COOKING INGREDIENTS

Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]

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Taxonomy
Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]

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Uses
Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

Safety
A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Cultivation
Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]

Gallery

Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.

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Thyme

Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

History
Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]

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Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Libyan. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient.a little less if it is ground.net/ . 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It tolerates drought well. tomatoes and eggs. Depending on how it is used in a dish. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Syrian. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. Portuguese. cuttings. Leaves are often chopped.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. and in those derived from them. In some Levantine countries. Dried. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. Greek. Persian. soups and stews. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. and Turkish cuisines. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon.crazychefs. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. the whole sprig may be used (e. As a rule of thumb.com http://www.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. which is due to its content of thymol.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. assume that it means fresh. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. In French cuisine. Italian. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. and of herbes de Provence. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. Thyme. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. While summer-seasonal. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. Lebanese. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. Spanish. fresh thyme is often available year-round. storage life is rarely more than a week. or by the sprig. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant.g. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. It can be propagated by seed. while flavourful. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. in a bouquet garni). Albanian. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme.

[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[6] Thymol. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed].[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. The dried equivalent is 1:3. an antiseptic. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. It also has medicinal uses. pulegioides × T.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice.[5] As with bay. it was used to medicate bandages.crazychefs. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. hybrid T. tisane. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. salve. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. Because it is antiseptic. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. etc.net/ .com http://www. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed].[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. but is grown as a ground cover.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. All thyme species are nectar sources.

net/ . There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.Variegated lemon thyme.crazychefs. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing.com http://www. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

crazychefs.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.net/ .

9 g .2 mg Magnesium 50. B1) 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .1 mg recommendations for adults.0 mg Phosphorus 58.1 mg 6.Dietary fiber 3. B3) 1.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. European.0 mg Iron 6. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133. although parsley has a milder flavor.0 μg Calcium 138.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.1 mg Folate (Vit. B2) 0.crazychefs.3 g 0.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.net/ . Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3. and American cooking. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.8 g 3.com http://www. often used as spice.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.Sugars 0.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0. It is common in Middle Eastern. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. reducing pest attraction. tuberosum). which then tend to protect plants nearby. Although little known in Britain and the United States. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. not blooming until its second year. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. used in soups and stews. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). While parsley is biennial. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. neapolitanum). parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. or flat leaf (P. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. However. Like many other umbellifers. which helps accommodate the long taproot. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. it is not related to real turnips. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. it attracts predatory insects.net/ .com http://www.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. For example.crazychefs. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var.

In addition. http://www.com/npc/parsley. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf).com/PLUdetails. Parsley as an oil. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. soups. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. Last retrieved April 26. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato).g. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). http://www. [1]) in oxalic acid.net/ . with fish. In Southern and Central Europe. "That Devilish Parsley. root. Ossobuco alla milanese.com". Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup.html. 4. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies.[3] Parsley is high (1. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. "Parsley on plucodes. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. steaks. parsley is part of bouquet garni.aspx?id=1075&s=4." West Virginia University Extension Service. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. a mixture of parsley. e. lamb or goose. ^ a b c John W.com http://www. or 4900. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. garlic.drugs..crazychefs.com". fried chicken. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew.70% by mass.plucodes. and sauces. Jett. 2. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. and lemon zest. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. leaf. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. 2007. References 1.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine.

net/ .Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.crazychefs.

vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.com http://www.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O.net/ .crazychefs. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. Oregano growing in a field.crazychefs. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. fried vegetables. Together with basil.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. and to add a nice. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum.net/ .Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno .com http://www. and lovage leaves.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. Oregano is an important culinary herb. of the mint family. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. e. spicy flavor. Unlike most Italian herbs. and grilled meat. O vulgare gracile. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). Spanish and in Italian cuisine. produced in erect spikes. as well as cultivars. growing to 20-80 cm tall. each with distinct flavours. capers. which is popular in southern Italy.g. The flowers are purple. native to Europe. It is a perennial herb. 3-4 mm long. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. Greek.

good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. which. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. especially for mutton and lambs meat. differs significantly in taste. It varies in intensity. however. salt and pepper. together with paprika.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. Asia Minor) and O. The influence of climate. It has an aromatic. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor.net/ .[5][6] Additionally.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. warm and slightly bitter taste. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. Oregano growing in a pot. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. West Asia) have similar flavors. heracleoticum (Italy. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. useful for relieving children's coughs.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. In Turkish Cuisine. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. it can be usually found on table. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil.crazychefs.com http://www. In the Philippines. Balkan peninsula.

is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. capsules. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. oregano. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. the father of medicine. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed].net/ . this substitution would not work the other way round. and caryophyllene. stimulant. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". Plectranthus amboinicus. ^ http://www. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. Lippia berlandieri. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. Used topically. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. diaphoretic. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States.html. limonene. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum.[7] and painful menstruation. indigestion.com http://www. carminative. also called Cuban oregano. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. cholagogue. fungal infections. Coleus aromaticus). A Cretan oregano (O. pinene.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).[12] References 1. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. expectorant. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. antispasmodic. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language.[8] Hippocrates. enteric parasites. including Poliomintha longiflora. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. stomachic and mildly tonic. Aqueous extracts. mild fevers. useful for relieving children's coughs. In the Philippines. ^ Organic Gardening 2. ocimene. but is usually stronger. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. emmenagogue.uni-graz. thymol.crazychefs.Main constituents include carvacrol. stomach upsets.at/~katzer/engl/Orig_vul. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. influenza. especially in the United States. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano.

com http://www. Steinar. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8.uk/news/UWENews/article. PMID 12730411. J Nutr.) and Origanum vulgare L.ac. March 2009. http://www. Fall/Winter 2007 10. June 2008.php. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 7. ^ Epikouria Magazine.dmannose.10. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". http://jn. Draft revision for "oregano". draft revision for "organum". et al. (2005). 24 November 2008. (Cav.uk/wild-oregano-oil-carvacrol. doi:10. 6. Leonor. http://info. 12. 28.com/articles/130620. (01 May 2003).2008. Retrieved 200811-26. ^ Dragland. University of the West of England.medicalnewstoday. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.asp?item=1374&year=2008.1021/jf0510079.crazychefs.3. et al.co. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286.net/ . ^ a b Faleiro. ^ ["http://www. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. Agric. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". draft revision for "origanum". 11. 53 (21): 8162–8168. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants".". J. Fall/Spring 2007 5. 133 (5): 1286–1290. Medical News Today. ^ Epikouria Magazine. Food Chem.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4.uwe. PMID 16218659.

It is a hardy. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. meaning "hay". Ferula communis. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. it seems. perennial. however. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. umbelliferous herb. In Ancient Greek. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl.crazychefs. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come.[2] In Greek mythology. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. Also. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill.net/ .[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. it was from the giant fennel. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. recorded in the 10th century. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail.com http://www. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel").

The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long. and grooved. but thinner.29 g 0.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. glaucous green.5 m. they are finely dissected. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel.5 mm wide. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. B2) 0. It is erect.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates .24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). and grows to heights of up to 2.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. half as wide or less.01 mg 7. B1) 0.com http://www. B3) 0. bulb.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. with hollow stems.net/ .crazychefs.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0.047 mg Folate (Vit.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. about 0.Dietary fiber 3.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.20 g 1. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.

In North American supermarkets. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. though usually not as strong.20 mg Manganese 0.crazychefs. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. "bronze-leaved" fennel. both in its native range and elsewhere. vulgare var.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. both raw and cooked. F. but is more aromatic and sweeter. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. syn. It is of cultivated origin. it is often mislabelled as "anise". There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. including northern Europe. notably the Italian name finocchio.net/ . in pastures. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. It propagates well by seed.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. and in other open sites in many regions.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. for its edible. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). the United States. which is also known by several other names. by the late 19th century.

badesoppu in Kannada. which are very similar in taste and appearance. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. variyali in Gujarati. The bulb is a crisp. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. sompu in Telugu.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). anise-flavoured spice.com http://www. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. and risottos. mouri in Bengali. or cooked in risotto. but also the most expensive.net/ . slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. pastas. foliage. often tossed with chicory and avocado. both raw and cooked. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds.Fennel. brown or green in colour when fresh. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. For cooking. in side dishes. though smaller. where bulbs and fronds are used. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener.crazychefs. grilled.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. fish. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. Many egg. stewed. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. or eaten raw. green seeds are optimal. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. salads. braised. It may be blanched or marinated.

Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. act as phytoestrogens.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder.crazychefs.net/ .[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. Fennel tea. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. also employed as a carminative. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. sometimes with some sweetener. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. or its polymers.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension.com http://www.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. This use.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma.[12] For adults. as it is said to improve eyesight. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. although not supported by direct evidence.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. used to ease flatulence in infants.

followed by India.com http://www.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. fennel and coriander. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. which promote growth of breast tissue.net/ .crazychefs.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. badian (star anise).[17] However. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.

zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. itself ultimately from Phoenician. In Bengali. In Urdu. the "real' cassia.C. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.[2] In Marathi.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. Ceylon. cinnamon is known as kurundu.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. Hindi. In Telugu.net/ . it is called darchin (‫. native to Sri Lanka. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . in the original Sinhala. Chakka meaning bark or wood. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. synonym C.crazychefs.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. which are often called cinnamon too. it is called "Darchini" ( ). Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. it is called Dalchina Chakka. and in Gujarati taj.[3] In Sri Lanka. In Farsi (Persian). it is known as "DalChini ( )".com http://www. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum.[5] In Malayalam.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera.

a song describing the beauty of his beloved.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus.net/ .[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. aloe and cinnamon. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. in Proverbs.com http://www. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. and in Song of Solomon. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC.crazychefs.

215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta.8–49. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. tea. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt.net/ . the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. and coffee. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy.crazychefs. However.2 feet) tall. which are arranged in panicles. have a greenish color.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. a Dutch captain reported. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino.Ages. and used them to construct their nests. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea.1 inches) long. "The shores of the island are full of it". In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 7–18 cm (2. The flowers. They established a trading post in 1638. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. although in the first century.75–7. in a letter of about 1292. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. and have a distinct odor. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. sugar." (Braudel 1984. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. p. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. took control of the factories by 1640.com http://www. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa.

in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. Bangladesh. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. According to the International Herald Tribune. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. which is left to dry. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs.net/ . Zanzibar. Only the thin (0. Brazil. and Egypt. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. Chips are trimmings of quills. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. and Vietnam. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale.5 mm) inner bark is used. Vietnam. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. eg. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. the West Indies. the outer woody portion is removed. verum). The next year. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Madagascar. India.[15] According to the FAO. Sumatra. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots.crazychefs. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. followed by China.com http://www. Java.

many websites. less dense. zeylanicum). also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. or "Indonesian cinnamon".rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark.[16] Ceylon cinnamon.net/ .[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. for example. and more crumbly texture. is generally a medium to light reddish brown. the related species. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. as all of the layers of bark are used. "Vietnamese cinnamon". Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. and is considered to be less strong than cassia. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). has a finer. using only the thin inner bark. hard and woody in texture. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). However. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia.crazychefs. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu.com http://www.

European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. rather than cassia. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. and sweets. hot cocoa. used in a variety of thick soups. such as apple pie. drinks. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. The two barks. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. when whole.5% to 1% of its composition. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. True cinnamon. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. In the Middle East. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. are easily distinguished.com http://www. macerating it in seawater. especially in Mexico. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. and fruits. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. bread-based dishes. and liqueurs. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. ‫.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling.net/ . Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. and then quickly distilling the whole. tea. In the United States. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. especially apples. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. but when cassia is present. It is of a golden-yellow color. whereas cassia sticks are much harder.crazychefs.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. which is the main importer of true cinnamon.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). a deep-blue tint is produced.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin.

were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. cassia. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.[34] Notes 1. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India.crazychefs. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. and anethole. In Hoodoo. ^ a b "Cinnamon". and money.and a very hot aromatic taste.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. linalool.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). and Myanmar (Burma). although it remains untested. few seem able to succeed. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. cinnamyl acetate. eugenol. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum)." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh.0. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. beta-caryophyllene.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts.net/ . and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. cinnamaldehyde. The Cinnamon Challenge. luck. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. However. who failed. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). 2008. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. love.com http://www.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777.

. Breyne) extracts". ^ "Cassia. Cathay and the Way Thither.htm 20. Corke H (October 2005). 4. revised ed. Cai YZ. Agric. Van-Koiij A. ^ López P. ^ http://www. The History of Food. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.com/eclectic/kings/cinnamomum. 8. PMID 16190627. doi:10. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. Sir James Emerson. ^ Felter. J.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/south_asia_sri_lanka0s_spice _of_life/html/1.nii.—Cinnamon.net/ . 22.CO%3B2-N 15. retrieved 2008-07-15 11. Harvey. Encyclopedia of Spices. PMID 10077878. retrieved 200705-01 21. ^ [1] 16.html#pg598." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. doi:10. ^ http://findarticles.org/templates/story/story. Sánchez C.ihaystack. 23.npr. 10. p. Anthea Bell. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. ^ Tennent. ^ Mancini-Filho J.com/spices/vietnamese-cassia-saigon-cinnamon-wholecracked-ground thespicehouse.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_June/ai_3289703 13. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". ^ Harris. Mancini DA.org/tennent/v1_p5_c02. http://www.2.co. http://www. ^ Yule.thespicehouse. ^ Knox. Cinnamomum. http://www.theepicentre.html. Nerín C (August 2005).jp/toyobunko/III-2F-b-2/V-1/page/0487. 437 7.437. Cinnamon. ^ http://www.za/index.com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. Robert.1021/jf051513y.en.fao. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ http://links. 437). p.com 17. Food Chem.html.jstor.org/docrep/007/ae017e/ae017e12. p. Batlle R. 53 (17): 6939–46.com http://www. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ http://www. http://lakdiva. Sun M.com/Spices/cinnamon. ^ Shan B. 2009. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum.co. 437f. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour.stm 3.html.iol.htm. Account of the Island of Ceylon. J. http://dsr.php?storyId=6672644.ac.org/sici?sici=00754358(1970)60%3C222%3ATSTOTR%3E2. Col.1021/jf050709v. http://www. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ [2] 18. 9. Food Chem.0. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. ^ http://news. p. retrieved 200807-15 6. Cozzolino FF. tr. Emily.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains".henriettesherbal. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. Agric. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. 53 (20): 7749–59.bbc.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. ^ The Epicentre.crazychefs. PMID 16104824. Henry. p. "Solid. Torres RP (December 1998).

sciencedaily. ^ Vanschoonbeek. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8.whfoods. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2217/14750708. ground. Retrieved 200808-05.net/ .12.com.1. ^ Taher.. Retrieved 2007-12-17.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life".lesliebeck. a publication now in the public domain. Medicinal Seasonings. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". ^ George Mateljan Foundation. Ali Khan MM. www. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). Safdar M.com/ingredient_index. Leslie. Kristof et al. ^ Ranjbar. Retrieved 200805-11. http://www.pdf.futuremedicine. Archer (1988). Eleventh Edition. 27. Eugen J. http://www. retrieved 200705-01 32. http://care. Anderson RA (December 2003).com http://www. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism.. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. ^ Verspohl. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade.1. Research: Thalido. 26.24.redorbit. Fernand (1984).luckymojo. Corn. PMID 14633804. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr..php?featured_food=80. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".com/news/health/803646/chillies_are_the_spice_of_life__pepper s_have_been/index.com. Cat. http://www. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". http://www. Akram et al. Khattak KN. ^ Yronwode. Muhammad et al.utm. doi:10. Retrieved 2008-05-11. ^ Beck. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276.3. http://eprints.26. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro".crazychefs.com/releases/2004/07/040716081706. 30.my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH. Retrieved 2008-05-11. (2005). retrieved 200705-01 25..1643. 28.3. http://www. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). doi:10.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/977. 34.diabetesjournals. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde.113. New York: Kodansha International.2337/diacare. ^ [3]. http://jn. 33.sciencedaily.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14633804. ^ Khan A.nutrition.113.html?source=r_health. 29. et al.com/genpage.3215. Alan W.. Agricultural Research magazine. The Perspective of the World.1016/00219673(88)90035-0.2217/14750708..1002/ptr.com/doi/abs/10. Charles (1998). ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). Braudel. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica.htm. Cinnamon. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. July 2000. http://www. doi:10. doi:10.

It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. powdered. it usually refers to Allium cepa.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion.Department of Export Agriculture. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. which it is not. used without qualifiers. canned. They are known by the common name "onion" but. frozen.M.crazychefs. Onions can be used. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. They are now available in fresh. chopped. pickled.com http://www. one of the oldest vegetables. and dehydrated forms.net/ .[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber."[3] Uses Onions. and Allium asarense R.

Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. due to toxicity during digestion. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. transported and stored. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. recent evidence has shown that dogs. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. an onion can be sharp. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. coughs. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack.crazychefs. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola.net/ . snakebite and hair loss.chopped or sliced. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. cats.com http://www.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. Depending on the variety. In Bronze Age settlements.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. However. and also to relieve headaches.[5] However. spicy. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. In ancient Greece. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions.[5] The onion is easily propagated. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course.

129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.042 g .crazychefs.polyunsaturated 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 g 1.4 mg Vitamin E 0.Sugars 4.saturated 0. B3) 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.7 g Fat .24 g .013 g .Dietary fiber 1. B2) 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.1 g 89.net/ . B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. 0 μg 9.34 g 0.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0. B1) 0.monounsaturated 0.02 mg Vitamin K 0.com http://www.21 mg Magnesium 0.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

Western White. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. Imperial Valley Sweet. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. and Vidalia. Mexico. If you are allergic to onions. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. Empire Sweet.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. anticholesterol.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. Texas 1015. However. In general. diabetes. and other diseases. and Vidalia. Shallots have the most phenols. Western White. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. Northern Red.com http://www. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. osteoporosis.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. Imperial Valley Sweet.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women.[10] In many parts of the world. Empire Sweet.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. For all varieties of onions. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. Peruvian Sweet. eleven times the amount found in Western White. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. Northern Red. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity.crazychefs.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. Imperial Valley Sweet. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. pungent yellow (New York Bold). Peruvian Sweet. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. Western Yellow. Texas 1015. followed by Western Yellow. Texas 1015. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. Peruvian Sweet. Mexico.net/ . In the United States. Mexico. Empire Sweet. anticancer.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause.

and the irritation effect. shallots. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. differs among Allium species. and bananas. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. diarrhea.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response.crazychefs.net/ . garden lilies. creating a stinging sensation.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. 2008. limiting the amount of gas generated. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.include reactions to onions. cells are broken. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. therefore. allylpropyldisulfide. garlic. leeks. ginger. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. where it binds to sensory neurons. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. The volume of sulfenic acids released. As onions are sliced or eaten. On January 31. breathing difficulties. chives. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. all present in garlic. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye.com http://www. mouth and throat ulcerations. nausea. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. Eye irritation can. it can lead to an allergic reaction. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. allylmercaptan and allicin. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation.

from sets started from seed the previous year. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. which have been developed in more recent times.net/ . Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year.com http://www. the Welsh onion. which can be planted directly in the ground. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation.crazychefs. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. Allium fistulosum. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. "short-day" onions. Finally. more commonly today. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or.

net/ . Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.637 Japan Egypt 1. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.302 1. Oregon (USA). Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.750 South Korea 1. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion. Vale.500 China United States 3.764 Pakistan 1. each of which forms a bulb. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). Tree onion or Egyptian onion .149 Spain World Total 64. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.Produce bulblets in the flower head.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.758 Russia 1.crazychefs. a hybrid of Allium cepas.220 Turkey 1.com http://www.793 India 5.346 2. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.

[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.com http://www.crazychefs. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.The Onion Futures Act.net/ . Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. It remains in effect as of 2009. passed in 1958. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices.

leek.[1] A bulb of garlic. Allium sativum. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. from William Woodville. and chive.net/ . Medical Botany.crazychefs. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. It has a characteristic pungent. known as garlic. commonly known as garlic.com http://www. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. shallot. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. Its close relatives include the onion. 1793. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. the most commonly used part of the plant.

6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. In cold climates. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. with approximately 10. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars.crazychefs. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. according to Zohary and Hopf. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. accounting for over 77% of world output. The leaves. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). stems (scape). "crow garlic". India (4. Garlic is grown globally.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable.[5] The "wild garlic". The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. and Allium oleraceum. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. with Russia (1. the so-called elephant garlic. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. Allium vineale.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. Garlic plants can be grown close together. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. In North America. The papery. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring.Yunnan province of China.net/ . and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. for consumption (raw or cooked). They can suffer from pink root. The cloves are used as seed. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. respectively. and for medicinal purposes. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis.com http://www. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. are common weeds in fields.

A = aggregate (may include official. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb.810 168. or estimates).000 221. It is often paired with onion. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. southern Europe. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form.000 128.000 142. Southeast Asia.com http://www.686. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. California. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. and parts of South and Central America.000 125. C = calculated figure. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.crazychefs.000 325. or ginger.000 15.000 645.088. tomato.400 140.000 254. south Asia.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. northern Africa.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. F = FAO estimate. P = official figure. the Middle East. including eastern Asia.net/ .Alaska) in fifth place (1.4%). semiofficial.

oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. "stems". the resulting product. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. meats. Garlic.net/ . 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic.crazychefs. called black garlic. and spices. In Japan and Korea. bruschetta. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. breads and pasta. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. oil. salt. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. cleaned. is sweet and syrupy. They are also known as "garlic spears". Blending garlic. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. meat. garlic toast. crostini and canapé. In eastern Europe. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. and a chunky base produce skordalia. Immature scapes are tender and edible. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. In some cuisine. or "tops". They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. and roast them in an oven. The leaves are cut. almond. oil. and then stir-fried with eggs. or vegetables. and is now being sold in the United States.com http://www. United Kingdom and Australia.

Storage

Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—theheart.org, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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allylpropyldisulfide.com http://www. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. making garlic much more potent than onions.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons.[51] To ward off vampires. Humans. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. or leeks. However. leeks. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. garlic could be worn. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. such as pistou. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. therefore. shallots.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. allylmercaptan and allicin. chives. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. hung in windows.[50] In Europe.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine.crazychefs. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. deterring animals like birds. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose.in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". However. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. ginger. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. persillade. and worms from eating the plant. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. and release of AMS several hours more.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. Since digestion takes several hours. however. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. shallots. Among the members of the onion family. all present in garlic. included in many garlic recipes. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. insects.net/ . Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. and vampires. thus mellowing its spiciness. usually enjoy these sensations. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. When eaten in quantity. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. garden lilies. where it is excreted. garlic.[48] Due to its strong odor. The herb is. including onions. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. forming allyl methyl sulfide. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae).[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. and bananas. werewolves.

It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. indigestion. emesis.crazychefs. as well as other medications. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. are largely unknown. allergic reactions.net/ . bleeding. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. calcium channel blockers. dizziness. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. at worst. nausea. Garlic can thin the blood. antihypertensives. antiparasitic value of garlic.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. saquinavir. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. indicated Muhammad.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. and diarrhea. sweating. Editing help is available. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. However. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. similar to the effect of aspirin. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. minimal risks to normal individuals. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. antiplatelets. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". and menstrual irregularities. and hypoglycemic drugs.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. if appropriate.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin.In Daoism mythology. if any exist. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath).com http://www.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. You can help by converting this article to prose.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial.

html 8.crazychefs.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. is discouraged. Retrieved 5 June 2009. 112 7.html. http://www. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment.net/10113/877. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. et al. ^ a b Lee. ^ a b c d Tabor. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. 4. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. ^ http://www.at/~katzer/engl/Alli_sat.nj.unigraz. et al.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". third edition (Oxford: University Press. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns.htm. (2004). topical use of raw garlic. G. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. (2005). "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. Notes 1. ^ http://www. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. split.handle.jhortscib. http://www. 197 5. In particular. including burns to children. http://hdl. one the bulbs will grow peeled. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. J. 2000).There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. garlick)".net/ . 397 6. Retrieved 2007-08-28. Retrieved 5 June. 3.com/alternative-therapies/herbs-for-health/medicinal-garlic/ 9. p. 2. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. A bulb of garlic.com http://www.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. Domestication of plants in the Old World. Ethiopia".org/Vol79/79_6/8.com/warrenreporter/index.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. ^ McGee p.natural-holistic-health. bigger.

^ Borrelli F. 167 (4): 325–6.005. McFerren M (February 2007).uk/staff/daryn.org/cgi/content/extract/167/4/325. ^ Durak I. 35. 167 (4): 346–53. F. [2] ^ Hamel. Facts. 28.. N.1162/106361403773062678.lehoux/Tropes. Garlic.01. PMID 2291748. Herald Publishing Co." Int.S. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". ^ Mader FH (October 1990). PMID 15277094.pdf.2004. Paul B.. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". ^ Durak I. 13. http://archinte. ^ Charlson M. doi:10. and Empiricism" (PDF). et al (November 2007).ama-assn. 33.1073/pnas. 5:109–115. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). Med. doi:10. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health .net/ . Sylva.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. PMID 15157944. R. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Goodbye. 25. 2006. Block E. 34. Akrami M (March 2007). doi:10. PMID 17123684. PMID 9641475. 104 (46): 17977–82. "Tropes.. ^ Gardner CD. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". Sartoratto.A. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".com 54 | P a g e http://www. 17.A 400 Year History.jnutbio.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. Mills RW. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. ^ Benavides GA. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. Hyg. doi:10. Aytaç B. Güven C (2002). Ferraresi. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. Ramacciato. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". Accessed: December 18. 18.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. J.1002/mnfr. http://personalpages. Izzo AA (November 2007). (Mrs. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32.ac. 32.167.. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8.org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346. 15 (6): 373–7. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci.325. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". ^ Kojuri J. 19.crazychefs. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. PMID 17325296. Intern. PMID 17918162. Squadrito GL. Sci.167. Daryn (2003).1001/archinte.1186/1476-511X-6-5. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. 22. PMID 17966136. ^ Chan KC. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. July 1. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech).1016/j. and Mary U.ama-assn. Acad. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial".1001/archinte. ^ a b Steiner M. et al (February 2007). 29. 16. PMID 17328819. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. 26. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. Olcay E. 23. Yin MC. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. PMID 17951430. http://archinte. Maud.200700058. A Modern Herbal. Arch. Capasso R. U. doi:10.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". Proc.4. PMID 17325291. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. 14.C. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. doi:10. Nutr. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44.manchester. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". Better Nutrition.). 21. Lin RS (June 1998). 20. Natl. Motta. Oztürk HS.1002/mnfr. A. et al (June 2004). J. 15.4. doi:10. (p. Kavutcu M. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". 2005 ^ Groppo. 30. Lawson LD. Sova P (May 2004). PMID 15218732. J. 12. 11. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . Arch.. Intern.346. Vosoughi AR. doi:10.0705710104.200700072. Dent. Med. doi:10.10. Biochem. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. P. Chao WJ (March 2007). 24. 31. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. 27. 5.

http://linkinghub. 40. "Garlic burns". Fuwa T. Retrieved 2007-0707. Yoffe B. 37. Bordia T.economicexpert.org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257. 49 (1): 473. Matuura H.com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582.Garlic-in-Oil 61.htm 44. Agents Chemother..Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. PMID 16207909. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. 1988.jlc. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats". ^ http://washokufood. (1989-01-30). ^ http://lem.elsevier. ^ John S. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Kominato Y. ^ Pickering. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. Sanders N. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. Engl. http://mic. 122. Summer 2005 . ^ McGee p. Slattery M. 85 (3): 157–64. James. PMC: 538912. ^ http://www. http://linkinghub.January 29. Nishimura S. 38. 58. Volume 7.) 62. doi:10. David (2003). 310–311 47.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ^ Macpherson et al. In Search of Dracula. Patel R (January 2005). ^ Oi Y. 2007.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. Passa O.crazychefs.com http://www. "Effect of allixin. Shishido C. Teel R.go..blogspot. Houghton Mifflin. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans".JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. Sterling Publishing. et al (October 2005). Jordan W. 2007. Book 65 57. ^ Macpherson et al. 120.html 54. ^ Fareed G.ukmi.jp/JST. 211.. Antimicrob. ^ Shuford JA. PMID 11600262.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65.jst. Imafuku M. Raymond T (1994).sgmjournals. Sagi A. garlic advisory 63. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. ^ McNally p. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. 049 . PMID 8441577. ^ Alnaqeeb MA.. National Health Service. 211 51.html 45. (2001). a stress compound from garlic. Long D. ^ Garlic .com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390. 53.com/a/Garlic. ^ Baruchin AM.28095-0. ^ a b McNally. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. http://joi. ^ Bukhari. ^ Health Canada . AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Lau B.ch. Pickering p.uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. doi:10.com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic.jp/JST. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. 42.. http://joi. http://aac. Sumida T. 65. 43.elsevier.". 66. Castro C. ^ a b c d Hogg.1. Aon MA. Ali M (June 1996). Retrieved 2009-01-30. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. 52.asm. Scolaro M. section "Conclusion" 48. PMID 8644128.473.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473.jlc. NLM Gateway. 41. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association.html 46.". "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet.36.nhs. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). UK Medicines Information. "Allixin. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. Chesson C. ^ Kodera Y. 49.Vol 9 No.1128/AAC. 64.1099/mic. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. "Garlic burns". Jennifer (2002-12-13). p.2005. Lett.. Steckelberg JM.net/ . Yoshida S. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. Itakura Y.go. (1991-08-01). Retrieved December 7. Complementary Medicines Summary. ^ http://www. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30".49.it/didattica/infochimica/2006_aglio/pagine/agronomy. Ronen M (November 2001). ^ a b c Yamasaki T.pdf. Microbiology (Reading. ^ Lemar KM. ISBN 0-395-65783-0.com/topic-t6335-a1-6Allium_sativum. Thomson M. 39. 4 . http://www. ISBN 0-30436561-0.0.unito. Iwai K. Nishino H. on mutagenesis.goldbamboo. Retrieved December 7. W. PMID 11481410.jst. p. Toxicol. PMID 15616341.. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. H. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993)..

Hile. 3rd ed. D. Naoto Uda. R. Pharm.-Z. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". (1992). E. Barzilay.. Vol. Turner. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9355906. Bull. Lloyd.. D. Kraemer. Simmons DL. Vargas R. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9.. Hamilton. Shan. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. Makoto Ichikawa. Selfsufficientish . Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Garlic. J. Sci. Kamenetsky. H.. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. J. A. G. Wang. "The effect of the aged garlic extract.References Japanese garlic. P. A. L. I. Naoki Kashimoto. S. J. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. M. (2001). Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. New York: Avery. 50. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. Belz GG (October 1997).P... A. The chemistry of garlic and onions. 405-407 (2002). (1985).. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". Balch. Shafir. Bull. C. Soc. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203.jp[青森県産]. McMahon FG (June 1993).elsevier...Garlic. (2004). Susumu Yoshida. PMID 9355906.. Kozue Ogasawara. Breithaupt-Grögler K.net/ . (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. PMID 8506890. H. H. M.. and Related Species (Second Edition).. Z. Rabinowitch (2004).com http://www. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. Am. Lawson. Lawson. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. A. Chatterjee. Pharm. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. Efendy JL. Med. D. (2000). 50. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. Lemar. Koch.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. E. Chem. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599.. and H. P. D. L. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 94 (6): 632–5. R. 354-363 (2002). Block. Vol. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Garty BZ (March 1993). C. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Gardner. Block. Zhang. PMID 8441577. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Z. Zemah. Isao Sumioka. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. E.crazychefs. L. Balise. Retrieved 1 May 2005.. "Garlic burns". Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. http://circ. Masanori Ayabe. PMID 9247357. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. Hort. Kiazand.M. 129: 144–151. K. Chem. Campbell GR. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). Gotzkowsky S.ahajournals. (1996). L. Boudoulas H. R. Am.com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6.. D. Williams & Wilkens. 'Kyolic'. Jain AK. Ling M. D. Campbell JH (July 1997). http://linkinghub. L. Block. Jiro Yoshida. [4] Lawson. Andy (2004). E. Block. Yukihiro Kodera.

12. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". 49 (1): 473. Lin RS (June 1998). 310–3.. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Leeks". "The Onion Family: Onions. Macpherson. Y-Y.Lindsey J. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology.S. PMC: 538912. Bernhard H. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45.473. S. Salunkhe. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". Food Factors for Cancer Prevention.K. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.2005.com/pt/pt-core/templatejournal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage. Neil A (1994).asm. Yeh.com http://www. Patel R (January 2005). Geierstanger. J. et al. Antimicrob.1128/AAC.49. PMID 2291748. Samer R. Garlic. doi:10. Cardiovasc.wkhealth. PMID 8169881. PMID 9641475. 31 (6): 904–8. PMID 15616341. Abstract. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Scribner.. et al. pp. Y-Y. Kadam.net/ .1. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Marcel Dekker. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. Mader FH (October 1990). Pharmacol. SunWook Hwang. (eds). D. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".crazychefs. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Michael Bandell. http://aac. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. McGee. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). Shuford JA.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. (1997). Yeh. et al. In: Ohigashi. http://meta. Harold (2004). (1998). Eid. (1999). Steiner M..htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". H. Silagy C.. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. Agents Chemother. Steckelberg JM. Veena Viswanath. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209.

The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m.5-2 cm long. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. Madagascar. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. after which they develop into a bright red. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. Zanzibar. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pakistan. and Sri Lanka. it is called đinh hương. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. Cloves are harvested when 1. terminating in four spreading sepals. and consist of a long calyx. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. when they are ready for collecting.com http://www. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre.crazychefs. In Vietnam. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu.net/ . syn.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world.

[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. along with other spices. cloves are often used to season pho broth. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. they are used sparingly.000 tonnes).Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Cloves are used as a carminative. but as they are extremely strong. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. which sells Djarum Black.[1] In north Indian cuisine. especially for digestive problems. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. In south Indian cuisine. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee.crazychefs. Cloves are used in cheeses. spleen and stomach meridians. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form.com http://www. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but with the addition of other spices). Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies.net/ . Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. often in combination with cumin. entering the kidney. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. In Vietnamese cuisine. warm and aromatic. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. it is used in almost all dishes. During Christmas. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle.

[7] Nevertheless. In the late fifteenth century. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770.[5] In West Africa. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. Moti. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. pimples etc. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. along with nutmeg and pepper. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century.[7] Cloves. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. Ternate. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. and Zanzibar. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). Ayurvedic herbalist K." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. mainly from the Maluku Islands. Subsequently. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets.com http://www.[6] History Until modern times. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. most of the West Indies.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. RH (AHG). Khalsa. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency.crazychefs.direct stomach qi downward. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. and Tidore. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang.net/ . vomiting and diarrhea.P. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. including for multiple sclerosis.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. were highly prized in Roman times. including Bacan. Brazil. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. including cloves. Makian. It is also used in severe burns. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices.

org/questions/question_44. Phyllis and Balch. xv. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Avery Publishing. crategolic acid. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. and Andrew Gamble. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. ©2003.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.crazychefs.squarespace. Erich Stoger. pg. ^ http://www. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. gallotannic acid. John Wiley and Sons Inc.nih. Special Diets for Illness 6. 5. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". Jack (2004). and several sesquiterpenes. ©2000. 3rd ed. ^ "TibetMed . James. stigmasterol and campesterol. Erich Stoger. 94.. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. kaempferol. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. Alan. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. 2.html National Institutes of Health..[8] Notes and references 1. comprising 72-90%.com/diseases/special-diets-for-illness. Vintage Books.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. ^ Balch. pp. due to the high price of importing them. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.nlm. ^ http://oneearthherbs. the flavonoids eugenin.htm. http://www. Steven Clavey.html Tilotson. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. ^ a b Turner. Medicine Plus.com http://www. methyl salicylate (painkiller). 8.tibetmed. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World".gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-clove. and eugenitin. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. Karen. tannins. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. ^ Dorenburg. 3. Andrew and Page. rhamnetin. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid.net/ . Steven Clavey. Spice: The History of a Temptation.

Shallot
Shallot

Shallots

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Details
Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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Cardamom
Cardamom

True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

Varieties
There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]

Uses

Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.

Gallery

Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

Notes
1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer. Rediff.com, 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

Bibliography
1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum
Hook.f.

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Usages
Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Identification
Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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^ Joshi.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn.Botanical nomenclature". "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". Retrieved 10 November. 5. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. 6. http://www.1542/peds. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". Retrieved 8 June 2009. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". Vaishali C. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.703.) -.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院.net/ . et al. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. (2006). http://www.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . Retrieved 8 June 2009. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. Ines et al.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1.2005.com/BZ-shuju/standshow.5555/jaoi.atypon-link. while Lederer et al.org/iso/catalogue_detail. 3. PMID 15492355. f.iso. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". (2005).iso. doi:10.com http://www.com/AOAC/doi/abs/10. NPR. doi:10. 4. f. ^ Lederer. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. ^ Louisa Lim. 18 May 2009 2. http://www. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974.88. Retrieved 8 June 2009.3.1021/jf058156b. ^ International Organization for Standardization.htm?csnumber=19183. http://www. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS.Specification".2004-0058.chinaios. ^ International Organization for Standardization.htm?csnumber =4844.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 .crazychefs.

Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. native from the east Mediterranean to East India. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.crazychefs.com http://www. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.net/ . ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum.

in Turkey. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle".[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . parsley and dill.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. cumin is known as kimyon. the story goes. Kerman. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and yellow-brown in colour. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. being oblong in shape. in northwestern China. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. a member of the parsley family. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. including kamūnu in Akkadian. maduru. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. In Northern India and Nepal. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century.com http://www. cumin is known as zireh. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. longitudinally ridged.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. Like many other Arabic words in the English language.net/ . in Iran and Central Asia. In Arabic. locally called "Kermun". The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. cumin is known as ziran (孜然).crazychefs.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin".

toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. when added to hot milk and consumed. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. Uzbekistan. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Morocco. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. Seeds. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. Tajikistan.crazychefs. and Chile. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der.com http://www. India. and this practice continues in Morocco.net/ . cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Turkey. today it is mostly grown in Iran. Syria. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. Mexico. Egypt. In Sri Lanka.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. In South Asia.

Middle Eastern. The flowers are small. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. tacos. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. curries.net/ . containing a single seed. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde).[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. adobos. and in some traditional breads from France. Contrary to popular belief in the US. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. curry powder. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. thread-like leaflets. Sri Lankan. and bahaarat. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. It is an herbaceous annual plant. enchiladas.crazychefs. but are smaller and darker in colour. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. Indian. Cuban. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. and is found in achiote blends. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. It is traditionally added to chili. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. white or pink. North African. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. and borne in umbels.com http://www. garam masala. pinnate or bipinnate. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. either ground or as whole seeds.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. Pakistani. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. Today. Northern Mexican cuisines. and other Middle-Eastern. popular in Indian. sofrito.

64 μg 44.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.5 g Fat . B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes. it is drought-tolerant.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sown in spring. It is grown from seed.33 mg Vitamin K 5. and needs fertile.saturated 1.com http://www.24 g 22.Sugars 2.25 g . However.crazychefs.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F). It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.435 mg Folate (Vit. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B2) 0.81 g 8. well-drained soil.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. hot summer of 3–4 months. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well. B3) 4.very common in Mexican cuisine.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine.net/ .Dietary fiber 10. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates .7 mg Vitamin E 3. Cultivation of cumin requires a long.27 g 17.

a small cat).caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. For example. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".v. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as in 'kot' .a cat and 'kotek' .crazychefs. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. However.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. lighter in colour.net/ .Zinc 4. Not related to curcumin. from the Swedish word "spisa". unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day.com http://www. a chemical found in turmeric. to eat.). In Polish the difference is even less significant. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. In Swedish. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it.

9. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . ^ a b c Li. Nicola S.crazychefs. ^ a b Wang. (2009). Essential Oils"." premiumwanadoo. 2000). ^ a b Iacobellis.2009. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. 4. doi:10. 2. Rong. doi:10.com.1002/ffj.1016/j.030. and Carum carvi L.net/ .Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L.com 7.ars-grin." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition).arsgrin. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 .html 6.313.77. et al. third edition (Oxford: University Press. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. 8.1021/jf0487351. doi:10.pl?12617. (2005). "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. http://www. 2000. 206 5. 3.com http://www. p. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). Lu et al.foodreference. ^ "Kamūnu. ^ "KMN. Domestication of plants in the Old World. www.com/html/fcumin.".05. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. Retrieved 2008-03-13. ^ http://www.1302. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.gov. ^ Growingtaste. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN".aca. from China". ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.

Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.crazychefs. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .com http://www.

or spice.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. cardamom. shogaols and gingerols. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. medicine. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. sedative. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. antipyretic and antibacterial properties.net/ . volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. and galangal. In laboratory animals. West Africa and the Caribbean. and citral) have also been identified. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component.com http://www. cineol.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy.

Additionally.net/ . to which honey is often added. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. stimulating the production of saliva. Ginger is also made into candy. which makes swallowing easier. and tender green chili peppers.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. in Gujarati.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. Adrak. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. Allam ( ) in Telugu. For storage. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. and sugar. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. Ginger has a sialagogue action. [edit] Regional use In India. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. In South India. cookies. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. and ginger beer. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. ghee.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. salt. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. ginger ale.com http://www. nuts. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. or frozen for longer term storage. particularly gingerols and shogaols. especially in the Tanjore belt.crazychefs. crackers and cake. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. in Tamil Nadu. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. Alay in Marathi. and Aduwa in Nepali. enchi in Malayalam. Inji in Tamil. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women.

France. Indonesians also use ground ginger root.net/ .Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. and making drinks such as sorrel. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. On the island of Corfu. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot.com http://www. In the traditional Korean kimchi. is made. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. In Burma. a type of ginger beer. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. However. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Vietnam. gingerbread. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. parkin and ginger biscuits. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. In the Caribbean.crazychefs. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. Greece. In Japan. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. ginger is called gyin. In the Ivory Coast. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. In Western cuisine. ginger snaps. In China. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. during their occupation of the islands. In Arabic. and a variety of nuts and seeds.

Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. morning sickness and chemotherapy.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. though it does interact with some medications.com http://www. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. though studies been inconsistent. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.crazychefs. which several scientific studies support. including warfarin.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic.net/ . cough and cold. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries.

powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. gas. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu.net/ . ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. reducing "winds" in the blood.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. and although it's generally recognized as safe. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. ginger can cause heartburn. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice.crazychefs. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. in food etc. clotting. and heart rhythms. bloating. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. In Burma. which is considered a panacea.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. particularly if taken in powdered form. and individuals who have had ulcers. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. belching and nausea.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones.[14] In Congo. people use ginger for making tea.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. In Indonesia. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. In India. In the United States. it is considered good for a sore throat. In China.

Scalding. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. it is immediately scalded. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. which has slipped to the second position (~20.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers.crazychefs. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. Traditionally. now leads in global production of ginger. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. with over 30% of the global share.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates.5%). Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. replacing China.000 158.5%) and Nigeria(~10%).com http://www. but this generally reduces its value. Nepal(~11. produces black ginger. followed by Indonesia(~12.7%). or washed and scraped. washing and scraping gives white ginger.000 F 177.net/ . Production trends India.

gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.gov. A = Aggregate(may include official. and its root has similar aromatic properties. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. is also known as "wild ginger". is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine.000 8. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family. galangal.com http://www.387. http://www.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138.000 57. www.arsgrin. Retrieved 2008-03-03. Also referred to as galangal.270 1. the flower buds are the part eaten.000 28.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan .445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. F = FAO estimate. semiofficial or estimates). a carcinogenic compound.000 34. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".000 42. is used in cooking and medicine. Galangal is also called Thai ginger.pl?42254. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . Asarum canadense.contains ginger material References 1. but it is not related to true ginger. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).crazychefs. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine.ars-grin. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.

^ Al-Amin. http://www. http://www.net/ . ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.uspharmacist. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". & Pittler. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. Ali Taghizadeh et al.7.013. ^ Al-Achi. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". 10.amaassn. ^ MD O' Hara. MD. Retrieved 2007-08-02. et al. 6.2. 14.html.library.. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. ^ Chen.com/health/ginger/NS_patient-ginger. ^ Ernst. Shih-Lu Wu.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. 3. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. 9. (2007).org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716. (01 Mar 2000). Retrieved 5 November.ucla.1016/j. "Beverage of Champions".edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch.6.com http://www. ^ McGee. doi:10. & MSt. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. Sheng-Chu Kuo. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. http://www.com 12. Retrieved 2007-08-02. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666.html. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". http://timeblog. Retrieved 2007-0808. doi:10. ^ Afshari. doi:10. Retrieved 2007-08-02.1001/archfami. Kim Farrell. New York: Scribner pp. 13. http://bja.org/cgi/content/full/7/6/523.cambridge.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). MD.com/oldformat. M. 15. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). "A Current Look at Ginger Use".). Li-Jiau Huang. Susan (2007-01-15). Tin-Yun Ho. Retrieved 2007-08-06. Retrieved 2006-09-06.edu/biomed/spice/index.com 5. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". Jaw-Chyun. 425-426.crazychefs.umm. David Kiefer. 8.cfm?displayID=15. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". MPH (1998).com/china_blog/2007/01/the_beverage_of_champions_1. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. Zainab M.oxfordjournals. PMID 9821826. http://journals. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). doi:10.1021/jf071460f. "Ginger". E. 11. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007).foodchem. Mary.2006. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". Harold (2004). (2006).htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. http://archfami.01.523.org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. 4.com 7. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.mayoclinic. ^ Jakes. MD.H. Kathi Kemper. Antoine. http://unitproj. PMID 10793599. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. Retrieved 2007-08-02.

and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. slightly bitter. Zingiberaceae. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. for dyeing.com http://www. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.crazychefs. and to impart color to mustard condiments.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. In medieval Europe. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. For these reasons. Erode. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron.net/ . a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

not only in curry.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. and mustard. relishes. yogurt. or Textile City. In non-South Asian recipes. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. yellow cakes. custardlike yellow color. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. but also in masak lemak. etc. ice cream. sauces.Yellow City. orange juice. Over-coloring. biscuits.com http://www. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. gelatins. dairy products. much like ginger.net/ . Although usually used in its dried. sweets. popcorn color. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. rendang.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. powdered form. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes.[citation needed] Sangli. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. cereals. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as in pickles. Turmeric City. turmeric is also used fresh. cake icings.crazychefs. and many more. is sometimes used to compensate for fading.

canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. Indians. burns and bruises. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery.crazychefs. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. salad dressings. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. is also treated with turmeric powder. turmeric has been used to color cheeses.[4] cancer. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. Within one week of using turmeric. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. a traditional dish in South Asia. It is unknown why it works. It is also used as an antibacterial agent.In combination with annatto (E160b). an uncurable and debilitating disease. are spiced with turmeric. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries.net/ . In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. dry mixes.com http://www. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. Japan. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. yogurt. winter butter and margarine.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). and other digestive disorders.

Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India.net/ .Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. John‘s Medical College. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites.S. and the U. research activity into curcumin is exploding. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. or BDNF. Bangladesh.com http://www. found in black pepper. Bangalore. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . Alzheimer's. In 1998 researchers at St. multiple myeloma. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. with no adverse effects. improves the absorption of turmeric. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. and colorectal cancer. Snake Bite Anti venin. and Pakistan. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. which supports nerve growth. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal.

However. as a part of the marriage ritual. Also. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. such as saris. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. During the south Indian festival Pongal. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice.com http://www. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). jaggery. This happens in economically lower situations. and it is used for power and purification rites. part of the Bengali wedding.net/ .crazychefs. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. and coconut and cooked in steam. In southern India. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works.

com/condition-center/heart-disease/surviving-a-heart-attack. Joy D.090. ^ [|Ketteler.gov.crazychefs. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain".7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1. 2.de Shoba G.thieme-connect. et al. Joseph T. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C. ^ http://news. Rajendran R.aolhealth. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. E. Majeed M. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. AOL Health.1016/j. doi:10. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms.stm 5.C. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers.6E)-1.5-dione. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. Srinivas PS. a polyphenol.6-heptadiene3. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 .co. Retrieved June 2009.I.ars-grin.bbc.foodchem.de/DOI/DOI?10. ^ http://www. 75300. http://www. (2009).pl?12676. Notes 1.net/ . http://www.com http://www. 1998 May. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. keto and enol. 64(4):353-6.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. 6. ^ Chan. www. Judy] (June 2009). ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN".2008.172. Retrieved 2008-03-04.ars-grin. The systematic chemical name is (1E.07.uk/1/hi/health/1668932. Planta Med. or Natural Yellow 3.W.

Euphorbiaceae. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A.net/ .9–7.) Willd.com http://www. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. The nut is round. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. simple and ovate. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). 10–20 centimetres (3.crazychefs. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content.6–2. also known as Candleberry.4 in) in diameter. with an acute apex. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. hence its name. Indian walnut. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. flowers. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. which allows its use as a candle (see below). Kemiri. 4–6 centimetres (1. The leaves are pale green.9 in) long. is a flowering tree in the spurge family.

macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. giving them greater underwater visibility. leaves and flowers. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. swollen joints. In Java. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. In Hawaiʻi. is quite different. as the candlenut is much more bitter.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. and gonorrhea. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. Outside of Southeast Asia.crazychefs. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. In Malaya. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. lit one end. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. ulcers. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. On the island of Java in Indonesia. In Sumatra. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. however. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. including: leis from the shells. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. are applied around the navel for costiveness. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil.net/ . a varnish with the oil. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. The flavor.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. named kukui were burned to provide light. the nuts. burned with charcoal. they are mildly toxic when raw. This led to their use as a measure of time. pounded seeds. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. fevers. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache.com http://www.

and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. tukilamulamu. http://books. p. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil.com/books?id=PpKyFZXO_jEC. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. University of Hawaii Press. Lilinoe Andrews. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. http://books. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3.google. pp. 2. 4. used as soap or shampoo. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Being a kind and just woman. Mikiala Ayau. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono.com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a.[5] In Tonga. http://canoeplants. In plantations. 26. Susan.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. University of Hawaii Press. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. she was given new life. ripe nuts. Bess Press. and the husband was eventually killed. still nowadays. protection and peace. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. ^ "Kukui". Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. despite her best efforts to please her husband.html. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. Betty.com/kukui.).com http://www. Retrieved 2009-03-06. p.google.crazychefs. ^ Scott. was routinely beaten.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats).com/books?id=WOdrGIP3zksC&client=firefox-a. 50-51. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. ISBN 9780824822514.[citation needed] References 1. One of the legends told of a woman who. Liana I. Beatrice H. (1993). This larva is eaten by some people.google. Finally. ISBN 9781573061377. 5. ^ Dunford. ^ Krauss.net/ .used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). the god of agriculture. Honda. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. "Chapter 4: Canoes". Craig Thomas (2000). Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. http://books. 122. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets).

is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. cultivated for its fruit. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. Konkani:miriya konu. Telugu:miriyam.net/ . green pepper. The fruit. . may be described as black pepper. Malayalam:kurumulaku. The terms pink peppercorns.crazychefs. .com http://www. unrelated plants.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. containing a single seed. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. dark red when fully mature. known as a peppercorn when dried. However. . and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. and very often simply pepper. red pepper (as in bell or chile).Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. Peppercorns. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Kannada:meNasu. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. white pepper. .

[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. French poivre. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. Dutch peper. and the naked seed is dried. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. White pepper consists of the seed only. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. wrinkled black layer. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. and other similar forms. in the early 20th century. this was shortened to pep. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. including decortication. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. chemical or biological methods. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. the spice is called black peppercorn. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well.com http://www. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical.net/ .S. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit.. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. often alongside table salt. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. In the 16th century. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. with the skin of the pepper removed. Once dried.[4] In the U. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting.crazychefs.

the Peruvian pepper tree. like black. with a bright aroma. Fresh. unpreserved green pepper berries. particularly Thai cuisine. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. are used in some Asian cuisines. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. from Bangka Island. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. green.net/ .crazychefs.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns".[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. largely unknown in the West.com http://www. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. made from the largest.Black. which is mostly no longer an issue. Pickled peppercorns. is made from the unripe berries. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. also green. Schinus molle. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. Schinus terebinthifolius.

and ultimately fall off and are lost. Competing plants are cleared away. The cuttings are usually cultivars. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation.crazychefs.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. well-drained and rich in organic matter.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. or trellises. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. but when full grown and still hard. The leaves are alternate. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. and before the fruit is mature. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. if allowed to ripen. entire. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. the berries lose pungency. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red.com http://www.net/ . poles. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is a spreading vine. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. The flowers are small.[11] Black pepper is native to India. moist. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. selected both for yield and quality of fruit.

some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper.com http://www.net/ . Chile peppers. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper".crazychefs. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. In fact. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper.[14] J.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. its most important source was India. in what is now the state of Kerala. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. particularly the Malabar Coast. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined.

open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. By the 16th century. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. the Middle East.com http://www. Trade routes of the time were by land.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean.net/ . and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. barged to Alexandria. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. pepper was also being grown in Java. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE.crazychefs. nor how it reached the Nile from India. Long pepper. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. growing in the north-western part of India. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. Sunda. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. Returning from India. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. changed the course of world history. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. this trade advantage. Black pepper. or used the pepper locally.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. but these areas traded mainly with China. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. Madagascar.Until well after the Middle Ages. Sumatra. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. Malaysia.

first the Persians and then the Arabs. and the prices reflected it. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm.com http://www. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. especially Venice and Genoa. the banquets of kings. if expensive." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. After the fall of Rome. and the luxuries of the table. There is no evidence to support this claim. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. seeing that in other substances which we use. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N.[22] In addition. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency.. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. I wonder. Apicius' De re coquinaria. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick.H. Once into the Mediterranean. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. Edward Gibbon wrote. 12. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. is fifteen denarii per pound. I season delicacies. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. while that of white pepper is seven. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. it is sometimes their sweetness. affordable only to the wealthy. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. four. But you will find in me no quality of any worth.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire..net/ . and of black. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. Similarly. seasoning in the Roman Empire. pepper was a luxury item. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. whereas. clad in a wrinkled cover.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast.crazychefs. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. who travelled east to India.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages.

[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. has some antimicrobial properties.com http://www. "we seek Christians and spices. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. However. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. In 1498. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. Today. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. A depiction of Calicut. the effect is small. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. Pepper harvested for the European trader.net/ . his representative replied.crazychefs. especially in winter. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. In the 17th century. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. as well as around Africa.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and salt-cured meats were common fare.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. Pepper.

Siddha and Unani medicine in India.net/ . Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". It does not appear to have been widely known at the time.com http://www. gangrene. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. insomnia. Note the cook's pepper mill..000 pounds (4. but both were used. however. being stronger.. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. oral abscesses. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's.[26] By the 12th century. lung disease. but if this estimated 10. each load being equal to 223 lbs. including long pepper. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. joint pain.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. hernia. as well as she could for sneezing. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). hoarseness."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. Long pepper. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". earache. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect.crazychefs. heart disease. was often the preferred medication. liver problems. diarrhea.[25] In the 3rd century CE. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". insect bites. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. indigestion. Like many eastern spices. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. either long or black. an area in what is now the Sichuan province.

and floral notes. and toothaches. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. Some sources say that piperine. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. Few. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. vitamin B. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. milligram-for-milligram.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. Refined piperine. tooth decay.sunburn.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound.crazychefs. caryophyllene. which is stripped of the fruit layer. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. a substance present in black pepper. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium.com http://www. left on black pepper.net/ . causing the sneezing. and linalool. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. if any.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. woody. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers.[31] As a medicine. which give citrusy. a mildly carcinogenic compound. chapter five. limonene. irritates the nostrils. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit.[31] Also. sabinene. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. The outer fruit layer.

net/ .000 t (391. the most widely traded spice in the world. Malaysia (8%). Sri Lanka (6%). so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. and China (6%). Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light.[35] By weight.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. are used for this. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly.000 short tons).Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. but has fallen to just over 271. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). Thailand (4%). but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. Brazil (13%).000 t (299. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. The price of pepper can be volatile. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). by monetary value.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. for example. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation.com http://www. India. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998.[33] Once ground. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. As of 2008. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. India (19%).crazychefs. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns.

Text online.pd f. The Hindu Business line. Using fresh green peppercorns.poor crop management. 12. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". and Builder. ^ Peppercorns.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581.com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. Spice.[36] Notes 1. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. Vietnam dominates the export market. 7. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Retrieved 13 November 2005. 20. ^ Dalby p. ^ J.amjbot.google. The Spice Trade. 5. Ramses II.com/2008/03/27/stories/2008032751741300. Retrieved 2008-01-29.htm. 88. 80 16. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08).crazychefs. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90.com http://www. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. Random House. Retrieved 2009-01-29.da.gov. 200803-27.M1. Pepper. 93. p. ^ Ochef. disease and weather. doi:10. Warrior. Retrieved 12 August 2006.ars-grin.org/cgi/content/full/88/4/706 14. 19. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. Gernot (2006).2307/2657072. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). 4. http://www.gov. 3. 2006-1120. The Philippine Department of Agriculture.ph/wps/wcm/resources/file/ebb81841763712b/black%20pepper. p. Retrieved 2008-03-02. http://www. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). 1969). Alejandra (2001). Retrieved 17 October 2006.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. American Journal of Botany 88: 706.thehindubusinessline. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. using almost none of its production domestically. ^ Innes Miller. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares.arsgrin. ISBN 0375407219. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". ^ a b Jaramillo. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either.pl?28589. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. 8.net/ . Retrieved 6 November 2005. 18. Flora of China. www. Innes Miller.000 t (99.com 9.000 short tons). 83 21. Compass Point Books.org/florataxon. ^ Katzer. from Penzey's Spices. http://www. Black pepper is marica. PMID 11302858.efloras. ^ Translation from Turner. p. http://books. 6. 17. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 10. http://www. p 94. 13. 11. Egyptian Pharaoh. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. M. 2. ISBN 075653836X. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press.

G.x. 23. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF).worldbank.2000. also Turner pp. http://siteresources. 35. ^ U. Alan (2002). http://books. doi:10. http://www. 26. pp. Duke (1993-08-16). ^ Dalby p. 30. Dorman and S. ^ Montagne. ^ H. Berkeley: University of California Press. 33. 2. 29.22. Dover. 74–75. Larousse Gastronomique. ^ Turner p.1046/j. Dangerous Tastes. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries".accesstoinsight. J. Davidson. ^ Turner p. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. Andrew (2002). 2005. p. Full text at Blackwell website.1365-2672. 32. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . 10. 428. 171.ch05. 108–109. 77. Karvy Comtrade Limited. Retrieved 2008-01-29.00969. Prosper (2001). 31. ^ Dalby pp. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Steven (2004). 2008-05-15. Vol. ^ a b McGee p. 156. D. table 2." 24. Jaffee.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices.com http://www. Deans (2000). "Spices. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ^ Jaffee p. 395. Hamlyn.S. p. ISBN 0600-60235-4. http://www. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. 25. 36. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). 726.com/books?id=7IHcZ21dyjwC.karvycomtrade. ISBN 0849336201.pdf. CRC Press. Retrieved November 12. 34. ^ a b James A. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. 12. Buddhist Monastic Code II. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521367085. 28. 204. ISBN 0520236742.com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01. ^ Dalby p.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2/bmc2.google. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. 160. ISBN 9781580084178. purchase required.. http://books. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". ISBN 0-486-27587-6. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.pdf.html.google. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. 27. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper".com/books?id=tg7R4hU8hkC&pg=PA395&lpg=PA395&dq=Pepper+safrole&source=web&ots=38F TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. ^ Jaffee p. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. References Dalby.crazychefs.net/ . "Mill".

Harold (2004). London: Vintage Books. ISBN 0375707050. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. OCLC 61213802. "Black Pepper and Relatives". Turner. Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.crazychefs. Jack (2004). annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.McGee. Spice: The History of a Temptation. 427–429. pp. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. OCLC 56590708.net/ .

Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. Central America and northern South America. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. Peppers are native to Mexico.40 g . B2) 0. Today. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.057 mg 4.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. yellow. including red.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.net/ .34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B1) 0.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.Sugars 2.64 g 0.224 mg Folate (Vit.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80.Dietary fiber 1.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B3) 0. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.com http://www. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors.crazychefs.Pepper.17 g 0. green and orange. sweet.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .

whereas パプリカ ("papurika. instead of using as a spice. like pasta. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the fruit of Piper nigrum. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. respectively). were a highly prized condiment. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". Malaysia and New Zealand. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. Grilled. At that time peppercorns. regardless of their color. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. such as Australia. which are green and yellow. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. In the United States and Canada. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables.g. in Dutch. an unrelated plant. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". "Miris" is Chilli. meaning Bulgarian pepper. In parts of Ohio. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. the word ピーマン ("pîman. "red pepper". In France it is called "poivron". In British English. " In Japan." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. g. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. Indiana. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. and Pennsylvania. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. or "piment. which has its roots in the word for pepper. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. Sweden. India. meaning Big pepper. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable.crazychefs. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. "green pepper"). With the similar meaning. It is eaten with fried noodles. the term "paprika". former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). "groene paprika". Across Europe. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions.. they are called "capsicum".com http://www.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants.net/ . "gele paprika". When cut off. meaning pepper-fruit. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". In Norway. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw.

orange and. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. purple.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. white. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. pink. red.crazychefs. rainbow. in various soups and stews. in salads. black and brown.com http://www. more rarely.net/ . It is eaten as a raw snack. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. yellow or orange peppers. violet. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. aqua. blue. Varieties The color can be green. yellow. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. maroon.

[1]) is a hybrid mint. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species.com/html/fmango. balsamea Willd.foodreference. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2].net/ . ^ http://www. also known as M.com http://www.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). indigenous to Europe.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. The plant.crazychefs.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

he treated it as a species.com http://www. blunt spikes. it can grow anywhere. it is usually sterile.crazychefs. fleshy.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. with smooth stems.6 in) cm broad. square in cross section. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. spreading by its rhizomes. Being a hybrid. and 120 recorded. The chromosome number is variable.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. 84. with a few exceptions. noted since 1843[8]. The flowers are purple. with 2n counts of 66. 72.5 in) long and 1. 6–8 mm (0. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. If placed.20 in) diameter.31 in) long.net/ .5–4 cm (0. and bare fibrous roots.24– 0. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins.6–3. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. dark green with reddish veins. including stream sides and drainage ditches. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. Flowering is from mid to late summer. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.59–1. forming thick.

Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. ice cream.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly menthyl acetate.com http://www. chewing gum. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. thus promoting belching. and toothpaste.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.[10] Similarly. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo.1. and is often used as a flavouring in tea. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter.net/ .crazychefs. confectionery.

They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried.crazychefs. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. it is advisable to plant it in a container. the Galápagos Islands.net/ . Eau De Cologne Mint). and contribute only their own spearmint genes. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. New Zealand. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. as a natural insecticide. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'.[13] and in the United States. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. [18]. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. It needs a good water supply.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. Leaves wrinkled.com http://www. Leaves aromatic. Foliage lime-scented.[12] Outside of its native range. A mild. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. [16]. which they then call "after-dinner mints. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. hairless.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. If you choose to grow peppermint. [21]. and it is considered invasive in Australia. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. In addition to that." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. Stems reddish.

page 640. Flowers open from bottom up. G.pdf. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. ^ World Health Organization. 2. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. 11..net/ . Retrieved 2009-02-07. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. 7. http://whqlibdoc. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577.org/en/node/199. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". & Grey-Wilson.dld. ed. ISBN 978-1563636783 10. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". In: Stace.. Retrieved 3 June 2009. R. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". M. C.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . (1989). C. et al. A.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. http://www. A. a popular confection. 5.glu.com http://www. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. ^ Harley. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. (1753). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. C. Mehmet (2004). Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. ed. ^ a b Huxley. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. Mentha L. M. 9. (1992). (2007). ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. ^ a b Akdogan..a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil .006. (1975). doi:10.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. Thomson Healthcare. 6. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b Blamey.02. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . ^ Linnaeus. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. 4th Edition.int/publications/2002/9241545372.who. ^ Cappello. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines.crazychefs.2007.1016/j. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2".

and Mentha spicata L.sagepub.D.sagepub. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. ^ International Organization for Standardization.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. Plant Cell.1071/AP99036. Ambika et al. 17. Retrieved 8 June 2009. V.actahort. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://het.wiley. http://www. Valerie Howland (2006).htm?csnumber=4844. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 .159.iso. Retrieved 6 June 2009..net/ .iso. ^ Farley. http://www. Bienvenu (1998). Retrieved 3 June.. 25.S. et al. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 .28. D.2740311104. Retrieved 7 June 2009. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. 20. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats".1002/jsfa. J. http://het. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". 19.257. 27.sagepub. Bienvenu (1999). Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. Zheljazkov. Retrieved 6 June 2009. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .htm?csnumber=11633. ^ International Organization for Standardization.219. 18.iso.10): 119 .org/iso/catalogue_detail. Retrieved 3 June. 21.com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213. 22. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . Retrieved 7 June 2009.org/books/629/629_21.. ^ Edwards. 24.interscience.actahort. http://www. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". 23. Mehmet (2003). "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L.com http://www. ^ a b c Jullien. ^ International Organization for Standardization.122. (2007). F. doi:10.com/cgi/content/abstract/23/1/21. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . http://www.htm. Retrieved 3 June.htm.)". paraquat. on kidney tissue in rats".Specification". Australia". F.htm?csnumber=32041. ^ Adamovic. ^ Akdogan. ^ Akdogan. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. http://www3.com/journal/118500486/abstract. doi:10. doi:10. Mehmet et al. (2004).)". ^ Sharma.16.E. http://tih. 26. Frédéric et al. populations. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 . "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". http://www.. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. Retrieved 3 June.1151. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide.224. S.1023/A:1006185103897.crazychefs..org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.E. Derek R.org/books/249/249_8.

is a vegetable which belongs. to the Alliaceae family. also sometimes known as Allium porrum.net/ . porrum (L. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. Allium ampeloprasum var. the elephant garlic and kurrat. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. Two related vegetables.com http://www. along with the onion and garlic.Gay The leek. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. although different in their uses as food.) J.).crazychefs. porrum (L. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ampeloprasum var.

and overwintering leeks. and they have few pest or disease problems. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching).com http://www. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. leeks are hardy. Once established in the garden.net/ . Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. to be planted out as weather permits. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. intended for harvest in the season when planted. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months.

which turns it soft and mild in taste. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below).crazychefs. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. Raw. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. as the leek ages. In its raw state. along with leek soup. The onion-like layers form around a core. carrots and potatoes and different meats. although less bitter than scallion. The tender core may be eaten. which can be used in salads. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. The slices have a tendency to fall apart.Cuisine Leeks for sale. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. Lamb is the most popular. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. due to the layered structure of the leek. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. but. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede.com http://www.net/ . There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. Fried.

saturated 0.233 mg Folate (Vit.E.net/ .5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .9 g . providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.com http://www.004 g . B1) 0.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.crazychefs. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.C.polyunsaturated 0.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.C. Cultural significance Raw Leeks. 83 μg 14.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.Sugars 3. B2) 0. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.8 g Fat .4 mg Vitamin B6 0. In her book.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.3 g 1. as well as wall carvings and drawings. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet. as well as other recipes with leeks.monounsaturated 0.Dietary fiber 1. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. onwards. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B3) 0. who consumed it most often in soup.04 g .166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.E.15 g 0.

Vitamin E 0. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. for example. Shakespeare. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. David‘s Day.net/ .crazychefs. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. In the play.12 mg recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. you know. representing Wales.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. good countryman. According to one legend.com http://www. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book.Notes 1. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. 1978.crazychefs. ^ Jane Grigson.net/ . French Women Don't Get Fat. ^ Guiliano. Domestication of plants in the Old World. Knopf. 3.com http://www.. (Penguin Books. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2000). Mireille.p. third edition (Oxford: University Press.

126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. Celery. with fewer than 100 individuals left. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.6 g Fat Protein Water 0.Dietary fibre 1. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753. dulce) or celeriac (var. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .crazychefs.com http://www.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.net/ .[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.2 g 0.Sugars 2 g 3g .

Celery is a staple in many soups. Actually very small fruit.com http://www. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . 30 AD.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. as celery salt. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. often used as a base for sauces and soups. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. Celery. onions. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. dogs. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib.crazychefs. birds. squirrels. Celery. on the Chicago-style hot dog. and small rodents. and in Old Bay Seasoning. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). horses. such as chicken noodle soup. onions. celery is also grown for its seeds.In temperate countries. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. Celery salt is used as a seasoning.

Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. even in trace amounts. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine.com http://www. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC).[8] In the European Union.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. making avoiding such foods difficult. In Homer's Iliad. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. at Kastanas. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. they note "since A. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. Lemnos and Thebes. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. Celery contains androstenone. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. for people with celery allergy.crazychefs. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. M. However.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks.net/ . The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. have to be clearly marked as such. foods that contain or may contain celery. however. father of the Cabeiri.

shape. In the past. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. but the leaves may be used in salads. 1. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. and the most crisp and tender.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable.com http://www. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. Under optimal conditions. straightness and thickness of petiole. white and red.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. seleri. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. In North America. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. and a distinctive smell. fields are harvested only once. and Praetors feasts. sweetish. They are ranged under two classes.net/ . at our Great Mens tables. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine).. insect damage and rot).[14] With cultivation and blanching.. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color.crazychefs. earthy taste. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. from the Latin selinon. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. splits. apium Italicum. borrowed from Greek. The flowers are creamy-white. many of which differ little from the wild species. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. due to extremely uniform crop growth. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. produced in dense compound umbels. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. as the Grace of the whole Board".and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. the whole plant having a coarse.5–2 mm long and wide. 2–3 mm diameter. cracks. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. The plants are raised from seed. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems.

(2002-06-10).. Zohary and M. de Medicina. 14.[16] References 1. Heiner DC. ^ Teng CM. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). Holmiae. ^ snopes. 11. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. s. Lee LG. ^ Calcium sources 7. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". gentle handling.practicallyedible. 8. ^ "Smallage". ^ Pliny. Radauer C. (3rd ed. 2.com/edible.17:1697-1699. Retrieved 2008-03-04. (Laurentii Salvii). West J.nsf/pages/smallage.net/ .edu/Produce/ProduceFacts/Veg/celery.202. Retrieved 2009-05-03. P. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. http://www. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. C (1753). (2005). 12. 227. et al. http://postharvest. Post-harvest technology research and information center. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. ^ Cantwell. p.crazychefs. Natural History XIX.. 10.. 15. ^ Celsus. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. 3. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. 1920). and proper sanitation. ^ R. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. "Celery".shtml. Kraft D. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. Hopf. ^ D. Western Journal of Medicine 158. 2003.L. Thomson. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing.46. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82.com: Celery and Negative Calories 6. 9. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. Scheiner O. Wilson IBH. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". 13. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. ^ a b Fragiska.v. 16.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". T. M. ^ OED. Thayer translation [1] 4. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. M.6 (June 1993): 610-611. ^ William Robinson and W. Suslow. Ko SN. ^ Bublin M. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity".ucdavis. 2000) p. ^ Celestin J.

5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .91 g .Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.com http://www.net/ .5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.98 g 0g 0g 0. Sugar. see sucrose.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.crazychefs.Sugars 99. see Sugar (disambiguation).Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose. B2) 0.21 g . (Discuss) For other uses.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Magnification of grains of sugar. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. For the common table sugar.Sugars 96.

082 mg Vitamin B6 0. and fructose. B1) 0. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet.026 mg Folate (Vit.crazychefs.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B3) 0. B2) 0. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. obesity and tooth decay. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. sorghum.net/ . Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances.77 g Thiamine (Vit. and in many other sources. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. mainly sucrose. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. sugar maple (in maple syrup). but also appears in fruit. lactose.com http://www.Water 1.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions. honey.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. It forms the main ingredient in candy.

Popular In non-scientific use. In a list of ingredients. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose".) The Greek word for "sugar". and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). preservation.net/ . and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. molasses or treacle. "fructose". the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. such as glucose.) will likely denote a sugar. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. zahari. and texture) of beverages and food. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy.[4] It came to English by way of French. means "pebble". the Italian word zucchero. (Compare the OED. In this informal sense. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). Etymology In the case of sugar. Spanish and/or Italian. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms.crazychefs. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Scientific Scientifically. the Spanish word azúcar.com http://www.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. Generically known as "syrups". Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. "dextrose". sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. etc. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. including palm sugar and fructose.

Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. 3. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars.Culinary sugars Grainier.com http://www. Sugars include monosaccharides. cook or consumer. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. A notable exception. important molecules in the body. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). Natural sugars come in fruit. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. 2. has a "missing" oxygen atom. making the sugars reactive. plus sugars naturally present in honey.crazychefs.containing 1. disaccharides. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. as its name suggests. syrups and fruit juices.net/ . deoxyribose. raw sugar. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. This includes all the sugars referred to above. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. and galactose.water (H2O) per bond. with less than 0. glucose. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . which has the formula C6H12O6. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. producing invert sugar. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. which form part of nucleic acids. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. galactose and mannose. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. sugar will burn with a blue flame. sweeter than the original sucrose. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. Note for example glycoproteins. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. or DNA. lactose (milk sugar . proteins connected to one or more sugars.com http://www. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. This resulting syrup. which is made of glucose. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar).made from one glucose and one fructose). The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance.crazychefs. fructose. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides.net/ .1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. In these closed-chain forms. If combined with fine ash. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. After digestion and absorption. Monosaccharides include fructose. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. including NADH and ATP. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone.

Sugarcane. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When.80 g/ml Notes 1. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. OCLC 44493265. History of Science and Technology in Islam. Blackwell Publishing.com/worldofsugar/internationalSugarStats.illovosugar. ^ scientificpsychic. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. 4.com/features/sugar-what-kinds-eat-when 2.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. 1996. ISBN 1566398320. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. Glyn (2004).com http://www.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. Sugar Blues.webmd.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty.com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. ^ Wuebben.htm 3.net/ . ^ International sugar statistics http://www. Michael (January 2001). 5. A C Hannah. ^ "Engineering Resources .62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0." Powder and Bulk References Adas. The International Sugar Trade.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. OCLC 51837990 84251137. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan." http://men. ISBN 063205476X. James.Bulk Density Chart. Cambridge: Woodhead. Joseph and Mike Carlson.crazychefs. Temple University Press.

5% molasses (dark brown sugar). Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.35 mm. Although in some areas. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. for light brown sugar. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. Brown sugar contains from 3.g. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar.com http://www. It is. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. however. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar.crazychefs.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. without mixing them separately. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. especially in the Netherlands. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar.25% of the total volume). Products for industrial use (e. sugar beet molasses is used.net/ . 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6.

as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. White and Deadly" .When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. History In the late 1800s. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. as opposed to white sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] John Yudkin.crazychefs. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types.net/ . apart from pure carbohydrate. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. The effort was so successful that by 1900. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar.com http://www. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. In other applications. Nutritionally. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. much like adding molasses would do.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet.[1] However. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. in his studies (cited in "Pure.

As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. 2003. cane sugar. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 3. Retrieved 2008-09-20. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. http://www. where sugar cane was grown.1. or Demerara sugar. Harvey. and are sold as Turbinado sugar.com/brands/Wholesome_Sweeteners/Organic_Tur binado_Sugar. 7. centrifuged. crystals.html.htm#sugarmade.com/PressRelease. an island off Africa.3 fao. References 1.com/muscovado_sugar. Some Demerara is still produced in South America.htm#bm07.php?id=3026.wholesomesweeteners.crazychefs.org ^ Levenstein. 6. http://www. largecrystalled. http://www. which is then crystallized. ^ New Scientist.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. Retrieved 2008-09-20. Demerara is another unrefined.com http://www. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press.fao.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07. light brown.csrwire. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. 4. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane.". on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. light brown.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". 32-33 5.wildernessfamilynaturals. 2. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. giving it a higher mineral content. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. but most is now produced in Mauritius.net/ . resulting in the characteristic large. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". Muscovado. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice.

Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. the two major components of salt. Chloride and sodium ions.crazychefs. including high blood pressure. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). which some use to prevent caking. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. pale pink or light gray in color. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. white.net/ .[citation needed] Conversely. but toxic to most land plants.com http://www. refined salt (table salt).Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. and iodized salt. It is a crystalline solid. including humans. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body.

and the dye Tyrian purple. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. however.[2]:44 Along the Sahara.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. salt provided the best-known food preservative. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. glass. especially for meat.000 tons of salt.com http://www.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). in the millennia before then.crazychefs.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. In 1960. the caravans still transported some 15.net/ . as were salted birds and salt fish.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi.

[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a root for salt found in Celtic. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. In many Pagan religions esp.Salzburg. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. (Judges 9:45. the Hallstatt Celts.crazychefs. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. water. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle.com http://www. and Egyptian. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". God sent down four blessings from the sky . iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC.also gave us Gaul. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. which was illegal under British rule. who had heretofore mined for salt.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. taking their names from hal(l)-. salz. the Roman exonym for the Celts. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. Greek.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. Halych in Ukraine." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin.fire." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food.[citation needed] The root hal(l). During the first millennium BC. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. began open pan salt making.) In the Sermon on the Mount. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. though incorrectly. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". In religion According to Strong's Concordance.[1] It is widely.net/ . When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. Hallstatt. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26).

net/ .[9] The Ancient Egyptians. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as in Sumo Wrestling.com http://www. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. Halite.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. In Aztec mythology. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.crazychefs. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.

giving each one a unique flavor. which is most widely used presently. which are kiln-dried. is mainly sodium chloride.Different natural salts have different mineralities. and the making of soaps and detergents. food uses account for 17. One example are bath salts. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). In recrystallization. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. Injected water dissolves the salt. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. and thus is rarely eaten. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics.com http://www. natural sea salt harvested by hand. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things.[12] However. After the raw salt is obtained. Purification usually involves recrystallization.5% of salt production.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected.crazychefs. Fleur de sel.net/ . Today. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. Refined salt.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts.

calcium or magnesium carbonates. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. but was determined to be unnecessary.crazychefs.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. Table salt has a particle density of 2. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate.165 g/cm3.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate.net/ . magnesium oxide. and a bulk density (dry. however. sodium aluminosilicate. silicon dioxide. and calcium aluminosilicate. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. Some people also add a desiccant. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. fatty acid salts (acid salts). Single-serving salt packets.[29] However. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. condiments such as soy sauce. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] .[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together.com http://www.154 g/cm3. calcium silicate.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.

Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. which can cause severe. In the United States. sodium iodide. and myxedema in adults. even fatal. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans.net/ . or sodium iodate.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). fluorinated table salt is available. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Canada. specifically endemic goiter. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. potassium. which can cause goitre. with insufficient salt intake. or even an electrolyte disturbance. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. iodized salt is more common in the United States. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom.com http://www. The reason for this is unclear. neurological problems. cretinism in children. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride.[33] Drinking too much water. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. especially important for pregnant women. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. In France. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. dizziness.[32] Another additive. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. magnesium.crazychefs. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm.[31] Today. which gives the table salt a yellow color. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps.

" ([41].[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease.net/ . and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). combined with an inadequate intake of water. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. can cause hypernatremia." ([41]. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. It can exacerbate renal disease. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. in Japan.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions." ([44]. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real.crazychefs.[38] heartburn. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products." ([41] p3). Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. since salt was quite valuable). forced salt intake.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. salt consumption is higher.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. p18) However. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. independently of blood pressure effects.com http://www. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. such as in treatment of dysautonomia.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease.

the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1.com http://www.net/ . possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. such as the Yanomami in South America."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. for a typical adult. Some isolated cultures.crazychefs.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. A salt mill for sea salt. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. SACN states. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). However. but achievable population goals.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. have been found to consume little salt.[50]. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt.3 g sodium = 5. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2.8 g salt) per day.'[55] Campaigns In 2004. Those who have kidney failure.net/ . thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". When other health claims are made about a food (e.[51] In the United States. low in fat. Low is 0. without recourse to salt substitutes. etc. calories.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia.6g sodium).1g sodium). Australia. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). "low".[57] In March 2007.300 mg of sodium (= 2. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet.crazychefs.). then that is a medium level of salt.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). which will increase potassium intake.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1.5g salt per 100g (or 0. LoSalt.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free".The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). Amber (Medium). Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. or Green (Low). Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day." In the UK.g. One manufacturer.com http://www. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet.

http://www. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. and Canada (12. 4th edition".3). such as brine wells and salt lakes. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.answers. 8. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.wikisource. Triamterene.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride.com http://www. Answers. 2. Retrieved 2008-12-14. Costs can reach staggering amounts. Notes 1.5).7). Catholic Encyclopedia.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Salt. 4. China (32. 5.in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. 1913. Eplerenone and Inspra.com/salary. New York: Robert Appleton Company.com.9). total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes.3 million tonnes). called halite. Germany (17. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). 6. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. and Hall in Austria. In 2002. 3. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. Dytac.net/ .[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. the top five producers being the United States (40. and by mining rock salt. 7. http://en.crazychefs. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. ^ "Salt". India (14. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test.

wiley. 12. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. 5379. no. sodium.com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effe ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. Retrieved 200907-08. Fall/Winter 2006 10. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". 281. "The (Political) Science of Salt".com http://www.com/index3. Victoria) Salt 34. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. salt manufacture.9. salt history. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans".fr/Ftp/Afssa/26447-26448. Ask a Scientist. Salt Institute. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23.roskill. Retrieved 2008-07-29. ^ http://www. salt uses. ^ David A. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. salt uses.interscience. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21.uk/aboutsaltwhat01. Vol. ^ Iodized Salt 31.Weather Curriculum 18. sodium.pdf 33. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. http://www.com/reports/salt 16. Kuemmel (1994). ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. 28.eu-salt.com/journal/114028130/abstract.crazychefs. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. Mason (2006-12-19). ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1.saltsense.htm 15. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. 11. 898 .afssa.bbc.net/ . http://www3. salt history. ^ References on food salt & health issues. 2008 29. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. pp. p. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. ^ Gary Taubes. Transportation Research Board. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. http://books.htm 19. 14. Retrieved 2009-0708.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/393201.gov/askasci/gen01/gen01420. ISBN 9780309056663.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). ^ Salt made the world go round 17.9% sodium chloride 25. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia.stm 38.htm. ^ Iodized Salt 32.co. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b http://news.dep.907 37. Science. ^ What is Salt?. Salt Institute. salt manufacture. ^ Nauticus . ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. ^ B. ^ HE-620 24.newton.co.google. J.anl. 14 August 1998. 10. Epikouria Magazine. ^ Table 27. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers".

Feldman. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57.P. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. 2006.334(7599):885. Published online 2005. Sodium 52.uk/society/2008/jan/28/foodanddrink. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. BMJ. 7. Barber. http://www. D. 61. OCLC 48426519. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. John Wiley & Sons.005 48. ISBN 0802713734. New York: Walker & Co. 62. Salt: A World History.ac. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). Mark.co.40. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. Legal Medicine 2005.net/ . ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. Cutler JA.1915040902051820. The Mummies of Ürümchi.com http://www. OCLC 48573453.1016/j. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. Friedrich Schulz. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. ^ Cook NR. Schindler. doi:10.. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk.guardian. and S. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Salt TV ads 59. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". ^ Understanding labels 55.06. New York: W.uk/cash/. Elizabeth Wayland (1999).healthandwellbeing. ^ U. http://www. 28 January 2008.1002/0471238961.. Norton & Co. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. Further reading Kurlansky.crazychefs. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41.a01. Erwin Koops. The Story of Salt. ISBN 0393320197.pub2 References Kurlansky. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. 47-50. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. NY: G. (accessed13 January 2007) 49. Putnam's Sons.legalmed. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. Obarzanek E et al.W.hyp. S. 2007. Sodium chloride. doi:10. ^ Susan R. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. ^ Salt Matters 60. Mark (2002).2004. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. New York. Inc.

153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. Arts and traditions of the table. New York: Columbia University Press. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters .net/ . Salt: Grain of Life. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . 2001. The Stationery Office. Department of Health.com http://www. Pierre.crazychefs. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round.talk by Dr Trevor Beard.Laszlo. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch.

as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. mainly Kerala. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century.com http://www. It can also be found in India.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. as well as in neighbouring countries. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). phrik thai. Malaysia. found commonly in Thailand. phrik khi nu(lit. the Philippines and Singapore.net/ . This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes.crazychefs. Indonesia. Vietnam. such as Cambodia. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: .

crazychefs.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine." which can best be described by the English equivalent. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. "Big things come in small packages.net/ . They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili.000 to 100.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50.com http://www.

Thai hot.wikipedia. Thai). annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. creating a rainbow effect.crazychefs. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian).org/wiki/Thai_pepper" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . phrik khii nuu ( . and go from green to yellow. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). Ladâ. The more decorative. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C.com http://www. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. and then red. orange.As well as the Malay word. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). but slightly less pungent variety. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. has peppers that point upward on the plant. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. and among the group of capsicum annuum.

or used in casseroles. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. about the size of a large potato. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. which store a large amount of starch. Unlike other root vegetables.com http://www. It has a tough. it can also be used on its own.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. gratins and baked dishes. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. usually mashed. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. It is a kind of celery.crazychefs.net/ . Celeriac has a celery flavour. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. furrowed.

Celeriac soup.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. Celeriac. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. rinsed.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.com http://www.crazychefs. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. Among them are 'Prinz'.Sugars 1.6 g 9.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. 'Ibis'. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. and 'Kojak'. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. especially in Europe.net/ . which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Dietary fiber 1.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates .2 g . There are a number of cultivars available. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. 'Diamant'.3 g 1.

and see text The eggplant. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall.com http://www. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir.crazychefs. aubergine. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. The flowers are white to purple.net/ . As a nightshade.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. The stem is often spiny. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. It bears a fruit of the same name.

History Solanum melongena. and contains numerous small. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. In Indian and South African English. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. The name eggplant. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. flower The plant is native to India. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE.net/ . The fruit is fleshy. from Arabic al-badinjan. soft seeds. but much larger in cultivated forms. which is used in British English. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. In the Caribbean Trinidad. which are edible.crazychefs.com http://www. New Zealand. used in the United States. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. The name aubergine. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs." Aubergine and brinjal. 1500 CE. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah).with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Australia.

in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ichiban. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. and Black Beauty. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. Pingtung Long. whiteskinned. shape and color. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. slightly pendulous cucumber. Black Magic. A much wider range of shapes. Traditional. especially purple. There are even orange varieties.com http://www.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. green. in white skin Dourga. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. and Tycoon. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. or white. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Burpee Hybrid. Classic.net/ . The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Some cultivars have a color gradient.crazychefs. Dusky. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere.

as they are far less bitter. or other fillings and then baked. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. the Arabian moussaka. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. for example. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. it is called Begun ( ). for example in sambhar. and garlic. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . chutney. as in the French ratatouille. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. complex flavor. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. braised (紅燒茄子).com http://www. as in the related tomato. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. It is often stewed. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. tahini. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. In one dish. so that peeling is not required. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. and achaar. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. As a native plant. and masala and then cooked in oil. In Bangladesh. and deep-fried. It. tahini. In some parts of India. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. It can be sliced. curries. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. allowing for very rich dishes. or tamarind. peanuts. The thin skin is also edible. along with the fish Hilsa. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. tomatoes. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. The fruit flesh is smooth. rice. battered. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. or Eggplant Parmesan. In Iranian cuisine. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed.crazychefs. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. In the Caucasus. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain.

containing both female and male structures. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. Egypt.net/ . Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. showing the inside. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. flea beetle. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as tomato. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. are also troublesome to eggplants. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). (Adults can be removed by hand. and potato. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. aphids. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. the most serious of which is Verticillium. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated.com http://www. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used.) between rows.) between plants. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae.) to 60 cm (24 in. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. depending on cultivar. Flowers are complete. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates.crazychefs. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. This is called Beguni ( ). and spider mites. For this reason.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. pepper (capsicum).

crazychefs.Dietary fiber 3.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.039 mg 5.Sugars 2. semi-official or estimates).com http://www.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.043. P = official figure.7 g 0.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.35 g .(2. B1) 0. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. F = FAO estimate.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B2) 0. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.19 g 1.[5] In the United States.net/ . New Jersey is the largest producing state. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .

4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.01 mg/100g). Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals.084 mg Folate (Vit. Brazil. However.Niacin (Vit.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported.com http://www. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant.net/ . which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. B3) 0. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.16 mg Manganese 0.[8] On average. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. while 1.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.

Dunal. trongum. which used to include Dunal's S. racemosum. that of Blanco to S. inerme and subinerme at that time. leucoum. stenoleucum. On the other hand. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. aethiopicum. variegatum. H. album. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. giganteum.crazychefs. Names for various eggplant types.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. multifidum.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. tongdongense. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. inerme. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. rumphii. globosi. But this is not correct.C.-Lag. ruber. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. edule. insanum. mainly by Dikii. ovigerum and S. lasiocarpum.F. racemiflorum. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). esculentum. capsicoides). oblongo-cylindricum. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. Solanum longum Roxb. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. sinuatorepandum. ovigera. Similarly.Varieties Solanum melongena var. Scopoli's S. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. Solanum oviferum Salisb. aethiopicum. divaricatum. There is an actual S. such as agreste. subrepandum. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named.com http://www.net/ . esculentum. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. violaceum. and (invalidly) by Sweet. luteum. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. violaceum and viride. brownii. S.

The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. ^ Doijode.com http://www.crazychefs. common. ISBN 1574445510. CRC Press. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2. D.net/ . Hui (2006). and Engineering by Yiu H. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Footnotes 1. Technology. Handbook of Food Science. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). S.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. (2001).

^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). ^ Westerfield. The New England Journal of Medicine. Harish Babu * . 273-6.133(42):2081-3 12. http://pubs.caes. 18(1): 59-62 13. Domino. 7. volume 82 (nº 3).edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/C934.fao. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. P. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). Retrieved 2007-04-24.3. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008.com . 2008-11-11. 202 4.com http://www. A. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. Bruno Caramelli. Toorenenbergen AW. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. 2004. FAO. Andréa Thomaz.pdf.) reveals female predominance. ^ Solanum melongena var. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". ^ B.crazychefs.uga.50(2):101-102 11. 1993 Number 6 9. http://faostat. Erich Hornbach. Dieges PH. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. Tsenge Demana. Robert (2008-11-14). N. Arq Bras Cardiol. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. ^ Kabashima K. ^ Health24. Miyachi Y. Mahesh † and Y. Vol. 5. pp. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004.Aubergine 8. 2008 10. Retrieved 2009-07-01. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. 6. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. ^ Edward F. ^ "FAOSTAT". Ebury Press.net/ . ^ SN Pramod.* YP Venkatesh.aspx?PageID=567#ancor.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. Volume 329:437 August 5. P.

usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. see section Fruit or vegetable below). yellow. The tomato is native to South America. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. odd pinnate. syn. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. woody stem that often vines over other plants. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. with a serrated margin. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color.4–0. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. One species. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long.net/ .8 in) across.com http://www. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. It is a perennial.crazychefs. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. and have a weak. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. Solanum lycopersicum.

meaning plump thing with a navel. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. the other by currant tomatoes. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. tomatl. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. cerasiforme. The exact date of domestication is not known. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. in certain areas of Italy. However.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). was the first European to take back the tomato. lumpy tomato. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. corn and salt. lycopersicum. likely to be the original salsa recipe. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. such as Florence. a barber-surgeon. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. who named it pomo d‘oro. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. an Italian physician and botanist. according to Smith. ancestor of L. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. and cultivation began in the 1540s. earlier in 1493. means "wolf-peach". It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination.[4] The large.com http://www. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus.[6] Gerard's Herbal. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. However. The specific name. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. They also took it to the Philippines. smaller vegetable . the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. a mutation from a smoother.crazychefs. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. golden apple. now Mexico City in 1521.net/ . Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived.

cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. Thomas Jefferson. California. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. particularly Florida and California. In Victorian times. ―within the last forty years. By the mid-18th century. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. The University of California. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians.M. and before the end of that century.[6] But by the mid-1700s. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. sent some seeds back to America.com http://www. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. and in general.largely plagiarized from continental sources. Gerard's views were influential.[6] Nonetheless.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. Paella. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. who ate tomatoes in Paris. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). Over the past 15 years. Charles M. British consul in Aleppo c.net/ . The C. The Spanish tomato dish. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. and as a garnish. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. Currently.crazychefs. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. Rick. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. but the fruit is safe). the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. most famously in Worthing. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. broths. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. 1799 – c. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant).

up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. but a number of cultivars with yellow. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. and have a lower water content.0–2. pink.8 in) size as the wild tomato. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. green. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking.0 in) diameter.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008.6–2. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0.4–0. For processing tomatoes. black.[12] According to FAOSTAT. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. they are known as plum tomatoes. the largest producer. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2.4 in) diameter range.S. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. or white fruit are also available. Most cultivars produce red fruit. orange.net/ .com http://www. purple.crazychefs. production and 35% of world production. California accounts for 90% of U. about 5mm in diameter. through cherry tomatoes. 18 September 2009. China. followed by United States and Turkey. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. It may be deleted after Friday.

[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds.[19] Hybrid plants remain common.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. but unlike commercial hybrids. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. and are shaped like large strawberries.com http://www. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. along with zucchini.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and.net/ .2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. as well as heirloom tomatoes. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes.[18] and productivity.crazychefs. based mostly on shape and size.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . plum tomatoes. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. As in most sectors of agriculture.

or home growers interested in canning. brown. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. pink. etc. black. low acidity. Black Krim (lower left corner). Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced.cherry tomatoes are small and round. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. often via mail-order. some tomato cultivars . nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. Determinate. although some determinate heirlooms exist. and purple.net/ . which usually discourages fruit set. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars.produce fruit in colors other than red.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. As an intermediate form. Burracker's Favorite. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. Red Boar).crazychefs. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. but must be bought as seed.especially heirlooms .[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. but are smaller than plum tomato. white. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape.com http://www. or bush. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. ivory. disease and pest resistance. Green Zebra (top right). multiple colors (Hillbilly. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they are often good choices for container growing. Lucky Cross). home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. orange. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". including yellow. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. and lack of mealiness. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. including Brandywine (biggest red). A variety of specific cultivars. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. et cetera.

In the wild. entirely within the closed corolla. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. FF . and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. The stamens were. aphids. their traditional pollinators. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. flea beetles. tomatoes required cross-pollination.alternaria. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production.fusarium wilt strain I.crazychefs. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. which interrupts the lifecycle. F .[24] and Colorado potato beetles. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants.net/ . red spider mite. carried by the beet leafhopper. and remain. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. cabbage loopers. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. T . As a floral device to reduce selfing. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions.fusarium wilt strain I & II.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. slugs. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. As the name implies. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. cutworms. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars.com http://www. but manure or compost work well. whiteflies. original state.tobacco mosaic virus.verticillium wilt. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. too. tomato fruitworms. The most common letters are: V . and A . N nematodes. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety.

However. They may be recognized by their color. or more often today. by cultured bumblebees. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). In an outside setting. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. as with most species. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. In more temperate climates. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. The pollen moves through pores in the anther.crazychefs.net/ . Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. depending on variety. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier.com http://www. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. This is not the same as self-pollination. Unripe tomatoes are firm. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind.

and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. The tomato is acidic. in pieces. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. as tomato sauce.net/ . has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. and other antioxidants.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. or paste. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. In some studies lycopene.com http://www. Though it is botanically a berry. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium).Recently. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. carotene.6 g 4g .5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". especially in cooked tomatoes. a subset of fruit. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). anthocyanin. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage.crazychefs.Sugars 2. They contain lycopene. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole.

the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo.net/ . but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. generally three feet tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. Spain.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. They are bred to continue ripening.5 °C (54. vines. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. Embracing it for this protest connotation. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. or pickled. These hairs facilitate the vining process. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing.crazychefs. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines.make salsa. Determinate types are annual in all climates. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. such as rugose leaves. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. although erect bush varieties have been bred. Of regular leaves. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. fully functional. initially decumbent. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. When that tip eventually stops growing. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century.com http://www. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). Known for its tomato growth and production. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. Tomato plants are dicots. Most tomato plants have compound leaves.5 °F). today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). there are variations. lateral buds take over and grow into other. whether because of pruning or flowering. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. it will not continue to ripen. annually celebrates La Tomatina. often by sun. and grow as a series of branching stems. meaning covered with fine short hairs.[28] In October 1965. The fruit is also preserved by drying. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin.

e. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls.) H. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. (derivation.. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. peach.Karst. while paste tomatoes have very few. angora leaves. 'lyco'. Despite this.[31] Their flowers. These vary. chili peppers. wolf. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon.crazychefs. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. which frequently used it and still do). or other external forces that present in the Americas. Technically. Other species in that family are potatoes. As a true fruit.com http://www. However. butterflies. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. However. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.deeply grooved. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. called locular cavities. among cultivated species. and be dried/fermented before germination.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. Some smaller varieties have two cavities.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. plus 'persicum'. according to type.net/ . forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. genetic evidence (e. appearing on the apical meristem. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. with both names found in the literature. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. variegated. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. moths. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). very small cavities. Therefore. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. This is because they are native to the Americas. Similarly. "wolf-peach"). and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato).g. making the Linnaean name correct. tobacco. i. other insects. would be more correct. have the anthers fused along the edges. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing.. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world).

universities. and organizations.S. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. Corporations including Heinz. However.W. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. Ohio. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. corporations. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. disease tolerance. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. The U. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. 1883. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. A. North Carolina. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. Hedden (149 U. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. In 1887. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. Livingston. color. Oregon. New York. as are vegetables. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. flavor.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. U. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.S. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. However. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices.com http://www. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants.S. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. As noted above.net/ . tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. pest tolerance. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. AVRDC. together with its seeds.S. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. from a culinary standpoint. cucumbers. a tomato is the ovary. Monsanto.crazychefs. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. nutritional value. In 2006. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. BHNSeed. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. size. University breeding programs are active in Florida. U. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. etc. and numerous other traits. Bejoseed. shape.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. of Reynoldsburg. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. 304)).

S. Connecticut. 2006. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /.net/ . most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. contain the poison Solanine.crazychefs. the U. The fresh fruit is. harmless. Indiana. stems. Tennessee. North Carolina. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. Maine. New Hampshire. Massachusetts. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. On October 30. Vermont and Wisconsin. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. Michigan. Ohio. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. Minnesota. Speakers from the British Isles.com http://www. Rhode Island.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. Georgia."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Virginia.[36] The affected states included Arkansas.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Kentucky. Pennsylvania. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ .[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). however. which is toxic to humans and animals.

and Canada. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.273 illnesses from this outbreak. New Mexico (98). The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada.151. Lake Buena Vista.7 and 16. with 49. with a harvest of more than 32. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far. French and Germans. 40. from April 10.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. Oklahoma in 1986. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). Epcot's manager of agricultural science. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. in 2000.crazychefs.1 reported cases per million.6:1). such as raw tomato.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115. the District of Columbia. As of July 2008. China. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. Yong Huang.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death.84 pounds (522 kg).[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. 2008. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. On August 30. the U. UK.8 m (65 ft) length. it caused at least one death.000 kilograms (250.[38] As of July 8. Florida. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. respectively.net/ . fresh serrano pepper." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. Lancashire.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. and Arizona (49). 2007.com http://www. 2008. Illinois (100). one would arrive at an estimated 40.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). fresh jalapeño pepper. and fresh cilantro.S. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world.

but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small.S. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France.com http://www. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially.S. Derived from Cherokee Purple.crazychefs.net/ . as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. indeterminate. Fusarium.

Tomato fruit. Tomato slices.net/ . Tomato plants in the garden. pickling.crazychefs.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. Tomato Flower. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. good for Tomatoes on a vine. Young tomato plant. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. in Korea.

Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.crazychefs.net/ .

Horticulture: Principles and Practices. 3. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. ^ The Friend. ISBN 1-57003000-6. Tgrc.crazychefs.html"." 15. 2009-01-26. 11. 223 10. Appleton and Co. http://www. ^ "UC Newsroom. Culture. Processing Tomato Production in California.fao.edu. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.html". In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ISBN 0252-07009-7. 1881. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). October 26. Cyphomandra." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b Smith. G.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. section Lycopersicon Mill. I.. Easthamptonstar.smithsonianmag. 13. D. ^ "C.The East Hampton Star . 1876.nationalarchives. http://yourarchives. 5.M. Retrieved December 11 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-02.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. The tomato in America: early history. 1994. Retrieved 2008-10-27. p. 6. Subsection Lycopersicon).aspx. Retrieved December 11 2009.ucdavis.Food & Wine".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. 519 [1] 9. it handles more than 1.ucdavis. The Tomato in America. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . et al. Normania. http://www.uk. ^ http://faostat. 12. (2002-0508)". (2001). T. page 57: ".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.html.com." See: Natural History Museum. 8.17. and Cookery. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. 2. http://tgrc. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. ^ "http://www. USA: University of South Carolina Press. 7. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Universityofcalifornia.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. & Spooner. F. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.net/ .edu/. (1994).smithsonianmag. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. University of Illinois Press.Your Archives". webpage: books-google-TTp17.html.com http://www. M.edu/news/article/4319. ^ Acquaah. A. Appletons' journal Published by D. (2002). ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History.smithsonianmag. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. p.gov. Andrew F (1994).uk/index. p.com/dnn/Archive/Home20080814/FoodWine/Seasons/ta bid/6280/Default. E. Smith. Peralta.gov.universityofcalifornia. Columbia. Retrieved 2009-04-02.edu. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. http://www. ^ "http://www.five tons to the acre.smithsonianmag.Smith. and cookery. Footnotes 1. ^ Tomato history 4. culture. Andrew F. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Yourarchives. S. 2002-05-08.C.nationalarchives.org/site/567/DesktopDefault..easthamptonstar. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. ^ a b Hartz. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". Wettst.aspx?PageID=567 14.. http://www. 2008. During the three months of the local harvest.

16. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?".html. Retrieved 200705-24.edu. http://wwwplb.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.html. ^ http://www. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. page 57: "The plants are still growing. ^ "http://www. http://www. Retrieved December 11 2009. 24.mx. http://www.umn. 27. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention". Retrieved 200810-27.ufseeds.html".html". Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html.am/wiki/Tomato#Early_tomatoes 21.ucdavis. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44.edu.smithsonianmag.com.edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome.edu. Smithsonianmag.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27. http://www.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. http://www. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". ^ "Crop Profiles .gardenweb.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.html"." 20.mx. http://news. Retrieved December 11 2009.edu/sustainable/profiles/bot_tom. Retrieved December 11 2009. News.edu.html.edu.news. Ncsu.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes." 19. http://www.com/faq/lists/tomato/2004111539004321. http://www.php.smithsonianmag. Retrieved July 14. Retrieved 2007-05-24.html. http://www.html." 18.crazychefs.gob.plants.html. Ohioline. Sinaloa. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".plants. 32.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.smithsonianmag. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once.whfoods.cornell.bbc.Tomato". Faq.net/ .umn. 29. ^ "Selecting. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like.stm.edu/stories/Jan07/SolanacaeNSF.smithsonianmag. http://www. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5532. http://faq. which are carried in the wind. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html. 2006. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.com/All-About-Tomatoes_a6fd3933f91c4. ^ "http://www.smithsonianmag.smithsonianmag. ^ "http://www.ucdavis. 31. Retrieved 2009-04-02.html 23. ^ http://www. Retrieved June 30.gob.kr.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.com/genpage. ^ http://www. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips. Plb.osu.sinaloa. 25. HYG-5532-93".8M". and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre.edu.cornell. 2006.co.gardenweb. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. http://ohioline.ncsu.com.uk/2/hi/health/7370759. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. 30. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa".org/pub_releases/2007-05/aafc-nmt051607. http://www. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).osu.am/wiki/Tomato#Novelty_tomatoes 22. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine". "Tomato genome project gets $1. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. 33. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.com/science-nature/passion-fortomatoes.html.eurekalert. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague.com http://www. 17. 28. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". 26.

vegparadise. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".ca. ^ "August 8.uk/news/9a5a1671ceba4f43741dc008f237c1ea. 37. 41. (2002). ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. Cdc. Retrieved 2008-10-27. et al. Cbsnews.crazychefs. Retrieved 2008-1027.uk. California Master Gardener Handbook.nationalpost.com/stories/2006/10/30/national/main2138331.com.com/books?id=WhWjHB1Zjf8C&pg=PA643. 2004. Retrieved 2009-0402.net/ . http://www.34.ca/en/article-details.html. 38. 42.com. Tomato Nutrition.edu/doi/full/10. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". http://itn. ^ Voetsch. ANR Publications. 2007-08-30. ISBN 1879906546.com http://www.co. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dennis R. 38:S3. http://www.1086/381578.foodsafetynetwork.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/map.cdc. (2004-04-15).gov/salmonella/saintpaul/. p. Foodsafetynetwork.com/highestperch8. Clinical Infectious Diseases. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul.html?id=585498. by state". 643.com. ^ "ITN. ^ a b Pittenger. http://www. http://www.html. 39. 40. Retrieved 2009-0721. 36.html. http://www. http://www.google.co. Retrieved 200904-02.uk.gov. 9781879906549.cbsnews. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . 35. http://www.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. Retrieved 2008-10-27. United States. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History.co. Tomato Recipe".shtml.com/news/canada/story. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC".journals.CBS News". Nationalpost. http://www.uchicago. Itn. Vegparadise. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States".cdc.

especially in Grenada. extracted oleoresins. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Bombay Nutmeg M. called selei buah pala. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. Species About 100 species.7 in) wide.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov.6 to 0. It also grows in Kerala. or Spice Islands.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. malabarica from India. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. both are used as adulterants of M. or sliced finely. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. In Indonesia. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. fragrans products. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices.crazychefs. including essential oils. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. the fruit is also made into jam. argentea from New Guinea. called Jaiphal in Hindi. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.com http://www.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree.2 and 0. and nutmeg butter (see below). a state in the south part of India. nutmeg and mace. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets").net/ . it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean.4 oz) dried. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees.

Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. mulled wine. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. In Arabic.com http://www. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. saffronlike hue it imparts. In Penang cuisine. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. Painkiller.crazychefs. and eggnog. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. sauces. In European cuisine. green. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. In Indian cuisine. "Lau Hau Peng". nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. and Barbados rum punch. and baked goods. In the Caribbean. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. they are also used in soups. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India.net/ . it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. and string beans. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. cauliflower.

used as flavourings. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. reddish brown in colour. and sweets. for instance. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which can be turned into myristic acid. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. preserving agents. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. in toothpaste. and has applications as an industrial lubricant.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. syrups. 758 – ca. beverages.com http://www. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. It is semi-solid. although this is disputed. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. The oil is colourless or light yellow.crazychefs. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil.net/ . medicines.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation
needed]

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

Footnotes
1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". http://emj.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/22/3/223. 5. ^ "Erowid". http://www.erowid.org/plants/nutmeg/. 6. ^ "MDMA". http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=5469. 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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References
Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

Commercialization
The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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yeast extract. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. sugar cane. sugar beets. with 4% annual growth expected.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. based on anecdotal reports. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. not reproducible.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form." However. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG.com http://www. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it.crazychefs. it also said that.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. or molasses.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. Canned. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. hydrolyzed yeast. autolyzed yeast." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. soy extracts. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. being an amino acid.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. About 1.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. particularly processed foods.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG.net/ .[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. and protein isolate. frozen. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. steak sauce. Fermented products such as soy sauce. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature.

concentration. acidification. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. New York: Wiley. and mineral ions and growth factors. followed by either the name of the food additive. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate.com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. Foster. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. ^ Leung.com http://www. 621. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. age 40–59 years. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e.celiac. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. On Food and Cooking. In the 2004 version of his book.crazychefs.. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. "Monosodium Glutamate".[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product.2. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. In 1993. 373-375. pp. flavour enhancer).html 2. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Steven (August 2003). followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. [monosodium glutamate]. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. dextrose or citrate).7% women). (2) synthesis. even in large amounts. purified. References 1.. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation.net/ .). Drugs.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8.g. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. such as hydrolyzed protein. MSG. In the hydrolysis method. and (3) microbial fermentation. For this reason. ^ http://www. Albert Y. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. and crystallization. and converted to its monosodium salt.".g.

Shioya.net/ . http://jn. PMID 8282275.html.1016/02786915(93)90012-N.a16 711.5.. Pharmacol. ^ Freeman M.1337.html?_r=1&oref=slogin.jstor. Dongshuang. Jordan (2005). PMID 18497735. Ka. Linguang. Yangfeng. New York Times. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. Julia (2008-03-05).ca/Articles/Fall1990-1.com/amino/eng/product. (October 2006). Linda. "Monosodium Glutamate". Regul. Shizuko (2005). Food Chem. "The significance of excursions above the ADI.gov/~lrd/msg. Beiser A. (1993). Wu.2008.nutrition. ^ http://www. 31 (12): 1019–1035.html 4. 14.co.ncbi. 10. doi:10.1002/14356007. http://www. Toxicol.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. Nutr.1006/rtph. http://www.org/stable/3421360 5. ^ http://vm. Zhao. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". 6.4. doi:10. Anjimoto Co.2005. et al.1999. doi:10. 277–282.2006. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. 15. 7.crazychefs. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". Kelly M. Daviglus. ^ Sand. doi:10.00160.530060410. ^ http://www. Zhou. ^ He. (April 2000). 13. Daniel. Stamler. Ren C. J.274.1002/chir. PMID 10736382. Chirality 6 (4): pp.38. 11. Masahiro. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Sano. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.3..cfsan. MSG.1525/gfc. "A Short History of MSG". ^ http://www. Dyer.nih. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Case study: monosodium glutamate". Kimber L. doi:10.nytimes. Beifan. ^ "Production process". Takehara. Tetsuya.1111/j. PMID 10597625.celiac. Zhu. Garside.F. Shigeru.1038/oby. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". Toxicol.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10736382. http://www.jp/ajinomoto/ACompany/company/zaimu/pdf/fact/food_biz.nlm.com http://www. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.pdf 9. Jeremiah (August 2008). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. "Yes.17457599. 38–49. PMID 16999713.ajinomoto. 8.html 12. Martha L.com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute. ^ a b Geha RS. ^ a b Tarasoff L.fda. ^ Moskin. ^ Kawakita. Armstrong. Van Horn. 1875–1880. Daniel W (1994). ^ Walker R (October 1999). doi:10. ^ a b Rundlett. 16.gov/entrez/query. Yamaguchi. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.x. doi:10.ajinomoto. Alan R. Chiaki. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. Inc. Liancheng. Guo. the Secret Behind the Savor".

豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. 酱油 2. 荳油 3.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce.com http://www. 醬油 2. 豆油 3.net/ . 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1.crazychefs.

Soy sauce was invented in China. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. In its various forms.500 years. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. and salt. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.crazychefs.net/ . Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji.[3] In the 18th century. [4] By the mid-19th century.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. water. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product.

Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. Although there are many types of soy sauce.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. literally "delicious taste"). Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University.com http://www. sojae) and other related microorganisms.crazychefs. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. such as in giant urns and under the sun. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese).net/ . but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Today. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans.

or a mixture of both. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. consistency. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish.net/ . shuānghuáng (雙璜). It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Despite their rather similar appearance. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). ): A thin (nonviscous). These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. but it also adds flavour. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. Thai. and Chinese cuisine. slightly sweeter. Another type. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. Since it is lighter in color. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. lighter brown soy sauce.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. traditional Chinese: 頭抽).3-DCP (1. pinyin: jiàngyóu. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". opaque. In traditional Chinese cooking. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. one of the two types. since it is saltier. It has a richer.com http://www.crazychefs. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. traditional Chinese: 醬油. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. Korean. with relatively low amounts of other grains. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. fragrance and saltiness. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. like extra virgin olive oil. An additional classification of light soy sauce.

as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. Usukuchi (淡口?. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. for example sashimi. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Technically. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. It contains little or no wheat. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. that is used in its production.net/ . The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". Shiro (白?. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce.crazychefs. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. or 醤油).[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. where it is known as "shōyu". It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production.com http://www. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. due to the addition of alcohol in the product.

it is much darker and more strongly flavored. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. Amakuchi (甘口?. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality.net/ . "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. Consequently. 1 litre bottles. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized.crazychefs.com http://www. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". not pasteurized. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol.Saishikomi (再仕込?.

soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. powder. It is a unique variety.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality.com http://www. in a pinch. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. In Indonesia. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. usually implies limited quantity. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in.net/ . Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. which has a thick. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce.crazychefs.

Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. O'Long(黑龍). (called Joseon ganjang.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). is made entirely of soy and brine.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. Later.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油).net/ . in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan.crazychefs. Joseon ganjang. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. Founded in 1909. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces.com http://www. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. WanJaShan(萬家香). dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清).4% of soy sauce purchases. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. thin and dark brown in color. lit. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. 조선간장. Malaysia. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895.

it is also a table condiment.3-DCP (1. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime).3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. and caramel. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. pronounced SOO-kah). Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. China. wheat.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油.[6] Furthermore.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. nước tương. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential.net/ . It can also be very salty. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh).com http://www. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. or sometimes simply tương. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar.crazychefs. salt. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu.

Golden Swan.tw/60anniversary/century-gofun. Retrieved 2008-01-07. Vol. pp. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.uk/news/pressreleases/2001/jun/soysaucerecall. Individuals with a wheat allergy.gov. http://www. Golden Mark. ^ http://www.tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9.asp?id=7598 10. 4. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea".org." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. ^ Tanaka.317 2. ^ Titsingh.[1] Notes 1."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare.com. III.) In March 2008.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. 2 (January 2000). Norio. Despite these being small in number in the UK. Pearl River Bridge.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. 2nd edition. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). Sinsin. 6. marinades and other types of sauces. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. Soon Teck• and Kang. 7. XXVII. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). ^ http://www.miyajimasoy. 8.crazychefs.org.tw/newsdetail. http://www. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. Kimlan. Celiac disease. 2. ^ Tanaka. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. (1781). ^ Jung. Retrieved 200801-07. King Imperial. Seong-Gook (2002).gmp. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. including six samples with up to 11.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat.com http://www.Kong and Taiwan.co.000 to 18. Press release.jp/science/kouenkai/kouenkai. ^ Tanaka. an increase over 23 to 5. Isaac. Jammy Chai. 7.tcoc. Lee Kum Kee. p. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). 6. that affected the brands Golden Mountain.smartfood. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". No. ^ http://www. OCLC 9752305 5.htm. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application.[citation needed] In Vietnam. 3.net/ .644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. p. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD.food. p.

144.com http://www. Edition 2.11. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. ^ Daniells. PMID 16198255.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. 16. Food.1263/jbb. doi:10.com/news/ng. nutraingredients. ^ Kobayashi. 14. ISBN 1587161389. 186. ^ Tanasupawat. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. Naczk. Stephen (2006-06-06). ^ Toxic soy sauce.food scares hit Vietnam 20. PMID 12469319.48.google. fermentation and micro-organisms. 103. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". ^ Shahidi. p. 18. 12.com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15.com.net/ . 13. doi:10.201. Hoboken. Marian (2003). ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet.nutraingredients. Makio (2005-04-18). p.2323/jgam. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. ^ Bamford.crazychefs. chemical veggies -. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. Retrieved 2008-01-07. ISBN 0632059877. Somboon (2002-06-18). Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". Kentucky: CRC Press. Charles W (2005). Fereidoon. et al. http://www. http://books. Florence. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.100.

700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.9180 (@ 15.net/ .0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.8% Behenic acid: <0.5–5.4677–1.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.crazychefs.5% Linoleic acid: 3.3–3.com 211 | P a g e http://www.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.9150–0.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.5–21.3% Myristic acid: <0.5–20.5 °C) 84 cP 1.0% Arachidic acid: <0.0% Stearic acid: 0.0–83.

Hojiblanca. pharmaceuticals. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. Australia. in Greece. in France.000 tons of olive oil annually. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. Koroneiki. World production in 2002 was 2. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. Olive oil is used throughout the world.[1] It is commonly used in cooking.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1.6 (refined and pomace) 0. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. which produce approximately 350. Italy and Greece. oil from olives that are slightly unripe.crazychefs. family Oleaceae). In 2006. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing.com http://www. which receives about three-quarters of total exports.net/ . Olives are grown for oil in Greece. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.[3] Of the European production. and Moraiolo. Leccino Pendolino. Alberquina. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. principally Italy. Japan and China. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. as well as in Crete. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. but especially in the Mediterranean. Picholine. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}.6 million tonnes.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe.4680–1. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. North Africa and the Near East. cosmetics. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. and Manzanilla de Jaén. 93% comes from Spain. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production.

It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. by its chemistry.000 US gallons (181. called pomace. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil.net/ . of which 34. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. defining quality standards. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed.800. a private trade group. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy.crazychefs. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. Spain. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. Oblica and Leccino. often in "prestige" packaging. Mission.000 m3) came from Italy. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. and Turkey. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). The US imported 47. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). in Portugal. After extraction the remnant solid substance. in Croatia.com http://www. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.California. with 23 member states.000 US gallons (131. Spain. with production increasing to meet demand. still contains a small quantity of oil. IOOC terminology is precise.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. and by its flavor. Spain.600. The USDA uses a different system. Galega. In North America. and monitoring authenticity. The California Olive Oil Council.

however. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. and by heat. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.[12] In some cases. Almost 700 people died. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. both in Italy and abroad. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. particularly in Italy. it is believed. mostly hexane. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used.[16] In April 2008. of free oleic acid it contains. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. product as superior olive oil.[14] In February 2008. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. for blended oils. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. but there are no guarantees.[15] Under EU rules.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. is extremely lax and corrupt. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. 25.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. measured by weight.com http://www.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. but safe. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome).net/ . EU officials took issue with the new law.[14] In March 2008.crazychefs. defined as the percent. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.

it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. It has a free acidity. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. of not more than 0. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. absence of defects.net/ . Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps.5% acidity. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. and is judged to have a good taste. It is fit for consumption. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. of no more than 1. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. and are based on acidity. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. The US is not a member.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Used on salads. another cause of rancidity. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil.3 grams per 100 grams (0.com http://www. This is also called its organoleptic quality.the oil degrades. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. In order to classify it by taste. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. has an acidity less than 2%.8% acidity. Pure olive oil. The U.crazychefs.S. and is judged to have a superior taste. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. contains no more than 0. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. but may not be described simply as olive oil. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. These grades were established in 1948. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. expressed as oleic acid.

This is incorrect.crazychefs. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed".[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. U. "cold" does not define any precise temperature.4% and is "free from defects".S. (34 kJ/ml).S. Grade C".[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. which may be as low as 10-15 °C.5% and is "reasonably free from defects".S. Grade A or U.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.S.U. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. First of all. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.S.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.S. U. U. Grade D or U.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. Grade C or U.0% and is "fairly free from defects".com http://www. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. Grade B or U.S. with less flavour.S.S. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.net/ .

Spain and Italy. around 0.pressed".7 l.2 7 1. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. around 14 l. Portugal and Lebanon. around 8 l. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.62 12.7 11.crazychefs. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. so the term "first press" is meaningless.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country.com http://www.35 23.1 0.net/ .1 1. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.8 7. Tunisia. over 26 liters per year.

France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. This is done in specialised chemical plants. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil.crazychefs. 1. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). no or very little organoleptic defects). 2. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. Green olives produce bitter oil.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. After grinding. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. If ground with mill stones. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. 3. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered.com http://www. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. 4. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. After grinding. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. which is much faster and more accurate. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press.34 1. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. then placed into the press. suggesting a different taste. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. not in the oil mills.net/ .

5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.5 g . along with traces of squalene (up to 0. time of harvest.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .crazychefs.net/ . and extraction process.monounsaturated 73 g . altitude.polyunsaturated 11 g . (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. region.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids.omega-3 fat <1. most notably oleic acid.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp.omega-6 fat 3. To achieve this possible benefit.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. In the United States.7%) and sterols (about 0. including oleocanthal and oleuropein. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The composition varies by cultivar.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.com http://www.

oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. During the first stage. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants.crazychefs. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. During the second phase. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.com http://www.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. It is theorized that. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat.net/ . they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet.This decision was announced November 1. antithrombotic.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. This could. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. This way. in the long term. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. at least in part. For example.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. rather than its fatty acid profile.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. The study was conducted in two stages. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. and oleuropein. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. 2004.

For example.com http://www.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. etc. oils deteriorate and become stale. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. In time. Used cold. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. It is also used for sauteing ingredients.[citation needed]. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned.net/ . cookware. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. Also. A very fresh oil. not for foods to be eaten cold. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference.crazychefs. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. Also. blenders. as available in an oil producing region. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. like salads.

It is also good for the management of pain. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. and mild laxative properties. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil.net/ .[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. acting as a stool softener. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. It does have demulcent properties.crazychefs.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil.com http://www. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup.[36][37] Jeanne Calment.

Homer called it "liquid gold. olive oil has been used for religious rituals.net/ .Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. from Gk.crazychefs. from Anglo-Fr. magical. olive oil" (cf.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". medicines. and skin care application. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. and O. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. olie. Besides food. as a fuel in oil lamps.. Mod. Amman in the Sixteenth Century." In ancient Greece. olio). It. 1175. soap-making.N.com http://www.Fr. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. huile).Fr. oile (12c. drawn and engraved by J.Fr. from O. from L. oleum "oil.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. elaion "olive tree". olive oil.

A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.net/ .000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.com http://www. olive presses became common. Bodrum.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC).crazychefs. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. In the centuries that followed.

According to the historian Pliny. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage.[dubious – discuss] During this time. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. he maintained.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance.000 tons of olive oil per season. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to.[citation needed]. during the 13th century BC. According to legend. stored in special containers. Sinuhe. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. and Israel. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. the fertile crescent.net/ .000 and 3. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan.com http://www. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. when the oil had risen to the top. "the best in the Mediterranean". It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. oil containers are preferred. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. together with naked appearance of athletes. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron).over 4. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC.[46] Until 1500 BC.. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. Lebanon. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. where it is thought to have represented wealth. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. drained the water from the bottom. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. and area consisting of present day Palestine. allowing more time for more oil to be made. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. wrote of abundant olive trees. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil.

http://www.html. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. ^ USDA. Steven Sibbett. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. the tourch is in a glass bulb. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). and the Mount of Sinai."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed.com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. References 1. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. Olive Production Manual. ANR Publications. http://www.net/ . This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. 5. p. ^ USDA.internationaloliveoil. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 3. ^ G. traditionally. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. and. Retrieved 2008-07-04. its oil almost glows.usda. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. Retrieved 2007-05-25.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. in the consecration of altars and churches.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047". the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. neither Eastern nor Western. 4. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). To douse the flame. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. Joann L Coviello. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. http://findarticles.PDF. and this secure city. originating from King David. "The Olive Tree. Margaret Lindstrand (2005). In Islam. ^ International Olive Oil Council." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. ^ "findarticles.imitate the original Menorah. http://www. even without fire touching it. 2. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil.gov/nass/pubs/agr05/05_ch3. Louise Ferguson. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. light upon light.crazychefs. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash.org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo. 158.com http://www.gourmetretailer.

Alan (1989-05-21).jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07.htm. PMID 3776973.telegraph. Raymond & Co. http://www. 2004. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam .Scotsman. Pharmacol. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis. 2007-08-13.23/. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". Dennis. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Maurizio La Guardia.com/news-eu/1204304521. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. ^ "www. ^ a b "Telegraph article".xml. http://www. http://www. Karvonen MJ. ^ Covas MI (March 2007).com/world/Forty-arrested-in-new-39fake39. Tom. Giammanco. http://www. Di Majo.crazychefs.Telegraph". Epidemiol.23/.net/ . Res.oxfordjournals.co. 23. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil".ams. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . 13. 16.eubusiness.uk/news/main. J.phrs.010. ^ "www. ^ "EUbusiness. 12. Slippery Business The New Yorker.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. The New York Times (H.2007. doi:10. 10.internationaloliveoil. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26.uk/news/main. 15. ^ "Eubusiness. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. http://www.com".telegraph.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. 19. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. Menotti A. (December 1986). http://query.southafrica.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institutionini.internationaloliveoil. ^ Riding. Tripoli.html.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".xml. 124 (6): 903–15. Giammanco.com".southafrica.usda.html". PMID 17321749.6.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. 14. 21.jp. G. http://oliveoilonly. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. ^ Mueller.com/news-eu/1204304521. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)".). ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. ^ New York Times.com News". 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28.com/gst/fullpage. November 2. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27.4005000. 18. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".eubusiness.1016/j.htm.com http://www.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3776973.htm". ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. Am.01.org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-11-16.scotsman.46. http://www. ^ Keys A. M. Tabacchi. D. US Customs Department. 17. 55 (3): 175–86. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10.co. http://www.1079/NRR200495 24. ^ Durant. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 7.nytimes. J. http://news. 25. Retrieved 2008-11-09.gov/AMSv1. et al. John.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. 11. http://aje. S. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. ^ a b McGee. 20.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. 19 CFR 134.

Vol.tchain. Guida L. No.uk/portal/main. André Bervillé. d'Episcopo L. JDermatol-Sci. Ahmed. ssp. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. 45. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". M : Ahmed.html".com http://www. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). ^ "Quite Interesting . Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. Vargas J. J Agric Food Chem.. PMID 17110467. ^ Mayo Clinic. De Castro A (February 2007). Dello Russo A. PMID 15830923.telegraph.1024/0300-9831. 2000. http://www. 19 November 2007 30. 10. 44.1.Telegraph". 29. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. PMID 17263460. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?.v. 43. Poulsen HE. 19. Olea europaea L. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. T.1096/fj.06-6328com.crazychefs. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). ".com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. 21. Use Olive Oil. et al. p. doi:10.videojug. (27 March 2000). ^ Turner R. et al. pp. Gruendel S. 39. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". doi:10. ^ "www. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster.ama-assn. 38. 2085-2090.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. ^ Ehud Galili et al. "New Year's Resolution No. Masamitsu Ichihashi.com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36.28.75. Mar. ^ Ferrara LA. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics".". ^ Guillaume Besnarda. An Wu. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. Suppl. 11." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. 34. A : Wu. 21 (1): 45–52. Israel". Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". ^ http://www. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. ^ Mayo Clinic 32.tchain. T : Ueda. Pagnol. Catherine Breton.html. 19. p. Marotta T. ^ Romero C..jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. 1S45-50. Vol. 23. N U : Budiyanto. Alonso MG. Faseb J. doi:10. 55 (3): 680–6. but cites no source.xml.61. s.co. 1: Prevent Cancer. Osamu Nikaido. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". Toshihiko Osawa. Toshinori Bito. s. Nazim U." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. http://www. 2000. 35. Olives 41. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Etienne N. (January 2005). Masato Ueda. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. Brenes M. Medina E. ^ Rosenblum.org 31. ^ Pagnol.v. A : Bito. 37.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". (January 2007). M : Osawa. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. Nov. Raimondi AS. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. ^ [2] Ichihashi. PMID 10737284.net/ . ^ a b Davidson. p. ^ Machowetz A. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". "olive" and "oil" 40.1021/jf0630217. Carcinogenesis.

^ Nigel M. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. Verstraete and V. 47. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed.youngmuslims. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece".net/ .reshafim. 2005 49.). 2001. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". Harrington Park Press. Processing methods. Scanlon. ^ F. C. ^ Thomas F. http://www.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. Riley.htm".org. http://www.com http://www.46. Kennell.crazychefs. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe".ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95.htm. ^ "www.htm. Provencal. pp119–33 50. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48.il/ad/egypt/texts/sinuhe. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. B.youngmuslims.R. ed.

[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform.or hay-like fragrance. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. A C. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L.net/ .[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. sativus flower bears three stigmas. crocin. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf.com http://www. Saffron. each the distal end of a carpel. ən] / [ˈsæf. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. Saffron has further medicinal applications.crazychefs. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles.Saffron Saffron crocus C. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent.

In autumn. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.2 in) in length. Being sterile. broken apart. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ).[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4.5 centimetres (1.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. Only in October. must be dug up. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. as was once generally believed. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas.[11] Upon flowering. It is a sterile triploid form.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C.98–1. purple buds appear. and replanted. which means "yellow.net/ . possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. in Central Asia. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. A corm survives for one season.crazychefs. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height.com http://www.

Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. Planting depth and corm spacing.8–5. low-density.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates.500 mm (39–59 in). Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. Moroccan. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. where hot.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields.e. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. they fare poorly in shady conditions.crazychefs.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer.. are critical factors affecting yields. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. maximizing sun exposure. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. Greek. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. well-watered.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. in concert with climate. and birds. leaf rusts. and corm rot pose other threats. loose. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier.000–1.com http://www. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare.[16] Furthermore. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i.9 in) deep.net/ . rats.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. where annual rainfall averages 1.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. Nematodes.

[19] Meanwhile. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. However.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.2 oz of dried saffron). The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.11 gr) of dried saffron.and β-carotenes.com http://www. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic.0.8-diapo-8. a product results that is itself water-soluble. and various α. lycopene.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.crazychefs. including zeaxanthin. and thus oil-soluble. It also has many nonvolatile active components.8-carotenoic acid).[19] many of which are carotenoids.net/ . When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).

0 12.0 0.0 1.0–15.0 6.0 6.0 3.0–7.0–8.0 1.0 2.0 6.5 10.0 11.5 40.0–14.0 4.crazychefs.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.com http://www.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 1.0 10.net/ .0 12.0 6.0 8.0–13.0 9.0–1.

6. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. the heat.com http://www. incidentally. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma.6.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. Significantly.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.4. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri.0 Source: Goyns 1999. dried hay like".6-trimethyl-2. combined with enzymatic action. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.Fiber (crude) 5.3-diene-1. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels.crazychefs. p. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. a volatile oil.[18] Safranal. When saffron is dried after its harvest.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.6. Santorini.net/ .

In late Hellenistic Egypt. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. C. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. sativus. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes.crazychefs.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. and scabies. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. colic. cough.net/ . where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. and in the mithridatium. a sterile mutant form of C. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. Thus.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. mascaras. and medical treatments.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. physicians in Gaza.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. ointments. divine offerings.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.[33] potpourris. townspeople in Rhodes.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. cartwrightianus. There.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Since then.000 years.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.com http://www.[28][29] Later.

[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. a less expensive dye. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts.[51] However. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.net/ .[53] On the other hand. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. Isfahan. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions.Asia The 17. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC.[44] From there.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong.[44] During his Asian campaigns. perfumes. a Chinese medical expert. and body washes.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak.[43] Thus. dating to 978–993 AD. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric.crazychefs.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. Wan Zhen. rice.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. medicines. saffron threads were woven into textiles.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. or jackfruit. For example.[42] ritually offered to divinities.com http://www. and used in dyes. At such sites.[39][40] Later. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena.

where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha.[59][60] Only in southern France. which grew prosperous. imprisoned. tea. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War".[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812.saffron is in Kashmir. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code.[62] By 1730. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. indeed.[58] Soon after. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. and Italy. and executed. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania.com http://www. However. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. and Spain.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. In Europe. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. coffee. and then the saffron is obtained."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. Italy." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. named for its new specialty crop.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. especially Norfolk and Suffolk.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. It can be used to aromatise wine.crazychefs. under which saffron adulterators were fined. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. did significant cultivation endure. France. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center.net/ . Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron.

which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. and in perfumery. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Central Asian. Turkish. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. noodles. and Cornish cuisines. Arab. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. immunomodulating. Indian. particularly in China and India. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). Pennsylvania.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing).com http://www. and chicken or trout dishes. European.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Medicinally.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. and antioxidantlike properties.net/ . and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing).

while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad.000–75. in decreasing order of production.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. Vivid crimson colouring. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. and Italy. Switzerland.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. Greece. Azerbaijan. India. elasticity.000-170. slight moistness.[5] Iran. A pound of dry saffron requires 50.550 per kilogram). 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 per pound (US$1.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east.000 flowers. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.000 threads.500/€7. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. Spain. the United States.com http://www.000 and 200. and aroma.crazychefs.100/€1. Morocco.500 per kilogram. England.100–11.[2] A pound comprises between 70. are the major producers of saffron.200/£1. the average retail price is $1. For example.net/ . they are graded by government-imposed standards. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.000 flowers. flavour. Spain's varieties. are generally mellower in colour. Aside from these. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. and other countries. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. France. In Western countries. Annually.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2.

net/ . and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region.crazychefs. contribute to its high prices. unusually pungent aroma. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. and crop failures in Kashmir. among the world's darkest.some organically grown. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. combined with an Indian export ban. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. is in San Gavino Monreale. Sardinia. it also has very high crocin. near L'Aquila. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). for quality and quantity. aroma.S.79 in). Repeated droughts. In the U. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus').. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. blights. picrocrocin. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. There.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. and safranal (fragrance) content. picrocrocin (taste). But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. and colourative effect. shape. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). and safranal content.com http://www. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

III. red-dyed silk fibers. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). many growers.[80] Thus.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. paprika. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration.national standards bodies. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. and other powders used as diluting fillers. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. and I (finest quality). Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades.[77] However. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice.net/ .crazychefs. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. II. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. in India. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income.com http://www. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. pomegranate fibers. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. with turmeric. and thus a greater colourative intensity. However. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. pliability. traders. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. aroma. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation.

Retrieved 2008-03-02. p. 15. 272. ^ a b McGee 2004. p. ^ Willard 2001.org. ^ Dharmananda 2005. 3. p.com http://www.Saffron reproductive biology 11. Honshū. ^ M. ^ Willard 2001. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. 3–4. p. Retrieved 2007-12-01. ^ Grigg 1974. ^ a b Deo 2003.org/google/abstract. 4.cababstractsplus. 7. pp. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 423. 103. ^ a b c Hill 2004. ^ Rau 1969. ^ a b c d Deo 2003.". Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. 23. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. crocin and safranal. pp. ^ Harper 2001. ^ Kumar V (2006). 1. Grilli Caiola . 1. 2–3. 1. 9. 53.asp?AcNo=20043148643. 16. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. ^ Willard 2001. 14.google. in mice. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. 17. p. www. p. 4. 8. p. ^ DPIWE 2005. 3. 4. 287. http://books. p. ^ Deo 2003. 20. 22. 3. p. p. ^ McGee 2004. 3. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. pp. p. stigma extracts and their constituents. 12. 2. ^ Willard 2001. 6. ^ a b Deo 2003. Sterling. 24. 21. 13.crazychefs. p. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. http://www. 422.com/books?id=AaTpWEIlgNwC. 19.cababstractsplus. 18. 2.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). p.net/ . Kansai. 5.

de Medicina. 58. p. 55. 50. 39. 37. 132–133. p. 1. 47. ^ Willard 2001. 12. 33. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. 101. 17–18. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 67. 66. p.au/news/acevs%20saffron. pp. ^ Hill 2004. ^ Dalby 2002. 40. p. ^ Willard 2001. 58. 45. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 1935 [1] 38. pp. p. 35. ^ Willard 2001. p. 62.crazychefs. ^ Willard 2001. p. 29. pp. 143. p. p. ^ Celsus. 103–104. 41. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. p. 46. 138. p. 52. ^ Willard 2001. p. 95. 63. 36. 1. 43. p. 70. p. 68. 55. p.edu. 1. ^ a b Willard 2001. 6. 49. 59. ^ Hayes 2001. 32. 138–139. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. p. ^ http://www. ^ Fletcher 2005. 2. ^ Humphries 1998. 60. 2–3. p. ^ Willard 2001.au/AnnualReports/ACEVS%20Report%202007. 57. p. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Willard 2001. 42. ^ Honan 2004.iovs. 128. 11. p. ^ Willard 2001. 2. 20. 224. 34–35. ^ Willard 2001. 54–55. 142–146. ^ Honan 2004. ^ Goyns 1999. 61. ^ Rau 1969.pdf 71. ^ a b Willard 2001. 48. 34. 99. ^ Willard 2001. 133. 44. p. p. 64. 138. 51. 27. 30 AD. 65. p. pp.org/cgi/content/abstract/49/3/1254 69. ^ Willard 2001.net/ . ^ Ferrence 2004. Loeb Classical Library Edition. 31. 73. 35. Victoria (30 December 2002). 117. p. ^ a b Willard 2001. p. 72. ^ Finlay.pdf 70. p. pp. 54. ^ Chang. p. 63. 41. pp.25. ^ Willard 2001. pp. 1. ^ Dalby 2003. 26. ^ Lak 1998b. ^ McGee 2004. p. ^ Willard 2001. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette.edu. ^ Willard 2001. 256. Random House. ^ http://vision. ^ a b Dalby 2002. 273.vision. ^ Willard 2001. p. p. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. p. ^ Deo 2003. ^ http://www. 1. ^ a b c Willard 2001. 30. 56. 422. transl.com http://www. pp. ^ Willard 2001. 2. 41. 28. Kuo & Wang 1964. 59. ca. ^ Willard 2001. p.

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co. 2006. Retrieved on January 10. SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995). Retrieved on January 10.etymonline.au/inter. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2).ikashmir. 2006.php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>. Retrieved on January 10.uni-graz. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2).DPIWE (2005). WH (2004). Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4).nytimes.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4216493. ISBN 0-521-09843-2. S (1998–1999). G (2001). <http://news. 2006.org/pdf/Vitasta1998-1999. <http://www. ISBN 1-56032-814-2. <http://www. 2006.bbc. Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1). ISBN 90-5702-394-6. BBC News. The Agricultural Systems of the World. Taylor & Francis. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5). "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages.stm>.com/index.bbc.crazychefs. "Saffron". Goyns. Harper. Food & Agriculture. <http://news. Retrieved on January 10. PMID 16180089 Katzer. Hasegawa.google. ISBN 0-471-21423-X. <http://www. <http://books. <http://www. MH (1999).pdf>.nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>. <http://news. PMID 15259204 Fletcher.at/~katzer/engl/Croc_sat. Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. D (2001). N (2005).gov. 2006. "Saffron (Crocus sativus L. BBC News. Hussain. St. Retrieved on January 10. DB (1974).com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=l-QJaUp31T4C>. Saffron. Ferrence.com/download/saffron. A (2005).bbc. AW (2001). D (1998b).pdf>. Wiley. Lak.com/2004/03/02/science/02MEDI. ISBN 0-312-34068-0. Retrieved on January 10.leffingwell. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution".stm>. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10. "Saffron". 2006.st m>. 2006. Retrieved on January 10. JC (2002). PMID 8590890 Hayes. saffron". Hill. Online Etymology Dictionary. Humphries. "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera". SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005). <http://www. Martin's Press. Grigg.html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>. "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". <http://www. Leffingwell. Ten Speed Press.)". "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron". JH.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/213043. ISBN 1-58008-024-3. 2006. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron". Taylor & Francis. Jessie. Honan. "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress".tas. Cambridge University Press. BBC News. The Essential Saffron Companion. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine". J (1998). D (1998). 2006[dead link].net/ . 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/212491. Fotedar. SC (2004).co. The New York Times. Lak. T (2004).com http://www. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron". 2006. Retrieved on January 10.html>.co.dpiwe.

JB (2005).pl.reconstructinghistory. F (2005). Retrieved on January 10. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). 2006.com http://www. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Cooking of India. Reconstructing History.google. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. Tarvand Saffron Company. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. 2006[dead link].".000. Retrieved on January 10. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". McGee. <http://books. 2006. <http://www.com/channel/earth/mg18524831. 2006. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". K (2003). Retrieved on January 10.newscientist. Retrieved on January 10. 2006. <http://www. H (2004). Cancer Letters 57 (2). Pearce. New Scientist. "What is Saffron?".htm>. SC.tarvandsaffron. SR (1969). 2006.cfm?chemic al_id=140>.com/classification.gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Willard. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005).html>.html>.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>. PMID 2025883 Park. Tarvand (2005b).com/saffron. <http://www. 2006. "Grading and Classification". Time Life Education. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). Retrieved on January 10.barc.McGann. <http://www. Tarvand Saffron Company.google. Retrieved on January 10.htm>. Scribner. P (2001).com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>.net/ . Beacon Press. USDA Phytochemical Database. Nair. Retrieved on January 10.tarvandsaffron. <http://books.com/irish/saffron. "Saffron". <http://www. Rau.usda. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice.crazychefs.

Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.com http://www. Dead Sea. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L.net/ .

which he describes as very simple: "As for me.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. are borne generally on the last year's wood.com http://www. endives.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil.(XVII. the olive.crazychefs. ca 170 AD. called xoana. the olive suckers readily from the stump. by a spring. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[9]. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. referring to their wooden material. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. Though.[1] and in the Iliad. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. they were reverently preserved for centuries. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. and smooth mallows provide sustenance.5 cm long. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. from Lebanon. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive."[7] indeed.net/ . The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. The small white flowers. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. Its fruit. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Theophrastus. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. olives.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. two stamens and bifid stigma. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. In Homer's Odyssey. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive)."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. It is short and squat. Asia and parts of Africa.

it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. and its cultivation began in Mexico. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb.net/ . power and pureness. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. kotinos. but he makes clear (in 1. fertility. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. Theophrastus. in both the New and Old Testaments. glory. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible.[12] After the 16th century. The Book of Jacob 5. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. wild-type olives.crazychefs. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. in On the Nature of Plants. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago.com http://www.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. the olive has been the symbol of peace. and one of the most significant. As emblems of benediction and purification. As far back as 3000 BC. the pits give rise to thorny.The leafy branches of the olive tree . The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. glory and peace . and then in the 18th century in California. for which the Greeks had a separate name. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. olives were grown commercially in Crete. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. indeed. Over the years. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. as well as olive oil and olives. wisdom. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over.16. Chile and Argentina. play an important role in the Bible. For example. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. Peru. spread far and wide by birds. Today. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. The olive tree itself.

is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed.000 years old.600 years old.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. and can live for very long.net/ . although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. which is made into top quality olive oil. drought-. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. claimed to be over 2. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically.com http://www.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). Istria in Croatia. The age of an olive tree in Crete. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. named "Plato's Olive Tree". The older an olive tree is.crazychefs. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. One olive tree in Bar. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). disease. Montenegro. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus.and fire-resistant. has been calculated to be about 1.

400 years ago.2. though showing a preference for the coast. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. see Olive (fruit). there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel.com http://www. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens.crazychefs. All seven trees continue to produce olives. olive leaf. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. fine wood. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. Italy. Specifically. Modern experience does not always confirm this.net/ . in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi.6 km) as the limit. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. called the "Peisistratos Tree". Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. a few other millenary trees can be admired. and. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. and the olive fruit. 1600-2000 years old. both in Galilee region. A supposedly even older tree.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. In the same natural garden. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. According to a recent scientific survey. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies.

also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp.net/ .[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results).[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. such as South Africa. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate.crazychefs. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. Israel. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. Niger.com http://www. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. Sudan. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). the Mediterranean Basin. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. Olive plantation in Andalucia. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. Chile. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. Argentina. northwest Africa) where winters are mild.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Australia. laperrinei (Algeria.

net/ .crazychefs.com http://www.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.net/ .com http://www.crazychefs.

often after being pitted. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. In recent times. 'Manzanilla'. anchovies. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. It is used mostly for oils. which consists of 1. but only a few are grown to a large extent. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region .net/ . 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. 'Bosana'.com http://www. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. The olive grove of Amfissa.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. a large. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'.Cailletier cultivar.crazychefs. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. in southern Spain. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. Seville. grown around the world. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. originating in Dos Hermanas. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so.200. rounded-oval fruit. A prolific bearer. Rich taste and thick pulp. stuffed (with pickled pimento. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. with purple-green skin.

originating from the southern Peloponese. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. even on clay if well drained. 'Cornicabra'. They are green. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop.[21] 'Koroneiki'. Spain.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status.net/ . Due to their highly valued flavour. another modern Israeli. and elongated. Moreover. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. The flavour is mild and nutty. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. 'Arbequina'. large. brown olive grown in Catalonia. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. They grow in any light soil. originating in the province of Córdoba. good for eating and for oil. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin.[23] 'Barnea'. 'Empeltre'. and coastal climate conditions.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. Spain. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. round. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. It is green. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. though difficult to cultivate. Spain. and elongated. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. originating in the south of France. good for eating and for oil. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits).com http://www. Greece. 'Hojiblanca'. 'Nabali'. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. They are black and generally used for table consumption. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. 'Kalamata'. This small olive.crazychefs. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. The olive is medium sized. It is mainly used for oil. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. 'Picual'. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. a small. used as a table olive. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. originating in Toledo. It is used both for oil and for table olives. It has a strong but sweet flavour. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. originating in the south of France (Aude département). medium size. a large. named after the city of Kalamata. Their flavour is mild and nutty. which. disease-resistant. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. 'Souri'.

Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. Olives are propagated in various ways. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. Olives grow very slowly. the oliviera. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. However. to facilitate germination. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting.) Olives like hot weather. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. embryonic buds. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor.net/ . removing fruit from the tree. which form small swellings on the stems. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. up to several centuries. soon vegetate. but the time varies in each country. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. and with the season and the cultivar. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. Another method uses an electric tool.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. P. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. Olive trees can live exceptionally long.crazychefs. it is valued by woodworkers. In Greece. A. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. as in Languedoc and Provence. 114). The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. Occasionally. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. In Italy. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. In southern Europe.poorer soil. being very hard and close-grained. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. the trees are regularly pruned. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. They tolerate drought well. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. This method is used for olives used for oil. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit.com http://www. In some places in Italy and Greece. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. and can remain productive for as long. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. More specifically. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree.

800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. which is why they taste milder than green olives. As a result. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container.2 kg of oil per tree per year. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. which is a natural preservative. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. large fruit (e. Fresh are often sold at markets. or green with hints of colour).g. After some weeks. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy.net/ .. a bitter carbohydrate. which is healthy for future production. then drained. ripe green (a yellower shade of green.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. The method also involves sawing off branches. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. which leads to a superior finished product. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. through to full purple black ripeness. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. the creation of lactic acid. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. which can be eaten fresh.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. the fruit is not bruised. Olives can be used green. Typical yields are 1.5-2. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. The olives are soaked in water to wash. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products.crazychefs. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein.com http://www.

It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. induces tumour growth in the shoots. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. oleae[27]. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. lemon zest. A species of bacterium. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. but can be left to cure for up to three months. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. especially to young trees. Popular flavourings are herbs. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. diseases.crazychefs. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful.6 to 8. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. causing great damage to plantations. lemon juice.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. capsicum (pimento). and weather A fungus. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. juniper berries and anchovies. In France and north-central Italy. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. Lye-curing. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. spices. chili. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. Sometimes. Cycloconium oleaginum. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. leaving sawtooth damage. Pests. The ten largest producing countries.net/ . olives suffer occasionally from frost. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. or removing the pit and stuffing them. garlic cloves. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. olive oil. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. wine. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. vinegar. an unnatural method. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. feta. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. of which the water is changed daily. their main predators are wasps. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. salt-curing.

000 594. 1. 27.000 1. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.160. 1).0 3.3 20.339 300.089 6. p. 3. ^ Pausanias.7 27.5 63.14. to make bee-hives.000 280.888 178.4 30. book 5". Description of Greece 1. 7. ^ Theophrastus.981 1. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants. and to cultivate olive-trees.500.800. 6. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.9 6.[31] References 1. 4. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.000 275.. An introduction.000 430.100 3.13. ^ Homer. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. Bibliotheke.crazychefs. 5.000 318.net/ ." (Diodorus Siculus. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1992. 4.300.1 25.8 16.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.5 6.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.000 998.597. Ancient Greek Agriculture.149.400. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard. ^ ".988 500.000 8.140.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.5.6 31.685 765. 4. 82.000 470.000 49.830 2. 81.000 550. 1 ).000 250. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.000 1. 3.1)..000 20. 5. 38.com http://www. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation. On the Causes of Plants." (Herodotus. 2.317.3 8.. most notably South Australia.000 498. Odyssey..064 2.

Pseudomonas syringae subsp. 28. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. Apps3. 1996. Epikouria Magazine. pp 110–113. Available through Google Books 11. Bacteriol. p.htm. 27.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA".com http://www.. ^ Riley.org/wiews/olive/intro.pasoroblesolivefestival. cited in F. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". nov.cit. ^ a b M. ^ Gooch. Simhoni. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. (1999) Ancient Trees.crazychefs. ca 30 BC 9. Masuelli. Y. N. R.279 18. & Ouazzani. 23. Volume 18:27-35 20.net/ . 32:166–169. Rackham. Spring/Summer 2006 26. ^ "FAO. http://www. J. 2004". AGRISCIENTA. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. Moody. Elena "Unusual Olives". 1999. Epikouria Magazine.15. ^ [1] 21. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. Odes 1. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19.springerlink. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. Zatoun. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. ^ http://www. http://www. Juárez. ^ Lewington..fao. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil.aspx?PageID=151. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. Volume 15.. http://www. Retrieved 2007-08-31." Horace. Retrieved 2007-08-31. & Parker. J.brijuni. Cavagnaro P. M Bauza & R. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. nom. 29. ^ Muncipality Bar.com/content/dlb533pw9cbwc59e/. 35. EspasaCalpe S. A.com/ 25. Tabak & O. http://apps3. Retrieved 2009-05-18. Kislew.A.jsp. vol.31. 17. Brijuni National Park.zatoun. Madrid. me cichorea levesque malvae.. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina".fao. rev. 105. 30. Processing methods. John Hutton. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. 1981. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. Int. J. ^ Burr. p. D. ^ Belaj et al. M. op. ^ Janse. 2001. ^ Balfour.org. 1779. 13. 1982. 24. ^ Lumaret. (September 2002). Syst. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. ^ O. Leshonenu (Hebrew). ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". R.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. ^ "Old Olive Tree". ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. J.. Australian Olives. Ellen.W. 69. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. Retrieved 2007-03-10. E. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. Riley (2002). 29 April. 4th edition.8.hr/Home. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives".com/study. Number 4). ^ Fotiadi.

Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. seldom produces flowers.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad.31. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. L.crazychefs.R. (French tarragon. western North America. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. with an entire margin.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets.com http://www." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. however. The leaves are lanceolate. Corresponding to its species name. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter.net/ . with slender branched stems. and south to northern Mexico. glossy green. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901.

Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer.com http://www. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. Georgia and.[1] It likes a hot. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. due to the presence of estragole. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. by extension. and particularly suitable for chicken.[1] However. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. but cannot be grown from seed. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food.[1] Russian tarragon (A.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. it normally goes dormant in winter. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. fish and egg dishes.net/ . sunny spot. It is normally purchased as a plant. Russia and Ukraine. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. dracunculoides L. Persian and Russian word for .crazychefs. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. without excessive watering. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). which is the Armenian. Fresh. A perennial.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. Spreading plant can be divided easily. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce.

Cis-Pellitorin. ^ Gatfield IL. Rose Marie Nichols. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. Wiley-VCH.[3] In Slovenia. Properties and Uses. Krammer G. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation.crazychefs. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Johannes Panten (2006). Machinek A. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. Ley JP. 233. Stuckey. Workman Publishing. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Foerstner J. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. 2. ^ Surburg. ISBN 9783527607891. The Bountiful Container.com http://www. 3. ^ a b c d McGee.net/ . References 1. Horst. pp. Maggie (2002). officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L.

In French cuisine. Culinary sage. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). It is a member of the mint family. and some drinks. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. Purple sage. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. Britain and Flanders. In Western cooking. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. cheeses (Sage Derby).net/ . Dalmatian sage. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. though other species. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. In the Balkans and the Middle East. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. with woody stems. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. Garden sage. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. In the United States.Salvia officinalis (Sage. sage has a slight peppery flavor. grayish leaves. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. Broadleaf sage. Common sage.crazychefs. and blue to purplish flowers. Kitchen sage. Lamiaceae.com http://www. it is used when roasting mutton. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb.

crazychefs. oleic acid. The underside of a sage leaf . niacin. which contains cineole. ursolic acid. antifungal. astringent. antibiotic. nicotinamide.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. and tonic. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. cornsole. and estrogenic substances.[1] In a double blind. fumaric acid. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment.more trichomes are visible on this side.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.trichomes are visible. cornsolic acid. antispasmodic. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. chlorogenic acid.net/ . salvia. flavones. caffeic acid. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. hypoglycemic. flavonoid glycosides. ursonic acid. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. means ―to heal". and thujone. estrogenic.com http://www.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . borneol. The Latin name for sage. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.

They are easily raised from summer cuttings.com http://www. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus.com/nutri/page8453. and used as a diuretic. Retrieved 2008-02-04. 'Alba'. a small leaved cultivar. Mohammadi M. randomized and placebo-controlled trial".00463. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. Dioscorides. OBeWise Nutriceutica.php. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. ^ a b c "Sage". J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. and for low ground cover. and more. increasing women's fertility. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. Khani M. References 1.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. 'Tricolor'. (2003). a white-flowered cultivar.[4] It was sometimes called S. snakebites.appliedhealth. doi:10. 'Berggarten'. 'Lavandulaefolia'. yellow and green variegated leaves. hemostatic. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. a local anesthetic for the skin. Noroozian M. 2.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. PMID 12605619. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. a cultivar with large leaves. a purple-leafed cultivar. Jamshidi AH.1365-2710. 'Extrakta'. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. 'Icterina'. Applied Health. http://www. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'.2003. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. emmenagogue. Pliny. and tonic.x. a cultivar with white.1046/j. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. ^ Akhondzadeh S. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos.crazychefs. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. and for other uses. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. Ohadinia S.net/ . 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. especially in sunny dry environments.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. salvatrix (Sage the Savior).[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. a styptic.

p. ISBN 9789058230058. 4. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios.crazychefs. Sage: The Genus Salvia. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. (2000). ^ a b Kintzios.com http://www.3. Spiridon E. Deni Bown (New York: DK.net/ . pp. 10-11. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. CRC Press.

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