Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. in a bouquet garni). and in those derived from them. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. While summer-seasonal. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. soups and stews. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. the whole sprig may be used ( . storage life is rarely more than a week. and of herbes de Provence. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" http://www. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. It tolerates drought well. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs.a little less if it is ground. Libyan. fresh thyme is often available year-round. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. assume that it means fresh. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. Lebanese. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. As a rule of thumb. Persian. while flavourful. which is due to its content of thymol. cuttings. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. Portuguese. Dried. Leaves are often chopped. or by the sprig. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. In some Levantine countries. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. Spanish. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French.g. Thyme. It can be propagated by seed. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. In French cuisine. Syrian. Italian. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking.crazychefs. and Turkish cuisines. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Greek. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). Albanian. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. tomatoes and eggs. Depending on how it is used in a dish. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form.

is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. etc.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. salve.[5] As with bay.crazychefs. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and http://www.[6] Thymol.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. It also has medicinal uses. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. Because it is antiseptic. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but is grown as a ground cover. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed].net/ . hybrid T. All thyme species are nectar sources. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. it was used to medicate bandages. pulegioides × T. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. tisane. The dried equivalent is 1:3. an antiseptic. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice.

good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme.Variegated lemon . including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ . neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.

3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.Dietary fiber 3.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).Sugars http://www.2 mg Magnesium 50.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0. B1) 0. European. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3 g 0. B3) 1.1 mg recommendations for adults.9 g .0 mg Iron 6. although parsley has a milder flavor.0 μg Calcium 138.crazychefs. often used as spice.1 mg Folate (Vit.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit. It is common in Middle Eastern.0 mg Phosphorus 58. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .1 mg 6.8 g 3. B2) 0.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.2 mg 13% Niacin ( . and American cooking.

The similarity of the names is a coincidence. it is not related to real turnips. reducing pest attraction. For example. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. used in soups and stews. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds.crazychefs. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a http://www. tuberosum).[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. However. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. which helps accommodate the long taproot. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. not blooming until its second year. it attracts predatory insects. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. Like many other umbellifers. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. or flat leaf (P. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). Although little known in Britain and the United States. While parsley is biennial. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. neapolitanum). The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. which then tend to protect plants nearby. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root . This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. parsnip meaning "forked turnip".

soups. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). ^ a b c John W.". References 1.crazychefs. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. and sauces. a mixture of parsley.drugs. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient http://www. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. root. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. [1]) in oxalic acid. parsley is part of bouquet garni. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. In Southern and Central .aspx?id=1075&s=4. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). with fish.[4] The produce code for parsley is". Last retrieved April 26." West Virginia University Extension Service. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. Parsley as an oil. http://www.. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). Ossobuco alla Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. fried chicken. http://www. steaks.plucodes. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. "That Devilish Parsley. "Parsley on plucodes. 4. garlic. 2007. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. lamb or goose. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. In addition.[3] Parsley is high (1. or 4900. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath.html. and lemon zest. 2. leaf.70% by mass. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs.

com .Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare .com http://www. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O.

it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes.g. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. of the mint family. which is popular in southern Italy. Greek. The flowers are purple. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. Oregano is an important culinary herb. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. growing to 20-80 cm tall. It is particularly widely used in Turkish.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . Spanish and in Italian cuisine. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. fried vegetables.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. It is a perennial http://www. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. spicy flavor. each with distinct flavours. native to Europe. and grilled meat. and to add a nice. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. O vulgare gracile.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. Together with basil. produced in erect spikes. Unlike most Italian herbs. and lovage . O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano).crazychefs. Oregano growing in a field. e. 3-4 mm long. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. capers. as well as cultivars.

net/ .crazychefs. In the Philippines. which. differs significantly in taste. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. In Turkish Cuisine. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. warm and slightly bitter taste. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. The influence of climate. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. heracleoticum (Italy. salt and pepper.[5][6] Additionally. Asia Minor) and O. It varies in intensity. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. Balkan peninsula. it can be usually found on table. It has an aromatic. together with paprika. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. especially for mutton and lambs meat. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. useful for relieving children's http://www. West Asia) have similar flavors.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. however.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. Oregano growing in a pot. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids.

stomach upsets. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. but is usually stronger. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. In the Philippines. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. stimulant. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. useful for relieving children's coughs. pinene. capsules. Lippia berlandieri. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. also called Cuban oregano. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. diaphoretic. ocimene. thymol. Used topically. indigestion. A Cretan oregano (O. Coleus aromaticus).[12] References[8] Hippocrates. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". ^ Organic Gardening 2. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. the father of medicine. especially in the United States. this substitution would not work the other way round. cholagogue. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic.html. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. Aqueous extracts. carminative.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). oregano. influenza. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of http://www.[7] and painful menstruation. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs.crazychefs.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. expectorant. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. Plectranthus amboinicus. limonene. including Poliomintha longiflora. enteric parasites. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. and caryophyllene.uni-graz.Main constituents include carvacrol. mild fevers. antispasmodic. stomachic and mildly tonic. ^ http://www. fungal . oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. emmenagogue.

co. ^ Epikouria Magazine. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. http://jn.2008. http://www. Medical News Today. et al. 6. Fall/Winter 2007 10. http://info. draft revision for "origanum".com http://www. 24 November 2008. 133 (5): 1286–1290. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". Draft revision for "oregano". PMID 12730411. J. (01 May 2003). ^ Epikouria ^ ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8.dmannose. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.nutrition. J Nutr.crazychefs. et al. draft revision for "organum".". Retrieved 2008-11-26. 7. Agric. 28.asp?item=1374&year=2008.10. 12. Leonor. University of the West of England. ^ a b Faleiro. ^ ["http://www. Fall/Spring 2007 . Steinar.) and Origanum vulgare L.php.1021/jf0510079. doi:10. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum (Cav. Food Chem. June 2008. March 2009. (2005).uk/news/UWENews/article. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. PMID 16218659. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". 11.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. 53 (21): 8162–8168.3. Retrieved 200811-26.

with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. recorded in the 10th century. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). In Ancient Greek. however. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. Also.[2] In Greek mythology. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". the diminutive of fenum or faenum. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). meaning "hay". perennial. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). it was from the giant fennel. It is a hardy. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise http://www. Ferula communis. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. it . areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. umbelliferous herb. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. This came from the Old English fenol or finol.crazychefs.

73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but thinner.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. and grows to heights of up to 2. glaucous green. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long.crazychefs. about 0. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). and grooved.Dietary fiber 3.5 mm wide. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B1) 0. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0. they are finely dissected.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates .64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. B3) 0.20 g 1. B2) 0. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.5 m.047 mg Folate (Vit.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0.01 mg 7. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. It is erect.29 g http://www.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. with hollow stems. bulb.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel.032 mg 2% Niacin ( . half as wide or less.

Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. notably the Italian name finocchio. syn. but is more aromatic and sweeter. though usually not as strong.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. and in other open sites in many regions. which is also known by several other names. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. it is often mislabelled as "anise".[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. both raw and cooked.crazychefs. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. both in its native range and elsewhere. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. by the late 19th century. including northern Europe. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. "bronze-leaved" fennel. In North American supermarkets. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden . Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island).20 mg Manganese 0. vulgare var. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. the United States. F.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. for its edible. It propagates well by seed. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. in http://www. It is of cultivated origin.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'.

Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. or eaten raw. both raw and cooked. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye . slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. grilled. foliage. or cooked in risotto. fish. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. stewed.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. It may be blanched or marinated. and http://www. anise-flavoured spice. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. Many egg. sompu in Telugu. salads. where bulbs and fronds are used. For cooking. variyali in Gujarati. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. mouri in Bengali. in side dishes. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. pastas. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. often tossed with chicory and avocado. green seeds are optimal. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. brown or green in colour when fresh. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. which are very similar in taste and appearance. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. badesoppu in Kannada.crazychefs. though smaller. The bulb is a crisp.Fennel. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. but also the most expensive. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. braised.

these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. This use.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. Fennel tea. or its polymers. also employed as a carminative.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. used to ease flatulence in infants. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and .[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. sometimes with some sweetener. although not supported by direct evidence.crazychefs. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. act as phytoestrogens. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. which can explain some of its medical effects: http://www.[12] For adults. as it is said to improve eyesight.

[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely http://www.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. which promote growth of breast tissue. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. badian (star anise). and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. followed by . fennel and coriander. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas.crazychefs.[17] However.

)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. it is known as "DalChini ( )". it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. it is called "Darchini" ( ). karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. In Urdu. it is called darchin (‫. native to Sri Lanka. In Telugu. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae.[2] In Marathi. cinnamon is known as . in the original Sinhala. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. In Bengali.[5] In Malayalam. itself ultimately from Phoenician. which are often called cinnamon too.[3] In Sri http://www.C. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. Chakka meaning bark or wood. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. Hindi. it is called Dalchina Chakka. Ceylon.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. In Farsi (Persian).[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. the "real' cassia. and in Gujarati taj. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. synonym C.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni.

Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . aloe and cinnamon.crazychefs. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than .[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. in Proverbs.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. and in Song of Solomon.

com http://www. and . a Dutch captain reported. sugar.8–49. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. although in the first century.[9] In Herodotus and other authors.1 inches) long. tea. and have a distinct odor. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. in a letter of about 1292. However. and used them to construct their nests. which are arranged in panicles. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. The flowers. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices.2 feet) tall. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild.crazychefs. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. took control of the factories by 1640. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. have a greenish color. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. 7–18 cm (2.Ages. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape.75–7. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. They established a trading post in 1638." (Braudel 1984. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. p. "The shores of the island are full of it". the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks.

and Vietnam. Java. Vietnam. Chips are trimmings of quills. the West Indies. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. which is left to dry. Brazil. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. The next year. India. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. eg. verum). According to the International Herald Tribune.[15] According to the FAO. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Zanzibar. Only the thin (0. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. followed by China. the outer woody portion is removed. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. .crazychefs. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific http://www. Madagascar.5 mm) inner bark is used. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. and Egypt.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. Sumatra. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon.

has a finer. and more crumbly texture. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. zeylanicum). as all of the layers of bark are used. using only the thin inner bark. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . the related species. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. for example. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. However. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon".[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. less dense. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). "Vietnamese cinnamon". hard and woody in texture. or "Indonesian cinnamon". many websites. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. and is considered to be less strong than cassia. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name .crazychefs. is generally a medium to light reddish http://www.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark.[16] Ceylon cinnamon.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw.

with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. such as apple pie. and sweets. used in a variety of thick soups. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. but when cassia is present. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). bread-based dishes. macerating it in seawater. especially in Mexico. especially apples. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. tea.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. ‫. when whole. True cinnamon. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. hot cocoa. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. It is of a golden-yellow color. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. and liqueurs. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. a deep-blue tint is produced. In the United States. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia.5% to 1% of its composition. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. In the Middle East. and then quickly distilling the whole. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. are easily distinguished. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered http://www. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. and fruits.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi).net/ . rather than cassia. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. The two barks. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes.crazychefs. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. drinks.

in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect http://www. love. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). However. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. few seem able to succeed. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. linalool.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). who failed.crazychefs.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to . that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. Encyclopaedia Britannica. beta-caryophyllene. The Cinnamon Challenge. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. although it remains untested. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum).and a very hot aromatic taste.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. ^ a b "Cinnamon".[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. cinnamaldehyde. and Myanmar (Burma).0. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. and money.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. In Hoodoo. cassia. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits).[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2008. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. eugenol.[34] Notes 1. luck. cinnamyl acetate. and anethole. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate.

Col. ^ http://www. ^ http://www. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. revised Cathay and the Way Thither.2. Sánchez C. 8. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's 17.1021/jf051513y. Emily. 53 (20): 7749–59. p. The History of Food. ^ [1] 16. Henry. Corke H (October 2005). ^ "Cassia. 437).htm 20. retrieved 2008-07-15 5.CO%3B2-N 15. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. 23. http://www. Cinnamomum.ihaystack. ^ Shan B.0. PMID 16104824. ^ López P. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14.thespicehouse. p. doi:10. ^ Harris. Cozzolino http://lakdiva. Van-Koiij A. p. ^ Yule. http://dsr. 22. Agric. http://www.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". Cai YZ. ^ [2] 18. ^ The Epicentre.theepicentre. J.iol. "Solid. ^ http://www. p.—Cinnamon. Encyclopedia of Spices. ^ Tennent. ^ http://links. Sun M. http://www. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. Nerín C (August 2005).ac. _of_life/html/1. 9.htm. ^ Knox.en. retrieved 200705-01 21." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. Anthea Bell. Sir James Emerson. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents".com/spices/vietnamese-cassia-saigon-cinnamon-wholecracked-ground thespicehouse.html. tr. Account of the Island of Ceylon. retrieved 2008-07-15 12.html#pg598. Breyne) extracts". Torres RP (December 1998). Agric.henriettesherbal. Food Harvey. 53 (17): 6939– _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. ^ Mancini-Filho J. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID 10077878. 4. 437 7. 437f. http://www. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. J.php?storyId=6672644. Mancini DA. ^ 3. Cinnamon.1021/jf050709v. retrieved 2008-07-15 . Food Chem.jstor.. Batlle R. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. PMID 16190627.npr.fao. Robert. http://www. ^ retrieved 200807-15 ^ http://news.

(2005).113. a publication now in the public domain. retrieved 200705-01 25. http://care. Eugen J. 26. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".. New York: Kodansha International.1643. Fernand (1984). Leslie. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". et al. Khattak KN. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Archer (1988). Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. http://www. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). ^ George Mateljan s_have_been/index. Retrieved 2007-12-17. http://www. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. doi:10. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". ^ Verspohl..nutrition. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. 28. http://jn.3..113. Kristof et al.futuremedicine. 34. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF) .sciencedaily.pdf.1002/ Alan W. Eleventh Edition. Retrieved 200808-05.2337/diacare. Agricultural Research magazine. 27. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. Retrieved 200805-11. http://www. ^ "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study".php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68.24.. The Perspective of the World.html?source=r_health. Anderson RA (December 2003). ^ Yronwode.crazychefs. ^ Khan A.3215. Akram et al. http://www. Retrieved 2008-05-11. Retrieved 2008-05-11. July 2000.php?featured_food=80. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". Cinnamon. www. http://eprints.2217/14750708. ground. Safdar M.luckymojo. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography".1. Muhammad et al. 29. ^ Taher.2217/14750708.1. Braudel.12. doi:10..26. Ali Khan MM. "Determination of http://www. retrieved 200705-01 32. ^ Vanschoonbeek. Research: Thalido. PMID 14633804.sciencedaily. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. doi:10. ^ [3]. 30.htm. retrieved 2007-12-12 31.1016/00219673(88)90035-0. Charles (1998).com/genpage. ^ Beck. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). Corn. http://www. 33. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". Medicinal

leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. chopped. Onions can be used. frozen.Department of Export Agriculture. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. which it is not. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. and Allium asarense R. used without qualifiers. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures.crazychefs. They are known by the common name "onion" but. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & . They are now available in fresh. and dehydrated forms."[3] Uses http://www. canned. it usually refers to Allium cepa. one of the oldest vegetables. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. powdered.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. pickled.M. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.

Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. and also to relieve headaches. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.chopped or sliced. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side http://www. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. Depending on the variety. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish.[5] The onion is easily propagated. However. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. cats.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia.crazychefs. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. spicy. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. transported and stored. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. snakebite and hair loss. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. In ancient Greece. due to toxicity during digestion.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. an onion can be sharp. recent evidence has shown that dogs. coughs. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. In Bronze Age settlements. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles.[5] .

1 g 89.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.monounsaturated 0.34 g 0.polyunsaturated 0. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.013 g .027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B3) 0.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.1 g 1.crazychefs. B1) 0. 0 μg 9.24 g .046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.12 mg Folate ( http://www.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .4 mg Vitamin E 0.saturated 0.042 g .02 mg Vitamin K 0.Dietary fiber 1.21 mg Magnesium 0.7 g Fat .Sugars .17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. B2) 0.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.

crazychefs. eleven times the amount found in Western White. Western White. and Vidalia. However. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. diabetes. anticancer. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies).) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. Imperial Valley Sweet. Mexico.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. anticholesterol. and other diseases. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. Texas 1015. In general. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). Empire Sweet.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. onions are used to heal blisters and boils.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. Texas 1015. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. Peruvian Sweet. Imperial Valley Sweet. Shallots have the most phenols. Empire Sweet. and Vidalia. Imperial Valley Sweet. followed by Western Yellow. Empire http://www. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. In the United States. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. Mexico.[10] In many parts of the world. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down . Northern Red. Peruvian Sweet. Western White. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. For all varieties of onions. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. Mexico. Northern Red. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. pungent yellow (New York Bold).[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. If you are allergic to onions. Peruvian Sweet. osteoporosis. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. Texas 1015. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. Western Yellow.

diarrhea. cells are broken. On January 31. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. therefore. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. where it binds to sensory neurons. allylmercaptan and allicin. As onions are sliced or eaten. ginger. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. creating a stinging sensation. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). differs among Allium species.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. and the irritation . Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. all present in garlic.crazychefs. breathing difficulties. shallots. leeks. mouth and throat ulcerations. and bananas.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and in rare cases http://www.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. chives. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. allylpropyldisulfide. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. The volume of sulfenic acids released. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. it can lead to an allergic reaction. nausea. Eye irritation can. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. 2008. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. garden lilies. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. garlic. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation.include reactions to onions. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. limiting the amount of gas generated. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology.

"short-day" onions. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. Allium fistulosum. from sets started from seed the previous year. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Finally. which is said not to produce dry bulbs.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. which have been developed in more recent times. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early . Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight http://www. more commonly today. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. the Welsh onion. which can be planted directly in the ground. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive.crazychefs.

149 Spain World Total 64. Oregon (USA). Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.346 2. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.764 Pakistan 1.758 Russia 1. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.crazychefs. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green http://www. Vale. a hybrid of Allium cepas. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.750 South Korea 1. each of which forms a bulb.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).500 China United States 3.220 Turkey .637 Japan Egypt 1.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.793 India 5. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.Produce bulblets in the flower head. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion. Tree onion or Egyptian onion . although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.302 1.

passed in 1958.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near .The Onion Futures Act. It remains in effect as of http://www. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.

1793. Allium sativum. commonly known as garlic. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. from William Woodville.[1] A bulb of garlic. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. Medical Botany. leek. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Its close relatives include the onion. shallot. and chive. It has a characteristic . is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum.crazychefs. the most commonly used part of the plant. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. known as garlic. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae.

The leaves. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. accounting for over 77% of world output.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". India (4. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. In North America. Garlic plants can be grown close together.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) . with Russia (1. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. with approximately 10. Garlic is grown globally. respectively. but China is by far the largest producer of http://www. the so-called elephant garlic. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. The cloves are used as seed. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. for consumption (raw or cooked). They can suffer from pink root. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). and for medicinal purposes. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. stems (scape). softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator.Yunnan province of China. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion".[5] The "wild garlic". Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. according to Zohary and Hopf. and Allium oleraceum. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. are common weeds in fields.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. In cold climates. "crow garlic". and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. The papery. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests.crazychefs. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. Allium vineale. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red.

It is often paired with onion. Southeast Asia.810 168. A = aggregate (may include official. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or . F = FAO estimate. or ginger.000 15. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. southern Europe. northern Africa. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb.000 142. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. and parts of South and Central America. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output.400 140. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.crazychefs. the Middle East. C = calculated figure. semiofficial.000 645.000 254. or estimates). P = official figure.000 325.686.000 125. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods.000 221.4%). * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world".Alaska) in fifth place (1. including eastern Asia.088. California. tomato.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.000 http://www. south Asia.

Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. Blending garlic. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco.crazychefs. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. oil. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. and spices. The leaves are cut. and is now being sold in the United States. meats. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. oil. and then stir-fried with eggs.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. United Kingdom and http://www. breads and pasta. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "stems". or vegetables. In some cuisine. garlic toast. . called black garlic. and a chunky base produce skordalia. bruschetta. They are also known as "garlic spears". or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. is sweet and syrupy. Immature scapes are tender and edible. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. or "tops". cleaned. the resulting product. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. In eastern Europe. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. almond. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. meat. and roast them in an oven. crostini and canapé. Garlic. In Japan and Korea.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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werewolves. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. usually enjoy these sensations. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. where it is excreted. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. However. therefore. garlic. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. hung in windows. garden lilies. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. The herb is. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. included in many garlic recipes. including onions. or leeks. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized.[48] Due to its strong odor.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. shallots. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. shallots. forming allyl methyl http://www. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. and bananas. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. and worms from eating the plant. and release of AMS several hours more. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. insects. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. thus mellowing its spiciness. garlic could be worn. leeks. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. chives.[50] In Europe. allylmercaptan and allicin. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. Among the members of the onion family. Humans. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). ginger. all present in garlic. deterring animals like birds. When eaten in quantity. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. Since digestion takes several hours. such as pistou.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However.crazychefs. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic.[51] To ward off vampires. however. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. persillade. making garlic much more potent than onions. and vampires. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic . allylpropyldisulfide.

suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). antihypertensives. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of . sweating. allergic reactions. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. calcium channel blockers. and diarrhea.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. However. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque".[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. antiparasitic value of garlic. indicated Muhammad. Editing help is available. You can help by converting this article to prose. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. http://www. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. nausea.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. indigestion.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. similar to the effect of aspirin. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. Garlic can thin the blood. if appropriate. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. dizziness.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. are largely unknown. minimal risks to normal individuals. antiplatelets. at worst. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. if any exist.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires.In Daoism mythology.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic.crazychefs. as well as other medications. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. emesis. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. and hypoglycemic drugs. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. bleeding. and menstrual irregularities.

one the bulbs will grow 4. (2004).ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. http://www.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. bigger.) cultivars at Debre Zeit.handle.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". 397 6. J. Ethiopia".crazychefs.html.html 9. G. Retrieved 5 June. including burns to children. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. ^ McGee p. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23).[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. ^ a b c d Tabor. 197 5. p. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. 2000). Retrieved 2007-08-28. 112 7. http://www. http://hdl. third edition (Oxford: University . ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.nj.unigraz. 2. garlick)". ^ a b Lee. In particular.jhortscib. is discouraged. Retrieved 5 June The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. et al. ^ http://www. Domestication of plants in the Old World. et al. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium http://www. including naturopathic uses and acne ^ http://www. split. A bulb of garlic. Notes 1. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. topical use of raw garlic. 3. (2005). ^ Salunkhe and Kadam

C. Motta. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". 23. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". 21. Daryn (2003). Dent. Squadrito GL. 18. ^ Durak I. and Empiricism" (PDF).crazychefs. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. PMID 9641475.1002/mnfr. 33.. doi:10. 32. PMID 17951430. 167 (4): 346–53. Lawson LD.1162/106361403773062678. Acad. Better ^ Durak I. 17. Lin RS (June 1998).1073/pnas. J. 35. 16. "Garlic (Allium sativum L.jnutbio. PMID 2291748.2004. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. PMID 17123684. doi:10. Hyg. "Tropes. Ramacciato. 14.325. 24. Vosoughi AR. PMID 17325296. 19. doi:10. R. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. Intern.A. PMID 54 | P a g e http://www.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. 167 (4): 325–6. Aytaç B. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. 2006.S. doi:10." Int. 13. ^ a b Steiner M. Garlic. Chao WJ (March 2007). 30. Sartoratto. Sylva. Yin MC. ^ Mader FH (October 1990).. J. PMID 15157944.200700058. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". 22.ama-assn. doi:10..lehoux/Tropes.. http://personalpages.005. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". ^ Kojuri J. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. (Mrs. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. PMID .pdf. PMID 17918162.167. 20. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know".1002/mnfr.manchester. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". 28. ^ Gardner CD.1001/archinte. Herald Publishing Co. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. et al (February 2007).A 400 Year History. 104 (46): 17977–82. [2] ^ Hamel. July 1. J. PMID 17325291. P. Sova P (May 2004). et al (November 2007). 5:109–115. Nutr. Biochem. ^ Charlson M. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. doi:10. U. 11. Proc. 2005 ^ Groppo. Med. Med. Intern.01. F. Natl. 34. 15 (6): 373–7. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. http://archinte. 5. et al (June 2004). "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". Olcay E. McFerren M (February 2007). (p. 31. Güven C (2002). Block E. 27.10. Arch. PMID 17328819. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44.4. Oztürk HS. and Mary U. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. N. 29. ^ Goodbye.ama-assn. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech) Akrami M (March 2007).. Capasso R. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . Izzo AA (November 2007). Kavutcu M. Facts. doi:10.1016/j. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". Arch.). ^ Chan KC. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets.1186/1476-511X-6-5. ^ Borrelli F. doi:10. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . Paul B. doi:10. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.4. Accessed: December 18. Sci. http://archinte. PMID 15218732. ^ Benavides GA. A Modern Herbal. Mills RW. Ferraresi. 26.1001/archinte.167. 25. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store.200700072. 12. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). A.1097/00005344-199806000-00014.

Lau B. Retrieved 2009-01-30.blogspot. James. PMID 11481410. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans".org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. garlic advisory 63. Iwai K. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. 66. http://linkinghub. ^ a b McNally.. Castro C. Sanders N. PMID 8441577.. 58. H. 049 . http://www. Antimicrob. ^ Mosquito Repellents http://www. Book 65 57. section "Conclusion" 48.. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. Sumida T. ^ Macpherson et al. UK Medicines Information.nhs. 41. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. ^ Macpherson et Ali M (June 1996). 122.ukmi. 85 (3): 157–64.. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6.elsevier.go.sgmjournals.1. a stress compound from garlic. Long D. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Summer 2005 . In Search of Dracula.go. Retrieved 2007-0707. Jennifer (2002-12-13). 49 (1): 473. Shishido C. doi:10.1099/mic. Pickering p. "Allixin. p. et al (October 2005). 37.elsevier. Sagi A. PMID 8644128.) 62. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. ^ Lemar". Toxicol. 40. Retrieved December . Raymond T (1994). ^ Shuford JA. Teel R. Itakura Y.crazychefs. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. ^ John S. 2007.. 9 No. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. p.January 29. Yoshida S. Ronen M (November 2001). ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. PMC: 538912. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). Jordan W. ^ Oi Y. Complementary Medicines Summary. (1991-08-01). DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". http://linkinghub. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). Nishino H. Volume 7. ^ a b c d Hogg.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.473. Slattery M. Scolaro M.goldbamboo. Matuura H. ^ http://www. 49. 1988. ^ Bukhari.asm. ^ Alnaqeeb ^ Pickering.jst. Agents Chemother. ^ Garlic . http://joi. ^ McNally p. http://mic. ^ http://washokufood. ^ a b c Yamasaki ^ McGee p. "Garlic burns". doi:10. http://aac. ^ Health Canada . 4 . ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. "Garlic burns".com/topic-t6335-a1-6Allium_sativum.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. PMID 11600262. PMID 15616341.html 46.html 45.49. NLM Gateway. ^ http://lem. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Passa O. (2001). 52. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. Thomson M.jst.. Fuwa T.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.0. ^ Fareed G.28095-0.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. PMID 65. ISBN 0-395-65783-0.unito. ^ Kodera Y.2005. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. Houghton Mifflin. Patel R (January 2005).html 54.. National Health Service. Nishimura S. 38. 42. 211 51. ISBN 0-30436561-0. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Lett.Garlic-in-Oil 61. Yoffe B. 53. Aon MA. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". ^ Baruchin AM. 211. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. Sterling Publishing. 310–311 47. ^ http://www. Kominato Y. Retrieved December 7. Chesson C. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. 43. Engl.pdf. Microbiology (Reading.economicexpert. "Effect of allixin. on mutagenesis. W.". David (2003).com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic.htm 44. 120. Steckelberg JM. (1989-01-30). Bordia Imafuku M.

M. 405-407 (2002). Kamenetsky.References Japanese garlic. Block.. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖.. R. "Garlic burns".com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6. http://www. Naoto Uda. Yukihiro Kodera. Am. Hort.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Hamilton.crazychefs.. 94 (6): 632– a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. J. Chatterjee. Campbell GR. L. Gardner. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. L.. http://circ. D. PMID 8506890. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Chem. Barzilay. Jain AK. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353.elsevier. Kozue Ogasawara.. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. P.. 354-363 (2002). ISBN 0-683-18147-5. R. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. A. Zemah.. R. Zhang. J. Med. 50. A. Am. Z. Isao Sumioka. Balise. E. Andy (2004). . "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". Rabinowitch (2004). New York: Avery. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. L. Lemar. Jiro Yoshida. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. and H. 'Kyolic'. Gotzkowsky S. http://linkinghub.. Williams & Wilkens. Shan. J. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. Naoki Kashimoto. Kiazand. Campbell JH (July 1997). (1996). Vol. Koch. D. H. PMID 9247357. Turner. 3rd ed. Sci. D. PMID 8441577.. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). Susumu Yoshida. D. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. Makoto Ichikawa. C. E. Chem. S. P. Efendy JL. Garty BZ (March 1993). Pharm. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Hile. I. A. Balch.. Masanori Ayabe.ahajournals. Kraemer. D. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Shafir. Belz GG (October 1997). D. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6.. Pharm. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. The chemistry of garlic and onions. Boudoulas H. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Retrieved 1 May[青森県産].. G. M.. E. C. E. (2001). Lawson.. and Related Species (Second Edition). Lloyd. Bull. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". Z. K. Block. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. A. Vol. H. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. Simmons DL. Block.M. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Soc.-Z. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. 129: 144–151. (2000). (2004). Breithaupt-Grögler K. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. McMahon FG (June 1993). Selfsufficientish . Vargas R. H. PMID 9355906. Ling M. 50. Wang. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. L. [4] Lawson. L. (1992). (1985).P. Bull. Block.

Veena http://www. (1998). Patel R (January 2005). J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. http://aac. Harold (2004). 31 (6): 904–8. Michael Bandell. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets.. . PMID 2291748. Eid. (1999). Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. Salunkhe. (eds). Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cardiovasc. H.S. Marcel Dekker. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. D.. doi:10. pp. "The Onion Family: Onions. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".2005. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. http://meta.. J. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". Steiner M. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. Shuford JA. 310–3. et al.473.K.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904.12. PMID 9641475. In: Ohigashi.asm. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Steckelberg JM. Kadam. Agents Chemother.crazychefs. PMID 15616341. Abstract. PMC: 538912.. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. Scribner. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Mader FH (October 1990). S.49. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. SunWook Hwang.1128/AAC. Garlic. Antimicrob. Samer R. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". (1997). et al. Macpherson. Lin RS (June 1998). Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. Neil A (1994). Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Bernhard H. 49 (1): 473. Yeh. Pharmacol.Lindsey J. Leeks". Geierstanger.wkhealth. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). PMID 8169881. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". Silagy C. Y-Y. ISBN McGee. et al. Yeh.

called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu.crazychefs. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. Zanzibar. after which they develop into a bright red. and Sri Lanka. terminating in four spreading sepals. and consist of a long calyx. Madagascar. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. In Vietnam.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. Cloves are harvested when 1.5-2 cm long. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become http://www. syn. when they are ready for collecting. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. it is called đinh hương. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Pakistan.

but with the addition of other spices). Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. Cloves are used as a carminative. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. they are used sparingly. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. it is used in almost all dishes. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). spleen and stomach meridians. In south Indian cuisine. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. During Christmas. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the . 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. cloves are often used to season pho broth.[1] In north Indian cuisine. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. Cloves are used in cheeses. In Vietnamese cuisine. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. warm and aromatic. entering the kidney. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed.000 tonnes). and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. often in combination with cumin. especially for digestive problems. but as they are extremely strong.crazychefs. along with other spices.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. which sells Djarum http://www. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies.

and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. along with nutmeg and pepper.[7] Nevertheless. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. pimples etc. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. Khalsa. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature http://www.[7] Cloves. Ayurvedic herbalist K. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. Subsequently. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. mainly from the Maluku Islands. including Bacan. Makian. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. and Tidore. Brazil. In the late fifteenth century. It is also used in severe burns.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. most of the West Indies. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. RH (AHG). and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan).direct stomach qi downward.P. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang.[6] History Until modern times. vomiting and diarrhea. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. Ternate. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate.[5] In West Africa. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. including for multiple sclerosis. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. were highly prized in Roman times. including cloves. and Zanzibar. Moti. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach .crazychefs. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana.

Erich Stoger.htm. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. ^ http://oneearthherbs. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Erich Stoger.html National Institutes of Health. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. pp.. Third Edition by Dan Bensky.[8] Notes and references 1. crategolic acid. pg. Spice: The History of a Temptation. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". gallotannic acid.crazychefs. tannins. 3.squarespace. Medicine Plus. Phyllis and Balch. Alan. stigmasterol and campesterol. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from . beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.nlm. Jack (2004). and eugenitin. xv. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b http://www. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is 3rd Avery Publishing. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. the flavonoids eugenin. rhamnetin. 8. Andrew and Page. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. Karen. John Wiley and Sons Inc. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. kaempferol. ^ "TibetMed . ^ ISBN 0-375-70705-0. and several sesquiterpenes. Steven Clavey. ^ http://www. comprising 72-90%. 2. due to the high price of importing them. Third Edition by Dan Bensky.nih. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4.html Tilotson. James. 94.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". Vintage Books. Steven Clavey. ^ Dorenburg. methyl salicylate (painkiller). Special Diets for Illness 6.. http://www. and Andrew Gamble.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. 5. ©2000. ©2003.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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5. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice".) -.88.5555/jaoi. et http://www.2005. ^ Louisa Lim.crazychefs. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. ^ International Organization for Standardization.Botanical nomenclature". (2005). "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook.2004-0058. doi:10.3.atypon-link. Retrieved 8 June 2009. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. http://www. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 8 June 2009.chinaios. Retrieved 10 specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 .1021/jf058156b. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. 4.htm?csnumber =4844. ^ Lederer.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. Vaishali Ines et al.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. .iso. f. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. NPR. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". http://www.703. ^ Joshi. http://www. PMID http://www.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1.Specification".[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 3. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. 6. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. Retrieved 8 June 2009. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". (2006). 18 May 2009 2. while Lederer et al. f.1542/peds.htm?csnumber=19183.

com http://www.[1] Cumin (Cuminum . pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. native from the east Mediterranean to East India.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.crazychefs. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

parsley and dill. In Northern India and Nepal. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. in Iran and Central Asia. Kerman.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). in Turkey. a member of the parsley family. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain.crazychefs. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . and yellow-brown in colour. longitudinally . being oblong in shape. in northwestern China. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. including kamūnu in Akkadian. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as http://www. cumin is known as kimyon. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. In Arabic. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. locally called "Kermun". Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. maduru.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. cumin is known as zireh. Like many other Arabic words in the English language.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". cumin is known as ziran (孜然). The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. the story goes. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced.

Syria. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. today it is mostly grown in Iran. In Sri . toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today).[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. Seeds. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. India. Egypt. Turkey. and Chile. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. Uzbekistan. Tajikistan. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. have been dated to the second millennium BC.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. Mexico. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony.crazychefs. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from http://www. and this practice continues in Morocco. when added to hot milk and consumed. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. In South Asia. Morocco.

with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. garam masala. and borne in umbels. curries. and other Middle-Eastern. Northern Mexican cuisines. enchiladas. pinnate or bipinnate. containing a single seed. North http://www. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. sofrito. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. and is found in achiote blends. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. Sri Lankan. Pakistani. It is traditionally added to chili. The flowers are small. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. It is an herbaceous annual plant. tacos. and bahaarat. Middle Eastern. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. and in some traditional breads from France. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. white or pink. thread-like leaflets. curry powder. Today. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black .[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. adobos. Cuban. but are smaller and darker in colour.crazychefs. Indian. either ground or as whole seeds. Contrary to popular belief in the US. popular in Indian. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. B3) 4. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well. 64 μg 44. hot summer of 3–4 .27 g 17. well-drained soil.435 mg Folate (Vit. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F). Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.saturated 1. However. B2) 0.Dietary fiber 10.24 g 22.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.very common in Mexican cuisine.5 g Fat .36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. Cultivation of cumin requires a long. and needs fertile. sown in spring.7 mg Vitamin E 3. it is drought-tolerant.81 g 8. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates.Sugars 2.25 g .5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates .crazychefs.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.33 mg Vitamin K 5.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. It is grown from http://www.

from the Swedish word "spisa". Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. In Swedish. However. to eat.Zinc 4. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron.a cat and 'kotek' . caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". as in 'kot' . For example. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi) .caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. lighter in colour.). In Polish the difference is even less significant. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. Not related to curcumin. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two.a small cat). a chemical found in turmeric. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it.

^ "Kamūnu. Essential Oils". et ^ http://www. 9. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum http://www. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN"." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references (2009). doi:10. ^ a b Iacobellis.foodreference.ars-grin. and Carum carvi L. Lu et 7. doi:10. Rong.aca.77.1021/jf0487351.1016/j. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 .05. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. doi:10.030. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. www. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). Domestication of plants in the Old World.html 6. third edition (Oxford: University Press. (2005). 3. 2000).com. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. 4.1302. 8.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. 2. from China".com/html/fcumin. p. 206 5. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.2009.crazychefs. Retrieved . 2000.". ^ Growingtaste. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b c Li. ^ a b Wang. ^ "KMN.1002/ffj. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 .arsgrin." premiumwanadoo. Nicola S.

net/ .Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal http://www. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. shogaols and gingerols. or http://www.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids.crazychefs. cardamom. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. and galangal.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. In laboratory animals. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. West Africa and the Caribbean. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae).Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. sedative. medicine. and citral) have also been identified. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. cineol.

ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. Additionally. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. Allam ( ) in Telugu. salt. and tender green chili peppers. particularly gingerols and shogaols. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. Adrak. In South India. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. in Gujarati. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. which makes swallowing easier. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. especially in the Tanjore belt. and Aduwa in Nepali. cookies. [edit] Regional use In India. in Tamil Nadu. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste.crazychefs. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or .[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. nuts. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or http://www. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. and ginger beer. to which honey is often added. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. Alay in Marathi. Ginger has a sialagogue action. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. and sugar. Inji in Tamil. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. or frozen for longer term storage. crackers and cake. ghee. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Ginger is also made into candy. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. ginger ale. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. enchi in Malayalam. For storage.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. stimulating the production of saliva.

In Western cuisine. France. a type of ginger beer. and making drinks such as sorrel. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. during their occupation of the islands. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. parkin and ginger biscuits. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. In the traditional Korean kimchi. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called http://www. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. In Vietnam. In Japan. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. and a variety of nuts and seeds. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. In Arabic. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. On the island of Corfu. ginger snaps. Greece.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. In China. However. ginger is called gyin. In the Ivory Coast. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. gingerbread. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic.crazychefs. is made. In the Caribbean. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as . ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. In Burma.

Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. though studies been inconsistent. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for .[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. though it does interact with some medications.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. morning sickness and chemotherapy.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. cough and http://www. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. including warfarin. which several scientific studies support.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made.crazychefs.

com http://www. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. it is considered good for a sore throat. in food etc. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash.crazychefs. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and individuals who have had ulcers. gas. In the United States. and heart rhythms. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. ginger can cause heartburn. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. and although it's generally recognized as safe. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. In Burma. In India.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. In China. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. people use ginger for making tea.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. reducing "winds" in the blood.[14] In Congo. clotting. bloating. belching and nausea. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. particularly if taken in powdered . ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. which is considered a panacea. In Indonesia. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar.

with over 30% of the global share.000 158. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming.5%).crazychefs.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.7%).net/ . applied generally to the older and poorer roots.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. produces black ginger. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm http://www.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). but this generally reduces its value.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Scalding. or washed and scraped. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. Nepal(~11. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. it is immediately scalded. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. Traditionally. now leads in global production of ginger. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Production trends India. followed by Indonesia(~12. replacing China. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. washing and scraping gives white ginger. which has slipped to the second position (~20.000 F 177.

but it is not related to true ginger. galangal.crazychefs.000 34. A = Aggregate(may include official. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese http://www. F = FAO estimate.387. a carcinogenic compound. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. www.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". the flower buds are the part Galangal is also called Thai ginger. and its root has similar aromatic properties.000 28. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. Also referred to as galangal. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family.270 1.arsgrin.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . Retrieved fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . is used in cooking and medicine. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. is also known as "wild ginger". semiofficial or estimates).445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. Asarum canadense.contains ginger material References .000 57.000 http://www.000 42.

http://timeblog. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Retrieved 2007-0808.1016/ 7. . David Kiefer. Susan (2007-01-15). http://archfami.). 4. New York: Scribner pp. 13.523. doi:10. http://journals. http://www. ^ McGee. 10. Kathi Kemper. Antoine.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). http://www. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). Zainab M.6. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice" http://www. (2006). "A Current Look at Ginger Use". British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. ^ MD O' Hara. Sheng-Chu Kuo. "Ginger". ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). Retrieved 2007-08-02. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. & Pittler. doi:10. et al. http://bja. PMID 10793599. Li-Jiau Huang. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Harold (2004). MD. 6.cfm?displayID=15. doi:10. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– ^ Al-Achi. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007).ucla. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. (01 Mar 2000). ^ Ernst. Retrieved 2006-09-06.01.2.mayoclinic. 3. 11. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. PMID 9821826. Tin-Yun Ho. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. ^ Jakes. Mary. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats".library.html. 14.1021/jf071460f. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy.cambridge. (2007).foodchem. doi:10. Ali Taghizadeh et al. ^ Al-Amin. Shih-Lu Wu. MPH (1998). & MSt. http://unitproj. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2.7. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". MD. Kim Farrell. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". 5. Retrieved 2007-08-06.013.amaassn. Retrieved 5 November. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Chen.H.umm.uspharmacist. ^ Afshari. "Beverage of Champions". Retrieved 2007-08-02.

Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. for dyeing.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following http://www. Erode. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. Zingiberaceae. and to impart color to mustard . The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. In medieval Europe. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. slightly bitter. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family.crazychefs.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. For these reasons.

etc. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. rendang. yellow cakes. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. but also in masak lemak. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. biscuits. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. much like ginger. Over-coloring.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. and many more. or Textile City. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Turmeric City. dairy products. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). relishes. and mustard.[citation needed] Sangli. turmeric is also used fresh. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. powdered form. not only in curry. orange juice. In non-South Asian recipes. Although usually used in its dried. yogurt.crazychefs. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a .com http://www. ice cream. such as in pickles.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. popcorn color. cake icings. sauces. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. sweets.Yellow City. custardlike yellow color. gelatins. cereals.

[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. Indians. dry mixes. and other digestive . salad dressings. It is unknown why it works. winter butter and margarine. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. a traditional dish in South Asia. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan.In combination with annatto (E160b). and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. yogurt. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a http://www. Japan. Within one week of using turmeric.[4] cancer.crazychefs. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. an uncurable and debilitating disease. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. is also treated with turmeric powder. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). burns and bruises. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. are spiced with turmeric. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. arthritis [5] and liver disorders.

net/ . India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. or BDNF. Alzheimer's.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. multiple myeloma. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. found in black pepper. John‘s Medical College. and Pakistan. and colorectal cancer. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. and the U. In 1998 researchers at St.crazychefs. with no adverse effects. Bangladesh. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. which supports nerve growth. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer.S. research activity into curcumin is exploding. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. improves the absorption of turmeric. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. Snake Bite Anti venin. http://www. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations.

fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. Also. such as saris. jaggery.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. and coconut and cooked in steam.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. This happens in economically lower situations. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. However.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure).crazychefs. and it is used for power and purification rites. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. In southern India. During the south Indian festival Pongal. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka http://www. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. part of the Bengali . a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. as a part of the marriage ritual.

I. Joseph T. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. Rajendran http://www. The systematic chemical name is ( ^ http://www. or Natural Yellow 3. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain".stm 5.5-dione. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. Majeed M. a . ^ http://news. Judy] (June 2009). It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. 75300. (2009).ars-grin.2008. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in www. http://www.crazychefs. AOL Health.aolhealth. Srinivas Planta Med. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. 64(4):353-6. E. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". http://www. Retrieved June 2009. ^ [| Shoba G. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as Retrieved 2008-03-04. 2. et al. 1998 May. Notes 1.07. keto and enol. ^ Chan. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.foodchem. doi:10. Joy D. 6. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".

is a flowering tree in the spurge http://www. flowers.9–7. hence its name.6–2.crazychefs. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. 4–6 centimetres (1. which allows its use as a candle (see below). It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). The leaves are pale . The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). simple and ovate. 10–20 centimetres (3. Euphorbiaceae. Indian walnut. with an acute apex. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans.4 in) in diameter.9 in) long. Kemiri.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. The nut is round. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. also known as Candleberry. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics.

however. leaves and flowers. the nuts. are applied around the navel for . In Java.crazychefs. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. The flavor. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. giving them greater underwater visibility. In Hawaiʻi. This led to their use as a measure of time.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. ulcers. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻ http://www. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. is quite different. fevers. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. swollen joints. On the island of Java in Indonesia. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. they are mildly toxic when raw. including: leis from the shells. In Malaya. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. pounded seeds. burned with charcoal. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. lit one end. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. and gonorrhea. named kukui were burned to provide light.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. Outside of Southeast Asia. In Sumatra. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. as the candlenut is much more bitter. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. a varnish with the oil. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol.

^ "Kukui". (1993). protection and peace. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. 122. 4. Betty. This larva is eaten by some people. pp.crazychefs. tukilamulamu. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. ^ Dunford. was routinely beaten. http://books. ^ Scott. http://books.[5] In Tonga. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). ripe nuts. 26. Honda. Bess Press. and the husband was eventually killed. Susan. 2. ISBN[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). Liana I. 5. ^ http://www. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). used as soap or shampoo. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. the god of agriculture. Craig Thomas (2000). University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9781573061377. Lilinoe Andrews. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the Being a kind and just woman. Mikiala Ayau. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. One of the legends told of a woman who.[citation needed] References 1. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. Plants in Hawaiian .google. p. Retrieved 2009-03-06. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. despite her best efforts to please her husband. 50-51. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. In plantations. Hawaiians of Old (3 http://books.) Finally. p.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻ ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. she was given new life. Beatrice H. University of Hawaii Press. still nowadays. "Chapter 4: Canoes". Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants.

white pepper. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other.crazychefs.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper . and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. Malayalam:kurumulaku. containing a single seed. The terms pink peppercorns. The fruit. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. Telugu:miriyam. cultivated for its fruit. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. . However. Konkani:miriya konu. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. green pepper. may be described as black pepper.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. and very often simply pepper. Kannada:meNasu. unrelated plants. .com http://www. Peppercorns. red pepper (as in bell or chile). Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. . green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. known as a peppercorn when dried. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. . dark red when fully mature. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions.

net/ .com http://www. often alongside table salt. Dutch peper. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. and other similar forms. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper.. and the naked seed is dried. In the 16th century. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. with the skin of the pepper removed. in the early 20th century. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. this was shortened to pep. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit.S.crazychefs. including decortication. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting.[4] In the U. the spice is called black peppercorn. French poivre. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. Once dried. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. White pepper consists of the seed only. wrinkled black layer. chemical or biological methods. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week.

made from the largest. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. which is mostly no longer an issue. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink http://www. Pickled . ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. Fresh.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. particularly Thai cuisine. the Peruvian pepper tree. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". green. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper.Black. with a bright aroma.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. is made from the unripe berries. also green.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. like black. Schinus terebinthifolius.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. Schinus molle. largely unknown in the West.crazychefs. are used in some Asian cuisines. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). unpreserved green pepper berries. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. from Bangka Island.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product.

five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. or trellises. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. poles. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. The cuttings are usually cultivars.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. entire.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. Competing plants are cleared away. and before the fruit is mature. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. The leaves are alternate.[11] Black pepper is native to http://www. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. It is a spreading vine. . but when full grown and still hard. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart.crazychefs. and ultimately fall off and are lost. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. the berries lose pungency. The flowers are small.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. well-drained and rich in organic matter. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. if allowed to ripen.

The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In fact.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. particularly the Malabar Coast. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today.[14] J. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. its most important source was .com http://www. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. Chile peppers. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. in what is now the state of Kerala.crazychefs.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good.

the Middle East. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses . Madagascar. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. or used the pepper locally. Trade routes of the time were by land. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. changed the course of world history. Sunda. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. nor how it reached the Nile from India. By the 16th century. Black pepper. but these areas traded mainly with China. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. growing in the north-western part of India. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE.Until well after the Middle Ages. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. pepper was also being grown in http://www. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. Sumatra. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Malaysia. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. barged to Alexandria. Long pepper. plus long pepper's greater spiciness.crazychefs. this trade advantage. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. Returning from India.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean.

" Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. pepper was a luxury item. the banquets of . seeing that in other substances which we use. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th http://www. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. and of black." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. Similarly. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. is fifteen denarii per pound. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. Edward Gibbon wrote. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". seasoning in the Roman Empire. There is no evidence to support this claim. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. Apicius' De re coquinaria. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. After the fall of Rome. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. if expensive. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. whereas. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. it is sometimes their sweetness. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. 12. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. Once into the Mediterranean. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . and the luxuries of the table. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade.. affordable only to the wealthy. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm.[22] In addition. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages.H. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. I wonder. clad in a wrinkled cover. first the Persians and then the Arabs. especially Venice and Genoa. four. while that of white pepper is seven. and the prices reflected it.crazychefs. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. who travelled east to India. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages.. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. I season delicacies.

Pepper harvested for the European . has some antimicrobial http://www. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. Pepper. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. the effect is small. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. A depiction of Calicut. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. especially in winter. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. as well as around Africa. Today. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas.crazychefs. In 1498. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. However.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. In the 17th century.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. and salt-cured meats were common fare. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. his representative replied. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. "we seek Christians and spices. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long.

He was told it came from the markets of Shu. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. heart http://www. oral abscesses. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. but if this estimated 10. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. earache. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. lung disease. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel".crazychefs. hoarseness. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe' ."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. but both were used. indigestion. diarrhea. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). including long pepper. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. Like many eastern spices. as hujiao or "foreign pepper".. Long pepper. gangrene.[25] In the 3rd century CE.. however. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. insect bites. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. either long or black.[26] By the 12th century. hernia. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. was often the preferred medication. Note the cook's pepper mill.000 pounds (4. insomnia. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. each load being equal to 223 lbs. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. as well as she could for sneezing. liver problems. being stronger. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. joint pain.

limonene. and toothaches. irritates the http://www. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. a mildly carcinogenic compound.sunburn. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. and floral notes. Few.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of .crazychefs. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. milligram-for-milligram. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. chapter five. if any. tooth decay.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. The outer fruit layer.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet.[31] Also. sabinene. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. caryophyllene. left on black pepper. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question.[31] As a medicine. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. Refined piperine. a substance present in black pepper.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. which give citrusy. causing the sneezing. vitamin B. which is stripped of the fruit layer. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. Some sources say that piperine. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. and linalool. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. woody.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are.crazychefs. As of 2008.[33] Once ground. but has fallen to just over 271. by monetary value. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). and China (6%). The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. The price of pepper can be volatile. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. the most widely traded spice in the world.000 t (391. India. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. for example.000 t (299. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. Thailand (4%). Brazil (13%).000 short tons). Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). Malaysia (8%). Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of . which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. Sri Lanka (6%). India (19%).Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002.[35] By weight.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are used for this. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. pepper's aromatics can evaporate http://www.

^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. Retrieved 6 November ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. Gernot (2006). The Philippine Department of Agriculture. 1969). Retrieved 2009-01-29. Innes Miller. ISBN 0375407219. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". ^ Dalby p.[36] Notes 1. Vietnam dominates the export market. from Penzey's Spices. ^ Ochef. PMID 11302858.thehindubusinessline. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2. 4. 200803-27. and Builder. 83 21. http://books. .2307/2657072. Ramses II. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. http://www. 88. Random House. p. ISBN 075653836X. Retrieved 13 November 2005.amjbot. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". Retrieved 12 August 2006. The Spice Trade. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. 11.000 short tons). Spice. Retrieved 17 October 2006. Flora of China. 20. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. 17. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. ^ Katzer.pd f. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). http://www. disease and weather. doi:10. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. ^ J. 7. Retrieved 2008-01-29. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". www. Text online. using almost none of its production p 94.M1. Pepper. M. Using fresh green peppercorns. Alejandra (2001).com http://www. 9.crazychefs. p. 6. ^ Translation from Turner. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. Compass Point Books. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 13. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". Retrieved 2009-01-29. The Hindu Business ^ Peppercorns. Egyptian Pharaoh. Warrior. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08).da. 10. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. p. http://www. http://www. ^ Innes Miller. 18. 19. 80 16. 8. 5. Black pepper is Retrieved 6 November 2005.ars-grin. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious.poor crop management.aspx?flora_id=2& Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ a b Jaramillo. 2006-1120.000 t (99.htm. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF).

worldbank. ^ Turner p. 395. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. 30. Jaffee. pp. 2008-05-15.00969.pdf. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. doi:10. J. Steven (2004). Why does pepper make you sneeze?. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". Deans (2000) ^ Jaffee p. Karvy Comtrade Limited. ^ U." 24. 2005. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 12. Duke (1993-08-16). 25. 23. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. G. ISBN 0520236742.karvycomtrade. 726. 74–75. 77. http://www.S. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". Buddhist Monastic Code 171. 31. Berkeley: University of California Press.accesstoinsight. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Larousse Gastronomique. 28.. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. 160. References Dalby. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dorman and S. 26. 108–109. Cambridge University Press. ^ Montagne. also Turner pp. 2. Full text at Blackwell website. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. 27. purchase required. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). Dangerous table 2. ^ Dalby p. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. ^ Dalby s_20080515_01. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. ^ Turner . Davidson. p. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. Alan (2002).html. http://books.1046/j. D. Andrew (2002). "Mill". p. 35. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum.crazychefs. ^ H. "Spices. ^ a b McGee p. Hamlyn. Prosper (2001). 10. http://books. 29. ISBN 0600-60235-4. ISBN 0849336201. ISBN 0521367085. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. 33.x. TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3& http://www. http://www. ^ Dalby pp. CRC Press. ^ Jaffee p. ISBN 9781580084178. 32. Vol. Retrieved 2008-01-29. ^ a b James ds/IndiaSpices.1365-2672. 156. 36. 204. Retrieved November 12. ^ "Karvy's special Reports .2000.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). Dover. 428.

Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. 427–429. OCLC 61213802. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. pp. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum . ISBN http://www. Turner.crazychefs. London: Vintage Books.McGee. Jack (2004). annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. OCLC 56590708. "Black Pepper and Relatives". 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 0375707050. Spice: The History of a Temptation.

7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.40 g . Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. yellow.224 mg Folate (Vit. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".Dietary fiber 1.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B3) 0. B2) 0. Peppers are native to Mexico.64 g 0. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. Central America and northern South America.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.17 g 0. sweet. green and http://www. Today.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0. B1) 0.028 mg 2% Niacin ( . including red.crazychefs.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .Pepper.057 mg 4.Sugars 2. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries.

the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. meaning Big pepper. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. Indiana." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). meaning Bulgarian pepper. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. were a highly prized condiment. "green pepper"). In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. "red pepper". regardless of their color. Across Europe. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". In British English. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable.crazychefs. such as Australia. like pasta. India. In parts of Ohio. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. In Norway. Malaysia and New Zealand. instead of using as a spice. the word ピーマン ("pîman. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). an unrelated plant. which has its roots in the word for pepper. they are called "capsicum". In France it is called "poivron". which are green and yellow. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. It is eaten with fried noodles. in Dutch. or "piment. In the United States and Canada.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of . bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. Sweden. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. respectively). When cut off. " In Japan. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". g. Grilled. meaning pepper-fruit. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket.. "groene paprika". the term "paprika". "Miris" is Chilli. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. "gele paprika". green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". the fruit of Piper nigrum.g. At that time peppercorns. and http://www. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. With the similar meaning.

pink. orange and.crazychefs. more rarely. violet. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. blue. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. red. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. yellow or orange peppers. black and brown. in various soups and stews. in salads. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". white. . and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. aqua. maroon. Varieties The color can be green. yellow. It is eaten as a raw snack. purple. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green.

balsamea Willd. indigenous to Europe. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2].com http://www. It is found wild occasionally with its parent . [1]) is a hybrid mint. ^ The plant.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. also known as M. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).crazychefs. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L.foodreference.

The rhizomes are wide-spreading. noted since 1843[8].net/ . Being a hybrid.59–1. it is usually sterile.crazychefs. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats.6– http://www. Flowering is from mid to late summer. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. with a few exceptions. including stream sides and drainage ditches. 84. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.5 in) long and 1.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. The chromosome number is variable. and bare fibrous roots. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. spreading by its rhizomes. dark green with reddish veins.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. 6–8 mm (0. blunt spikes.31 in) long. it can grow anywhere.24– 0. with 2n counts of 66.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. he treated it as a species. The flowers are purple.20 in) diameter. If placed. square in cross section. 72. forming thick.6 in) cm broad. with smooth stems. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. and 120 recorded.5–4 cm (0. fleshy.

Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. ice cream. chewing http://www. particularly menthyl . Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is often used as a flavouring in tea. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.[10] Similarly. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. confectionery.1.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. thus promoting belching.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.crazychefs. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. and toothpaste.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine.

as a natural insecticide. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. New Zealand. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'.crazychefs. Leaves wrinkled. hairless. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. In addition to that. Stems reddish. the Galápagos Islands. [16]. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. [21]. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. It needs a good water supply. and it is considered invasive in Australia. Foliage lime-scented. which they then call "after-dinner mints. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. it is advisable to plant it in a container. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A . Eau De Cologne Mint). in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products.[13] and in the United States. Leaves aromatic. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. [18].[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. If you choose to grow peppermint. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15].com http://www. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results.[12] Outside of its native range. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'.

et al.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . Thomson Healthcare. 4th Edition. (1992).2007. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. (2007). ^ a b Blamey. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536.02.glu. ^ Cappello. page 640.. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". 11. 5. a popular confection. (1989).. & Grey-Wilson. ed. Mentha L.dld. A. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. http://www.006. Mehmet (2004). ^ a b Akdogan. Retrieved 2009-02-07. http://whqlibdoc. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . Retrieved 3 June 2009. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. Flowers open from bottom up. doi:10.. 7. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. ^ Linnaeus. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. ^ World Health . ISBN 978-1563636783 10.who. 9. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. (1975). (1753).Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. 2.1016/j. C. ^ Harley. M.crazychefs. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. G. R. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial".ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes http://www. ed. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. In: Stace. C.pdf. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b Huxley. 6. A. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs".[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". 20. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". Valerie Howland (2006). Retrieved 3 June.257.2740311104.159.S. et al. S.wiley.1151. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -.iso.interscience. populations. Frédéric et al. http://www. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria.)".10): 119 . Zheljazkov. Retrieved 7 June 2009. ^ Adamovic. Retrieved 3 June. Derek R.1002/jsfa. Australia" "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. Mehmet (2003). Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . V.htm?csnumber=11633.actahort. F. http://www.. Retrieved 6 June 2009. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. ^ Akdogan.219. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. ^ Edwards.iso.htm?csnumber=4844.. ^ Farley. 23. http://het. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . 17. ^ 19. http://het.1023/A:1006185103897. ^ International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 8 June 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2009.28. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. 25. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". on kidney tissue in rats".)". Retrieved 6 June 2009. http://www. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)" 22. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 . doi:10. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". F. 27. http://www3. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv.Specification". Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . Bienvenu (1998).D. 24. 18. J. Ambika et al. (2004). http://tih. doi:10.sagepub. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L.E. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. Retrieved 3 June. . Plant Cell. Bienvenu (1999).htm.htm?csnumber=32041. and Mentha spicata L. ^ Sharma. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 .htm. ^ a b c Jullien. Retrieved 3 June. ^ International Organization for Standardization. (2007).122. Mehmet et al.. 21.

net/ .). porrum (L. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. ampeloprasum Subspecies: http://www. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. to the Alliaceae family. the elephant garlic and kurrat. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk.crazychefs. Two related vegetables. along with the onion and garlic.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. is a vegetable which belongs.) J. porrum (L. although different in their uses as food. ampeloprasum var.Gay The leek. Allium ampeloprasum var. also sometimes known as Allium porrum.

Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna http://www. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. and overwintering leeks. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. to be planted out as weather permits. Once established in the garden. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. leeks are hardy. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses.crazychefs. and they have few pest or disease problems. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. intended for harvest in the season when planted. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the . overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored.

doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. carrots and potatoes and different meats. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. which can be used in salads. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the http://www. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. . they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. although less bitter than scallion.crazychefs. Fried. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. Lamb is the most popular. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. due to the layered structure of the leek. In its raw state. which turns it soft and mild in taste. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. as the leek ages. The slices have a tendency to fall apart.Cuisine Leeks for sale. Raw. The tender core may be eaten. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. The onion-like layers form around a core. along with leek soup.

04 g .C.C.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. B2) 0. who consumed it most often in soup.8 g Fat .‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.polyunsaturated http://www. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's . Cultural significance Raw Leeks. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.004 g .monounsaturated 0.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. B3) 0.15 g 0. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 83 μg 14. as well as wall carvings and drawings.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .crazychefs.Sugars 3. B1) 0. as well as other recipes with leeks.3 g 1.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.233 mg Folate (Vit.saturated 0. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.4 mg Vitamin B6 0. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero. In her book.E. onwards.9 g .Dietary fiber 1. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.

According to one legend.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. you know. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. for http://www. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet.12 mg recommendations for adults. In the .92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. good countryman. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. Shakespeare.crazychefs. David‘s Day. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. representing Wales.Vitamin E 0.

com http://www.p. Mireille. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. ^ Guiliano..crazychefs. third edition (Oxford: University Press. ^ Jane Grigson. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. Domestication of plants in the Old World. 1978. 2000).net/ .Notes 1. 3. (Penguin Books. Knopf. French Women Don't Get Fat.

com http://www. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. with fewer than 100 individuals left. Celery.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 2 g 3g .net/ .(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A.crazychefs.2 g 0. dulce) or celeriac (var. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.Dietary fibre 1.6 g Fat Protein Water 0. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.

127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.In temperate countries. Celery. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. and in Old Bay Seasoning. horses. on the Chicago-style hot dog. often used as a base for sauces and soups. Celery is a staple in many soups. They also contain an organic compound called http://www. such as chicken noodle soup. dogs. 30 AD. and small rodents. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. Celery. birds. as celery salt. squirrels. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. onions. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. celery is also grown for its seeds. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. onions. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus .crazychefs. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. Actually very small fruit. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats.

even in trace amounts. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest.[8] In the European Union. however. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. for people with celery allergy. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. at Kastanas.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. Lemnos and Thebes.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks.crazychefs. Celery contains androstenone.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. have to be clearly marked as such. foods that contain or may contain celery. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal . they note "since A. making avoiding such foods difficult. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. However." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of http://www. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). father of the Cabeiri. M. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. In Homer's Iliad. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated.

crazychefs. at our Great Mens tables. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. many of which differ little from the wild species.5–2 mm long and wide. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. Under optimal conditions. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. borrowed from Greek. The plants are raised from seed. but the leaves may be used in salads. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. The flowers are creamy-white. mainly in having stouter leaf stems.. and Praetors feasts. fields are harvested only http://www. and a distinctive . sweetish. earthy taste. from the Latin selinon. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. 2–3 mm diameter. as the Grace of the whole Board". By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. splits. In North America. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. shape. and the most crisp and tender. cracks. 1. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. the whole plant having a coarse. They are ranged under two classes. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. straightness and thickness of petiole.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. white and red. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. apium Italicum. insect damage and rot).[14] With cultivation and blanching.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable.. due to extremely uniform crop growth. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. In the past. seleri. produced in dense compound umbels. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine).

"Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. P. et al. Holmiae. 15. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. ^ Calcium sources 7. s. Ko SN. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables.v. Thomson. Heiner DC. ^ a b Fragiska. 227.crazychefs.6 (June 1993): 610-611.L. ^ Teng CM.shtml. . Thayer translation [1] 4. gentle handling. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". (3rd ed. http://postharvest. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. http://www. "Celery". a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. de Medicina. http://www.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). ^ Bublin M. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. T. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. Hopf.. (Laurentii Salvii). ^ R. ^ snopes.[16] References 1. 16. Western Journal of Medicine 158. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. C (1753). ^ Pliny.202. 12. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. ^ Celestin J.practicallyedible. Kraft D. Retrieved 2008-03-04. M. 3. ^ D. 2. Scheiner O. Post-harvest technology research and information center.. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis" Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. Retrieved 2009-05-03.. and proper sanitation. ^ William Robinson and W. p. (2005). 8. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. 2000) p.46. West J. Radauer C. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). Natural History XIX.ucdavis. Suslow. ^ "Smallage". 11. (2002-06-10). ^ 1920). 2003. ^ Celsus. Zohary and M. ^ Cantwell. Lee LG. Wilson IBH.nsf/pages/smallage. Celery and Negative Calories 6. M. 10. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5.

Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein http://www.Sugars 96.98 g 0g 0g 0.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. (Discuss) For other uses. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.crazychefs.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Magnification of grains of sugar.Sugars 99.91 g . B2) 0.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates . see Sugar (disambiguation).019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3. For the common table sugar.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. see sucrose.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .21 g . Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% . Sugar.

Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption. sorghum. and in many other http://www. but also appears in fruit. sugar maple (in maple syrup). honey.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural .18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.77 g Thiamine (Vit.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. lactose.026 mg Folate (Vit. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. It forms the main ingredient in candy. and fructose. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. obesity and tooth decay.Water 1. B3) 0. mainly sucrose.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B2) 0.crazychefs. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. B1) 0. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1.

[4] It came to English by way of French. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. and texture) of beverages and food. zahari. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. etc. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide.) The Greek word for "sugar". Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. Spanish and/or Italian. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". such as glucose. preservation. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. molasses or treacle. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. the Italian word zucchero. (Compare the OED.) will likely denote a sugar. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). means "pebble". "fructose". Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel.crazychefs. Scientific Scientifically. In a list of ingredients. Generically known as "syrups". the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness.Popular In non-scientific use. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. including palm sugar and fructose. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. Etymology In the case of sugar. In this informal sense. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). the Spanish word azú . generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. "dextrose". Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup.

Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. A notable exception.Culinary sugars Grainier. 2.crazychefs. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. disaccharides.containing 1. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). making the sugars reactive. cook or consumer. raw sugar. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. important molecules in the . Sugars include monosaccharides. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). syrups and fruit juices. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. has a "missing" oxygen http://www. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. deoxyribose. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. 3. Natural sugars come in fruit. as its name suggests. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. This includes all the sugars referred to above. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. plus sugars naturally present in honey. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer.

com http://www. which is made of glucose. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of . If combined with fine ash. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. sweeter than the original sucrose. lactose (milk sugar . Monosaccharides include fructose. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. sugar will burn with a blue flame. producing invert sugar. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose.water (H2O) per bond.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. including NADH and ATP. Note for example glycoproteins. glucose. In these closed-chain forms. which has the formula C6H12O6. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. galactose and mannose.made from one glucose and one fructose). and galactose. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose.crazychefs. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. proteins connected to one or more sugars. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. with less than 0. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. which form part of nucleic acids. or DNA. fructose. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. After digestion and absorption. This resulting syrup. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP.

"Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6.Bulk Density Chart. Sugar Blues.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0.80 g/ml Notes 1.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = http://www. ^ "Engineering Resources . ^ Wuebben.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. James. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty." Powder and Bulk References Adas. . A C Hannah. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries.webmd. ISBN 1566398320. History of Science and Technology in link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. Blackwell Publishing. Temple University Press. ISBN 063205476X. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. 5. Michael (January 2001). ^ scientificpsychic. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West." http://men. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.htm 3. The International Sugar Trade. OCLC 51837990 84251137. 4. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. Cambridge: Woodhead. Joseph and Mike Carlson. OCLC 44493265.crazychefs. Glyn (2004).illovosugar. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 2.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. 1996. ^ International sugar statistics

with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar.35 mm. Brown sugar contains from 3. sugar beet molasses is used. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. It is. without mixing them separately. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while . however.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6.Brown sugar Brown sugar http://www. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar.crazychefs.g. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals.25% of the total volume). Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. Products for industrial use (e. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. especially in the Netherlands. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. Although in some areas. for light brown sugar. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead.

dark brown sugar should be used only when specified.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. apart from pure carbohydrate.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes).com http://www. in his studies (cited in "Pure. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar.[1] However. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. In other applications. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel.crazychefs. History In the late 1800s. White and Deadly" . though the impact could only be detected in their offspring.[2] John Yudkin. . because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. as opposed to white sugar. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. The effort was so successful that by 1900. much like adding molasses would do. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar.

Demerara is another unrefined. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. 3. giving it a higher mineral content. light brown. 32-33 5.1. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. Harvey. Retrieved 2008-09-20. binado_Sugar.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of where sugar cane was grown.wholesomesweeteners. http://www. crystals.csrwire.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. an island off Africa. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice.3 fao. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. http://www. 4. Retrieved 2008-09-20.wildernessfamilynaturals. resulting in the characteristic large. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.php?id=3026. light brown. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar.html. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. centrifuged. cane sugar. http://www. which is then crystallized. but most is now produced in .A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). ^ Levenstein. Retrieved 2008-09-20. or Demerara sugar.".fao. ^ New Scientist. References 1. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. 2003. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed.htm#sugarmade.crazychefs. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. http://www. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". 6. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. 2.

[citation needed] Conversely. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride . Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. but toxic to most land plants. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including humans. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. Chloride and sodium ions. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. refined salt (table salt). Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. pale pink or light gray in color. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. which some use to prevent http://www. the two major components of salt. including high blood pressure. white. It is a crystalline solid. and iodized salt.

making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. in the millennia before then. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. salt provided the best-known food preservative. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. the caravans still transported some . however.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. glass. In 1960.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). especially for meat.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. as were salted birds and salt fish.000 tons of salt. and the dye Tyrian http://www. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar.

salz. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". the Hallstatt Celts.Salzburg.[citation needed] The root hal(l).) In the Sermon on the Mount. water. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). Hallstatt. who had heretofore mined for salt. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. During the first millennium BC. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah.crazychefs." a phrase expressing the completeness of its . there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. Greek. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. and Egyptian. though incorrectly. as it avoided paying the "salt tax".com http://www. God sent down four blessings from the sky . In many Pagan religions esp. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. the Roman exonym for the Celts. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water.[1] It is widely. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. Halych in Ukraine.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. began open pan salt making.also gave us Gaul. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". a root for salt found in Celtic. which was illegal under British rule. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. (Judges and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. taking their names from hal(l)-. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt.

[10] Salt is used for Snow http://www.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. Halite. such as in Sumo Wrestling. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Aztec . This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations.crazychefs. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God.[9] The Ancient Egyptians.

and the making of soaps and detergents. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. In recrystallization. Purification usually involves recrystallization. which are kiln-dried.[12] However. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. After the raw salt is obtained.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. giving each one a unique flavor. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many . which is most widely used presently.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. and thus is rarely eaten. is mainly sodium chloride. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. Fleur de sel. Today. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt.5% of salt production.crazychefs. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. food uses account for 17. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. Injected water dissolves the salt.[15] The majority is sold for industrial http://www.Different natural salts have different mineralities. One example are bath salts. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. Refined salt. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. natural sea salt harvested by hand.

[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not . however. Single-serving salt packets. but was determined to be unnecessary. calcium silicate. calcium or magnesium carbonates. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as a few grains of uncooked rice.154 g/cm3. Some people also add a desiccant. condiments such as soy sauce.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. magnesium oxide.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. and calcium aluminosilicate. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . sodium aluminosilicate.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. fatty acid salts (acid salts).[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian http://www.165 g/cm3. and a bulk density (dry. Table salt has a particle density of 2. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment.[29] However.crazychefs. silicon dioxide. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.

is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). In Canada. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. or even an electrolyte disturbance. In the United States. and myxedema in adults. with insufficient salt intake. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland.[33] Drinking too much water. even http://www.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. which gives the table salt a yellow color.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. cretinism in children. potassium. The reason for this is unclear. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. iodized salt is more common in the United States. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. In France. which can cause goitre. sodium iodide. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. magnesium. dizziness. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. especially important for pregnant women.crazychefs. neurological problems. which can cause severe. or sodium iodate.[31] Today. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. fluorinated table salt is available. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. specifically endemic goiter. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not . as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function.[32] Another additive. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures.

Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. in Japan." ([41]. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. the risks have been exaggerated for most people." ([44].[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. combined with an inadequate intake of water. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt." ([41] p3). or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). independently of blood pressure effects. p18) However. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real. It can exacerbate renal disease. can cause hypernatremia.[38] heartburn." ([41]. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as http://www." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. forced salt intake.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of .[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention).crazychefs. since salt was quite valuable).[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. salt consumption is higher.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. such as in treatment of dysautonomia.

A salt mill for sea salt. SACN states. but achievable population goals. However.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that.[50]. Some isolated . such as the Yanomami in South http://www. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. have been found to consume little salt. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. for a typical adult.

net/ . then that is a medium level of salt.3 g sodium = 5. "low". has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. etc. Those who have kidney failure. or Green (Low). Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.[51] In the United States.1g sodium).3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. calories. LoSalt.).8 g salt) per day. Amber (Medium).'[55] Campaigns In 2004. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. When other health claims are made about a food (e. Low is 0. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". low in fat.crazychefs. Australia. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation. which will increase potassium intake. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High).[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than http://www.g. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt.5g salt per 100g (or 0.[57] In March 2007. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it"." In the UK. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. One manufacturer. without recourse to salt substitutes.300 mg of sodium (= 2. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet.6g sodium). or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication.

Costs can reach staggering amounts. http://www.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. Triamterene. 3. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l).org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/ and Canada (12. and by mining rock salt. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. and Hall in Austria. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. .9). ^ "Salt". Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). China (32.3). 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. Germany (17. In 2002.5). the top five producers being the United States (40. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. 4th edition". Catholic Encyclopedia. such as brine wells and salt lakes. 8. India (14. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 7. 6.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: 2. Retrieved 2008-12-14.3 million tonnes). These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. 4. 1913. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 5. Eplerenone and their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.7). http://en. Notes 1. called halite. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. Dytac.

Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. Epikouria Magazine. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. pp. Retrieved 200907-08. ^ Nauticus . salt history. salt 12. 14 August 1998.htm 15.htm.stm 38. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.afssa.pdf 33.9% sodium by weight which equals 16. Kuemmel (1994). ^ Table 27. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". J. Ask a Scientist. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): sodium. 14. ^ Gary Taubes. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". ^ B.crazychefs. Vol.Weather Curriculum 18.9% sodium chloride 25. ^ . salt uses. salt manufacture.907 ^ References on food salt & health Mason (2006-12-19). ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. 5379. Retrieved 2009-0708. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page ^ What is Salt?. 2008 http://www. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. Retrieved 2008-07-29. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. Salt Institute.anl. http://www. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. Salt Institute. salt manufacture. ^ David A.wiley. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt).roskill. salt history. ^ Iodized Salt 31. 898 . Fall/Winter 2006 10. http://www3.dep. ^ Iodized Salt 32. no. 281. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35.interscience. ^ HE-620 24. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. Transportation Research Board.newton. sodium. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. http://books. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: Victoria) Salt 34.htm 19. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. p. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. 11. "The (Political) Science of Salt". ^ a b http://news.

Cutler JA. S. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. doi:10. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. Mark (2002). ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. The Story of Salt. ^ Salt Matters 60. and S. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51.crazychefs. John Wiley & BMJ. Erwin Koops. doi:10. 28 January 2008.06. New York: W. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. New York: Walker & Co. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. 47-50. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. New York. Obarzanek E et al.334(7599):885. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. ^ Susan R.healthandwellbeing. http://www.1002/0471238961.40. Salt: A World History.W. 2007. (accessed13 January 2007) 49.. OCLC 48573453.a01.005 http://www. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43.. ^ U. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. 61. NY: G. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". Schindler. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50.1016/j. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. 7. Sodium 52.2004. ^ Understanding labels 55. Friedrich Schulz. Inc. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ISBN 0393320197. Sodium chloride. Further reading Kurlansky. ISBN 0802713734. Published online 2005. D. Putnam's Sons. Norton & Co.pub2 References Kurlansky. The Mummies of Ürümchi.1915040902051820. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. OCLC 48426519. ^ Cook NR. Mark. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. Legal Medicine 2005.legalmed. 2006. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). . Feldman. 62. ^ Salt TV ads 59. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/

Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy http://www. . Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Pierre. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. Salt: Grain of by Dr Trevor Beard. The Stationery Office. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. New York: Columbia University Press.crazychefs. Department of Health. Arts and traditions of the table.

net/ . It can also be found in India. found commonly in Thailand. the Philippines and Singapore.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum http://www. as well as in neighbouring countries. mainly Kerala. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). Vietnam. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. Indonesia. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. Malaysia. phrik thai. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. phrik khi nu(lit. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as Cambodia. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers.crazychefs.

" " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili. "Big things come in small packages. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.000 to 100. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and . often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones." which can best be described by the English equivalent.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant.crazychefs.

It is the basis for the hybrid Numex" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but slightly less pungent http://www. The more decorative. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. orange. Thai). v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. and among the group of capsicum annuum. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws).crazychefs. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. creating a rainbow . Thai hot. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. has peppers that point upward on the plant. phrik khii nuu ( . and go from green to yellow. Ladâ. and then red. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian).As well as the Malay word.

about the size of a large potato. gratins and baked dishes. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. usually mashed. It is a kind of celery. Unlike other root vegetables. Celeriac has a celery flavour. which store a large amount of starch.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. it can also be used on its . graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. or used in casseroles. furrowed. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. It has a tough. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium http://www. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves.

especially in Europe. 'Diamant'. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. There are a number of cultivars . rinsed. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. 'Ibis'.Sugars 1.Dietary fiber 1.6 g 9. Celeriac.3 g 1. and 'Kojak'. Celeriac http://www. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. Among them are 'Prinz'.2 g .5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates .

crazychefs. aubergine. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum http://www. The flowers are white to purple. and see text The eggplant. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) . Pakistan and Sri Lanka. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. As a nightshade. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). The stem is often spiny. It bears a fruit of the same name.

net/ . The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. soft http://www. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. In Indian and South African English. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. New Zealand. History Solanum melongena. and contains numerous small. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. The fruit is fleshy. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. 1500 CE. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. used in the United States. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. Australia. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. flower The plant is native to India. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". The name eggplant. The name aubergine." Aubergine and brinjal.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. which are edible. but much larger in cultivated forms. from Arabic al-badinjan. derive from Persian and Sanskrit.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. In the Caribbean Trinidad. which is used in British English. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia.

net/ . in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. Dusky. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Burpee Hybrid. Pingtung Long. in white skin Dourga. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America.crazychefs. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. and Tycoon.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. slightly pendulous cucumber. Some cultivars have a color gradient. and Black Beauty. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. green. shape and http://www. There are even orange varieties. Black Magic. whiteskinned. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. A much wider range of shapes. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. Ichiban. or white. Traditional. especially purple. Classic.

As a native plant. and garlic. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. and deep-fried. the Arabian moussaka. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. In some parts of India. as in the French ratatouille. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. it is called Begun ( ). allowing for very rich dishes. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). and achaar. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. along with the fish Hilsa. as they are far less bitter. for example in sambhar. battered. braised (紅燒茄子). the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. tahini. In Iranian cuisine. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. complex flavor. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. rice. or Eggplant Parmesan. In one dish. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. The thin skin is also http://www. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. for example. It is often stewed. tahini. In Bangladesh. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. It can be sliced. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. chutney. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes.crazychefs.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. or tamarind. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. curries. so that peeling is not required. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. It. The fruit flesh is smooth. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. or other fillings and then baked. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. as in the related tomato. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter . In the Caucasus. tomatoes. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. and masala and then cooked in oil. peanuts.

Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. Flowers are complete. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%).) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. aphids. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).net/ . This is called Beguni ( ). showing the inside. flea beetle. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations.) to 60 cm (24 in. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. and spider mites. For this reason. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated.) between plants. and potato.) between rows. pepper (capsicum). are also troublesome to http://www. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. (Adults can be removed by hand.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. containing both female and male structures. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. the most serious of which is Verticillium. Egypt. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. such as tomato. depending on cultivar. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms.

* = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.(2.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. P = official figure.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .19 g 1.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the .[5] In the United States.7 g 0. F = FAO estimate.Sugars 2. semi-official or estimates).Dietary fiber 3. B1) 0.043.crazychefs. B2) 0. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.35 g . Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties http://www.039 mg 5. New Jersey is the largest producing state.

649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals.Niacin (Vit. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. However. B3) 0. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed].crazychefs.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours.01 mg/100g). Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant. Brazil. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[8] On average.16 mg Manganese 0. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2. while 1. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State .084 mg Folate (Vit. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.

F. tongdongense.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as . other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. which used to include Dunal's S. Dunal. S. that of Blanco to S. mainly by Dikii. rumphii. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. H.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. variegatum. esculentum. oblongo-cylindricum. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). http://www. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. trongum. ovigerum and S. edule. inerme and subinerme at that time. subrepandum.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. aethiopicum. On the other hand. Solanum oviferum Salisb.-Lag. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. capsicoides). brownii. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. But this is not correct. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. esculentum. stenoleucum. multifidum. There is an actual S. violaceum and viride. Scopoli's S. luteum. globosi. aethiopicum. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. and (invalidly) by Sweet. inerme. violaceum. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. ruber. Solanum longum Roxb. Names for various eggplant types. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. such as agreste. sinuatorepandum. Similarly. insanum. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. giganteum.crazychefs. racemiflorum.C. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. divaricatum.Varieties Solanum melongena var. lasiocarpum. ovigera. racemosum. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. leucoum. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species.

Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157).net/ . ISBN 1574445510. Technology. common. ^ Doijode. 2. D. (2001). The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology".crazychefs. CRC http://www. Footnotes 1. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Handbook of Food Science. S. Hui (2006). and Engineering by Yiu H.

^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. pp. 18(1): 59-62 13. volume 82 (nº 3).caes. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. ^ "FAOSTAT". N. Arq Bras Cardiol. FAO. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. Erich Hornbach. Ebury Press. Bruno Caramelli. ^ Kabashima K. P. Harish Babu * . P. Tsenge Demana. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). The New England Journal of Medicine. Robert (2008-11-14). 273-6. 2008-11-11. http://www. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. Retrieved . Miyachi Y. 7.133(42):2081-3 12. ^ Gerth van Wijk R.uga.fao. 6. Vol. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. Dieges PH.pdf.* YP Venkatesh. 1993 Number 6 9. Volume 329:437 August . ^ Solanum melongena var. ^ Health24. Domino. 202 4. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. Andréa Thomaz. Toorenenbergen Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L.50(2):101-102 11. 2008 10. ^ SN Pramod.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. http://faostat. A. Mahesh † and Y. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. ^ Westerfield. ^ B.crazychefs. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf).Aubergine 8. Retrieved 2009-07-01.) reveals female predominance. ^ Edward F. 2004. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. 5. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite.3. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners.

The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. yellow. see section Fruit or vegetable below).net/ . was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The tomato is native to South America. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. One species.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. and have a weak. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous.4–0. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. woody stem that often vines over other plants.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. with a serrated http://www.8 in) across. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. odd pinnate. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. It is a perennial. Solanum lycopersicum. syn. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L.

and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. a barber-surgeon. lumpy tomato. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. earlier in 1493. an Italian working for the Spanish http://www. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. meaning plump thing with a navel. The exact date of domestication is not known. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica.[4] The large. in certain areas of Italy. The specific name. likely to be the original salsa recipe. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. means "wolf-peach".crazychefs.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. They also took it to the Philippines. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. the other by currant tomatoes. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. lycopersicum. such as Florence. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. who named it pomo d‘oro.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. was the first European to take back the tomato. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated . golden apple.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. However. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. cerasiforme. now Mexico City in 1521. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. according to Smith. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. tomatl. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. corn and salt. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. an Italian physician and botanist. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. smaller vegetable . Two modern tomato cultivar groups. a mutation from a smoother. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. ancestor of L.[6] Gerard's Herbal. However. and cultivation began in the 1540s. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century.

broths. Currently.M. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. http://www. and as a garnish. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. particularly Florida and California. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ―within the last forty years. British consul in Aleppo c.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. 1799 – c. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. most famously in Worthing. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. Gerard's views were influential. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. The University of California. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. and in general. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. The C.[6] But by the mid-1700s. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. By the mid-18th century. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time.crazychefs. Over the past 15 years. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. The Spanish tomato dish. Charles M.largely plagiarized from continental sources. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. sent some seeds back to America. who ate tomatoes in Paris. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. Rick. and before the end of that century. Paella. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. In Victorian times. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as . a pioneer in tomato genetics research. Thomas Jefferson. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy.[6] Nonetheless. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. but the fruit is safe). is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well.

S. or white fruit are also available. China. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. about 5mm in diameter. and have a lower water content. For processing tomatoes. . Most cultivars produce red fruit. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. the largest producer.crazychefs. 18 September 2009.4–0. orange.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2.0–2. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion.[12] According to FAOSTAT. It may be deleted after Friday. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from http://www. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. production and 35% of world production. through cherry tomatoes.6–2. green. but a number of cultivars with yellow. pink. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking.0 in) diameter. California accounts for 90% of U.4 in) diameter range. black. they are known as plum tomatoes.8 in) size as the wild tomato. followed by United States and Turkey.

A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually .com http://www.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. and are shaped like large strawberries. based mostly on shape and size. along with zucchini.[18] and productivity. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. plum tomatoes. as well as heirloom tomatoes. but unlike commercial hybrids. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. As in most sectors of agriculture.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce.

Red Boar). Determinate. multiple colors ( . pink. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. although some determinate heirlooms exist. Burracker's Favorite. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). etc. Green Zebra (top right). which usually discourages fruit set. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. but are smaller than plum tomato. and purple. often via mail-order. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. including yellow. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. some tomato cultivars . As an intermediate form. but must be bought as seed.especially heirlooms . low acidity. A variety of specific cultivars. ivory. or home growers interested in http://www. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. they are often good choices for container growing. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. Lucky Cross). or bush. white. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". et cetera. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. including Brandywine (biggest red). disease and pest resistance. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate.cherry tomatoes are small and round. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. black. Black Krim (lower left corner). these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. orange.crazychefs. brown. and lack of mealiness.produce fruit in colors other than red.

The stamens were. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. and A . T . slugs. cutworms. whiteflies. carried by the beet leafhopper. but manure or compost work well.verticillium wilt. The most common letters are: V .and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. which interrupts the lifecycle. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. flea beetles. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars.tobacco mosaic . ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. In the wild. their traditional pollinators. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. entirely within the closed corolla. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and http://www.[24] and Colorado potato beetles.alternaria. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. cabbage loopers. red spider mite. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. original state. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. As the name implies. FF .crazychefs. N nematodes. too. aphids. and remain. As a floral device to reduce selfing. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. tomatoes required cross-pollination. F . Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance.fusarium wilt strain I & II.fusarium wilt strain I. tomato fruitworms. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms.

That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. or more often today. However. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. as with most species. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997.crazychefs.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. They may be recognized by their color. This is not the same as self-pollination. Unripe tomatoes are firm. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. In an outside setting. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. by cultured http://www. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. depending on variety. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. despite the common claim that tomatoes do . Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. In more temperate climates. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops.

Though it is botanically a berry.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. or paste. raw Nutritional value per 100 g ( . used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in pieces.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue).crazychefs. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. The tomato is acidic. In some studies lycopene. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. anthocyanin. carotene. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". They contain lycopene. as tomato sauce. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium).6 g 4g . Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . a subset of fruit.Sugars 2. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine.Recently. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. especially in cooked tomatoes. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. and other http://www.

today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes).make salsa.5 °F). a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. fully functional. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol.5 °C (54. Determinate types are annual in all http://www. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. vines. it will not continue to ripen. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing.[28] In October 1965. generally three feet tall or shorter. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. initially decumbent. or pickled. Embracing it for this protest connotation. often by sun.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands).[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Of regular leaves. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. lateral buds take over and grow into other. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. The fruit is also preserved by drying. meaning covered with fine short hairs. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. Tomato plants are dicots. These hairs facilitate the vining process.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. whether because of pruning or flowering. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. They are bred to continue ripening. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. and grow as a series of branching stems. Known for its tomato growth and production. Spain. although erect bush varieties have been . When that tip eventually stops growing. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. annually celebrates La Tomatina. such as rugose leaves. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. there are variations. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials.

The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and be dried/fermented before germination. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. with both names found in the literature. while paste tomatoes have very few. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. butterflies. However. angora leaves. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. genetic evidence (e. other insects. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. or other external forces that present in the Americas. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. peach. tobacco.Karst. chili peppers. Technically. plus 'persicum'. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. 'lyco'. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. These vary. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum.e. among cultivated species. variegated. Other species in that family are potatoes.[31] Their flowers. This is because they are native to the Americas.deeply grooved. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the http://www.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. which frequently used it and still do). "wolf-peach"). that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic . Similarly. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). moths.) H. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. i.crazychefs. (derivation. according to type. wolf. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. Therefore. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. called locular cavities. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. would be more correct. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. However. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). As a true fruit.. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. have the anthers fused along the edges.. very small cavities.g. making the Linnaean name correct. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. appearing on the apical meristem. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). Despite this.[32] while others are pollinated by flies.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008.

but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. U. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. nutritional value. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. a tomato is the ovary. In 1887.S. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. As noted above. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. Oregon. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. together with its seeds. disease http://www. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. Hedden (149 U. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. from a culinary standpoint. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. etc. flavor. In 2006.S. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. cucumbers. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. size. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. shape. AVRDC. universities. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. U.S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations.crazychefs. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. 1883. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. North Carolina. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. color.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. However.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. Bejoseed. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. Monsanto. Livingston. pest tolerance. However. corporations. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. The U. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. New York. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. University breeding programs are active in Florida. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. and . Corporations including Heinz. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. A. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications.W. 304)). BHNSeed. as are vegetables. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term.S. of Reynoldsburg. and numerous other traits. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. Ohio. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

harmless. Tennessee. however.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. New Hampshire.crazychefs. contain the poison Solanine. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Speakers from the British Isles.S.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. The fresh fruit http://www. Virginia. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. Pennsylvania. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Kentucky. Maine. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato . Michigan. Massachusetts.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Connecticut. Georgia. the U. Vermont and Wisconsin. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Rhode Island.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Indiana. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . Minnesota. Ohio.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. which is toxic to humans and animals. stems. On October 30. 2006. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. North Carolina.

[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. Lancashire.crazychefs. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. one would arrive at an estimated 40. it caused at least one death. 2008.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. Lake Buena Vista. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow.7 and 16. China. fresh jalapeño pepper. the District of Columbia. and Canada.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. Yong Huang. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder.000 kilograms (250. As of July 2008.84 pounds (522 kg). Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh http://www. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. such as raw tomato. and fresh cilantro.S.273 illnesses from this outbreak. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. and Arizona (49). UK. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants.6:1).[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. New Mexico (98).A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot.151. respectively. Oklahoma in 1986. 2008. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. Illinois (100). Florida. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. in 2000. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. French and Germans. with a harvest of more than 32. discovered the unique plant in Beijing. On August 30. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. the U.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). with 49. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world.1 reported cases per million. 2007. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985.8 m (65 ft) length.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. 40. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. fresh serrano pepper.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. from April 10.[38] As of July ." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38.

crazychefs.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to . Derived from Cherokee Purple. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. http://www. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink.S. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fusarium. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry.S. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U.

crazychefs. Young tomato plant. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red http://www. in Korea. Tomato plants in the garden. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. good for Tomatoes on a vine. Tomato fruit. Tomato slices. Tomato Flower. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de . pickling.

net/ .Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. E.smithsonianmag.easthamptonstar. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). p. 6.17. East Hampton Star . ^ The Friend.crazychefs.Food & Wine".gov.smithsonianmag.. ^ http://faostat. ^ a b Hartz.html. (1994)." 15. T.M. http://www.aspx?PageID=567 bid/6280/Default. G. Andrew F. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. During the three months of the local harvest.universityofcalifornia. Andrew F (1994). Appletons' journal Published by D. 1994. ^ "http://www. Subsection Lycopersicon). page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. October 26. Yourarchives." See: Natural History Museum. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History..Your Archives". Smith. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 2. and cookery. 1876. 13.five tons to the acre. Universityofcalifornia. ^ Tomato history 4. Retrieved December 11 2009. 223 10. page 57: ". http://www. ^ a b Smith.Smith. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. 11. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. USA: University of South Carolina Press. A. Tgrc. ^ " http://www. and Cookery.html". UC Vegetable Research and Information ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. Appleton and Co. F. Easthamptonstar. 2002-05-08. & Spooner. section Lycopersicon Mill. 7.html". culture. Normania. 8. The Tomato in America. 2008.nationalarchives. ISBN 0252-07009-7. Footnotes 1. D. et al. ^ http://tgrc.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. Retrieved December 11 2009. (2001)." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 519 [1] 9. webpage: . S. ^ "UC Newsroom. Cyphomandra. ^ "http://www. p. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Wettst. 1881.html. M. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. 3. Retrieved 2009-04-02.aspx. (2002-0508)". Retrieved 2009-04-02. (2002).ucdavis. I. http://www. Culture. New Jersey: Prentice ISBN University of Illinois UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. p. it handles more than 1.C. The tomato in America: early history. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. Processing Tomato Production in California. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre..

The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once. which are carried in the ^ "http://www.html.html 23. 24. News. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home" In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.ucdavis. http://www." 18. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.whfoods. of which there are many: beetles and 22. Retrieved 2008-10-27.smithsonianmag. http://ohioline.osu. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'". Retrieved December 11 2009.html. page 57: "The plants are still growing. http://www. Ohioline. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Retrieved Retrieved December 11 2009. ^ http://www.html. Smithsonianmag. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the 2006. http://www.gob. http://www.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. 2006." 19. Retrieved 200810-27.html". 31. 26." 20. http://www. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention".com/faq/lists/tomato/ http://www. Retrieved fungi such as fusarium and verticillium.16. ^ "http://www. Retrieved 2007-05-24.umn. . ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension.Tomato" 28. 25. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips. Retrieved July 14. 32.html".plants. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens ^ http://www. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.cornell. http://www.gardenweb.". Sinaloa. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.gardenweb. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.html. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa".html".com http://www. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more.umn.sinaloa. Retrieved 2008-10-27.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27. "Tomato genome project gets $1. ^ "http://www. ^ "Crop Profiles . 17.ucdavis. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?".smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 27. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. http://www. ^ http://www. 33. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes".smithsonianmag. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. HYG-5532-93".gob. Plb. Retrieved December 11 Storing and Serving Ohio ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".edu.html. http://news. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato ^ "Selecting. Retrieved June and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted

^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. http://itn. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. Itn.foodsafetynetwork. United States.1086/381578. Tomato Nutrition. Dennis 39. p. ^ Voetsch. Retrieved 2009-0721. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. http://www. (2002).html?id=585498.cdc.cbsnews. 2004. Vegparadise. ^ "ITN. 2007-08-30.journals. ^ "August 8. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". by state". http://www. Clinical Infectious Diseases. ISBN 1879906546. http://www. ANR Publications.nationalpost.vegparadise. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".ca. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato California Master Gardener Handbook. Retrieved http://www.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. 42. et .shtml. http://www.34. 36.CBS News". Retrieved 2009-0402. Tomato Recipe" 38. 41. 37. Retrieved 2008-1027. (2004-04-15). Retrieved Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . Retrieved 200904-02. Retrieved 9781879906549.crazychefs. 35. http://www.html. ^ a b Pittenger. Foodsafetynetwork. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States".

and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. including essential oils. and Bombay Nutmeg M. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice".2 and 0. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. It also grows in Kerala. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. and nutmeg butter (see below). or Spice Islands. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.7 in) wide. especially in Grenada. the fruit is also made into . In Indonesia. nutmeg and mace. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. both are used as adulterants of M. a state in the south part of India. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. called Jaiphal in Hindi. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. or sliced finely. extracted oleoresins. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily.6 to 0.4 oz) dried. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets").Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. fragrans products. Species About 100 species. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. called selei buah pala. argentea from New Guinea. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the http://www.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. malabarica from India. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia.

saffronlike hue it imparts. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. In the Caribbean. In Indian cuisine. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. and Barbados rum punch. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. In Penang cuisine. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cauliflower. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. sauces. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. and string beans. green. In . nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine).crazychefs. In European cuisine. they are also used in soups. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. Painkiller. and baked goods. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat http://www. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. "Lau Hau Peng". mulled wine. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. and eggnog.

The oil is colourless or light yellow. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. although this is disputed. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. It is semi-solid. medicines. used as flavourings. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. 758 – ca. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked . beverages. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. and sweets. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. which can be turned into myristic acid. preserving agents. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the http://www.crazychefs. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. for instance. reddish brown in colour. in toothpaste. syrups. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. that were at the time highly valued in European markets.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. particularly processed foods. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. based on anecdotal reports. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. soy extracts. sugar beets. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. steak sauce. hydrolyzed yeast.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of http://www. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. not reproducible. However.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. frozen. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. sugar cane. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. About 1. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. it also said that. Canned. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. or molasses. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. Fermented products such as soy sauce. yeast extract.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies." However. autolyzed yeast. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were . and protein isolate." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. being an amino acid.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates.crazychefs. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99. with 4% annual growth expected. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties.

and converted to its monosodium salt. ^ http://www. Albert Y. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. purified. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. ^ Leung.".. On Food and Cooking. acidification. and (3) microbial fermentation. age 40–59 years. and mineral ions and growth factors. New York: In the hydrolysis method.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate.g. MSG. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes.). a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). The label must bear the food additive class name (e. pp. [monosodium glutamate]. (2) synthesis. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. In the 2004 version of his book. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. and . such as hydrolyzed protein. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. 621. In 1993. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. concentration.crazychefs. Drugs." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. For this reason. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate].com http://www. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.7% women). "Monosodium Glutamate". followed by either the name of the food additive.. or its International Numbering System (INS) number.celiac. flavour enhancer). The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. even in large amounts. Steven (August 2003). In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. References 1.html 2. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids.2.g. 373-375. Foster. dextrose or citrate).

Kimber L.5. 16. Dongshuang. http://www. doi:10. Alan R. Food Chem. Stamler.1002/14356007. ^ doi:10. http://www.3. Kelly M. Dyer.html 4. 277–282. Ren C. 14. 8.274. "A Short History of MSG". Tetsuya. 6.jstor.a16 711.1525/gfc.ajinomoto. "Monosodium Glutamate". ^ Freeman M. ^ a b Geha RS. Takehara. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review".00160. http://www.2005.html. Wu. 5. (April 2000). Toxicol. ^ Moskin.F. ^ He. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Shizuko (2005). Encyclopedia of Amino Acids..nih. New York Times. ^ a b Rundlett. http://jn. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. "The significance of excursions above the 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.nytimes. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study" 10. 31 (12): 1019–1035.pdf 9. (1993).ajinomoto. PMID 16999713.nlm. 15. Armstrong. et al.4.17457599.2008. Yamaguchi. Chirality 6 (4): pp. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp. Liancheng.1002/chir. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". Zhu.2006. Shioya.530060410.1016/02786915(93)90012-N.x. Regul. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". Anjimoto Co.1337.html 12. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.fda.1038/oby. " http://www. Chiaki. Beiser A. 13. ^ Kawakita. doi:10. Martha L. ^ http://www. Pharmacol. Guo. Beifan. Zhou. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. PMID 18497735.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. doi:10. 38–49. Daniel W (1994). Van Horn. Masahiro. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. ^ J. doi:10.. (October 2006).nutrition. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". Linguang. Yangfeng. Zhao. Daniel. Garside. Toxicol. doi:10. PMID 10736382. MSG. Jeremiah (August 2008).fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127& ^ Walker R (October 1999). 7. Case study: monosodium glutamate". ^ Sand.1006/rtph. Inc. Shigeru. Ka. ^ http://vm. Jordan (2005).ncbi. Sano. ^ "Production process". PMID 8282275.celiac. 11. ^ a b Tarasoff .com/amino/eng/product. Linda. PMID 10597625.1111/j.38. the Secret Behind the Savor". Julia (2008-03-05).1999. Daviglus. 1875–1880. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.

酱油 2. 醬油 2. Chinese name Traditional Chinese . 豆油 3. 荳油 3. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce.

crazychefs. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. [4] By the mid-19th century.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kō . Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan.[3] In the 18th century. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. Soy sauce was invented in China.500 years. In its various forms. http://www.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and salt. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods.

most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese).crazychefs. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. sojae) and other related microorganisms. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Today. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. such as in giant urns and under the sun.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial . Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. Although there are many types of soy sauce. literally "delicious taste"). Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada.

is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. consistency. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". it does not greatly affect the color of the dish.crazychefs. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Despite their rather similar appearance. Another type. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. An additional classification of light soy sauce. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. and Chinese cuisine. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. Thai.3-DCP (1. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. but it also adds flavour. In traditional Chinese cooking. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. slightly sweeter. or a mixture of http://www. pinyin: jiàngyóu. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. It has a richer. shuānghuáng (雙璜). opaque. Since it is lighter in color. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). Korean. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. traditional Chinese: 醬油. fragrance and saltiness. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. with relatively low amounts of other grains. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. one of the two types. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. lighter brown soy sauce. like extra virgin olive oil. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). since it is saltier. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a . ): A thin (nonviscous). which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce.

due to the addition of alcohol in the product. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. or 醤油). lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Usukuchi (淡口?.com . it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Technically.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. that is used in its production. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi.crazychefs. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). for example sashimi. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. where it is known as "shōyu". Shiro (白?. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. It contains little or no wheat. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food.

not pasteurized. Amakuchi (甘口?. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. Consequently. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. 1 litre bottles. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy http://www. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce.Saishikomi (再仕込?. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except .

Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses.crazychefs.Tokusen (特選?) Premium http://www. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. It is a unique variety. usually implies limited quantity. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. in a pinch. powder. In Indonesia. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which has a thick. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in . it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce.

Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. lit. thin and dark brown in color. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清).[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. Malaysia.4% of soy sauce purchases. O'Long(黑龍). which takes longer to produce (about 6 months).net/ .[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). 조선간장. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. Founded in 1909. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste).com http://www. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. (called Joseon ganjang. is made entirely of soy and brine. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce.crazychefs. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). WanJaShan(萬家香). Joseon ganjang. Later.

the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. wheat. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. pronounced SOO-kah).3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. salt. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. China. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red .2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. and caramel. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced.[6] Furthermore. it is also a table http://www. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce.3-DCP (1. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. nước tương. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. or sometimes simply tương.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). It can also be very salty.crazychefs. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar.

com. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. OCLC 9752305 5. http://www. Pearl River Bridge.000 to 18. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". Despite these being small in number in the UK.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (1781).miyajimasoy. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce.[citation needed] In Vietnam. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations.gmp. III. Sinsin. ^ Tanaka." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. ^ Tanaka. 2nd edition. 6. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. ^ http://www.) In March 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-07. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. ^ Titsingh. Golden Swan. Individuals with a wheat along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. Celiac disease. Seong-Gook (2002). 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. King Imperial.smartfood.[1] Notes 1. http://www. ^ http://www. 9. Isaac. ^ Tanaka. 2 (January 2000).jp/science/kouenkai/kouenkai.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain pp. Soon Teck• and Kang.000 times more 3-MPCD than http://www. Press release. p.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. 7. 4.317 2. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20).htm. No. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. Vol. Golden Mark. an increase over 23 to 5. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce").crazychefs. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. marinades and other types of sauces. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. XXVII. Lee Kum Kee. Kimlan.asp?id=7598 10. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". ^ Jung. 7.Kong and Taiwan. including six samples with up to 11. p. the leaflet does include oyster sauce.tcoc. ^ 6. Retrieved 200801-07. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. Jammy ."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare.

12. http://www. ^ Toxic soy sauce. Fereidoon. Hoboken.48. Food. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". PMID 12469319. fermentation and micro-organisms. ^ Tanasupawat. ISBN 15.11. Kentucky: CRC Press. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". nutraingredients. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". doi:10. ^ ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17.201.2323/jgam. 186.1263/jbb. et al. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. Charles W (2005). 16. 18. p.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. ISBN 0632059877. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved 2008-01-07. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. PMID 16198255.144. 13. Naczk. Japan) 1 (2): 144– scares hit Vietnam 20. Edition 2.nutraingredients. ^ Bamford. Florence. Somboon (2002-06-18). Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. Stephen (2006-06-06). doi:10. chemical veggies -. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. http://books.100.crazychefs. Marian (2003).net/ . ^ Shahidi. ^ Daniells. Makio (2005-04-18).

0 % Linolenic acid: <1.0% Stearic acid: 0.9150–0.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.5–20.3–3.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.crazychefs.0% Arachidic acid: <0.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 211 | P a g e http://www.4677–1.5–21.9180 (@ 15.5% Linoleic acid: 3.5 °C) 84 cP 1.5–5.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.8% Behenic acid: <0.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.0– .1% Lignoceric acid: <1.3% Myristic acid: <0.

and Moraiolo.6 million tonnes. in France. Australia. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. family Oleaceae). which receives about three-quarters of total exports. Japan and China. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. principally Italy. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. and Manzanilla de Jaén. Italy and Greece. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. in Greece.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. Koroneiki. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. Leccino Pendolino. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives.[3] Of the European production. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. In 2006. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. Hojiblanca. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. cosmetics. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. pharmaceuticals.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea . Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. but especially in the Mediterranean. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.000 tons of olive oil http://www. North Africa and the Near East. as well as in Crete. Alberquina. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). World production in 2002 was 2. which produce approximately 350. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive oil is used throughout the world. Picholine. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries.4680–1. 93% comes from Spain. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide.6 (refined and pomace) 0.crazychefs.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1.

The US imported 47.crazychefs. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. Mission. and by its flavor. The USDA uses a different system. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. by its chemistry.California.000 m3) came from Italy. and top-quality extravirgin oils from . IOOC terminology is http://www. Spain. defining quality standards.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. Spain. Oblica and Leccino. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. of which 34. with production increasing to meet demand. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. and Turkey. Spain. in Portugal.000 US gallons (181.800. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. a private trade group. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). in Croatia. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). Galega. After extraction the remnant solid substance. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules.600. The California Olive Oil Council. still contains a small quantity of oil. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC.000 US gallons (131. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. In North America. often in "prestige" packaging.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. and monitoring authenticity. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. with 23 member states. called pomace.

colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. but there are no guarantees.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil.[12] In some cases. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.[14] In February 2008. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. and by heat. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil.[16] In April 2008. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. is extremely lax and corrupt. EU officials took issue with the new law.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. of free oleic acid it .com http://www.crazychefs. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. it is believed. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. for blended oils. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome).US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. mostly hexane. however. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil.[14] In March 2008. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. measured by weight. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids).[15] Under EU rules. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. 25. Almost 700 people died. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. but safe. defined as the percent. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. both in Italy and abroad.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). particularly in Italy." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. product as superior olive oil.

lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. The US is not a member.crazychefs. Pure olive oil. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. another cause of http://www.the oil degrades. expressed as oleic acid. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. These grades were established in 1948.8% acidity. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. has an acidity less than . and are based on acidity. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. It is fit for consumption. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil.3 grams per 100 grams (0. of not more than 0. absence of defects. In order to classify it by taste. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country.5% acidity. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. Used on salads. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. of no more than 1.S. This is also called its organoleptic quality. It has a free acidity. contains no more than 0. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. but may not be described simply as olive oil. and is judged to have a good taste. The U. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. and is judged to have a superior taste.

5% and is "reasonably free from defects".S. U.S. Grade C".S. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.S.S. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. Grade C or U. U. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. All olive oil has 120 kcal/ . in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means.0% and is "fairly free from defects". These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. "cold" does not define any precise temperature.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.U. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. First of all.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.S. Grade B or U. (34 kJ/ml).[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel.S.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.S. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Grade A or U. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. Grade D or U. with less http://www.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.crazychefs.4% and is "free from defects". A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. which may be as low as 10-15 °C. This is incorrect. U.S.

around 14 l. Tunisia. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.2 7 1.pressed". but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.1 0. so the term "first press" is .8 7.35 23. around 8 l.crazychefs. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. Portugal and Lebanon. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label.7 l.62 12. around 0. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated http://www.7 11.1 1.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Spain and Italy. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. over 26 liters per year. Northern Europe and North America consume far less. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide.

The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. suggesting a different taste. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. then placed into the press. and overripe olives produce rancid . which is much faster and more accurate. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). 1. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. 3. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. not in the oil mills. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation.34 1. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. Green olives produce bitter oil. 2. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. This is done in specialised chemical plants. If ground with mill stones. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. After grinding. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. 4. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. This liquid still contains a significant amount of http://www. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. After grinding.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. no or very little organoleptic defects). The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents.crazychefs. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction.

Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fat <1. region.crazychefs. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.polyunsaturated 11 g .net/ . To achieve this possible benefit.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . altitude.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for fat 3. In the United States. time of harvest.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .2% phytosterol and tocosterols).com http://www. including oleocanthal and oleuropein.monounsaturated 73 g .Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3. and extraction process. The composition varies by cultivar.7%) and sterols (about 0.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 g . producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. most notably oleic acid. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.

[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. at least in part. 2004. During the first stage. It is theorized that. and oleuropein.This decision was announced November 1. This could. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. in the long http://www. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. This way. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. antithrombotic.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol .[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil.crazychefs. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. For example. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. The study was conducted in two stages. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. rather than its fatty acid profile. During the second phase. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content.

tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. Used cold. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. Also. oils deteriorate and become stale. For example. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the http://www. etc. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. blenders.[citation needed]. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. A very fresh oil. not for foods to be eaten cold. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. as available in an oil producing region.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean . like salads. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. Also. In time. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold.crazychefs. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. cookware. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated.

Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. and can be used to treat excessive http://www. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. It does have demulcent properties.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. acting as a stool softener.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. and mild laxative properties. It is also good for the management of . and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen.crazychefs.

and skin care application. magical. 1175.. from O. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. soap-making. as a fuel in oil lamps. from Gk.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". oleum "oil. huile). olive oil.Fr. medicines. from Anglo-Fr. elaion "olive tree". olive oil has been used for religious rituals. drawn and engraved by J.Fr. olive oil" (cf.crazychefs.Fr.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil." In ancient Greece. It. from L. Homer called it "liquid http://www. . oile (12c. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. Besides food. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. olie. and O. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. olio).N.

Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet .[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. In the centuries that followed. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh. olive presses became common.crazychefs.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC).[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and http://www.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. Bodrum.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.

The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea.over 4. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah.[46] Until 1500 BC. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). Lebanon. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. he maintained. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy.. oil containers are preferred. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. According to http://www. "the best in the Mediterranean". Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. and Israel. allowing more time for more oil to be made. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. when the oil had risen to the top. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. and area consisting of present day Palestine. Sinuhe.[citation needed]. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. drained the water from the bottom. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. stored in special containers. where it is thought to have represented wealth. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. According to the historian Pliny. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests.000 and 3. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire.crazychefs. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. together with naked appearance of athletes. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. wrote of abundant olive trees. the fertile crescent. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies.000 tons of olive oil per season.[dubious – discuss] During this time. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. during the 13th century BC. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff).

and the Mount of Sinai. ^ G. 4. http://findarticles." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. its oil almost glows. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. To douse the flame. Retrieved 2007-05-25.gourmetretailer. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. Retrieved 2007-05-25. in the consecration of altars and churches. and. ^ International Olive Oil Council. traditionally. 2. "The Olive Tree. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. References ANR Publications. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. Olive Production Manual. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. Joann L Coviello. 3. Steven Sibbett. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. 5. 158. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. Louise Ferguson. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the http://www.crazychefs. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF).gov/nass/pubs/agr05/05_ch3. Retrieved 2008-07-04. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. http://www. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. ^ "findarticles. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. ^ USDA. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit)."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. light upon light. neither Eastern nor Western. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. the tourch is in a glass bulb. originating from King David. ^ USDA. Margaret Lindstrand (2005).imitate the original Menorah. In Islam." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a".net/ .PDF.internationaloliveoil. even without fire touching it. and this secure city. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism.usda.

United States Department of Agriculture.telegraph. The New York Times (H. 11.6. Dennis. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC ^ New York Times.46. ^ "EUbusiness. Raymond & Co.htm". J. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)".org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. Retrieved 2008-11-16. http://news. 21. 15.Scotsman. ^ a b "Telegraph article". 20.xml.xml. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. ^ Riding. Tabacchi. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. ^ a b http://www. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. Di http://query. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. S.internationaloliveoil. Pharmacol. 19.01. 17.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. ^ Keys A. ^ " ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. http://www. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. 14. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar" 124 (6): 903–15. et al. http://www.eubusiness.2007. 18. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . http://oliveoilonly. http://www. 10. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . ^ Mueller.23/.htm. J. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. 23. PMID 17321749. Res.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. http://www. http://www. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. (December 1986).scotsman. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". 55 (3): 175–86. http://www.Telegraph". 19 CFR .oxfordjournals. doi:10. http://aje. Retrieved 2008-11-09.html. Giammanco.phrs. G. Epidemiol.23/.html".). ^ Durant. ^ Covas MI (March 2007).com". 16. 7. Giammanco. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. ^ "www.1079/NRR200495 ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure.".jp. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. and Maurizio La Guardia. John.htm. D. PMID 3776973. US Customs Department. Karvonen News".jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. Slippery Business The New Yorker. Alan (1989-05-21). Menotti A. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". November 2. 2007-08-13. Tom. Am. 25.nytimes. ^ "Eubusiness. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. Retrieved ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8.

says the 6th millennium in Jericho. Israel". Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). 2000. T. 35. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". Masamitsu Ichihashi. T : Ueda.tchain.Telegraph". ^ "www. 21 (1): 45–52.v. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). 55 (3): 680–6. 19 November 2007 30.xml. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. 38. 45. but cites no source. "New Year's Resolution No. A : Bito. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. 2000." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006.1024/0300-9831. A : Wu. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. Toshihiko Osawa. d'Episcopo L. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori".com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2.html".1096/fj. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. Mar.videojug.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104.75.tchain. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. 1: Prevent Cancer. Olea europaea http://www. Pagnol. Nazim U." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. Use Olive Oil. s. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". Brenes M.v. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. Carcinogenesis. JDermatol-Sci. Masato Ueda. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". Toshinori Bito. Vol. Etienne 31. M : Ahmed. Gruendel S. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. ^ Romero C. doi:10. M : Osawa. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". 2085-2090. 37. 23. "olive" and "oil" 40. p.1. ^ Ferrara LA. ^ Machowetz A. (January 2007).uk/portal/main. PMID 17263460.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis".com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36. doi:10.html. et al. doi:10.06-6328com.1021/jf0630217. 19. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. http://www.28. No. 11.ama-assn. ^ Pagnol. 43. N U : Budiyanto. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. ^ "Quite Interesting . André Bervillé. ". ^ [2] Ichihashi. Raimondi AS. (27 March 2000). http://www. ^ Turner R. Poulsen HE. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. PMID 15830923. Medina E. Vol. p." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. ^ a b Davidson. An Wu. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. De Castro A (February 2007). ^ Mayo Osamu Nikaido. Olives 41. 1S45-50. ssp. 39. . PMID 17110467. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. PMID 10737284. 21. s. 19.telegraph. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. et al. Dello Russo A. 44. Guida L.". ^ http://www. ^ Rosenblum. Ahmed. ^ Ehud Galili et al. Alonso MG. pp. J Agric Food Chem. (January 2005). "[19 INSERT TITLE]". "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". Nov. ^ Mayo Clinic 32.61. Marotta T. Vargas J. 29. 34. Catherine Breton.. Faseb J. p.crazychefs.. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte.

htm.46.htm". "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed.).il/ad/egypt/texts/sinuhe. http://www. http://www. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. ^ F. Processing Provencal. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". and Storage life of Minoan olive oil".youngmuslims.crazychefs.youngmuslims. ^ "www. pp119–33 50. 2005 49. . 47. Verstraete and http://www.htm. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". Riley. Harrington Park Press. ed. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Kennell. B. ^ Nigel ^ Thomas F. C.

Saffron has further medicinal applications.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform.or hay-like fragrance.[4][5] A carotenoid dye.crazychefs. ən] / [ˈsæf. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. A . sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and http://www. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. each the distal end of a carpel. sativus flower bears three stigmas. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. crocin.Saffron Saffron crocus C. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). Saffron.

98–1. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. A corm survives for one season. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. In autumn. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds.crazychefs. broken apart. which means "yellow." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). reproduction depends on human assistance: . as was once generally http://www. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). Only in October.[11] Upon flowering.2 in) in length. must be dug up. It is a sterile triploid form. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. and replanted.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Being sterile. purple buds appear. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild.5 centimetres (1. in Central Asia.

[16] Furthermore. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early http://www.8–5. are critical factors affecting yields. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. Planting depth and corm spacing.e.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. Greek. maximizing sun exposure. loose. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. low-density. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields.. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. where hot.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. Nematodes. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. where annual rainfall averages 1. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). in concert with climate. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. they fare poorly in shady . to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested).[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight.crazychefs. and birds.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. and corm rot pose other threats. rats. well-watered. Moroccan.000–1. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops.500 mm (39–59 in). Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. leaf rusts. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare.9 in) deep.

[19] Meanwhile. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). a product results that is itself water-soluble. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.crazychefs. However. and thus oil-soluble. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass.[19] many of which are carotenoids. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. lycopene. It also has many nonvolatile active components. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. and various α.2 oz of dried saffron).[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.11 gr) of dried saffron.and β-carotenes. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0. including zeaxanthin. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.0.8-diapo-8.8-carotenoic acid).com .[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

crazychefs.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 3.0 4.0 http://www.0–13.0–14.0–15.0 6.5 40.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0–8.0 6.0 1.0 10.0–1.0– .0 2.5 10.0 12.0 0.0 11.0 6.0 1.0 9.0 8.0 1.0 12.

Significantly. Santorini. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is.5-cyclohexadien-1-one.6.0 Source: Goyns 1999.6-trimethyl-2.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal.crazychefs. When saffron is dried after its harvest.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" . 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.[18] Safranal. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.6.4. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. a volatile oil.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. dried hay like". Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. combined with enzymatic action.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. the heat.6. p.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.3-diene-1.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.Fiber (crude) 5.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. incidentally. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.

whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. a sterile mutant form of C.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. mascaras.[28][29] Later. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. and in the mithridatium. and medical treatments.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. sativus. ointments.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. Thus.000 years.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. C. cartwrightianus. divine offerings.crazychefs.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron . Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. and scabies. townspeople in Rhodes.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. Since then.[33] potpourris.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. In late Hellenistic Egypt.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. physicians in Gaza. http://www. cough. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. colic.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron.

Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". a Chinese medical expert. perfumes. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. or jackfruit. dating to 978–993 AD. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but .[46][47][48] Meanwhile. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac.[44] During his Asian campaigns. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. Wan Zhen.crazychefs. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. rice. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece.[51] However. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy.[39][40] http://www.Asia The 17. saffron threads were woven into textiles. and body washes.[53] On the other hand.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. Isfahan. medicines. a less expensive dye.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. and used in dyes. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. At such sites. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia.[42] ritually offered to divinities. For example. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD.[43] Thus. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.[44] From there.

However. coffee. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. http://www. and executed. did significant cultivation endure. under which saffron adulterators were fined.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812.[59][60] Only in southern France. named for its new specialty crop. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. It can be used to aromatise wine. France. and Spain.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. imprisoned." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. which grew prosperous. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. and Italy. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold.[62] By 1730."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated .crazychefs. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. In Europe. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. Italy.saffron is in Kashmir.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. and then the saffron is obtained.[58] Soon after. tea. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline.

and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing).crazychefs. and antioxidantlike properties. Turkish. European.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. . particularly in China and http://www. Central Asian. Arab.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. Pennsylvania.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. and in perfumery. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). noodles. and chicken or trout dishes. Indian. and Cornish cuisines. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa).grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. Medicinally.

in decreasing order of production. the average retail price is $1. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. Azerbaijan.000 and 200.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. Spain's varieties. and other countries. they are graded by government-imposed standards.000 flowers.000-170. Greece. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.500/€7.crazychefs.000 threads. and Italy. Aside from these. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'.com http://www. flavour.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). In Western countries. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad.[2] A pound comprises between 70. Switzerland. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.500 per kilogram. and aroma.000–75. For example. elasticity. Spain.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. India. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. the United States.550 per kilogram).000 flowers.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. are generally mellower in colour.000 per pound (US$1. France.[5] . Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. Morocco.100/€1. are the major producers of saffron.100–11. Vivid crimson colouring.200/£1.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5. Annually.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. England. slight moistness. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.

combined with an Indian export ban. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content.crazychefs. http://www. it also has very high crocin. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. shape. picrocrocin. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour.S. for quality and quantity. and safranal (fragrance) content. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma).. aroma. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. In the U. and safranal content. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. Repeated droughts.some organically grown.79 in). There. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. near L'Aquila. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. among the world's darkest. is in San Gavino Monreale. and crop failures in Kashmir. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus').net/ . and colourative effect. unusually pungent aroma. picrocrocin (taste). contribute to its high prices. blights. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

traders. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. many growers. red-dyed silk fibers.national standards bodies. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages.crazychefs. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. in India. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters.[77] However.[80] http://www. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). and other powders used as diluting fillers.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. with turmeric. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. However. pomegranate fibers. II. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. aroma. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. pliability. and thus a greater colourative intensity. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable . paprika.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. III. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). and consumers reject such lab test numbers. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. and I (finest quality).

p. Grilli Caiola . 3. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. Retrieved 2007-12-01. http://www. Kansai.". 17. . p. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. Honshū.org/google/abstract. 53. stigma extracts and their constituents. 6. 423. p. 4. p. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. p. p. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. 2–3. 18. 22. ^ a b McGee 2004. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. ^ a b c Hill 2004. 21.crazychefs. 1. 19. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ Willard 2001.Saffron reproductive biology 11. p. pp. 4. 12. Sterling.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. 422. 14. ^ Kumar V (2006). 1. 3. 9. ^ McGee 2004. 5. 7. p. 20. www. ^ Harper 2001. 23. 3–4. ^ M. 272. ^ Deo 2003. p. ^ a b Deo 2003. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 287. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. 3. ^ Grigg 1974. crocin and safranal. 103. ^ Willard 2001. 24. 4. in mice. ^ Willard 2001. 1. 2. p.asp? 2. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Rau 1969.cababstractsplus. p. 15. ^ DPIWE 2005. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ a b Deo 2003. 13. pp. pp. 16. http://books. ^ Dharmananda 2005. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. 8. p.

244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 45. pp. 60. p. p. 1. ^ Willard 2001. p. 31. Loeb Classical Library Edition. 64. ^ Willard 2001. 55. 30. ^ Lak 1998b. pp. p.pdf 70. 40. p. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ a b Willard 2001. p. 43. 1. p. pp.iovs. p. ^ a b Willard 2001. 27. 133. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 103–104. p. ^ Fletcher 2005. 30 AD. pp. p. ^ Willard 2001. 59. 2. p. 12. p. pp. ^ http://www. 138. pp. ^ Willard 2001. p. 61. ^ Dalby 2002. 49. ^ Honan Victoria (30 December 2002). 32. 73. 63. 54–55. p. p. pp. ca. 28. 51. p. ^ http://vision. transl. 143. 47. 68. 41. ^ Willard 2001. 33. 63. 1. ^ a b c Willard 2001. 54. 1935 [1] 38. 273. 36. 58. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. . p. ^ Humphries 1998. 34. ^ Ferrence 2004. 142–146.25. 41. 39. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Dalby 2002. p. ^ Willard 2001.crazychefs. 138. 42. 422. ^ McGee 2004. ^ Hill 2004. 17–18. ^ Goyns 1999. 34–35. 35. p. p. ^ Willard 2001. 48. 56. 58. ^ Willard 2001. 55. 99. 2–3. 1. ^ Honan 2004. 52. 224. 11. 44. ^ Willard 2001. 72. ^ Hayes 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 6. 57. p. ^ Finlay. Kuo & Wang 1964. 20. de Medicina. p. p. ^ Willard 2001. 132–133. ^ Deo 2003. 50. p. p. p. 41. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Celsus. 59. 138–139. p. ^ Willard 2001. 65. 256. ^ Chang. ^ Dalby 69. ^ Rau 1969. ^ Willard 2001. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. Random House. 70. ^ Willard 2001. 67. 1. ^ http://www. 46. 2. 66. 128. p. 95. ^ Willard 2001.pdf 29. 101. ^ Willard 2001. 2. ^ a b Willard http://www. pp. p. 117. p. ^ a b Tarvand ^ Assimopoulou 2005. 26. p. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999.

^ Willard 2001. 53 (15). 77. Retrieved on January 10. "Tasmania's Saffron Gold". Liang. 75. "The pharmacological action of 藏红花 (zà hóng huā—Crocus sativus L. 79. 80. <http://www. VP Papageorgiou & Z Sinakos (2005). Davies. A (2003).nz/home/productsservices/publications/broadsheets/020saffron. 2008. Courtney. Retrieved on January 10. 76. ^ Lak 1998. 2006. <http://www. S (2005).abc. ^ a b Tarvand 2005b. ^ Hill 2004. 201. 82. ^ Tarvand 2005. <http://www. 20). MJ Gregory & RC Menary (2005).". <http://books. PMID 16028982 Deo. 102–104. "Kashmiri saffron producers see red over Iranian imports". 2006.>. Abdullaev. "Saffron". FI (2002). ^ Goyns 1999. Institute for Traditional Medicine. Retrieved on January 10 2006. Phytotherapy Research 19 (11). Dharmananda. Retrieved on January 10. P (2002). p. ^ Willard 2001. W. "Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus http://www. <http://unitproj. Routledge (UK). "Effect of drying temperature and air flow on the production and retention of secondary metabolites in saffron".crazychefs.htm>. Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2003. ISBN 0415-23259-7. ^ Hussain 2005. Food in the Ancient World from A to .com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=7IHcZ21dyjwC>.74.): effect on the uterus and/or estrous cycle". Darling Biomedical Library (2002).au/news/newsitems/200311/s982047.cri. p. 274. References Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2003). Australian Broadcasting Corporation.cfm?displayID=22>. 8.ebmonline.crop. Experimental Biology and Medicine 227 (1).library. ISBN 0-520-23674-2. Landline (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). University of California Press. B (2003). 2006[dead link].edu/biomed/spice/index. PY. 78. <http://www. 2006. extract and its bioactive constituents". PMID 16317646 Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2006. <http://www. "Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L. A (2002).itmonline. "Saffron: An Anti-Depressant Herb". p. Crop & Food Research (New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research) (no. Retrieved on January 10. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 11. NW. pp.htm>.htm>. 245 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID 11788779 Assimopoulou. "Growing Saffron—The World's Most Expensive Spice" Retrieved on July 27. Darling Biomedical Library (UCLA). CT Kuo & CK Wang (1964). Retrieved on January 10.pdf>.

stm>.co. BBC News. Hasegawa. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5).pdf>. <http://news.html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>. Retrieved on January Ten Speed Press.ikashmir.dpiwe.uni-graz. ISBN 0-471-21423-X. Taylor & Francis.)". N (2005). Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995). Leffingwell. Taylor & Francis. 2006. Retrieved on January 10. JC (2002). WH (2004).google. ISBN Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1). ISBN 90-5702-394-6. saffron".com/index. "Saffron". Hill. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. The Agricultural Systems of the World. 2006. Fotedar. PMID 15259204 Fletcher. "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". The Essential Saffron Companion. Retrieved on January 10. "Saffron".au/inter.nytimes. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2). Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4). "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron".com/download/saffron. The New York J (1998). 2006[dead link]. D (1998b). AW (2001).tas. "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron". 2006. ISBN JH. "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. DB (1974). m>. Goyns. <http://books. PMID 16180089 Katzer. ISBN 1-58008-024-3. 2006.etymonline. S (1998–1999).nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>. <http://www. SC (2004). ISBN 0-521-09843-2.stm>.co. Retrieved on January 10. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution". T (2004). Harper. "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera". BBC News. <http://news. Cambridge University Press.DPIWE (2005). PMID 8590890 Hayes. "Saffron (Crocus sativus L. < Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10. Martin's Press. . 2006. Online Etymology Dictionary. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron". St. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. Honan. Lak. BBC News. <http://www. Humphries. Ferrence. Food & Agriculture.php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>. <http://www. <http://www. Hussain. Retrieved on January 10. 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. D (1998). Jessie.>. G (2001). The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen. "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress". MH (1999). <http://www. D (2001).pdf>.bbc. A (2005).at/~katzer/engl/Croc_sat. Grigg. 2006. SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005) http://www. <http://news. Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of 2006. Retrieved on January 10. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine". Retrieved on January 10.html>. Retrieved on January 10.

JB (2005). <http://www. 2006. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. <http://www.cfm?chemic al_id=140>. "Grading and Classification". Tarvand Saffron Company. 2006[dead link].tarvandsaffron.reconstructinghistory.McGann. <http://www. Willard. Retrieved on January 10. "Saffron".com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>. Nair. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. H (2004). B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991).".barc. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. New Scientist. Cancer Letters 57 (2).html>. Time Life Education.crazychefs.html>. Retrieved on January 10. PMID 2025883 Park.htm>.google. SC. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". McGee. Retrieved on January 10. < http://www. Retrieved on January>. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". < <http://www. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the SR (1969). P (2001). 2006. Beacon Press. Retrieved on January 10. Scribner. Retrieved on January 10. "What is Saffron?".com/channel/earth/mg18524831. <http://books. The Cooking of India.usda. F (2005).net/ .com/irish/saffron. Reconstructing Retrieved on January 10. Tarvand Saffron Company. USDA Phytochemical Database. 2006. Pearce.newscientist. 2006. 2006.htm>.pl. Rau. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). K (2003). Tarvand (2005b). 2006.

19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www. Dead Sea. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L.crazychefs. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea.

The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. the olive. they were reverently preserved for centuries.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. are borne generally on the last year's wood. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide.[1] and in the Iliad. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own . endives. olives. The small white flowers."[7] indeed. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive http://www. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage.(XVII. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. the olive suckers readily from the stump.[9]. referring to their wooden material.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. In Homer's Odyssey. called xoana. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. by a spring. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). two stamens and bifid stigma.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. Asia and parts of Africa. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. Its fruit. ca 170 AD. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. from Lebanon.5 cm long. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. Theophrastus. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Though. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. It is short and squat.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains.

the pits give rise to thorny. power and pureness. Chile and Argentina. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. in On the Nature of Plants. wild-type olives. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. As far back as 3000 BC. kotinos. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. for which the Greeks had a separate name. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. The olive tree itself. glory and peace .16. and its cultivation began in Mexico. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. and then in the 18th century in California. For example. play an important role in the Bible. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. As emblems of benediction and purification. and one of the most significant. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. glory. wisdom. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. olives were grown commercially in Crete. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. Theophrastus.The leafy branches of the olive tree . The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. fertility. Peru. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. spread far and wide by birds. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. but he makes clear (in 1. The Book of Jacob 5. Over the http://www. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb.[12] After the 16th century. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. the olive has been the symbol of peace. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from . indeed. as well as olive oil and olives.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. in both the New and Old Testaments. Today.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees.

Montenegro. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. Istria in Croatia.and fire-resistant.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on http://www. disease. drought-. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni).[16] An olive tree in west Athens. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis.000 years old. and can live for very long. The older an olive tree . Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. which is made into top quality olive oil. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears.crazychefs. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). One olive tree in Bar. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. The age of an olive tree in Crete. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. named "Plato's Olive Tree". claimed to be over 2.600 years old. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. has been calculated to be about 1. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult.

and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. see Olive (fruit). a few other millenary trees can be admired. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55.crazychefs. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. Modern experience does not always confirm . While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. olive leaf. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. A supposedly even older tree. According to a recent scientific survey. and the olive fruit. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. All seven trees continue to produce olives. called the "Peisistratos Tree". the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. fine http://www. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. Specifically. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. In the same natural garden. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975.2.400 years ago. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though showing a preference for the coast. 1600-2000 years old. both in Galilee region.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia.6 km) as the limit.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. and. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. Italy.

Argentina. Sudan. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. Australia.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. laperrinei (Algeria. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. such as South Africa.crazychefs. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. Olive plantation in Andalucia. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. Niger.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. Israel. Chile. the Mediterranean Basin. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. northwest Africa) where winters are .has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. Olive leaves are used in medicinal http://www. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp.

com .crazychefs.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ . germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.crazychefs.

the most common olive grown on Sardinia.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. but only a few are grown to a large extent. in southern Spain. In recent times. 'Bosana'. which consists of 1. anchovies. Rich taste and thick pulp.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive.Cailletier cultivar. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. often after being pitted. Seville. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. rounded-oval fruit. stuffed (with pickled pimento. It is used mostly for http://www. with purple-green skin. grown around the world. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction.crazychefs. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. A prolific bearer. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. The olive grove of Amfissa. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease.200. a large. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. 'Manzanilla'.net/ . originating in Dos Hermanas.

a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. a small. good for eating and for oil. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. Spain. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. 'Arbequina'. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. The olive is medium sized. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). Spain. and elongated. Moreover. It is used both for oil and for table olives. Spain. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. originating in Toledo. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. and coastal climate conditions. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. another modern Israeli. Due to their highly valued flavour. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. round. 'Cornicabra'. large. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. and elongated. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. It is mainly used for oil. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. They are black and generally used for table consumption.[21] 'Koroneiki'.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. originating in the province of Córdoba. They grow in any light soil. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. They are green. originating from the southern Peloponese.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. disease-resistant. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. 'Empeltre'. a large. 'Picual'. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. medium size.[23] 'Barnea'. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. which. It is green. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. originating in the south of France (Aude département). used as a table olive. named after the city of Kalamata. though difficult to http://www. and is widely used in Spain as a table . around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. This small olive. Greece. 'Hojiblanca'. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. 'Souri'. brown olive grown in Catalonia. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. originating in the south of France. good for eating and for oil. even on clay if well drained.crazychefs. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. 'Nabali'. The flavour is mild and nutty. Their flavour is mild and nutty. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. It has a strong but sweet flavour. 'Kalamata'.

crazychefs. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. In Italy. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the trees are regularly pruned. In Greece. if they are pruned correctly and . are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. They tolerate drought well. P. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. it is valued by woodworkers. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. to facilitate germination. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. Where the olive is carefully cultivated.) Olives like hot weather. Olives grow very slowly. Another method uses an electric tool. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. However. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. but the time varies in each country. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. removing fruit from the tree. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice.poorer soil. embryonic buds. http://www. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. soon vegetate. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. In some places in Italy and Greece. being very hard and close-grained. This method is used for olives used for oil. 114). Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. and can remain productive for as long. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. Olives are propagated in various ways. Occasionally. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. and with the season and the cultivar. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. the oliviera. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. In southern Europe. up to several centuries.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. as in Languedoc and Provence. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. which form small swellings on the stems. More specifically. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. http://www. which is healthy for future production. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. which is a natural preservative. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife.g. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The method also involves sawing off branches. the fruit is not bruised. the creation of lactic acid. The olives are soaked in water to wash.. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. Typical yields are 1. After some weeks. ripe green (a yellower shade of green.2 kg of oil per tree per year. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and . 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. which leads to a superior finished product. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. a bitter carbohydrate. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. Olives can be used green. then drained. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. As a result. large fruit (e.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. which is why they taste milder than green olives. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration.5-2. Fresh are often sold at markets. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. through to full purple black ripeness. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. which can be eaten fresh. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. or green with hints of colour). Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution.

salt-curing. leaving sawtooth damage. A species of bacterium. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. Cycloconium oleaginum.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. causing great damage to plantations. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. In France and north-central Italy. olives suffer occasionally from frost. oleae[27]. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. garlic cloves.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. their main predators are . capsicum (pimento). Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. induces tumour growth in the shoots. olive oil. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. The ten largest producing countries. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. juniper berries and anchovies. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. or removing the pit and stuffing them. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. and weather A fungus. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. feta. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. Sometimes.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. an unnatural method. spices. diseases. chili.6 to 8. Popular flavourings are herbs. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives.crazychefs. Lye-curing. lemon juice. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. wine. especially to young trees. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. lemon zest. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. of which the water is changed daily. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. but can be left to cure for up to three months. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. vinegar. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. Pests. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation.

000 318.400. 3. ^ ". Bibliotheke. 3.000 250. 38. Ancient Greek Agriculture.5 6. 5. On the Causes of Plants. most notably South Australia. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation. 1 ).14.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication. 1.888 178." (Herodotus.000 498.9 6. 4.6 31..5 63.597. ^ Homer.8 16. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures. 82.000 430.140.. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.100 3. p. 7.300. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. ^ Pausanias.000 275.685 765." (Diodorus Siculus.000 8.1). Description of Greece 1. Odyssey.3 8.000 20.160. book 5". 4.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.981 1. 81.5. 27.3 20.500.000 49.000 1. 1)..000 998.000 1.. 2.000 550.000 594. 4.830 2. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants. An introduction. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced. and to cultivate olive-trees. 6.7 . to make bee-hives.339 300.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.089 6.317. 5.4 30. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. 1992.800.000 470.13.988 500.064 2.[31] References 1. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.crazychefs. ^ http://www.0 3.000 280.149.1 25.

(September 2002). pp 110–113. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. ^ Lewington. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. Syst. Riley (2002). Int. ^ Lumaret.springerlink. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. 1982. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. 1996. Y. op. Tabak & O. http://www. ^ Belaj et al. http://www. ^ a b M. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. 32:166– Number 4). ^ [1] 21. ^ Balfour.A. ^ "FAO. p.cit. 17.aspx?PageID=151. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 29 April. ^ Fotiadi. "Plants of the Bible" 1885.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". Epikouria Magazine. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. p. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". ^ Burr. M. 23. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Masuelli. Australian Olives." Horace. vol. & Parker. 13. 30. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Kislew. Cavagnaro Leshonenu (Hebrew). The Making of the Cretan Landscape. Brijuni National Park. 24. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. ^ O. AGRISCIENTA. nom. (1999) Ancient Trees.. J. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. Epikouria Magazine. ^ Riley.. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. http://www. Juárez. ^ Gooch.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-10.. 105. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. ^ "Old Olive Tree". Spring/Summer 2006 26.8.fao. 69.15.jsp. http://apps3. Apps3. Volume 18:27-35 20. 1981.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. Moody. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". Retrieved 2009-05-18. nov. & Ouazzani. me cichorea levesque malvae. 25. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. 29. E. 4th edition. John Hutton. R. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. EspasaCalpe S. Elena "Unusual Olives".net/ . 1999. ^ Janse. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. J. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. rev..279 18. ^ http://www. Madrid.fao.brijuni. http://www. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. M Bauza & R. Ellen. Processing methods. 1779.zatoun. Simhoni. cited in "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". J.. ca 30 BC 9. Available through Google Books 11. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. 2001.crazychefs. Zatoun. Odes 1. N. 28. ^ Muncipality Bar. Volume 15. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. D. R. 2004". London: Collins & Brown Ltd. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". 35. A.

The leaves are lanceolate. Corresponding to its species name.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to .[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm http://www.crazychefs.R. L. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. with slender branched stems." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. with an entire margin.31. glossy green. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. however. and south to northern Mexico. western North America. (French tarragon. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. seldom produces flowers. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction.

264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). by extension. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. Spreading plant can be divided easily. dracunculoides L. it normally goes dormant in winter. fish and egg dishes. which is the .[1] Russian tarragon (A. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. but cannot be grown from seed. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. sunny spot. It is normally purchased as a plant. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. Fresh.[1] It likes a http://www. due to the presence of estragole. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. Georgia and. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. and particularly suitable for chicken. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia.crazychefs.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green.[1] However. without excessive watering. Persian and Russian word for . The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. A perennial. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. Russia and Ukraine.

Machinek A. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. http://www.[3] In Slovenia. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. The Bountiful Container. Stuckey. ^ a b c d McGee. Krammer G. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: . ISBN 9783527607891. Rose Marie Nichols. 2. References 1.crazychefs.Cis-Pellitorin. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Foerstner J. Properties and Uses. pp. Wiley-VCH. ^ Surburg. Maggie (2002). 3. Ley JP. Johannes Panten (2006). Workman Publishing. ^ Gatfield IL. 233. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

In the Balkans and the Middle East. Culinary sage. In Western cooking. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. sage has a slight peppery flavor.Salvia officinalis (Sage. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. Lamiaceae. though other species. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Common http://www. It is a member of the mint family. cheeses (Sage Derby). Britain and Flanders. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. and some drinks. with woody stems. and blue to purplish flowers. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. In French cuisine. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. In the United States.crazychefs. grayish leaves. Kitchen sage. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). it is used when roasting mutton. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire . Garden sage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. Dalmatian sage. Purple sage. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. Broadleaf sage. Germans often use it in sausage dishes.

estrogenic. antibiotic. ursonic acid. The Latin name for sage. hypoglycemic. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. and thujone.more trichomes are visible on this side.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and tonic. ursolic acid. chlorogenic acid. flavones. The underside of a sage leaf . cornsolic acid. flavonoid glycosides. cornsole.trichomes are visible. caffeic acid.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. fumaric acid. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . nicotinamide. antifungal. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate.[1] In a double blind. and estrogenic substances. antispasmodic. oleic acid.crazychefs. astringent. . it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. niacin. means ―to heal". which contains http://www. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. borneol.

Applied Health. PMID 12605619. 'Alba'. 'Icterina'. ^ a b c "Sage". a cultivar with large leaves. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a white-flowered cultivar.2003. . 'Berggarten'. 'Extrakta'. Dioscorides. (2003). J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. Retrieved 2008-02-04.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars.crazychefs.appliedhealth. and more. increasing women's fertility. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. OBeWise Nutriceutica. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle http://www. Pliny. Mohammadi M. a purple-leafed cultivar.[4] It was sometimes called S. a small leaved They are easily raised from summer cuttings.00463. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages.1046/j. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. emmenagogue.php. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. and tonic. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs.1365-2710. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. ^ Akhondzadeh S. Ohadinia S. hemostatic. yellow and green variegated leaves. Noroozian M. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). a styptic. and for other uses. doi:10. and for low ground cover. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. Jamshidi AH.x. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. snakebites. and used as a diuretic. a local anesthetic for the skin. 'Tricolor'. 'Lavandulaefolia'. Khani M. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. especially in sunny dry environments.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. 2. References 1. a cultivar with white.

ISBN 9789058230058. CRC Press. p. Deni Bown (New York: DK. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. (2000). 10-11.crazychefs. http://www. ^ a b . Sage: The Genus Salvia. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Spiridon E.3. 4.

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