Dutch peper.S. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. and the naked seed is dried. In the 16th century. White pepper consists of the seed http://www. Once dried. the spice is called black peppercorn. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. this was shortened to pep. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. often alongside table salt. chemical or biological methods. with the skin of the pepper removed.[4] In the U. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. French . including decortication. in the early 20th century. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. and other similar forms. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer.

and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green .com http://www. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. Pickled peppercorns.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". particularly Thai cuisine. also green. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. Schinus terebinthifolius. Schinus molle. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. largely unknown in the West.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. with a bright aroma. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. green.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. from Bangka Island. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. like black. Fresh. is made from the unripe berries. made from the largest. which is mostly no longer an issue. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. unpreserved green pepper berries.crazychefs. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. are used in some Asian cuisines.Black. the Peruvian pepper tree. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar.

The flowers are small. or trellises. and ultimately fall off and are lost.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. The leaves are alternate. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth http://www. if allowed to ripen. poles. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. but when full grown and still hard. The cuttings are usually cultivars. entire. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. Competing plants are cleared away. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. well-drained and rich in organic matter. moist. the berries lose pungency.crazychefs. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation.[11] Black pepper is native to India. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting . and before the fruit is mature. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. It is a spreading vine.

com http://www. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. Chile peppers. particularly the Malabar Coast. its most important source was .[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. in what is now the state of Kerala. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money.[14] J. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. In fact.crazychefs. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper".History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times.

Until well after the Middle Ages. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. or used the pepper locally. Black pepper. By the 16th century. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. Long pepper. growing in the north-western part of India. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. pepper was also being grown in Java. Sumatra. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. barged to Alexandria. plus long pepper's greater spiciness.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. changed the course of world history.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to http://www. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could . the Middle East. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. Returning from India. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. Sunda. nor how it reached the Nile from India. Trade routes of the time were by land. According to the Roman geographer Strabo.crazychefs. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. this trade advantage. Madagascar. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. Malaysia. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. but these areas traded mainly with China. the ships travelled up the Red Sea.

especially Venice and Genoa. After the fall of Rome.H. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine.crazychefs.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. four. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". who travelled east to India. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. is fifteen denarii per pound. it is sometimes their sweetness." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. Similarly. and of black. while that of white pepper is seven. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. I wonder. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm.. the banquets of kings. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow..[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. first the Persians and then the Arabs. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. pepper was a luxury item. and the luxuries of the table. I season delicacies. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. if expensive.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. Once into the Mediterranean. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. whereas. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. 12. clad in a wrinkled cover." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the http://www.[22] In addition. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. seeing that in other substances which we use. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. seasoning in the Roman Empire. Apicius' De re coquinaria. There is no evidence to support this claim. and the prices reflected it. affordable only to the wealthy. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or . that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". Edward Gibbon wrote.

from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. especially in winter.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. Pepper. Pepper harvested for the European trader. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. A depiction of Calicut. and salt-cured meats were common . The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. as well as around Africa.crazychefs. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice http://www. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. the effect is small. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. In 1498. Today. However. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "we seek Christians and spices. In the 17th century. his representative replied. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. has some antimicrobial properties.

as well as she could for sneezing.[26] By the 12th . however. http://www. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect.. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. but both were used. Siddha and Unani medicine in India.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct.. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. heart disease. oral abscesses.[25] In the 3rd century CE. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. insomnia. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. each load being equal to 223 lbs. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. lung disease. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". indigestion. being stronger. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. Note the cook's pepper mill. Like many eastern spices. hoarseness. liver problems. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. either long or black. joint pain.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. insect bites. including long pepper. gangrene.crazychefs. earache. but if this estimated 10. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. was often the preferred medication.000 pounds (4."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. hernia. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". Long pepper.

left on black pepper. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. and floral notes. vitamin B.[31] Also.sunburn. and toothaches. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. Refined piperine. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. which give citrusy. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. tooth decay. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. The outer fruit layer. irritates the nostrils.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. causing the sneezing. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging.[31] As a medicine. caryophyllene. a substance present in black pepper. chapter five. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. sabinene.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. Few. milligram-for-milligram. limonene. a mildly carcinogenic compound. Some sources say that piperine. which is stripped of the fruit http://www. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation . woody. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. if any. and linalool.

accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. India (19%). producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008.[35] By weight. and China (6%). slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason.crazychefs.000 short tons). The price of pepper can be volatile. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). but has fallen to just over 271. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. by monetary value.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year.000 t (391. for example.000 t (299. Brazil (13%). are used for this.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns . dispensers of pre-ground pepper.[33] Once ground. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. Sri Lanka (6%). the most widely traded spice in the http://www. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. India. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Malaysia (8%). Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). As of 2008. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. Thailand (4%).

org/cgi/content/full/88/4/706 14. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. 88. www. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press.htm. ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). Retrieved 17 October 2006.thehindubusinessline. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". The riddle's answer is of course pepper. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ Dalby p. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). p. 11. p.ars-grin. Pepper. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. Retrieved 6 November 2005. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. Retrieved 13 November 2005. 19.2307/2657072. using almost none of its production domestically. http://www. 1969).arsgrin. ^ Ochef. 13. PMID 200803-27. ISBN 0375407219. p 94. ^ a b http://www. Gernot Katzer's Spice however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well.000 short tons). ^ J. 4. 3. 8. 9. 80 16. http://books. Vietnam dominates the export market. Warrior. Gernot (2006). 5. 10. ISBN 075653836X. disease and weather.[36] Notes 1. Innes . Retrieved 6 November 2005. Black pepper is marica. Egyptian Pharaoh.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. 17. Retrieved 12 August 2006.poor crop management. Retrieved 2008-03-02. http://www. 20. 2. Random House. Text online. ^ Katzer. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 83 21.000 t (99. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. ^ Peppercorns.efloras. Compass Point Books. 6.M1. The Hindu Business line. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". Using fresh green peppercorns. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 7. 12. ^ Translation from Turner. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper.pd f. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. Alejandra (2001).crazychefs. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". 93. and Builder. http://www. from Penzey's Spices. The Spice Trade. Retrieved 2008-01-29. ^ Innes Miller. doi:10. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). Flora of China. Ramses II.

171.pdf. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". 204. CRC Press. ^ Turner p.x. ^ Jaffee p. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. References Dalby. 108–109. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank).org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices. D. 726. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . 32. 36. Larousse Gastronomique. 160.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper".S. ^ Dalby p. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0849336201. table 2. ^ H. doi:10.karvycomtrade. Cambridge University Press. http://books. Buddhist Monastic Code II. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. Dangerous Tastes. 23. 2. J. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". 395. G. ISBN 0600-60235-4. http://siteresources. "Spices. Full text at Blackwell website." 24. ISBN 0521367085.html. Vol. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. Steven (2004). Retrieved November 12.accesstoinsight.1046/j. 74–75. Deans (2000). are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. Berkeley: University of California Press. ^ a b James http://www.pdf. ISBN ^ a b McGee p. also Turner pp. ^ Jaffee p. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). 12. ISBN 9781580084178. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Karvy Comtrade Limited. "Mill". 26. . OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. Dover. 31. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. 10. pp. p. ^ Dalby pp. 27.ch05.2000. Andrew (2002). ^ Turner p. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. 28. 156. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30).com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01. 77. Duke (1993-08-16). ^ U. 30.1365-2672. http://books.22. 35. Dorman and S.00969. 428. Prosper (2001). CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. purchase required. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 33. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. ^ Montagne. Jaffee.worldbank. Hamlyn.crazychefs. ^ Dalby p. 29. p. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires.. Alan (2002). 2005.

London: Vintage Books. Harold (2004).McGee. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum http://www. OCLC 61213802. Spice: The History of a Temptation. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). 427–429. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Turner. Jack (2004). OCLC 56590708. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum . ISBN 0375707050. "Black Pepper and Relatives". Scribner. pp.

crazychefs. yellow. Peppers are native to Mexico. Today.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for . including red.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. green and orange. B2) 0. Central America and northern South America. sweet. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron http://www.Pepper. B1) 0. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors.Sugars 2. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.057 mg 4.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.17 g 0. B3) 0.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.40 g . B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries.64 g 0.224 mg Folate (Vit.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .Dietary fiber 1. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

respectively). " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. an unrelated plant. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. instead of using as a spice. "red pepper". the term "paprika". but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. meaning Big pepper. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. In parts of Ohio. which are green and yellow. In the United States and Canada. In Argentina it's called "Morrón".com http://www. "gele paprika". With the similar meaning. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. were a highly prized condiment. or "piment. in Dutch. Sweden. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. " In Japan. the fruit of Piper . In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. Indiana. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. Across Europe. Malaysia and New Zealand. which has its roots in the word for pepper.crazychefs. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. "Miris" is Chilli. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). In Norway. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. In France it is called "poivron". and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. Grilled. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. like pasta. meaning pepper-fruit. they are called "capsicum".. g. "green pepper"). the word ピーマン ("pîman. At that time peppercorns. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables.g. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. India. It is eaten with fried noodles. In British English. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. such as Australia. regardless of their color. When cut off. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. "groene paprika". and Pennsylvania. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. meaning Bulgarian pepper. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil.

It is eaten as a raw snack. yellow or orange peppers. maroon. red. pink.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. rainbow. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than http://www. blue. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. purple. white. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. orange and. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. in salads. Varieties The color can be green. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. violet. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. in various soups and stews. yellow. black and . aqua. more rarely.crazychefs.

[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Peppermint (Mentha × . [1]) is a hybrid mint. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. ^ http://www. also known as M.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint .foodreference.crazychefs. indigenous to Europe. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).com'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. balsamea Willd. The plant.

The rhizomes are wide-spreading. and bare fibrous roots. with smooth stems.6–3. fleshy. square in cross section. spreading by its rhizomes. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem.59–1. The chromosome number is variable. 6–8 mm (0. it can grow anywhere. dark green with reddish veins.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. The flowers are purple. it is usually sterile.20 in) diameter. and 120 recorded.5 in) long and 1. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1.24– 0. 72.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist http://www. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.31 in) long. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes . 84.6 in) cm broad. Being a hybrid. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins.5–4 cm (0. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. forming thick. blunt spikes.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. with a few exceptions. with 2n counts of 66. If placed.crazychefs.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. including stream sides and drainage ditches. Flowering is from mid to late summer. noted since 1843[8]. he treated it as a species.

confectionery. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters.crazychefs. ice cream.1. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is often used as a flavouring in tea. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin.[10] . chewing gum. and toothpaste. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. particularly menthyl http://www. thus promoting belching. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter.

It needs a good water supply. [16]. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. [21]. Leaves aromatic." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. it is advisable to plant it in a container. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. Stems reddish. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. as a natural insecticide. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. which they then call "after-dinner mints. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. If you choose to grow peppermint.crazychefs. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. A mild. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. New Zealand. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants.[13] and in the United States. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15].net/ .com http://www. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. hairless.[12] Outside of its native range. Eau De Cologne Mint). [18]. and it is considered invasive in Australia. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. In addition to that. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. Foliage lime-scented.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. the Galápagos Islands. Leaves wrinkled.

^ World Health Organization.1016/j. Retrieved 2009-02-07. ISBN 978-1563636783 M. 5. Thomson Healthcare. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. (1992). ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. a popular confection. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. ^ a b Akdogan. In: Stace. 6. Retrieved 3 June 2009.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil .. 2. ^ a b Blamey. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. Flowers open from bottom up. ISBN 0-34040170-2 "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". C.. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2".ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs".006. Mehmet (2004).2007. New RHS Dictionary of . M. 7. ed. A. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 11. C. ^ a b Huxley. G. http://www. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3.glu. ed. (1753). (2007).. (1989). Mentha L.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. ^ Harley. ^ Cappello. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. 9. http://whqlibdoc. 4th Edition. ^ Linnaeus.crazychefs. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 .who. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. C. (1975).contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . R. http://www. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. et al. & Grey-Wilson.dld. page 640. A. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12.02.

159. Mehmet et . ^ International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 8 June 2009. Ambika et al. Retrieved 6 June 2009.htm. Retrieved 3 June. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 . Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. 24. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . ^ Retrieved 6 June 2009. doi:10. Retrieved 3 June. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)" http://het. (2004).iso. 19. Bienvenu (1998)..D. ^ Edwards. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. ^ "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". doi:10.Specification".224.. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . 20.actahort. 23. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. Retrieved 7 June 2009.257. Plant Cell.crazychefs.28.iso. 17.1151. http://tih. ^ Akdogan. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. Mehmet (2003). ^ International Organization for Standardization. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . doi:10. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". Frédéric et al.sagepub. 26. Australia".wiley. http://www. ^ a b c Jullien. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . V. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature".122. and Mentha spicata L. 25.htm?csnumber=4844.htm. 27. Bienvenu (1999). F. Retrieved 3 June. populations.1023/A:1006185103897.)". F.. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.sagepub. S. Derek R. http://www.1002/jsfa.htm?csnumber=11633. Retrieved 7 June 2009. ^ Farley. D.16.)". http://het. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .E. J. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv.10): 119 . to control peppermint rust in north-east "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. Valerie Howland (2006).iso. on kidney tissue in rats". paraquat. http://www3. 18.actahort. Retrieved 3 http://www. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". ^ International Organization for Standardization.htm?csnumber=32041.. (2007).E.1071/AP99036. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . http://www.sagepub. ^ Akdogan. et al. 21. http://www.

net/ . Allium ampeloprasum var.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. also sometimes known as Allium porrum. to the Alliaceae family.) J. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. ampeloprasum var. porrum ( http://www.crazychefs. Two related vegetables.). is a vegetable which belongs. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. along with the onion and garlic. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum (L. although different in their uses as food. the elephant garlic and kurrat. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Gay The leek.

Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or http://www. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. intended for harvest in the season when planted. and overwintering leeks. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna . overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months.crazychefs. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. and they have few pest or disease problems. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. Once established in the garden. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. leeks are hardy. to be planted out as weather permits. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖.

Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below).Cuisine Leeks for . Fried. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. although less bitter than scallion. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. due to the layered structure of the leek. carrots and potatoes and different meats. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. as the leek ages. which can be used in salads. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. Lamb is the most http://www. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. In its raw state. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. The tender core may be eaten.crazychefs. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. which turns it soft and mild in taste. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. but. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. Raw. The onion-like layers form around a core. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. along with leek soup.

Cultural significance Raw Leeks.004 g .5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit. onwards.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates . In her book.3 g 1.Dietary fiber 1.04 g . as well as other recipes with leeks. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.4 mg Vitamin B6 0. B1) 0.crazychefs.monounsaturated 0.03 mg 2% Niacin ( http://www.E. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.saturated 0. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g ( . B2) 0.C.9 g .06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.233 mg Folate (Vit.8 g Fat . who consumed it most often in soup. as well as wall carvings and drawings. B3) 0.polyunsaturated 0. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.C.Sugars 3.E. 83 μg 14. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.15 g 0. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.

a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. In the play. you know.Vitamin E 0. Shakespeare. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. David‘s Day. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. representing Wales.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. good countryman. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St.12 mg recommendations for adults.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. for example. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. According to one .‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet.

^ Jane Grigson. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. 2000). (Penguin Books.Notes 1.. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Domestication of plants in the Old http://www.crazychefs. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 . 3. 1978. Mireille.p. French Women Don't Get Fat. third edition (Oxford: University Press. Knopf. ^ Guiliano.

raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.6 g Fat Protein Water 0.Dietary fibre 1. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Sugars 2 g 3g .net/ .[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753. Celery. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L. dulce) or celeriac (var. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. with fewer than 100 individuals http://www.crazychefs.2 g 0.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A.

net/ . The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. often used as a base for sauces and soups.In temperate countries. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. celery is also grown for its seeds.crazychefs. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. on the Chicago-style hot dog. 30 AD. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. Celery is a staple in many soups. onions. such as chicken noodle soup. and small rodents. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. dogs. http://www. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. squirrels. horses. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). onions. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. Actually very small fruit. Celery. as celery salt.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. birds. and in Old Bay Seasoning.

making avoiding such foods difficult. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. however.[8] In the European Union. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. Lemnos and Thebes. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic . Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. have to be clearly marked as http://www.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. In Homer's Iliad. M. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery.crazychefs. foods that contain or may contain celery. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. even in trace amounts. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. Celery contains androstenone. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. However. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. for people with celery allergy.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. father of the Cabeiri.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). they note "since A. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. at Kastanas.

but the leaves may be used in salads. sweetish. as the Grace of the whole Board". Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its http://www. In the past. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. many of which differ little from the wild species. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. insect damage and rot). on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color.5–2 mm long and wide. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. and a distinctive smell. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. The plants are raised from seed. 2–3 mm diameter. straightness and thickness of petiole. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. white and red. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. Under optimal conditions. In North America. borrowed from Greek.[14] With cultivation and blanching. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. 1. splits. and the most crisp and tender. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. earthy taste. fields are harvested only once. produced in dense compound umbels. and Praetors feasts. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). seleri.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. The flowers are creamy-white. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. from the Latin selinon.. shape. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. cracks.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking..crazychefs. apium . commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. due to extremely uniform crop growth. at our Great Mens tables. They are ranged under two classes. the whole plant having a coarse. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended.

crazychefs.[16] References a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. http://postharvest. Post-harvest technology research and information center. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. ^ Calcium sources 7.ucdavis. ^ OED. Scheiner O. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. and proper sanitation.. 10. Wilson IBH.. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. (Laurentii Salvii). ^ Bublin M. Kraft D. p. ^ Cantwell.17:1697-1699. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. ^ Celestin J. (2002-06-10).com http://www. et al. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. Radauer C. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables.v.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F).net/ . de Medicina. "Celery". M. 14. 2003. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. Suslow.shtml. Lee LG.202. Thayer translation [1] 4. ^ R. ^ Teng CM. Western Journal of Medicine 158. ^ Pliny. ^ a b Fragiska. ^ D. s.. 11.46. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. 2. ^ Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). (3rd ed. Holmiae. Ko SN. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (2005). "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis".L. West J. Heiner DC. 15. Retrieved 2009-05-03. ^ William Robinson and W. Natural History XIX. T. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". 8. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". M. 2000) p. Zohary and M. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 9. gentle Celery and Negative Calories 6. Thomson. 227. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. ^ "Smallage". (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". ^ snopes. P. http://www.practicallyedible. 3. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay.6 (June 1993): 610-611. 16. Hopf. 12. 1920). 13. C (1753).

Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. Sugar.Sugars 99.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B2) 0.crazychefs.21 g .net/ . Magnification of grains of sugar. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. see http://www.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates . (Discuss) For other uses.98 g 0g 0g 0.03 g Riboflavin (Vit. For the common table sugar. see Sugar (disambiguation).019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 96.91 g . Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars.

082 mg Vitamin B6 0. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. B2) 0.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.026 mg Folate (Vit. B3) 0.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. and . mainly sucrose. honey.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It forms the main ingredient in candy. sugar maple (in maple syrup). and in many other sources. but also appears in fruit. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. obesity and tooth decay. sorghum.Water 1.77 g Thiamine (Vit. lactose. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar http://www.crazychefs. B1) 0.

the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. In this informal sense. Generically known as "syrups". 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). In a list of ingredients. molasses or treacle. preservation. etc. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. including palm sugar and fructose. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Spanish and/or Italian.Popular In non-scientific use. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). (Compare the OED. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). the Spanish word azúcar. and texture) of beverages and food. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. "fructose". The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar.) The Greek word for "sugar". and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre).[4] It came to English by way of French. Scientific . and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). "dextrose". Etymology In the case of sugar. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. such as glucose. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". means "pebble". A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. zahari.) will likely denote a sugar. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. the Italian word zucchero. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of http://www. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit.crazychefs. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms.

The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. raw sugar. 2. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . cook or consumer. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7.crazychefs. plus sugars naturally present in honey. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). as its name suggests. Sugars include monosaccharides. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. This includes all the sugars referred to above. Natural sugars come in fruit. 3. making the sugars reactive. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. important molecules in the body.containing 1. and 4 or more monosaccharide units http://www. has a "missing" oxygen atom.Culinary sugars Grainier. deoxyribose. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. disaccharides. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). syrups and fruit juices. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted . where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. A notable exception.

After digestion and absorption. or DNA. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. Monosaccharides include fructose. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. which form part of nucleic acids. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. galactose and mannose.water (H2O) per bond. which is made of glucose.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished http://www. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. with less than 0. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. producing invert sugar. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised.made from one glucose and one fructose). Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. fructose. glucose. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. sugar will burn with a blue flame.crazychefs. This resulting syrup.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. lactose (milk sugar . Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. Note for example glycoproteins. including NADH and ATP. sweeter than the original sucrose. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. which has the formula . Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. If combined with fine ash. proteins connected to one or more sugars. and galactose. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. In these closed-chain forms.

"Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. Temple University Press. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. The International Sugar Trade. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. Joseph and Mike Carlson. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. ^ scientificpsychic. Glyn (2004). Michael (January 2001).62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. Blackwell Publishing. ^ Wuebben.Bulk Density ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7.htm 3.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. A C Hannah." http://men.illovosugar. OCLC 51837990 84251137. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries." Powder and Bulk References Adas. ^ "Engineering Resources . ISBN 2. 4. 5. . History of Science and Technology in Islam. 1996. James. OCLC link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. Sugar Blues. Cambridge: Woodhead.80 g/ml Notes http://www. ISBN 1566398320.

" The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. sugar beet molasses is used. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. especially in the Netherlands. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6.g. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. however. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience.25% of the total volume). The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). It is. Brown sugar contains from 3. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. for light brown .crazychefs. Although in some areas. Products for industrial use (e. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.35 mm.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. without mixing them http://www.

Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar.[1] However.[2] John http://www. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes).net/ . a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. White and Deadly" . suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar.crazychefs. Nutritionally. In other applications. as opposed to white sugar. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. History In the late 1800s. apart from pure carbohydrate. which did not have full control over brown sugar production.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. much like adding molasses would do. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. The effort was so successful that by 1900. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. in his studies (cited in "Pure. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar.

crystals.htm#bm07. where sugar cane was grown. Muscovado. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. 3.csrwire.html. or Demerara sugar.1.wholesomesweeteners. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. giving it a higher mineral content. Retrieved 2008-09-20. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown ^ Levenstein. resulting in the characteristic large. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. 4. Retrieved 2008-09-20. ^ New Scientist. References 1. Harvey. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is then crystallized. and are sold as Turbinado sugar.".net/ . which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup.crazychefs. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". Retrieved 2008-09-20. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www.wildernessfamilynaturals. 2.php?id=3026. http://www. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado binado_Sugar. 2003. centrifuged. http://www. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. fao.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. light brown. 6. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. light brown. an island off[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. 32-33 5. but most is now produced in Mauritius. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. cane sugar.fao. http://www. largecrystalled. Demerara is another unrefined.htm#sugarmade.

but toxic to most land plants.crazychefs. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. which some use to prevent caking. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is a crystalline . People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. including high blood http://www.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. and iodized salt.[citation needed] Conversely. white. refined salt (table salt). Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. the two major components of salt. Chloride and sodium ions. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. including humans. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. pale pink or light gray in color.

glass.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. salt provided the best-known food preservative.000 tons of salt. the caravans still transported some 15. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. and the dye Tyrian purple.crazychefs. especially for meat. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. making it one of the oldest verifiable http://www. however. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). In . in the millennia before then.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. as were salted birds and salt fish.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.

In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. a root for salt found in Celtic." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. Greek. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. water.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. and Egyptian. During the first millennium BC. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it.[citation needed] The root hal(l).fire. salz.also gave us Gaul. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. which was illegal under British rule. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. who had heretofore mined for salt. taking their names from hal(l)-.Salzburg. as it avoided paying the "salt tax".net/ .crazychefs. Hallstatt. though incorrectly. God sent down four blessings from the sky . began open pan salt making. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. In many Pagan religions esp. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork".[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration ( http://www. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". (Judges 9:45.) In the Sermon on the Mount. the Roman exonym for the Celts. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. the Hallstatt Celts. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26).[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. Halych in Ukraine. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] It is widely.

com http://www. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. Halite. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice . such as in Sumo Wrestling.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations.[9] The Ancient Egyptians.crazychefs. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. In Aztec mythology. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith.

it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic http://www. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. Today. food uses account for 17. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. Injected water dissolves the salt.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. has a unique flavor varying from region to . a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). is mainly sodium chloride. Fleur de sel. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. One example are bath salts. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. After the raw salt is obtained. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries.Different natural salts have different mineralities. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use.[12] However. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. and the making of soaps and detergents.5% of salt production. In recrystallization. Purification usually involves recrystallization. giving each one a unique flavor.crazychefs. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. which are kiln-dried. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. Refined salt. natural sea salt harvested by hand. and thus is rarely eaten.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. which is most widely used presently. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper.

condiments such as soy http://www. and calcium aluminosilicate.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. and a bulk density (dry. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] .[29] However. calcium silicate. but was determined to be unnecessary. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. such as a few grains of uncooked rice.crazychefs. silicon dioxide. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. however. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. Table salt has a particle density of 2. fatty acid salts (acid salts). this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals.165 g/cm3. sodium .154 g/cm3. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. Single-serving salt packets. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. Some people also add a desiccant. calcium or magnesium carbonates. magnesium oxide.

while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which can cause severe. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm.[33] Drinking too much water. especially important for pregnant . Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. In Canada. iodized salt is more common in the United States. or sodium iodate. which gives the table salt a yellow color. In the United States. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. dizziness. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used.[31] Today. cretinism in children. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. neurological http://www.[32] Another additive. with insufficient salt intake. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. In France. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. fluorinated table salt is available. or even an electrolyte disturbance. even fatal. potassium. which can cause goitre. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. sodium iodide. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body.crazychefs. specifically endemic goiter. and myxedema in adults. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism).fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. The reason for this is unclear. magnesium.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom.

Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. can cause hypernatremia. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products.crazychefs. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. forced salt intake. such as in treatment of dysautonomia." ([41]. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It can exacerbate renal . since salt was quite valuable). independently of blood pressure effects.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia).[38] heartburn. salt consumption is higher.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention).com http://www. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. p18) However. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK." ([41]." ([44]." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. combined with an inadequate intake of water. in Japan.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt." ([41] p3).

such as the Yanomami in South America. SACN states. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). A salt mill for sea salt.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.[50].[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New . Some isolated cultures.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. However. have been found to consume little salt. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in http://www. for a typical adult. but achievable population goals.

When other health claims are made about a food (e.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0.[57] In March 2007. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. One manufacturer. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". Australia.6g sodium). Those who have kidney failure.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in .The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2.[51] In the United States. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.g. low in fat. which will increase potassium intake. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. LoSalt.3 g sodium = 5. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. Low is 0. etc.'[55] Campaigns In http://www.300 mg of sodium (= 2.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". "low". then that is a medium level of salt.crazychefs.8 g salt) per day. calories. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. Amber (Medium). foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium." In the UK.).[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). or Green (Low).[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day.5g salt per 100g (or 0. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. without recourse to salt substitutes.1g sodium).

Answers. and by mining rock salt. 6. 4th edition". 2. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 7. and Hall in Austria. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. total world production was estimated at 210 million their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.7). In 2002. http://en. India (14. 1913. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. New York: Robert Appleton Company. ^ "Salt".3). 5. Triamterene. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l).9).org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/ http://www. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. Catholic Encyclopedia. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. 4. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. and Canada (12.crazychefs. Dytac. . Notes 1.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride.3 million tonnes). the top five producers being the United States (40.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. Germany (17. China (32. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. 3.answers. called halite. such as brine wells and salt lakes.wikisource. Eplerenone and Costs can reach staggering amounts. Retrieved 2008-12-14. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone).5). Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and 8.

Retrieved 2008-07-29. 12.pdf 33. ^ HE-620 24. 5379. no. 11. 10. ^ Gary Taubes. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". ^ Salt made the world go round 17. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.907 37. Retrieved "The (Political) Science of Salt". from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. 2008 29.roskill. http://books. Epikouria Magazine. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. ^ Nauticus . ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. Salt Institute. salt history.interscience. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. salt uses. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. ^ http://www. Mason (2006-12-19). ^ References on food salt & health issues. ^ Iodized Salt 32. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. pp.saltsense. 28. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.crazychefs.stm 38. http://www. salt manufacture. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt).net/ . ^ David A. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". p. Ask a Scientist. Retrieved 2009-0708. Fall/Winter 2006 10. 898 . ISBN 16. ^ Iodized Salt 31.9. 19. Victoria) Salt 34. salt manufacture.9% sodium by weight which equals http://www. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. salt history. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. salt uses. Vol. Kuemmel (1994) 14 August 1998. ^ What is Salt?. ^ Table 27. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. Transportation Research Board. ^ European Salt Producers' Association ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations.Weather Curriculum 18. Salt Institute.anl. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. Science. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt".htm. ^ a b http://news. ^ B. sodium. 14.9% sodium chloride 25. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 15.

2004. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP).hyp.334(7599):885. 47-50. ISBN 0802713734. Further reading Kurlansky. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Salt Matters 60.. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) The Mummies of Ürümchi.005 48. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. Inc. Published online 2005. ^ Cook NR.pub2 References Kurlansky.legalmed. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. 28 January 2008. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. Sodium chloride. 2006. ^ U. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". The Story of Salt. Barber. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. NY: G. Salt: A World History. Norton & Co. Mark. 7.a01. (accessed13 January 2007) 49. Mark (2002). doi:10. New York: W. ^ Understanding labels 55.crazychefs. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. Friedrich Schulz. Erwin Koops. Axel Gehl and Michael .com http://www.. John Wiley & Sons. Putnam's Sons. ^ Salt TV ads 59. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. S. Feldman. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. http://www. Obarzanek E et al. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50.P. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). OCLC 48573453.06. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. 62. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt" 2007. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt Cutler JA. doi:10. Legal Medicine 2005. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. ISBN 0393320197. ^ Susan R. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. OCLC 48426519. New York. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42.1002/0471238961. New York: Walker & Co. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. and S. Sodium 52. 61. D.healthandwellbeing. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk.40. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia.1016/j. BMJ.

com . David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Department of Health. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy .Laszlo. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . 2001. Arts and traditions of the table. New York: Columbia University by Dr Trevor Beard. Pierre. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt: Grain of Life. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. The Stationery Office.

mainly Kerala. found commonly in Thailand. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. as well as in neighbouring countries. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: .com http://www. Vietnam. Malaysia. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. phrik khi nu(lit. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. Indonesia. the Philippines and Singapore.crazychefs. It can also be found in India. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu).net/ . phrik thai. such as Cambodia. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C.

Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. "Big things come in small packages.000 on the Scoville pungency scale." which can best be described by the English equivalent. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian http://www. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili.000 to 100. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. and can be found with colors maturing from green to .

and then red. and among the group of capsicum annuum. has peppers that point upward on the plant. phrik khii nuu ( . Ladâ.net/ . Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. creating a rainbow effect. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C.crazychefs. orange. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). Siling Labuyo (Filipino). The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. Thai). Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit.wikipedia.As well as the Malay" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. and go from green to yellow. sometimes known as Thai http://www. but slightly less pungent variety. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). Thai hot. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. The more decorative.

grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. It has a tough. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. Celeriac may be used raw or . about the size of a large potato. furrowed.crazychefs. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. gratins and baked dishes.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. it can also be used on its own. or used in casseroles. Unlike other root vegetables.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. Celeriac has a celery flavour. which store a large amount of starch. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to http://www. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. It is a kind of celery. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. usually mashed.

8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 1. and 'Kojak'.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths.Dietary fiber 1.6 g 9. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root http://www. There are a number of cultivars available. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. 'Ibis'. Celeriac soup.3 g 1.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.crazychefs. Among them are 'Prinz'. especially in . 'Diamant'. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk.2 g . Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. Celeriac. rinsed. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000.

is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. It bears a fruit of the same name. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The stem is often spiny. . It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). As a nightshade. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) http://www. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India.crazychefs. The flowers are white to purple.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. and see text The eggplant.

less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. The name aubergine." Aubergine and brinjal. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. The name eggplant.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. but much larger in cultivated forms. and contains numerous small.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. flower The plant is native to India. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl . In Indian and South African English. History Solanum melongena. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". In the Caribbean Trinidad. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. soft seeds. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. which is used in British English.crazychefs. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. used in the United States. derive from Persian and Sanskrit.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. from Arabic al-badinjan. The fruit is fleshy. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. which are edible. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid http://www. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. Australia. 1500 CE. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. New Zealand.

crazychefs. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. whiteskinned. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. Dusky. slightly pendulous cucumber. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. shape and color. Ichiban. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Classic. especially purple. in white skin Dourga. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. and Tycoon. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. green. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. There are even orange varieties. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Pingtung Long. Burpee Hybrid. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. Traditional. Some cultivars have a color gradient. A much wider range of shapes. Black Magic. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. and Black . Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. or white. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little http://www. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid.

Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. and garlic. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. In Iranian cuisine. the Arabian moussaka. as they are far less bitter. it is called Begun ( ). It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. and deep-fried. chutney. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. As a native plant.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. along with the fish Hilsa. In one dish. The fruit flesh is smooth. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. In the Caucasus. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. for example in sambhar. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as . It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. peanuts. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. tahini. or tamarind. It. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. In some parts of India. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. as in the related tomato. battered. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. complex flavor. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. and achaar. It is often stewed. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. rice. tomatoes. so that peeling is not required. tahini. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. as in the French ratatouille. allowing for very rich dishes. or other fillings and then baked. It can be sliced. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. braised (紅燒茄子).crazychefs. for example. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. The thin skin is also edible. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. and masala and then cooked in oil. curries. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). or Eggplant Parmesan. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. In Bangladesh. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and http://www.

are also troublesome to eggplants. aphids. such as tomato. and potato. This is called Beguni ( ). The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. and spider . For this reason. Egypt. showing the inside. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. the most serious of which is Verticillium. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae.) between rows. containing both female and male structures. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack.) between plants. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. flea beetle.) to 60 cm (24 in. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. depending on cultivar. (Adults can be removed by hand.crazychefs. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. eggplant can be sown directly into the http://www. pepper (capsicum). Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. Flowers are complete. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half.

7 g 0.043. F = FAO estimate. semi-official or estimates). raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.[5] In the United States.19 g 1. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.Dietary fiber 3.Sugars 2. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B1) 0. B2) 0. New Jersey is the largest producing state.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit. P = official figure. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.039 mg 5.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the .( http://www.35 g .crazychefs.

A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.084 mg Folate (Vit.01 mg/100g).281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 . the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. However. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. B3) 0.crazychefs.16 mg Manganese 0. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for http://www. while 1.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. Brazil.Niacin (Vit. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.[8] On average. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.

racemosum. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. Dunal. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. such as . inerme and subinerme at that time. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. variegatum. multifidum. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L.F. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. tongdongense. rumphii. brownii. esculentum. ovigera. subrepandum. insanum. violaceum. trongum. ruber. edule. violaceum and viride. album. luteum. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. aethiopicum. giganteum. stenoleucum. which used to include Dunal's S. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. that of Blanco to S. Similarly. inerme.crazychefs. H. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. divaricatum. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively.-Lag. But this is not correct. globosi. lasiocarpum. Scopoli's S. and (invalidly) by Sweet. racemiflorum. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. oblongo-cylindricum.C. S. On the other hand. There is an actual S. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. leucoum.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. ovigerum and S. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at http://www. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. aethiopicum. Solanum longum Roxb.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. capsicoides). depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. Solanum oviferum Salisb. mainly by Dikii.Varieties Solanum melongena var. sinuatorepandum. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). esculentum. Names for various eggplant types. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties.

Technology. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. D. Handbook of Food Science. (2001). ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". common.crazychefs. 2. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. ISBN 1574445510. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). Footnotes 1. Hui (2006).com http://www. CRC Press. S. ^ Doijode.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. and Engineering by Yiu .

P. Ebury Press. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. Bruno Caramelli. The New England Journal of Medicine. ^ SN Pramod.fao. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. ^ Westerfield.crazychefs. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. 273-6. Occupational pollinosis in commercial 2004. Dieges PH. Toorenenbergen AW. http://pubs.caes.Aubergine 8.50(2):101-102 11. volume 82 (nº 3). ^ Solanum melongena var. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. Mahesh † and Y. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). Volume 329:437 August 5.) reveals female predominance. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989.uga. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. 7. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. ^ Health24. Arq Bras Cardiol. http://faostat. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. Retrieved 2009-07-01. 202 4. 2008-11-11.* YP Venkatesh. 1993 Number 6 9. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). P. Miyachi Y. 2008 10.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. Erich Hornbach. 6. 5. ^ . ^ "FAOSTAT". Retrieved 2007-04-24. ^ Kabashima K. Vol. pp. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. A. N. Robert (2008-11-14). Andréa Thomaz. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels".pdf. ^ Edward . Tsenge Demana. Harish Babu * . Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004.133(42):2081-3 12. 18(1): 59-62 http://www. FAO.

with five pointed lobes on the corolla. yellow. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. woody stem that often vines over other http://www. Solanum lycopersicum. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.4–0. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long.crazychefs. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. see section Fruit or vegetable below). The tomato is native to South America. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 . usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. syn. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. and have a weak. It is a perennial. with a serrated margin.8 in) across. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. odd pinnate. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. One species.

[4] The large. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. and cultivation began in the 1540s. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. originated and was encouraged in . in certain areas of Italy.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. The specific name. ancestor of L. who named it pomo d‘oro. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. They also took it to the Philippines. corn and salt.[6] Gerard's Herbal.crazychefs. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. meaning plump thing with a navel. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. However.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. smaller vegetable . the other by currant tomatoes. The exact date of domestication is not known. now Mexico City in 1521.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. likely to be the original salsa recipe. lycopersicum. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. such as Florence. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. golden apple. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow http://www. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. a barber-surgeon. according to Smith. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. tomatl. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. an Italian physician and botanist. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. means "wolf-peach". was the first European to take back the tomato. a mutation from a smoother. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. earlier in 1493. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. cerasiforme. However. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. lumpy tomato.

The C. Thomas Jefferson. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. broths. 1799 – c. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food.largely plagiarized from continental sources. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. sent some seeds back to America. Paella. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. Charles M. and in general. Over the past 15 years. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. By the mid-18th century. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum).com http://www. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. The University of California. and as a garnish. and before the end of that century. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well.crazychefs. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. California. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. Rick. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish.M. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids.[6] Nonetheless. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. British consul in Aleppo c. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England.[6] But by the mid-1700s. Gerard's views were influential. ―within the last forty years. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. particularly Florida and California. who ate tomatoes in Paris. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild . In Victorian times. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. The Spanish tomato dish. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. but the fruit is safe). North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. Currently. most famously in Worthing.

green.4 in) diameter range. or white fruit are also available. California accounts for 90% of U. purple. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion.[12] According to FAOSTAT.crazychefs. they are known as plum tomatoes. orange. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries.0–2. China. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. For processing tomatoes. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2.4–0. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. and have a lower water content. followed by United States and Turkey. but a number of cultivars with yellow. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. production and 35% of world http://www. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. pink. about 5mm in diameter. through cherry tomatoes. black. 18 September 2009. It may be deleted after Friday.0 in) diameter. Most cultivars produce red fruit.S.8 in) size as the wild . the largest producer. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types.6–2.

[18] and productivity. along with zucchini.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. based mostly on shape and size. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. and are shaped like large strawberries.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. but unlike commercial . particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. As in most sectors of agriculture. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. as well as heirloom tomatoes. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. plum tomatoes. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating.crazychefs. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to http://www.

hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. but must be bought as seed.especially heirlooms .[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. although some determinate heirlooms exist. including Brandywine (biggest red). brown. Green Zebra (top right). often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape.produce fruit in colors other than red. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. they are often good choices for container growing. As an intermediate form. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. orange. which usually discourages fruit set. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. including yellow. Lucky Cross). or bush. ivory. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. low acidity. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. A variety of specific cultivars. and purple. white. often via http://www. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. black. but are smaller than plum tomato. Determinate.crazychefs. etc. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by . multiple colors (Hillbilly. pink. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. or home growers interested in canning. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. some tomato cultivars . Red Boar). and lack of mealiness.cherry tomatoes are small and round. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. Burracker's Favorite.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. et cetera. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. Black Krim (lower left corner). Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. disease and pest resistance.

The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. slugs. T . F .and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. N nematodes.fusarium wilt strain I & II. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke.crazychefs. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. As a floral device to reduce selfing. whiteflies. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. red spider mite. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. carried by the beet leafhopper. which interrupts the lifecycle. . Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. cabbage loopers. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. FF . their traditional pollinators.alternaria. As the name implies. cutworms. flea beetles. The stamens were. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. but manure or compost work well. original state. and A .tobacco mosaic virus. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars.fusarium wilt strain I. and remain. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. aphids. In the wild. entirely within the closed corolla. tomatoes required cross-pollination.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes.verticillium wilt. The most common letters are: V .com http://www. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. tomato fruitworms. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally.

In more temperate climates. However. by cultured bumblebees.crazychefs. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler . Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. depending on variety. Unripe tomatoes are firm. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. This is not the same as self-pollination. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. or more often today. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf http://www. In an outside setting. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. They may be recognized by their color. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. as with most species. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier.

In some studies lycopene. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine.Sugars 2. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. especially in cooked tomatoes. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. in pieces. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. carotene. as tomato sauce.6 g 4g . and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. The tomato is acidic. They contain lycopene. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium).5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. and other antioxidants. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. or paste.Recently. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. anthocyanin. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue).[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. Though it is botanically a berry.crazychefs. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). a subset of fruit.

the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. often by sun. Tomato plants are dicots. The fruit is also preserved by drying. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. When that tip eventually stops http://www.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. generally three feet tall or shorter. such as rugose leaves. Of regular leaves. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. Spain. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. whether because of pruning or flowering. Determinate types are annual in all climates. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature.[28] In October 1965.make salsa. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature.5 °F). which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. or pickled. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). Known for its tomato growth and production.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. They are bred to continue ripening. annually celebrates La Tomatina. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. These hairs facilitate the vining process. vines. and grow as a series of branching stems. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. meaning covered with fine short hairs. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. fully functional. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. initially decumbent.5 °C (54. lateral buds take over and grow into other. it will not continue to ripen. there are . a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. Embracing it for this protest connotation.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing.crazychefs. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. although erect bush varieties have been bred.

"wolf-peach"). very small cavities. As a true fruit. and be dried/fermented before germination. Similarly. or other external forces that present in the Americas. have the anthers fused along the edges. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon.) H. called locular cavities. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). among cultivated species. Technically.Karst. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Other species in that family are potatoes. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. wolf. variegated. moths. according to type. tobacco.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. However. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). making the Linnaean name correct. appearing on the apical meristem. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. would be more correct. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. However. These http://www. peach.deeply grooved. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. (derivation. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. which frequently used it and still do). angora leaves.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves.crazychefs. 'lyco'. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. chili peppers. Despite this. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum ( .[31] Their flowers. with both names found in the literature.g.e. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L.. i. butterflies. while paste tomatoes have very few. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. other insects.. plus 'persicum'. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. genetic evidence (e. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. Therefore. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. This is because they are native to the Americas.

corporations. shape. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal.S. from a culinary standpoint. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. In 2006. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. flavor. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May http://www.S.crazychefs. as are vegetables. Hedden (149 U. U. Livingston. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. and numerous other traits. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. Ohio. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. universities.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. As noted above. The U. Oregon. AVRDC. 1883. A. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. etc. size. New . nutritional value. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. Corporations including Heinz. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. However. University breeding programs are active in Florida. U. disease tolerance. Monsanto. In 1887. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. cucumbers. Bejoseed. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. BHNSeed. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production.S. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results.S. color. a tomato is the ovary. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. pest tolerance. However. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. of Reynoldsburg. together with its seeds. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. North Carolina. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. 304)). rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. and organizations.W.

Tennessee. Kentucky.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. On October 30. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. . Speakers from the British Isles. Michigan. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. Minnesota. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. Ohio. contain the poison Solanine. New Hampshire. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. http://www.S. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . which is toxic to humans and animals. Georgia. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Vermont and Wisconsin. Virginia.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). Maine. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. Indiana. Connecticut. Pennsylvania.crazychefs. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. stems. North Carolina. however. Rhode Island. harmless. The fresh fruit is. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. the U.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock.

com http://www. As of July 2008.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada.[38] As of July 8. and fresh cilantro.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. the U. Epcot's manager of agricultural science.273 illnesses from this outbreak. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. French and Germans. discovered the unique plant in Beijing. with a harvest of more than 32. one would arrive at an estimated 40. such as raw tomato. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. UK.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz).[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. 40. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine.6:1). fresh jalapeño pepper.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.000 kilograms (250. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. fresh serrano pepper.8 m (65 ft) length.84 pounds (522 kg).1 reported cases per .151. in 2000. Florida. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). China.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. and Arizona (49). Oklahoma in 1986. it caused at least one death. Illinois (100). On August 30. from April 10." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. Lake Buena Vista.crazychefs.S. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. the District of Columbia. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. respectively. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.7 and 16.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. 2008. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. and Canada. with 49.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. 2007. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. Yong Huang. Lancashire. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. 2008. New Mexico (98).

S. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a . pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' http://www. Derived from Cherokee Purple. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. indeterminate. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes.crazychefs. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. Fusarium. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U.

Tomato plants in the garden.crazychefs. good for Tomatoes on a vine. in Korea. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Tomato Flower. Tomato slices. pickling. Young tomato plant. Tomato fruit.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red http://www. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo.

com http://www.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

fao. Processing Tomato Production in California. http://tgrc. p.five tons to the acre." See: Natural History Museum. & Spooner. 223 10. ^ "UC Newsroom.crazychefs. October 26. Andrew F (1994). Retrieved 2009-04-02. http://www. section Lycopersicon Mill. The Tomato in America.aspx. Easthamptonstar.html". and Triguera are nested within Solanum.ucdavis. webpage: books-google-TTp17. culture. Retrieved December 11 2009.html". The tomato in America: early history. page 57: ". Andrew F. it handles more than 1.The East Hampton Star .edu.nationalarchives. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. Footnotes 1. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". Appletons' journal Published by D. http://www. (2001). 11.universityofcalifornia. ^ "C. Retrieved December 11 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-02. ^ "http://www. p. Universityofcalifornia. ^ Acquaah." 15. ^ . 5. F. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 3. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ a b Smith.M. http://www. (2002).Food & Wine". ^ "Killer Tomatoes . ISBN 1-57003000-6. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.ucdavis. USA: University of South Carolina Press.html. and 2009-01-26. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. Appleton and Co. ^ "http://www.smithsonianmag.easthamptonstar. ^ Tomato history 4. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. 519 [1] 9. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. 1881. A. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the ISBN 0252-07009-7. Tgrc. 14. 2002-05-08. G. T. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. ^ The Friend. 6.Your Archives". p. 2. 2008. Columbia. Smith. I.. et al. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. E.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po.C. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one bid/6280/Default. Culture. http://www. 8. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . S. Normania. and cookery. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. Yourarchives. ^ a b Hartz. During the three months of the local harvest. Retrieved University of Illinois Press. Subsection Lycopersicon). M.smithsonianmag." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.nationalarchives. (1994). (2002-0508)". 12.17.

gardenweb. Ncsu. http://ohioline.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. which are carried in the wind. ^ http://www. Retrieved ^ http://www. Plb. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension.smithsonianmag. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more. "Tomato genome project gets $1. ^ " . or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. of which there are many: beetles and Retrieved December 11 2009. Retrieved 2007-05-24.smithsonianmag. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". 28. Retrieved December 11 2009. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Smithsonianmag. HYG-5532-93". The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian Retrieved 2008-10-27. 26.sinaloa. 31. 2006.ucdavis. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes.html".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted http://www. 23. News." 20. 30. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?" ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'". ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". http://faq. ^ "http://www. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. Retrieved July 14. http://www. 27. http://www. ^ "Selecting. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-27. http://wwwplb." 19. Retrieved December 11 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian http://www. 32. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa".whfoods. ^ "http://www. Sinaloa.html".umn." 18. Retrieved 200705-24.html". ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. http://www. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. 22.cornell. Retrieved". 29. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).Tomato".stm. 24. page 57: "The plants are still growing. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".html. Retrieved June ^ "Crop Profiles .edu/stories/Jan07/SolanacaeNSF. http://www.html.cornell.php.ufseeds.umn. Retrieved 21. http://www. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention" and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips.gardenweb.html.gob. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. Faq.crazychefs. ^

2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". California Master Gardener http://www.nationalpost. Retrieved 2008-1027. http://www. Foodsafetynetwork. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . http://www. News". 643. ^ a b Retrieved 2008-10-27. United States.34. (2004-04-15).uchicago. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". 41. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. (2002). p. http://www. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus" ^ "August 8. Retrieved 200904-02. Dennis .co. ^ "ITN.crazychefs. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. http://www. Tomato Recipe". ^ Voetsch. Cdc. http://www. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States".cbsnews. 35. 38. Retrieved 2009-0402. 39. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato by state" Retrieved 2009-0721. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 2004. http://www. 36. et al. 37. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella http://www.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419& Tomato Nutrition.html?id=585498. http://itn. Clinical Infectious Diseases. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005". ISBN 1879906546.html. ANR Publications. 38:S3. Nationalpost.

7 in) wide. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". the fruit is also made into jam. nutmeg and mace. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. In Indonesia. and Bombay Nutmeg M.4 oz) dried. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. and nutmeg butter (see below).[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. malabarica from India. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. or sliced finely. called selei buah pala. a state in the south part of India. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. Species About 100 species.2 and 0.crazychefs. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. including essential oils. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. argentea from New Guinea. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises http://www. especially in Grenada. fragrans . including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. It also grows in Kerala. called Jaiphal in Hindi. or Spice Islands.6 to 0. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. extracted oleoresins. both are used as adulterants of M.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M.

nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. In the Caribbean. and string beans. In Arabic. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright . In Indian cuisine. and eggnog. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). and Barbados rum punch. sauces. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. cauliflower. saffronlike hue it imparts. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. they are also used in soups. In Penang cuisine. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. http://www. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts.crazychefs. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. Painkiller. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. and baked goods. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. mulled wine. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. In European cuisine. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. "Lau Hau Peng". nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities.

It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. for instance. although this is disputed. and sweets. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. syrups. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. used as flavourings.crazychefs. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. preserving agents. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. in toothpaste. reddish brown in http://www. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 758 – . and has applications as an industrial lubricant. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. which can be turned into myristic acid. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. beverages. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. medicines. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. The oil is colourless or light yellow. It is semi-solid.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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hydrolyzed yeast. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. being an amino acid. it also said that. based on anecdotal reports. Fermented products such as soy sauce. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer.crazychefs.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. sugar cane. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. About 1." However.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. with 4% annual growth expected. Canned. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were http://www. autolyzed yeast.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. and protein isolate.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. soy extracts.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. yeast extract. steak sauce. However.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural . Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. particularly processed foods. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. sugar beets. or molasses. not reproducible. frozen.

food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. purified. ^ http://www. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. In 1993. concentration.. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. References 1. and (3) microbial fermentation.g. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free http://www.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. MSG. [monosodium glutamate].7% women).celiac. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e."." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48.crazychefs. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea.). toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. age 40–59 years. and mineral ions and growth factors. For this reason. The label must bear the food additive class name ( . such as hydrolyzed protein. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. 373-375.2.g. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). acidification.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. flavour enhancer). pp. ^ Leung. "Monosodium Glutamate". On Food and Cooking. In the 2004 version of his book. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. and converted to its monosodium salt. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. Foster. Albert Y. Steven (August 2003). and crystallization. (2) synthesis.html 2. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. followed by either the name of the food additive. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. 621. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. even in large amounts. In the hydrolysis method. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. New York: Wiley.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. dextrose or citrate). "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product.

doi:10. Stamler. ^ http://vm. Sano. PMID "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods".net/ . "Monosodium Glutamate".530060410. Toxicol.38. Guo.celiac.x. "Yes. Zhou. ^ http://www. http://jn.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. http://www. http://www. Masahiro.3. 5.2008.1038/oby. Liancheng. doi:10. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. Garside. Shigeru.ncbi. 277–282.jstor. ^ a b Tarasoff L. ^ Sand. et al. ^ http://www.1337. ^ "Production process". 13.html 12. Yangfeng.1006/rtph. ^ Moskin. Ren C.html?_r=1&oref=slogin.html.1002/chir. (April 2000). doi:10. Daniel. Kimber L. ^ He. doi:10.fda. Yamaguchi.. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study" the Secret Behind the Savor".1999.. Anjimoto Co. Toxicol.nutrition. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. ^ a b Geha http://www.nih. Shioya. 15.html 4. 11. PMID 8282275. ^ Kawakita. Kelly M. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". Dyer. ^ a b Rundlett. Chirality 6 (4): pp. 14.1111/j. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Regul. PMID 18497735.a16 711. 16. ^ Walker R (October 1999). Pharmacol. Beiser A. Alan R. Shizuko (2005). 38–49.5.1002/ Beifan. Food Chem. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. ^ http://www. PMID 10736382. Case study: monosodium glutamate". 6. 1875–1880. Linguang. Nutr. Jordan (2005). 8. Wu. MSG.F. Zhu. 7. http://www. Linda. Takehara. Van doi:10. (October 2006).00160. doi:10. s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. Jeremiah (August 2008). Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp. PMID 10597625. J. Inc.pdf 9. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.crazychefs. Armstrong.2005. Dongshuang. Ka. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Martha L. (1993).274. ^ Freeman M.17457599.ajinomoto. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Julia (2008-03-05). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Tetsuya. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. "A Short History of MSG". Chiaki.1525/gfc. Daniel W (1994). New York 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. Zhao.

荳油 http://www. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. 酱油 . 豆油 3.crazychefs. 醬油 2. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in http://www. In its various forms.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. Soy sauce was invented in China. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product.500 years. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. and salt. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK).net/ . [4] By the mid-19th century. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima.[3] In the 18th century. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. water.crazychefs.

which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. such as in giant urns and under the sun. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. Although there are many types of soy sauce. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed].crazychefs. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap.Production Soy sauce is made from .com http://www.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. literally "delicious taste"). sojae) and other related microorganisms. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. Today.

Touchōu is sold at a premium because.3-DCP (1. and Chinese cuisine. It is the main soy sauce used for http://www. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). lighter brown soy sauce. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. consistency. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. with relatively low amounts of other grains. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. pinyin: jiàngyóu. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. like extra virgin olive oil. Since it is lighter in color. one of the two types. An additional classification of light soy sauce. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. Another type. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. shuānghuáng (雙璜). ): A thin (nonviscous). is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. It has a richer. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. traditional Chinese: 醬油. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. Korean. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste.crazychefs. since it is . fragrance and saltiness. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. Despite their rather similar appearance. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. opaque. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. or a mixture of both. Thai. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. In traditional Chinese cooking. slightly sweeter. but it also adds flavour. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽.

for example sashimi. or 醤油). It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. that is used in its production. Technically. a sweet liquid made from fermented . wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). Usukuchi (淡口?. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary http://www. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Shiro (白?. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. where it is known as "shōyu". Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi.crazychefs. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. It contains little or no wheat. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. Japan is the leading producer of tamari.

Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy . All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. not pasteurized. Amakuchi (甘口?. 1 litre bottles. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. Consequently.crazychefs. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product.Saishikomi (再仕込?. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy http://www.

which has a thick. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. usually implies limited quantity. powder. It is a unique variety. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. which is very similar to Chinese light soy . soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. In Indonesia.crazychefs. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. in a http://www. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best.

Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油.com http://www. Later.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. O'Long(黑龍). called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce").[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). thin and dark brown in color.crazychefs. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). Malaysia. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. is made entirely of soy and brine. lit. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces.4% of soy sauce purchases. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. (called Joseon ganjang. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. 조선간장. Founded in 1909. Joseon . and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. WanJaShan(萬家香). which takes longer to produce (about 6 months).

Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases.crazychefs. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. salt. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3-DCP (1. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union.[6] Furthermore. wheat. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. nước tương. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. pronounced SOO-kah). Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy . Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. It can also be very salty. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. much more similar to the Japanese shō http://www. and caramel. or sometimes simply tương.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. it is also a table condiment. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. China.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals.

Kong and 4.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain In March 2008.crazychefs. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". ^ times more 3-MPCD than Seong-Gook (2002).000 to 18. Norio. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. ^ Titsingh. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. Vol. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD.[citation needed] In Vietnam. 3. 2. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. Retrieved 2008-01-07.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. including six samples with up to 11. 7. an increase over 23 to 5. 6. 2 (January 2000).co.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in http://www. King Imperial. the leaflet does include oyster 9. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In[1] Notes 1. ^ http://www. that affected the brands Golden Mountain.gmp. ^ Tanaka. 6. XXVII.miyajimasoy. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. Retrieved . Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy)." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. Pearl River Bridge. Jammy Chai. marinades and other types of sauces. 8. Press release. they are the dominant brands in their respective p. Lee Kum Kee. the country's second most popular sauce after fish (1781)."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. Golden Swan. Golden Mark. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce").smartfood. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea".aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. III. Isaac. OCLC 9752305 5. Individuals with a wheat allergy. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). ^ http://www. Celiac disease. Despite these being small in number in the UK. Sinsin. Kimlan. No. ^ Tanaka. http://www. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. ^ http://www. pp.tcoc.htm. 2nd edition.asp?id=7598 10. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. Soon Teck• and Kang. 7. ^ Tanaka. http://www.317 2.

100. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand".com. 186. Fereidoon. 103. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.11. http://books.1263/jbb. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. Kentucky: CRC Press. chemical veggies -. Edition 2. scares hit Vietnam 20. 14. p.nutraingredients. ^ Bamford.48.144. ^ Kobayashi. ^ Tanasupawat. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ 15. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. Stephen (2006-06-06). Hoboken. fermentation and micro-organisms. p. ^ Daniells. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". Somboon (2002-06-18).crazychefs. Charles W (2005). 18.201. ^ Toxic soy sauce. 16. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. PMID 16198255.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. Food. PMID 12469319. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. doi:10. et al. ISBN 0632059877. 12.2323/jgam. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201– . nutraingredients. Retrieved 2008-01-07. http://www. ISBN 1587161389. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. Makio (2005-04-18). Marian (2003). http://www. ^ Shahidi.

Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.crazychefs.0–83.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0% Arachidic acid: <0.5–5.8% Behenic acid: <0.5–21.3–3.3% Myristic acid: <0.5% Linoleic acid: 3.0% Palmitoleic acid: .5–20.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.0% Stearic acid: 211 | P a g e http://www.9180 (@ 15.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.9150–0.5 °C) 84 cP 1.4677–1.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.

in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.000 tons of olive oil annually. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production.crazychefs. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. Hojiblanca. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone.6 (refined and pomace) 0. but especially in the Mediterranean.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. as well as in Crete. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. Picholine. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. Japan and China. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. Alberquina.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. and Moraiolo. Koroneiki. North Africa and the Near East. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. and Manzanilla de Jaén. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives.4680–1. which produce approximately 350. Leccino Pendolino. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). In 2006.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. in Greece. Australia. World production in 2002 was 2. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. cosmetics. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. pharmaceuticals. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated . a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. in France. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}.[1] It is commonly used in http://www. Italy and Greece.[3] Of the European production. principally Italy. 93% comes from Spain. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. family Oleaceae). Olive oil is used throughout the world.6 million tonnes. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries.

and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). in Portugal. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. Galega. In North America.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. Spain. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. After extraction the remnant solid substance. a private trade group. Oblica and Leccino. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. IOOC terminology is precise.000 US gallons (131. and by its flavor. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the http://www.000 US gallons (181. often in "prestige" packaging. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. with 23 member states.600. The USDA uses a different system. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The US imported 47. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). still contains a small quantity of oil. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. The California Olive Oil Council.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. in . and monitoring authenticity.California. and Turkey.800. Mission. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. Spain. Spain.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. called pomace.crazychefs. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. by its chemistry. defining quality standards. with production increasing to meet demand. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. of which 34.000 m3) came from Italy.

000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil.[12] In some cases. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. measured by weight. EU officials took issue with the new law. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. product as superior olive oil.[14] In February 2008. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. of free oleic acid it contains. 25. particularly in Italy.[15] Under EU rules. but there are no guarantees." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as . and by heat. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. both in Italy and abroad. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. is extremely lax and corrupt.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. Almost 700 people died. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). and for genuine Italian producers to compete. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.crazychefs.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. defined as the http://www. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant.[14] In March 2008.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. mostly hexane. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). but safe. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. however.[16] In April 2008. it is believed.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. This practice makes it difficult for high quality.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. for blended oils. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.

Used on salads. and is judged to have a good taste. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. expressed as oleic acid. has an acidity less than 2%. but may not be described simply as olive oil. It is fit for consumption. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. In order to classify it by taste. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining.S. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. and are based on acidity. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. of no more than 1. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. It has a free acidity. absence of defects. of not more than http://www. The US is not a member. These grades were established in 1948. contains no more than 0. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. Pure olive oil.the oil degrades. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive . Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters.3 grams per 100 grams (0. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. The U.8% acidity.5% acidity. This is also called its organoleptic quality. and is judged to have a superior taste. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. another cause of rancidity.

[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. Grade A or U. with less flavour.4% and is "free from defects". Grade C". "cold" does not define any precise temperature.S. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.S. U. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.crazychefs. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.S. Grade D or U.0% and is "fairly free from defects". U. Grade C or U. which may be as low as 10-15 °C.S.S. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. This is incorrect.S. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.S. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3.5% and is "reasonably free from defects". since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. Grade B or .[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. U.S. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than http://www.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. (34 kJ/ml).U.S.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. First of all.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel.

7 11.2 7 1. around 0.crazychefs. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. around 8 l. so the term "first press" is meaningless.35 23. Tunisia. over 26 liters per year.7 l.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide.8 7. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. Spain and .1 0.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.pressed". Northern Europe and North America consume far less. Portugal and Lebanon. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.62 http://www. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. around 14 l.1 1. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13.

After grinding. After grinding. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. If ground with mill stones. suggesting a different taste. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. Green olives produce bitter oil. 4. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. This is done in specialised chemical plants. 3. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. not in the oil mills. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste.34 1. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. then placed into the press. no or very little organoleptic defects). Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. which is much faster and more accurate. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil".18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical .France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). 1. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described http://www. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. 2.

olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. region.monounsaturated 73 g .[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . including oleocanthal and oleuropein. . In the United States. time of harvest.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. The composition varies by cultivar. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.crazychefs. most notably oleic acid.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. To achieve this possible benefit. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and fat 3. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.polyunsaturated 11 g .saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.7%) and sterols (about 0.5 g .com http://www.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ fat <1. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. and extraction process.

It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. antithrombotic. This way. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. 2004.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. During the first stage. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants).[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood . rather than its fatty acid profile. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. The study was conducted in two http://www. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed.crazychefs. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans.This decision was announced November 1. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. For example. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. It is theorized that. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. and oleuropein. in the long term.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. During the second phase. This could. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. at least in part. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil.

) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. cookware. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. In time. Also. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available .com http://www.[citation needed]. For example. oils deteriorate and become stale. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). blenders. as available in an oil producing region. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. Also. A very fresh oil. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. etc. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. not for foods to be eaten cold. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. Used cold. like salads.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming.crazychefs. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold.

especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). acting as a stool softener. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like http://www. It does have demulcent properties.crazychefs. It is also good for the management of pain. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. and mild laxative properties. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic . topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies.

The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. Besides food. olio). from L. medicines. magical. Homer called it "liquid gold. from Anglo-Fr. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. Mod. olie.Fr. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. from . as a fuel in oil lamps. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. oile (12c.Fr. and O. and skin care application. huile). Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal." In ancient Greece.Fr. drawn and engraved by J. soap-making. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. olive oil.crazychefs.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior".Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now http://www. oleum "oil.N. olive oil" (cf. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1175. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. from Gk.. It. elaion "olive tree".

[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. Bodrum.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC).[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. In the centuries that followed. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olive presses became common. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the .The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and http://www. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.

The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). According to the historian Pliny. oil containers are preferred. and area consisting of present day Palestine. when the oil had risen to the top.crazychefs. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil . drained the water from the bottom. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. wrote of abundant olive trees. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. allowing more time for more oil to be made.[46] Until 1500 BC. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. stored in special containers. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. Lebanon. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 http://www. "the best in the Mediterranean". These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. and Israel. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. Sinuhe. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance.. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. he maintained.[citation needed]. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 and 3. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. where it is thought to have represented wealth. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). together with naked appearance of athletes. the fertile crescent.over 4. According to legend. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. during the 13th century BC.[dubious – discuss] During this time.000 tons of olive oil per season. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt.

To douse the flame. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of . A cork float with a lit wick floats on the by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. 158. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. http://findarticles. ^ USDA. p. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree.PDF. ^ G. Joann L Coviello. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. Louise Ferguson. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF).jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. light upon light. originating from King David. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. traditionally. ANR Publications. http://www. Retrieved 2007-05-25. its oil almost glows. Steven Sibbett. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. neither Eastern nor Western. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. 5. even without fire touching it." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. and. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). "Agricultural Statistics 2005". Retrieved 2007-05-25. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. 3. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch.crazychefs.gourmetretailer. ^ "findarticles.internationaloliveoil. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. Retrieved 2008-07-04. ^ International Olive Oil Council. http://www. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick)."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. the tourch is in a glass Olive Production Manual.html. in the consecration of altars and churches. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. and the Mount of References 1. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. "The Olive Tree. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 4. In Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. http://www.imitate the original Menorah.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work.usda. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree".". Margaret Lindstrand (2005). Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. ^ USDA. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. and this secure city.

J. http://www. 23.internationaloliveoil. Retrieved http://news. http://www. 16.1079/NRR200495 24.htm.htm. News". ^ Mueller. 18. and Maurizio La Guardia. ^ Covas MI (March 2007).Telegraph". ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. United States Department of Agriculture. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. doi:10. Retrieved ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. Tom. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27.01. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9.".com/gst/ 124 (6): 903–15. 12. US Customs D. John. ^ Keys A. ^ "EUbusiness. ^ Durant. http://www. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)".html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. Tripoli. Slippery Business The New Yorker. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive http://www. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E.Scotsman. The New York Times (H.internationaloliveoil. ^ Riding. M.2007.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".net/ . http://www. http://www. ^ "Eubusiness. 55 (3): 175–86. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. ^ "www.telegraph. 25. Res. (December 1986).4005000. 7. Retrieved 2008-11-16. ^ New York Times. Dennis.nytimes.southafrica. PMID 17321749. S. Raymond & Co. http://oliveoilonly. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2007-08-13.html".0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. et al.southafrica.23/. November 2. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . 19 CFR 134.1016/j.). 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. ^ a b McGee. 14. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. Epidemiol.eubusiness. Pharmacol. http://www. 2004. 11. Karvonen".htm". Giammanco.usda. http://aje. 13. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. http://query. PMID 3776973.phrs. 21.010. 19.scotsman.23/. ^ a b "Telegraph article".org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3776973. Alan (1989-05-21). Di Majo.oxfordjournals.6. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis. 20. ^ "www.crazychefs. Menotti A.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . 10.telegraph.

61. Olives (27 March 2000). No. ^ "Quite Interesting . "New Year's Resolution No. Masato Ueda. ^ "www. s. Vol. 31. 35.06-6328com. 1: Prevent Cancer. ^ Machowetz A. 43.crazychefs. ^ Romero C. pp. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". doi:10. Nov..videojug. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori" http://www. 19. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". 19 November 2007 30. Catherine Breton. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. A : 36. Gruendel S. Use Olive Oil. Dello Russo A.28. "olive" and "oil" 40. ^ http://www. ^ Pagnol. ^ [2] Ichihashi. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. et al. Alonso MG. M : Osawa. M : Ahmed. Osamu Nikaido. d'Episcopo L. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000).1021/jf0630217. André Bervillé. Masamitsu Ichihashi. doi:10. Raimondi AS. PMID 10737284. ^ a b Davidson.xml. Toshinori Bito.telegraph.1096/fj. 45. 1S45-50.1024/0300-9831.Telegraph". "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". De Castro A (February 2007). Medina E. Marotta T.tchain.". N U : Budiyanto. Brenes M. 2000. Carcinogenesis. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. An Wu. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice".75.tchain. PMID 17263460.v. 29. but cites no source. ^ Ferrara LA. Mar. PMID 17110467. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. 39. Vargas http://www. T : Ueda.ama-assn.1. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. ^ Mayo Clinic. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. Vol. p. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. 34." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. (January 2005). "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. 44. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. 37. 10.. Suppl. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. Ahmed. PMID 15830923. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. JDermatol-Sci. Toshihiko Osawa. Israel". "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. Poulsen HE. (January 2007). ^ Ehud Galili et al. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. ^ Rosenblum.html. ^ Guillaume doi:10. 21. 55 (3): 680–6.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. 21 (1): 45–52." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. 19. A : Bito. http://www. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). Faseb J. ssp. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". ". "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. Nazim U. Etienne N." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. et al. s. 23. T. J Agric Food Chem. 38. 2000. .) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". ^ Turner R. Guida L. p. Olea europaea L. "[10 INSERT TITLE]".html". p.

ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/ "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. . pp119–33 50. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Provencal.46. ed.). ^ Thomas F. C.R. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. ^ 2001.htm". in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West.htm. http://www. Verstraete and V. Harrington Park Press. B. Processing methods. 2005 49.reshafim. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". Kennell. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece".org. Riley.youngmuslims. http://www. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. 47. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". ^ Nigel M. ^ "www.htm.

[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. Saffron. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae.or hay-like fragrance. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). ən] / [ˈsæf. Saffron has further medicinal applications. each the distal end of a carpel. sativus flower bears three stigmas. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus . crocin. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus http://www.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight.Saffron Saffron crocus C. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A C.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.

must be dug up. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. A corm survives for one season. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C.98–1. Being sterile. broken apart. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. It is a sterile triploid form.5 centimetres (1. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve.[11] Upon flowering. and . Only in October. as was once generally believed. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. purple buds appear.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop.crazychefs.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ).com http://www. in Central Asia. which means "yellow. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild.2 in) in length. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. In autumn. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower.

Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. they fare poorly in shady conditions. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. loose. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover.500 mm (39–59 in). and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. Plants grow best in strong and direct .035 oz) of dry saffron threads.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. where annual rainfall averages 1. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. and corm rot pose other threats. Nematodes.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. where hot.crazychefs. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. http://www. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. well-watered.e.8–5. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. in concert with climate. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. Planting depth and corm spacing.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields.9 in) deep. leaf rusts. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. rats. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. Greek. are critical factors affecting yields. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). maximizing sun exposure. low-density.[16] Furthermore. and birds. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron..[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer.000–1. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal.

This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.0. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0. a product results that is itself water-soluble. and various α. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.crazychefs. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic.8-diapo-8.and β-carotenes. However.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2 oz of dried saffron). including zeaxanthin. and thus oil-soluble.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding . This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8.11 gr) of dried saffron.[19] many of which are carotenoids. It also has many nonvolatile active components. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass.[19] Meanwhile.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of http://www. lycopene. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.8-carotenoic acid).

0 1.0 12.0 0.0 2.5 40.0 12.0 6.0 3.0 1.0 6.0 1.5 10.0 8.0–13.0 4.crazychefs.0 6.0–7.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0– .0 9.0–15.0 11.0–8.0 6.0–1.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 10.

dried hay like".net/ .[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.6.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building.5-cyclohexadien-1-one.[18] Safranal. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a volatile oil. p.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.0 Source: Goyns 1999. Significantly. Santorini. the scent of which has been described as "saffron. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri. When saffron is dried after its harvest. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron.crazychefs. the heat. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is http://www.4. combined with enzymatic action. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties.Fiber (crude) 5.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.6. incidentally.6-trimethyl-2. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.

Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron.[28][29] Later. cartwrightianus. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. a sterile mutant form of C. and in the mithridatium. C.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal http://www.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. There.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC.[33] potpourris. and medical treatments. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. divine offerings. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. townspeople in Rhodes.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. cough.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sativus.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. ointments. and scabies.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. colic. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. physicians in . In late Hellenistic Egypt. Thus.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.crazychefs. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. Since then. mascaras.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia.000 years.

saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia.[44] From there.[51] However. a less expensive dye. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. and used in dyes.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. or jackfruit.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara.[43] Thus. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but http://www.[53] On the other hand.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. a Chinese medical expert. medicines. rice. saffron threads were woven into textiles. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". perfumes.crazychefs. At such sites. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC.[42] ritually offered to divinities.[39][40] Later. dating to 978–993 AD. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD.Asia The 17. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. Wan Zhen.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance.[44] During his Asian campaigns. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. Isfahan.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. For example. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. and body . saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions.

coffee. The Essex town of Saffron Walden." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. named for its new specialty crop. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's .[58] Soon after. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed.crazychefs.[55] During the 14th century Black Death.saffron is in Kashmir.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. and Italy.[59][60] Only in southern France.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms.[62] By 1730. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. imprisoned. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. and executed. France. and then the saffron is obtained.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War".[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. indeed. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. did significant cultivation endure. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. In Europe. which grew prosperous. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. saffron cultivation spread throughout England."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. under which saffron adulterators were fined. tea. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. and Spain. However. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. It can be used to aromatise wine. http://www. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour.

Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. and antioxidantlike properties.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. Turkish. Pennsylvania. Indian. http://www.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. Arab. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). immunomodulating. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. European.crazychefs.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing).grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Central Asian. particularly in China and India. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian).net/ . and chicken or trout dishes.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. noodles. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa).[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. and Cornish cuisines.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. and in perfumery. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing.

and other countries.[2] A pound comprises between 70.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. the United States. Switzerland. slight moistness. Spain. In Western countries.100/€1.000–75. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. Aside from these. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.550 per kilogram). including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. India. Annually. and aroma. France. Vivid crimson colouring.000-170. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. they are graded by government-imposed standards. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad.[5] Iran. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. For example.200/£1. are generally mellower in colour. Azerbaijan.100–11.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. Spain's varieties. and Italy.000 threads.000 flowers. Morocco.000 per pound (US$1. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand.000 flowers.500 per kilogram.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. . are the major producers of http://www. the average retail price is $1.crazychefs. elasticity. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.500/€7. flavour. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in decreasing order of production. England.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.000 and 200.

unusually pungent aroma. among the world's darkest. and crop failures in Kashmir. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization.some organically grown. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). and safranal (fragrance) content. is in San Gavino Monreale.. In the U. it also has very high crocin. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. and colourative http://www. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. Sardinia. picrocrocin (taste). which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. contribute to its high prices. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. There. for quality and quantity. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. blights. shape.crazychefs. and safranal content. combined with an Indian export ban. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). Repeated droughts. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). near L'Aquila. picrocrocin.S. aroma.79 in). Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content.

ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). and thus a greater colourative intensity.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin http://www. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. red-dyed silk fibers. traders. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages.crazychefs. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. paprika. III. with turmeric. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. in India. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. pliability. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. and other powders used as diluting fillers.[80] Thus. aroma.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets.[77] However. However. II. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . and I (finest quality). revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. many growers.national standards bodies. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. pomegranate fibers. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron.

23. Grilli Caiola . ISBN Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. crocin and safranal. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.crazychefs. ^ a b Deo 2003. pp. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). 103. 2. p. p. 13. http://www. Retrieved 2007-12-01. p. ^ Dharmananda 2005. 21. ^ Harper 2001. ^ Grigg 1974. 16. 272.Saffron reproductive biology 11. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. ^ Rau 1969. . Sterling. 3. 9. 3. 2. p. ^ M. 15. http://books.cababstractsplus. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. ^ Deo 2003. p. pp. ^ a b Deo 2003. 6. 4. 1. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 287. pp. 19. Honshū. p. 3. stigma extracts and their constituents. ^ McGee 2004. 22. 17. ^ Kumar V (2006) p.". 423. 1. www. 2–3.cababstractsplus. p. ^ a b c Hill 2004. Kansai. p. 4. 3–4.asp?AcNo=20043148643. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. 422. p. 3. ^ a b McGee 2004. ^ Willard 2001. ^ DPIWE 2005. 8. ^ Willard 2001. 20. p. 12. 7. p. 14. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. p. 1. 18. in mice. 5. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. p. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. 4.

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htm>>.". Tarvand Saffron Company. 2006. SR (1969).newscientist. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). Rau. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). <http://www. SC. JB (2005). 2006. <http://www. Retrieved on January 10. PMID 2025883 Park. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www.tarvandsaffron. P (2001). The Cooking of India.McGann. <http://books. Reconstructing History. 2006. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity".usda. Retrieved on January Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. Tarvand (2005b). Retrieved on January 10. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3.html>. < "What is Saffron?". Retrieved on January 10.htm>.net/ .cfm?chemic al_id=140>. New http://www. 2006. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.html>. Time Life Education.reconstructinghistory.barc. "Grading and Classification". 2006[dead link]. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. K (2003). H (2004). "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". <>.pl. F (2005). "Saffron". Retrieved on January 10. Cancer Letters 57 (2). Beacon Press. Pearce. Scribner.tarvandsaffron. Willard. USDA Phytochemical 2006. Tarvand Saffron Company.

crazychefs. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.Olive Olive Tree Olea . europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L. Dead Sea. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.

The small white flowers. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Its fruit. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. according to the 4th-century BC father of . ca 170 AD. It is short and squat. two stamens and bifid stigma. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height.(XVII.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures.[9]. they were reverently preserved for centuries. In Homer's Odyssey. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). which he describes as very simple: "As for me. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. Asia and parts of Africa.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. are borne generally on the last year's wood. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. endives.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. the olive suckers readily from the stump. Theophrastus. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. referring to their wooden material. the olive. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens.[1] and in the Iliad. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. The trunk is typically gnarled and http://www. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. Though. and smooth mallows provide sustenance.crazychefs.5 cm long. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars."[7] indeed.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. by a spring. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. called xoana. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. olives. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. from Lebanon. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea.

power and pureness. as well as olive oil and olives. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. and one of the most significant. but he makes clear (in 1. wisdom.The leafy branches of the olive tree . Over the years. glory and peace . and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries.16. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. and its cultivation began in Mexico. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. the pits give rise to thorny. As emblems of benediction and purification. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. the olive has been the symbol of peace. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. The olive tree itself. For example.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. The Book of Jacob 5. indeed. play an important role in the Bible.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. wild-type olives. in both the New and Old Testaments. and then in the 18th century in California. fertility. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. Today.crazychefs.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. Chile and Argentina. As far back as 3000 BC. Theophrastus. kotinos.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Peru. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. spread far and wide by birds. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. for which the Greeks had a separate name. http://www.[12] After the 16th century. olives were grown commercially in Crete. in On the Nature of .

Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on http://www.crazychefs. and can live for very long. claimed to be over 2. which is made into top quality olive oil. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). Istria in Croatia. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. has been calculated to be about 1. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. .[16] An olive tree in west Athens. disease. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult.000 years old. Montenegro. The age of an olive tree in Crete. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. named "Plato's Olive Tree".600 years old. One olive tree in Bar. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. The older an olive tree is.and fire-resistant.

net/ . see Olive (fruit).crazychefs. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. A supposedly even older tree. and the olive fruit. though showing a preference for the coast. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. According to a recent scientific survey. olive leaf. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. 1600-2000 years old. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. Specifically. Modern experience does not always confirm this.400 years ago. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. All seven trees continue to produce olives.2. called the "Peisistratos Tree". in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. In the same natural garden. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of http://www.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. and.6 km) as the limit. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. fine wood. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. Italy. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. both in Galilee region. a few other millenary trees can be admired.

Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. Niger.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. the Mediterranean http://www.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. Australia. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results).[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). Argentina. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. northwest Africa) where winters are . Israel. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. Sudan. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. Olive plantation in Andalucia.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. laperrinei (Algeria. such as South Africa. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. Chile.

com .Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

com . germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.

Rich taste and thick pulp. rounded-oval fruit. 'Bosana'. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. often after being pitted. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. A prolific bearer. stuffed (with pickled pimento. in southern Spain.Cailletier cultivar. 'Manzanilla'. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. anchovies. The olive grove of Amfissa. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. but only a few are grown to a large . 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. which consists of http://www. a large. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. It is used mostly for oils. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region .200. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one.crazychefs. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. originating in Dos Hermanas. In recent times. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. with purple-green skin. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. Seville. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. grown around the world. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops.

They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. originating in Toledo. good for eating and for oil. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. even on clay if well drained. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. originating from the southern Peloponese. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. It is mainly used for oil. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. Due to their highly valued flavour. Spain. They are black and generally used for table consumption. The olive is medium sized. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. 'Souri'. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. large. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. They are green. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. The flavour is mild and nutty. It is green. good for eating and for oil. They grow in any light soil. 'Arbequina'. originating in the province of Córdoba. 'Kalamata'. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. a small. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Spain. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. It is used both for oil and for table olives. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) . and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. 'Picual'. and coastal climate conditions. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). Moreover. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. which. 'Nabali'. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. Their flavour is mild and nutty. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. originating in the south of France. 'Hojiblanca'. used as a table olive. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. Greece. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic http://www.crazychefs. 'Cornicabra'. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. a large.[23] 'Barnea'. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). originating in the south of France (Aude département). another modern Israeli. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. This small olive. brown olive grown in Catalonia. disease-resistant.[21] 'Koroneiki'. named after the city of Kalamata. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. and elongated. though difficult to cultivate. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. medium size. Spain. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. 'Empeltre'. and elongated.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. It has a strong but sweet flavour. round. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop.

when covered with a few centimetres of http://www. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. 114). green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. up to several centuries. In southern Europe. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. In Italy. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. the trees are regularly . Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. However. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. and with the season and the cultivar. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. P. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olives are propagated in various ways. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. Occasionally. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. More specifically. soon vegetate. to facilitate germination. being very hard and close-grained. removing fruit from the tree.) Olives like hot weather. the oliviera. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. Olives grow very slowly. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. but the time varies in each country. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. which form small swellings on the stems. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. They tolerate drought well.crazychefs. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed.poorer soil. A. Another method uses an electric tool. and can remain productive for as long. embryonic buds. as in Languedoc and Provence. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. In some places in Italy and Greece. This method is used for olives used for oil. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. In Greece. it is valued by woodworkers. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous.

the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. which is healthy for future production. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. through to full purple black ripeness. After some weeks. Typical yields are 1. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. which leads to a superior finished product. The olives are soaked in water to wash. which is a natural preservative. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar.g. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar.2 kg of oil per tree per year. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. Fresh are often sold at markets. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. As a result. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. a bitter carbohydrate. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. which can be eaten fresh. American black ("California") olives are not fermented..5-2. The method also involves sawing off branches. large fruit (e. the creation of lactic acid. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. then drained. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. or green with hints of colour).com http://www.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more . Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process.crazychefs. Olives can be used green. which is why they taste milder than green olives. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. the fruit is not bruised. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive.

Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades.crazychefs.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. Cycloconium oleaginum. diseases. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. causing great damage to plantations. vinegar. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. garlic cloves.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. or removing the pit and stuffing them. spices. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. feta. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. of which the water is changed daily. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. juniper berries and anchovies. lemon juice. lemon zest. The ten largest producing countries. wine. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. oleae[27]. capsicum (pimento). Sometimes. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. induces tumour growth in the . especially to young trees. and weather A fungus. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. their main predators are wasps. Lye-curing. In France and north-central Italy. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. A species of bacterium. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. Pests. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. salt-curing. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. Popular flavourings are herbs. olives suffer occasionally from frost. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv.6 to 8. but can be left to cure for up to three months. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. olive oil. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. chili. an unnatural http://www. leaving sawtooth damage.

14. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. p..9 6.1).000 1.000 470.000 498. 81.000 275.000 280.089 6. 4." (Herodotus. 82.. 6. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.830 2. ^ Pausanias. 2.4 30.[31] References 1.6 31.000 . 1 ).000 8. 5. Description of Greece 1. to make bee-hives.064 2.5." (Diodorus Siculus..which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.317.7 http://www. and to cultivate olive-trees. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.300. most notably South Australia. Ancient Greek Agriculture. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.000 430.339 300.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced. An introduction. 7.597. 3. 1.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.000 318. Odyssey.5 63. 1).988 500.000 998..3 8.981 1. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.000 250.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.13. ^ Homer. 3.400.000 20.000 1.800. 1992.crazychefs.685 765. book 5". 4.000 49. 38. ^ ".500.140.1 25.8 16. ^ Theophrastus.000 594. 4.160. Bibliotheke. 5.888 178.3 20.5 6. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.100 3.149. 27. On the Causes of Plants.0 3.

Zatoun. Simhoni. ^ Riley. ^ http://www. 17. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. J. 69. N. 1996. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. 1999. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. AGRISCIENTA. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. & Parker. ^ Balfour. http://www. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". Fall/Spring (2005) 12. Juárez. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. Tabak & O. 27. J. Processing methods. Retrieved 2009-05-18.brijuni. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. Volume 18:27-35 20. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. Spring/Summer 2006 26. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Elena "Unusual Olives". (September 2002). Retrieved 2007-08-31.A. vol.cit. D.springerlink. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". 4th edition.. M Bauza & R. M. Madrid. p. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. ^ O. p. Y.zatoun. ..htm.jsp. Number 4). ^ "Old Olive Tree". ^ a b M. Retrieved 2007-03-10.pasoroblesolivefestival. nov. & Ouazzani. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. ^ Gooch. Available through Google Books 11.fao. http://apps3. Retrieved 2007-08-31. ^ Fotiadi. ^ Muncipality Bar. Epikouria Magazine. Syst. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. R. 2004". R. Brijuni National Park.crazychefs. 1982. 35. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. EspasaCalpe S. Australian Olives. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". John Hutton. 1981. Moody. Bacteriol. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15.aspx?PageID=151. 13. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. ^ "FAO. Masuelli. http://www. ^ [1] 21. 32:166–169.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA".279 18. Cavagnaro P. 30.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. ^ Lumaret. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. 29 April. Leshonenu (Hebrew). ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. Odes 1. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. ca 30 BC 9. Riley (2002). Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. 1779. 24. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. 2001.fao. Rackham. J. nom. E. Int. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22." Horace. rev. (1999) Ancient Trees. ^ Lewington. pp 110–113. Volume 15. ^ Belaj et al. ^ Burr. me cichorea levesque malvae. ^ Janse. Epikouria 25. http://www. A. 28.8. op. http://www. cited in F.

each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. with slender branched stems. The leaves are . Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L.R.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. glossy green. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall.31. L. (French http://www. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. Corresponding to its species name. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. and south to northern Mexico.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. seldom produces flowers. however. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. western North America. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen.crazychefs. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. with an entire margin.

Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. due to the presence of estragole. It is normally purchased as a .) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. Fresh. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). without excessive watering. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect.[1] It likes a hot. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. Spreading plant can be divided easily. dracunculoides L. Persian and Russian word for . The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute.[1] However. fish and egg dishes. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French http://www. Russia and Ukraine. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. by extension. but cannot be grown from seed. it normally goes dormant in winter. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. which is the Armenian. and particularly suitable for chicken. sunny spot.crazychefs.[1] Russian tarragon (A. A perennial. Georgia and.

Machinek A. Workman Publishing. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L.crazychefs. Wiley-VCH. Johannes Panten (2006). Rose Marie Nichols. ISBN 9783527607891. Ley JP. The Bountiful Container. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. Maggie (2002). Foerstner J. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Horst.[3] In Slovenia.Cis-Pellitorin. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Properties and Uses. Krammer . ^ a b c d McGee. 2. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia http://www. pp. Stuckey. References 1. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. ^ Gatfield IL. ^ Surburg. 3. 233.

and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Common http://www. In the United States. sage has a slight peppery flavor. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. In the Balkans and the Middle East. and some drinks. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). and blue to purplish flowers.Salvia officinalis (Sage. with woody stems. cheeses (Sage Derby). Germans often use it in sausage dishes. In French cuisine. It is a member of the mint family.crazychefs. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. In Western cooking. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Purple sage. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. Kitchen sage. grayish leaves. it is used when roasting mutton. Britain and . Dalmatian sage. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Lamiaceae. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. Culinary sage. Broadleaf sage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. Garden sage. though other species. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil.

ursonic acid. The underside of a sage leaf . The Latin name for sage.[1] In a double blind. borneol. fumaric acid.crazychefs.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. antispasmodic. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. chlorogenic acid. antibiotic. means ―to heal". http://www.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. nicotinamide. antifungal. hypoglycemic. caffeic acid. oleic acid. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. and estrogenic substances. ursolic acid. and tonic. astringent. niacin. flavones. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. flavonoid glycosides.trichomes are visible.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential . Sage leaf contains tannic acid. cornsole. salvia. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. and thujone. which contains cineole. cornsolic acid.more trichomes are visible on this side.

php. ^ Akhondzadeh S. References 1. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages.1365-2710. doi:10.appliedhealth. a cultivar with large leaves. and tonic. and for other uses. Jamshidi AH. a white-flowered cultivar. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Noroozian M. Khani M. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. 'Alba'. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. and more. Dioscorides. especially in sunny dry environments. 2. http://www. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. a purple-leafed cultivar. 'Berggarten'. PMID 12605619. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. hemostatic. Applied Health.1046/j. snakebites. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. Mohammadi M.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. and for low ground cover. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine.crazychefs. 'Lavandulaefolia'. emmenagogue.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. 'Tricolor'. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. and used as a diuretic.00463. a local anesthetic for the skin. Retrieved 2008-02-04. increasing women's fertility. yellow and green variegated leaves. a styptic. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". has leaves with higher oil . 'Icterina' with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. Ohadinia S. a small leaved cultivar. a cultivar with white.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. OBeWise Nutriceutica. ^ a b c "Sage". 'Extrakta'. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs.x. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. http://www. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt.[4] It was sometimes called S. (2003).

net/ . 10-11.crazychefs. (2000). CRC Press. p. Deni Bown (New York: DK. 4. ^ a b Kintzios. pp. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.3. Sage: The Genus Salvia. Spiridon E. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. ISBN 9789058230058.

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