Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. and in those derived from them. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. Greek. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. Depending on how it is used in a dish. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. Libyan. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines.a little less if it is ground. It can be propagated by seed. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). Persian.crazychefs. while flavourful. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other . Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). Dried. assume that it means fresh. As a rule of thumb. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. the whole sprig may be used (e. In some Levantine countries. While summer-seasonal. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. when it specifies spoons it means the http://www. which is due to its content of thymol. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. storage life is rarely more than a week. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. tomatoes and eggs. Italian.g. in a bouquet garni). and of herbes de Provence. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. It tolerates drought well. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. Thyme. Leaves are often chopped. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. cuttings. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Lebanese. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. In French cuisine. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. fresh thyme is often available year-round. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. Albanian. Thyme is often used to flavour meats.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. or by the sprig. Spanish. soups and stews. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Syrian. Portuguese. and Turkish cuisines. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart.

) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. The dried equivalent is 1:3. an antiseptic.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. hybrid T. pulegioides × T. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. It also has medicinal uses. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. it was used to medicate bandages. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. etc. salve. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a http://www.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis.[5] As with bay. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days.[6] Thymol. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical .crazychefs. but is grown as a ground cover. Because it is antiseptic. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. All thyme species are nectar sources. tisane. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb.

good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.crazychefs.Variegated lemon thyme. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used . including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

com http://www.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.crazychefs. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/ .

3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.1 mg Folate (Vit.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1. It is common in Middle Eastern. B1) 0. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.2 mg Magnesium 50. often used as spice.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.3 g 0. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C . B3) http://www.1 mg recommendations for adults. and American cooking. European.Dietary fiber 3.9 g .0 μg Calcium 138.crazychefs.0 mg Iron 6.8 g 3.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates . Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro). B2) 0.Sugars 0.0 mg Phosphorus 58. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb. although parsley has a milder flavor.1 mg 6.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.

Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. tuberosum). not blooming until its second year.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. or flat leaf (P.crazychefs. Like many other umbellifers. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. used in soups and stews. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". Green parsley is often used as a garnish. it is not related to real turnips. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. which helps accommodate the long taproot. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. For example.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. which then tend to protect plants nearby. However. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. neapolitanum). Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. While parsley is biennial. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. Although little known in Britain and the United .com http://www. reducing pest attraction. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. it attracts predatory insects.

soups. or 4900. References 1. and lemon zest. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. http://www. root. with fish.html." West Virginia University Extension Service. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew.[3] Parsley is high (1. parsley is part of bouquet garni. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf).com/npc/parsley. steaks. a mixture of parsley. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. e. ^ a b c John W. 4. lamb or goose.aspx?id=1075&s=4. ^ "Parsley information on . Goulash or Chicken paprikash). meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. [1]) in oxalic acid. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. "Parsley on plucodes. leaf. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon).. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. http://www. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fried chicken. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. Ossobuco alla milanese.g. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles.plucodes.70% by mass. Parsley as an oil. and sauces. 2. 2007.crazychefs. In Southern and Central Europe. In addition. Last retrieved April". green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato).com".com http://www.drugs. "That Devilish Parsley. Jett. garlic. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. .Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare . 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O.

g. Unlike most Italian herbs. 3-4 mm long. Greek. and grilled meat. e. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno .com http://www. which is popular in southern Italy.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. capers. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. spicy flavor.crazychefs. O vulgare gracile. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. as well as cultivars. growing to 20-80 cm tall. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. The flowers are purple.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). of the mint family. and lovage . each with distinct flavours. fried vegetables. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. Oregano growing in a field. Oregano is an important culinary herb. It is a perennial herb. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. native to Europe.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. produced in erect spikes. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. and to add a nice. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. Together with basil. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes.

Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal http://www. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. useful for relieving children's coughs. The influence of climate. together with paprika.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. It has an aromatic. especially for mutton and lambs meat. it can be usually found on table. In the Philippines. It varies in intensity. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food . West Asia) have similar flavors. Oregano growing in a pot.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes.crazychefs. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. Balkan peninsula. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. salt and pepper. heracleoticum (Italy. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. In Turkish Cuisine. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5][6] Additionally. which. however. differs significantly in taste. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. warm and slightly bitter taste. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. Asia Minor) and O. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids.

capsules. Coleus aromaticus). which simply referred to "an acrid herb".[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In the Philippines. enteric parasites. Plectranthus .com http://www. also called Cuban oregano. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. ocimene. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. stimulant. A Cretan oregano (O. cholagogue.[12] References 1. oregano. indigestion. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of carminative. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. Lippia berlandieri. ^ Organic Gardening 2. fungal infections.Main constituents include carvacrol. especially in the United States. limonene.[7] and painful menstruation. stomach upsets. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic.crazychefs. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. Used topically.[8] Hippocrates. expectorant. emmenagogue. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. Aqueous extracts. influenza.html. stomachic and mildly tonic. mild fevers. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. this substitution would not work the other way round. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but is usually stronger. the father of medicine. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. and caryophyllene. ^ http://www. including Poliomintha longiflora. antispasmodic. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. thymol. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant.uni-graz. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. useful for relieving children's coughs. pinene. diaphoretic. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano.

Draft revision for "oregano". ^ Dragland. 6. March 2009. University of the West of England. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants".org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286. doi:10.) and Origanum vulgare L.php. 11. Fall/Spring 2007 5. http://www. http://www. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. http://info. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". draft revision for "origanum". Steinar. 53 (21): 8162–8168.crazychefs.asp?item=1374&year=2008.uwe.2008. Leonor.nutrition. draft revision for "organum".10. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. et al.".com/articles/130620. Retrieved 2008-11-26. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata et al. (2005). ^ Epikouria Magazine. Medical News . PMID 12730411. 133 (5): 1286–1290. ^ Epikouria Magazine. 28.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. June 2008. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. ^ ["http://www.medicalnewstoday. ^ a b Faleiro. (01 May 2003).dmannose. Fall/Winter 2007 10.3. J. http://jn. J Agric. Food Chem. (Cav. Retrieved 200811-26.1021/jf0510079. 24 November 2008. PMID 16218659.

Also. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. recorded in the 10th century.[2] In Greek mythology. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). however. Ferula communis. it seems. it was from the giant fennel. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. It is a hardy. umbelliferous http://www. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. meaning "hay". perennial. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. In Ancient Greek. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel").crazychefs. which is now used as the genus name of a related .

each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels.032 mg 2% Niacin ( http://www. B3) 0. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long. glaucous green.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.5 .1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. and grooved.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.Dietary fiber 3. B2) 0. they are finely dissected.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. B1) 0.01 mg 7.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates .5 mm wide. bulb. and grows to heights of up to 2. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. about 0.29 g 0.20 g 1.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit. with hollow stems.crazychefs. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). half as wide or less. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.047 mg Folate (Vit. It is erect. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. but thinner.

notably the Italian name finocchio. for its edible. though usually not as strong. syn. in pastures. which is also known by several other names. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. "bronze-leaved" fennel.crazychefs. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island).[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. it is often mislabelled as "anise".Potassium 414 mg Zinc . and in other open sites in many regions. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. including northern Europe. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. both raw and cooked. both in its native range and elsewhere. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. F. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. by the late 19th century. vulgare var.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. It is of cultivated origin. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. the United States. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. It propagates well by seed. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.20 mg Manganese http://www. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. but is more aromatic and sweeter.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. In North American supermarkets.

Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. anise-flavoured spice. salads. For cooking. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. which are very similar in taste and appearance. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. stewed. or cooked in risotto. or eaten raw. both raw and cooked. where bulbs and fronds are used. foliage.crazychefs. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. often tossed with chicory and avocado. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. and risottos. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. brown or green in colour when fresh. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. variyali in Gujarati. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. braised. fish. but also the most expensive. in side dishes. though smaller. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). http://www.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic.Fennel. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. sompu in Telugu. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. The bulb is a crisp. green seeds are optimal. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. badesoppu in Kannada. mouri in Bengali. . Many egg. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. It may be blanched or marinated. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves.

This use. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. although not supported by direct evidence. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. used to ease flatulence in infants. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. Fennel tea.[12] For adults.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of .[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. act as phytoestrogens.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic.crazychefs. or its http://www.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. also employed as a carminative. sometimes with some sweetener. as it is said to improve eyesight.

Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. fennel and coriander.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. which promote growth of breast tissue. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. followed by . Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child.crazychefs. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. badian (star anise).[17] http://www. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.

such as Cassia and Cinnamomum http://www. Hindi.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. the "real' cassia.[5] In Malayalam.crazychefs.[3] In Sri Lanka. Chakka meaning bark or wood. it is known as "DalChini ( )".)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. in the original Sinhala. Ceylon.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. synonym C. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . it is called darchin (‫.net/ . itself ultimately from Phoenician. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. cinnamon is known as kurundu. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. native to Sri Lanka. In Urdu. which are often called cinnamon too.[2] In Marathi. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. In Telugu. and in Gujarati taj. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. it is called "Darchini" ( ). it is called Dalchina Chakka. In Farsi (Persian). In Bengali. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫.C. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum.

[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. aloe and cinnamon. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . to protect their monopoly as suppliers. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. and in Song of Solomon. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. in Proverbs. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248.crazychefs.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than . he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon.

p. have a greenish color. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32." (Braudel 1984. and have a distinct odor.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. in a letter of about 1292. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers.2 feet) tall. a Dutch captain reported. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. The flowers. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. tea. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270.Ages. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single .75–7. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. sugar.crazychefs. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. although in the first century. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon http://www. took control of the factories by 1640. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. 7–18 cm (2.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. which are arranged in panicles. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and used them to construct their nests. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. "The shores of the island are full of it". Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market.1 inches) long. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe.8–49. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. They established a trading post in 1638. and coffee. However. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island.

in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. Brazil. According to the International Herald Tribune. the West Indies. and Vietnam. Java. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka.[15] According to the FAO. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. eg. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. . leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. and Egypt. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. which is left to dry. Chips are trimmings of quills. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. the outer woody portion is removed.crazychefs. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. The next year. http://www.5 mm) inner bark is used. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. Only the thin (0. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. India. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. Madagascar. verum). Zanzibar. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. followed by China. Sumatra.

many websites. and is considered to be less strong than cassia. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . is generally a medium to light reddish brown. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon http://www. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi).net/ . the related species.crazychefs. for example. However. and more crumbly texture. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. "Vietnamese cinnamon".Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. zeylanicum). or "Indonesian cinnamon". Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. and thicker (2–3 mm thick).[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as all of the layers of bark are used.[16] Ceylon cinnamon. hard and woody in texture. using only the thin inner bark. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. has a finer. less dense.

especially apples.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. The two barks. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. rather than cassia. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. and fruits.5% to 1% of its composition. are easily distinguished.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. bread-based dishes. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. It is of a golden-yellow color. hot cocoa.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi).[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. and . In the United States. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). whereas cassia sticks are much harder. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. ‫. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. drinks. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. True cinnamon. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. used in a variety of thick soups. especially in Mexico. In the Middle East.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. and http://www. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. tea. such as apple pie. a deep-blue tint is produced. macerating it in seawater. when whole.crazychefs. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. but when cassia is present. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. and then quickly distilling the whole.

One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. cassia. cinnamaldehyde. and anethole. and money.0. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. linalool. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves).[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. Encyclopaedia Britannica.crazychefs. love. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. Despite thousands of video-documented http://www.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds.and a very hot aromatic taste. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. few seem able to succeed.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. eugenol.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. luck. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. cinnamyl acetate. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum).[34] Notes 1. who . according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. 2008.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. In Hoodoo.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. beta-caryophyllene. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. and Myanmar (Burma). the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). ^ a b "Cinnamon". The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. The Cinnamon Challenge. although it remains untested.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting.

"Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents".thespicehouse. "Solid.npr. Van-Koiij A. ^ [1] 16. Cathay and the Way Thither. Sir James Emerson. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. ^ Yule.crazychefs. Food Chem. 22.CO%3B2-N 15.php?storyId=6672644. ^ Mancini-Filho J. 437). http://www.ihaystack. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". Emily. 8. Account of the Island of Ceylon. Harvey. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. ^ Knox. http://www. http://www.. ^ http://news. ^ http://links. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. ^ López P.—Cinnamon. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.fao. Encyclopedia of Spices. ^ Harris. http://www. 4. J. Food Chem. 437 13. Col. http://dsr.en. p. Breyne) extracts".com thespicehouse. Henry.1021/jf051513y.iol. Agric. The History of 17." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. p.html#pg598.1021/jf050709v.html. ^ Toussaint-Samat Sun M. retrieved 2008-07-15 11. ^ Tennent. Mancini . _of_life/html/1. retrieved 200705-01 21. ^ Shan B. doi:10. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. p. Batlle R. An Historical Relation Of The Island Cozzolino FF. Cinnamon. Robert.htm.html. ^ Toussaint-Samat ^ Felter. revised ed. 10. ^ [2] 18. Agric.jstor.htm 20.437. ^ The _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/ p. J.nii.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. Sánchez 53 (17): 6939– 437f. tr. 53 (20): 7749–59. ^ Toussaint-Samat 9. p. PMID 10077878. ^ http://www. Cai YZ.henriettesherbal. Cinnamomum. ^ " Nerín C (August 2005). also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour.theepicentre. PMID 16190627. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. retrieved 200807-15 6. PMID 16104824.2. retrieved 2008-07-15 12.html. Corke H (October 2005).stm Anthea Bell. ^ http://findarticles. http://lakdiva. Torres RP (December 1998). ^ http://www. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009. 2009. ^ http://www.

Archer (1988). "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". Ali Khan MM.html?source=r_health. doi:10.113.diabetesjournals.php? Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– Muhammad et al. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cinnamon. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". retrieved 200705-01 25.3215. Corn. http://www. ^ Ranjbar.nutrition. http://jn. Fernand (1984).1016/00219673(88) The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. http://www. Research: Thalido. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro".lesliebeck.. http://care. Retrieved 200805-11. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276.. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde.php?tname=foodspice& ^ George Mateljan 27.1.. July 2000. Kristof et al. ^ [3]. New York: Kodansha International. Khattak KN. PMID 14633804. Eleventh Edition.2217/14750708. http://eprints. ^ Beck.whfoods.futuremedicine. http://www. a publication now in the public domain.redorbit. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. ^ Vanschoonbeek. ground. ^ Taher. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. retrieved 200705-01 32. doi:10.24. Retrieved 2007-12-17.1002/ptr. 26. The Perspective of the World. 29. http://www. Charles (1998). 28. et al.2217/14750708. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study".12. Retrieved http://www. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007) s_have_been/ 30. www.. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes". Medicinal Seasonings.luckymojo.pdf. retrieved 2007-12-12 Eugen Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. .1. doi:10. ^ 33. Safdar M. Akram et al.htm. Anderson RA (December 2003). doi:10. Cat.sciencedaily. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". ^ Khan A.2337/diacare. http://www. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). 34.113. Braudel.3.sciencedaily.utm. Alan W. Retrieved 2008-05-11. ^ Verspohl. Agricultural Research magazine. (2005).1643. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". Retrieved 200808-05. Leslie.

Department of Export Agriculture. Onions can be used. one of the oldest vegetables. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. which it is not. and dehydrated forms. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. frozen. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. powdered.crazychefs. and Allium asarense R. They are known by the common name "onion" but. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. They are now available in . http://www. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved."[3] Uses Onions. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. used without qualifiers. chopped. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. canned. it usually refers to Allium cepa.

Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. In Bronze Age settlements. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets.[5] However. recent evidence has shown that dogs. and also to relieve headaches. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. snakebite and hair loss. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. transported and . athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. an onion can be sharp.crazychefs. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. cats. However. coughs.chopped or sliced. due to toxicity during digestion. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. Depending on the variety. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in http://www. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. In ancient Greece. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life.[5] The onion is easily propagated. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. spicy. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC.

4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0. B3) 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .21 mg Magnesium 0.013 g .046 mg 4% Riboflavin ( .Sugars 4.02 mg Vitamin K 0.saturated 0.crazychefs.polyunsaturated 0.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 g 1.4 mg Vitamin E 0. 0 μg 9. B2) 0.12 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.042 g .017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.34 g 0.Dietary fiber 1.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.monounsaturated 0. B1) http://www.7 g Fat .116 mg Vitamin B6 0.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.1 g 89.24 g .11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.

Texas 1015. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. Peruvian Sweet. onions are used to heal blisters and boils.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women.[10] In many parts of the world. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. Texas 1015.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. In the United States. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. pungent yellow (New York Bold). some studies have found their action to be ineffective. Imperial Valley Sweet.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. Texas 1015.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. anticholesterol.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through http://www. For all varieties of onions. Northern Red. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. followed by Western Yellow. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. Shallots have the most phenols. and Vidalia. eleven times the amount found in Western White. If you are allergic to onions. Imperial Valley Sweet. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. Imperial Valley Sweet. Mexico. and Vidalia. In general. Peruvian Sweet. Western White. Mexico.crazychefs. Empire Sweet. However. Empire Sweet. diabetes. Western White. anticancer. and other diseases. Northern Red.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. Peruvian Sweet. Western Yellow. Empire Sweet. . osteoporosis. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. garden lilies. chives. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. it can lead to an allergic reaction. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last).include reactions to onions. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from .[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. garlic. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. creating a stinging sensation. leeks. differs among Allium species. 2008. On January 31. As onions are sliced or eaten. where it binds to sensory neurons. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the http://www. breathing difficulties. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. diarrhea. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. ginger. cells are broken. allylpropyldisulfide. limiting the amount of gas generated. and bananas.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. all present in garlic. shallots.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. nausea. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. and the irritation effect. The volume of sulfenic acids released. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. therefore. Eye irritation can. mouth and throat ulcerations. allylmercaptan and allicin.

and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb http://www. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. which have been developed in more recent times. from sets started from seed the previous year.crazychefs. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. "short-day" onions. Finally. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. Allium fistulosum.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. more commonly today. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. the Welsh . which can be planted directly in the ground. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned.

Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.793 India 5.346 2. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.500 China United States 3. Vale.220 Turkey 1. each of which forms a bulb.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.758 Russia 1. Tree onion or Egyptian onion . Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.149 Spain World Total 64.crazychefs. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion. a hybrid of Allium cepas.302 1.764 Pakistan 1.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).Produce bulblets in the flower head. Oregon (USA).750 South Korea http://www.637 Japan Egypt . Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.

[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba.crazychefs. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural http://www.The Onion Futures Act. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United . It remains in effect as of 2009. passed in 1958. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ . sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. the most commonly used part of the plant. shallot. It has a characteristic pungent. known as garlic. commonly known as garlic.[1] A bulb of garlic. and chive.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Its close relatives include the onion. leek. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A.crazychefs. from William Woodville. Medical http://www. Allium sativum. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1793.

which grows wild in southwestern Asia.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. Garlic plants can be grown close together. the so-called elephant garlic. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. stems (scape). It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. In North America. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". The cloves are used as seed. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). and for medicinal purposes.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. Garlic is grown globally. The leaves. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. "crow garlic". and are easily grown in containers of sufficient . Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator.crazychefs. They can suffer from pink root. The papery. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. and Allium oleraceum. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. with Russia (1. according to Zohary and Hopf. with approximately 10. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. India (4. accounting for over 77% of world output. Allium vineale. respectively.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis.Yunnan province of China. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". for consumption (raw or cooked). In cold http://www. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature.[5] The "wild garlic". are common weeds in fields.

semiofficial. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. and parts of South and Central America. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data.000 125.000 221.686.000 645.088. the Middle East. P = official figure. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form.000 142.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.000 254. or ginger. A = aggregate (may include official. An alternative is to cut the top off the .000 15.810 168.Alaska) in fifth place (1. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. southern Europe. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. California. http://www.crazychefs. It is often paired with onion.4%). northern Africa.400 140. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. Southeast Asia. or estimates). south Asia.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. C = calculated figure. including eastern Asia.000 325. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press.000 128. F = FAO estimate.

and then stir-fried with eggs. United Kingdom and http://www. is sweet and syrupy. the resulting product. or vegetables. meats. oil. and a chunky base produce skordalia. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. The leaves are cut. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. Garlic.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. cleaned. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. salt. almond. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. Blending garlic. and roast them in an oven. They are also known as "garlic spears". or "tops". . If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. breads and pasta. "stems". The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. crostini and canapé. Immature scapes are tender and edible. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. meat. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. oil. garlic toast. In eastern Europe. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. and spices.crazychefs. In some cuisine. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. and is now being sold in the United States. called black garlic. In Japan and Korea.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. forming allyl methyl sulfide. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. Among the members of the onion cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. however.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. allylmercaptan and allicin. hung in windows. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. or leeks. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley.[51] To ward off vampires. and worms from eating the plant. However. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". where it is excreted. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. included in many garlic recipes.crazychefs. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. making garlic much more potent than onions.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. leeks. However. shallots. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. chives. werewolves. deterring animals like birds. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. shallots. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. and bananas. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. allylpropyldisulfide. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. such as pistou. garlic. garden lilies. all present in garlic. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. Humans. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. persillade.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic.[50] In Europe. and release of AMS several hours more.[48] Due to its strong odor. including onions. thus mellowing its spiciness.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The herb is. and vampires. ginger. insects. When eaten in quantity. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. Since digestion takes several hours. garlic could be worn. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito . Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. therefore. usually enjoy these sensations.

com http://www. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. antihypertensives.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. dizziness. indicated Muhammad.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. You can help by converting this article to prose. Garlic can thin the blood. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. calcium channel blockers. emesis. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. . "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque".[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. if any exist. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi".[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. minimal risks to normal individuals. In connection with the odor associated with garlic.crazychefs. and diarrhea. sweating. bleeding. antiparasitic value of garlic. if appropriate. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. However. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. are largely unknown. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. as well as other medications. and hypoglycemic drugs.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. at worst. allergic reactions. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. Editing help is available. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. indigestion. nausea. similar to the effect of aspirin.In Daoism mythology. saquinavir. and menstrual irregularities. and no FDA-approved study has been performed.

"Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. 4. http://www. A bulb of garlic. 197 5. split. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of .There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. 2.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. G. In particular. ^ http://www. Retrieved 2007-08-28. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (2005). Retrieved 5 June 2009. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. ^ McGee p. garlick)".jhortscib.natural-holistic-health. Ethiopia". et Retrieved 5 http://www.html 8. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. http://hdl.html. one the bulbs will grow peeled.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. ^ http://www. ^ a b Lee. 2000). 3. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. Domestication of plants in the Old World. is discouraged. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. topical use of raw garlic.htm.handle. 9. ^ a b c d et al.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. (2004). including burns to children.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. bigger. 112 7. third edition (Oxford: University Press.unigraz.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. http://www.crazychefs. J. 397 Notes 1.nj.

^ Mader FH (October 1990).lehoux/Tropes. 34. Hyg.01. and Mary U. ^ Kojuri J. ^ Durak I. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23..ama-assn. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". 15 (6): 373–7. U. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". 26. McFerren M (February 2007). Natl.S. http://personalpages. Oztürk HS. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. N. PMID 15157944. Accessed: December 18. 19. (Mrs. J..4.167. doi:10. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. PMID 17966136. et al (June 2004). 31.). 20. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". ^ Chan KC.1002/mnfr. doi:10. 30. and Empiricism" (PDF).200700072. 167 (4): 346–53." Int. 167 (4): 325–6. 16. et al (February 2007). 15. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Squadrito GL. PMID 17325291.2004. PMID 2291748. Akrami M (March 2007). PMID 17123684. Izzo AA (November 2007). 29. PMID 9641475. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. ^ 32. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. J. Chao WJ (March 2007). ^ a b Steiner M. doi:10. 25. http://archinte. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech).1186/1476-511X-6-5. Sartoratto. ^ Benavides GA. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . ^ Charlson M. 33. " Sylva. 2005 ^ Groppo. 5:109–115. (p. 104 (46): 17977–82. 24. PMID "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic".jnutbio.005. 12. PMID 17328819.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. PMID 17325296. J. Dent. et al (November 2007). Ferraresi.167. Lawson LD. doi:10.ama-assn. PMID 15218732.0705710104. 13. Sova P (May 2004). F. Daryn (2003). Nutr. 22.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. Arch. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. Block 54 | P a g e http://www. doi:10.325.. doi:10. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. 14. Güven C (2002). Sci. Med. Aytaç B. Biochem. Garlic. Yin MC. Maud. 27. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". A Modern Herbal. Vosoughi AR.346. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients".1001/archinte. 28. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. P. doi:10. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health ..1073/pnas. http://archinte. Intern. Arch. Facts. Olcay E. Kavutcu M. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007).1001/archinte. Intern.pdf. July 1. 11.1002/mnfr.. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. [2] ^ Hamel. 17.200700058. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". Ramacciato. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. 21. A. PMID 15277094.1162/106361403773062678. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. ^ Borrelli F. Mills RW. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". Lin RS (June 1998).1016/j.C.10. 5. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits".net/ . 23. PMID 17951430. 2006.A 400 Year History. Paul B.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. ^ Gardner CD. Better Nutrition. Capasso R. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. R. Herald Publishing Co. Med. Acad.4. Proc. 35. doi:10.manchester. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". Motta. ^ Durak I.crazychefs. 18.

Retrieved December 7. Summer 2005 . Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6.January 29. garlic advisory 63. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. Sanders N. Retrieved 2007-0707. Ali M (June 1996). 2007. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". ^ John S. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. (1991-08-01).". ^ "Allixin. Lau B.elsevier.htm 44. 65.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65.1099/mic. 38..JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. Scolaro M. Yoshida S. Houghton Mifflin. Patel R (January 2005).2005. Shishido C. 66.. 49. 211. ^ Macpherson et al. PMC: 538912.. PMID 16207909. PMID 11481410. 39.html 46.jst. Pickering p. In Search of Dracula. H. Volume 7. ^ Health Canada .Vol 9 No. a stress compound from garlic. ^ http://www. PMID 8441577. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). 41. 49 (1): 473. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. PMID 15616341. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. ^ a b c d Hogg. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. ^ Bukhari. ISBN 0-30436561-0.36. Toxicol. Chesson C.. Thomson M. 1988. Jennifer (2002-12-13).unito.html 45. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. .1. Long D.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe Teel R. NLM Gateway. 2007. p. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). Book 65 57. Yoffe B. ^ Fareed G.Garlic-in-Oil 61. ^ McNally p. Steckelberg JM. http://joi. ^ Shuford JA. Sumida T. 43. Castro C. 53.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. http://mic. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS Agents Chemother. Fuwa T. section "Conclusion" 48. ^ a b McNally..jst. http://aac. ^ Oi Y. "Garlic burns". 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. "Garlic burns". (2001). 64.".0. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. 049 . ^ http://washokufood. National Health Service. Matuura http://www.crazychefs. Nishimura S. 52. ^ Lemar KM. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association.28095-0. Slattery M. ^ McGee p.asm. Nishino H. 58.go. Sagi A. 211 51. Sterling Publishing. ^ Baruchin AM.473.go. ^ Kodera Y. James. PMID 8644128. Passa O. Ronen M (November 2001). Itakura sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. on mutagenesis.html 54. Lett..nhs. Engl. doi:10.) 62. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. ^ http://lem. et al (October 2005). UK Medicines Information. ^ Macpherson et al. Imafuku M.sgmjournals. 120. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter.goldbamboo. David (2003).jp/JST. 37. Bordia T. Retrieved 2009-01-30.49.elsevier. p. 42.1128/AAC. ^ Garlic . ^ http://www. Microbiology (Reading. http://linkinghub. 4 . ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. "Effect of allixin. W. Retrieved December 7. a phytoalexin produced by 40.pdf. Complementary Medicines Summary. Kominato Y. doi:10. Iwai K. (1989-01-30).org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257. 310–311 47. Aon MA. Raymond T (1994). 85 (3): 157–64. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".economicexpert. PMID 11600262. Jordan W.

Chatterjee. J. Am.crazychefs. H. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. Med. Block. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Zemah. Zhang. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. PMID 9355906. E. Hile. Yukihiro Kodera. Kraemer.. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. Naoki Kashimoto. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". D. Garty BZ (March 1993). E. Balise. Belz GG (October 1997). PMID 8506890.. R.. Hort. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. Kozue Ogasawara. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. Boudoulas H.. D. P. Block. 'Kyolic'.. Turner. Vargas R. Sci. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. D. Selfsufficientish . Breithaupt-Grögler K. 50. Lawson. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. L. Am. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. J. Campbell JH (July 1997). L.. R. 94 (6): 632–5. D. Lloyd. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. New York: Avery. E. D. G. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Susumu Yoshida. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. C. H. Z. Lawson. (2004). Shafir. Hamilton. A... (2001). Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Vol.Garlic. Masanori Ayabe. Makoto Ichikawa.elsevier. Shan. PMID 8441577. http://circ. Koch. L.ahajournals. "Garlic burns".References Japanese garlic. PMID 9247357. L. Pharm. (1996). and Related Species (Second Edition).. (1985).. Bull. H. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. A. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. Pharm. Block. 3rd ed.-Z. http://www. Balch. Andy (2004). Simmons DL. Williams & Wilkens.P. M. Bull. . 354-363 (2002).. 50. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. J. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. Rabinowitch (2004). Jain AK. (1992). Lemar. Campbell GR. 129: 144–151. http://linkinghub. Kamenetsky. C. I. (2000). Gotzkowsky S. Ling M. Garlic. Naoto Uda. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. 405-407 (2002). A. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and[青森県産]. Z. McMahon FG (June 1993). Soc.. [4] Lawson. Efendy JL. L. Block. Chem. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. E. M.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. K. Gardner. Retrieved 1 May 2005. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592– Barzilay. D. A. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). Vol. Isao Sumioka. Wang. Jiro Yoshida.M. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono.. Chem. The chemistry of garlic and onions. R. and H.

1128/AAC. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology.1. "The Onion Family: Onions. http://aac. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. (eds). Macpherson. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. PMID 15616341. Veena Viswanath. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder http://www. PMID 8169881. Geierstanger. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. Patel R (January 2005). Yeh. Cardiovasc. http://meta. Neil A (1994). Scribner. Yeh. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. 31 (6): 904–8. (1997). Eid. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis".2005. SunWook Hwang. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".K.asm. Salunkhe. Steiner M. Silagy C. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. (1999).12. Y-Y. et al. PMID 2291748. McGee. Marcel Dekker. Y-Y.. Shuford JA. Abstract. pp. PMC: 538912. J. Mader FH (October 1990).wkhealth. D. Agents Chemother. S. Pharmacol. Samer R.. Michael Bandell. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Garlic. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study".. et al. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Leeks". et al. Kadam.49. 310–3. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.. doi:10. Lin RS (June 1998). Bernhard H. Harold (2004). H. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".S. 49 (1): 473.crazychefs.Lindsey J.473. In: Ohigashi. PMID "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). (1998). FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. . Steckelberg

after which they develop into a bright red. Cloves are harvested when 1. when they are ready for collecting. syn. it is called đinh hương. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. In Vietnam. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu.crazychefs.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. and Sri .com http://www.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. Madagascar. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae.5-2 cm long. Pakistan. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. Zanzibar. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. terminating in four spreading sepals. and consist of a long calyx. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia.

but as they are extremely strong. which sells Djarum Black.000 tonnes). In Vietnamese cuisine. spleen and stomach meridians. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Cloves are used as a carminative. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green http://www. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. Cloves are used in cheeses. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). along with other spices. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. they are used sparingly. especially for digestive problems. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India.crazychefs. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. it is used in almost all dishes. but with the addition of other spices). Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic.[1] In north Indian cuisine. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. warm and aromatic. often in combination with cumin. cloves are often used to season pho broth. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. where it is often paired together with cumin and . Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. In south Indian cuisine. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. During Christmas. entering the kidney.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed.

most of the West Indies. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. Subsequently.crazychefs.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. It is also used in severe burns. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean stomach qi downward. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. Brazil. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. Moti. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). and Zanzibar. Ayurvedic herbalist K.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. and Tidore. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. including Bacan." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands).The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. pimples etc. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. including for multiple sclerosis. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million . and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. In the late fifteenth century. Khalsa. mainly from the Maluku Islands.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe.[7] Nevertheless. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. Makian. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. along with nutmeg and pepper.[6] History Until modern times. including cloves.P. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne.[7] Cloves. RH (AHG). Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. vomiting and diarrhea.[5] In West Africa. Ternate. were highly prized in Roman times. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of http://www. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets.

Jack (2004). Vintage Books. tannins. rhamnetin. methyl salicylate (painkiller). Medicine Plus. 8. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. ^ Dorenburg. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. 3rd ed. due to the high price of importing them. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. ^ Balch.[8] Notes and references 1.html Tilotson. xv. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. ISBN http://www. Karen.tibetmed. pg. and eugenitin.nlm. Steven Clavey. Steven Clavey. ^ http://www.squarespace. comprising 72-90%. crategolic acid. 5. Spice: The History of a . ^ a b Turner. pp. ^ "TibetMed . Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. Avery Publishing. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. Phyllis and Balch.. kaempferol. ©2000. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. John Wiley and Sons Inc.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. James. 2. and several sesquiterpenes. the flavonoids eugenin. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. Erich Stoger. Special Diets for Illness 6. gallotannic acid.nih.crazychefs. 3. and Andrew Gamble. ^ http://oneearthherbs.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. Erich Stoger. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". Andrew and Page. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. stigmasterol and campesterol.htm. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. © Alan.html National Institutes of Health.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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Retrieved 8 June 2009. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". Retrieved 10 November. doi:10. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. http://www. NPR.atypon-link. Vaishali C. Retrieved 8 June 2009. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". http://www.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . http://www. Ines et al. 3.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. 6.703.5555/jaoi.1542/peds. http://www. et al. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". (2006).com/AOAC/doi/abs/10. (2005). ^ Lederer. ^ International Organization for Standardization.3. ^ International Organization for Standardization. 18 May 2009 2. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974.2004-0058.1021/jf058156b. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook.Botanical nomenclature". "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -.htm?csnumber =4844. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the". Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. Retrieved 8 June 2009. 5.) -. http://www.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 .asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. ^ Louisa Lim.2005. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. 4. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角".net/ . PMID 15492355. f.iso.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. while Lederer et al. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. ^ Joshi.iso.htm?csnumber=19183. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook.

72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.crazychefs.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum .com http://www. native from the east Mediterranean to East India.

a member of the parsley family.crazychefs. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. the story goes. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. maduru. longitudinally ridged. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. being oblong in shape. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. parsley and dill. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. in Iran and Central Asia. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ .)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). cumin is known as kimyon. in northwestern China. Kerman. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. including kamūnu in Akkadian. locally called "Kermun". cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. and yellow-brown in colour. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. In Northern India and Nepal.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni .net/ . cumin is known as zireh. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον.com http://www. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. in Turkey. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. In Arabic.

India. Syria. today it is mostly grown in Iran. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real . excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. Turkey. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Uzbekistan. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. when added to hot milk and consumed. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. Egypt. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. Seeds. Morocco. and Chile.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean http://www.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times.crazychefs. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). Mexico. In Sri Lanka. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. In South Asia. and this practice continues in Morocco. Tajikistan. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe.

Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. and in some traditional breads from France. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. but are smaller and darker in . It is an herbaceous annual plant. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. Indian. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. popular in Indian. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. tacos. Northern Mexican cuisines.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. North African. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. Middle Eastern. and bahaarat. Contrary to popular belief in the http://www. pinnate or bipinnate. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. containing a single seed.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. curry powder. sofrito. curries. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. thread-like leaflets. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). The flowers are small. either ground or as whole seeds. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. Today. Pakistani. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. Cuban. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. and other Middle-Eastern. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. adobos. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder.crazychefs. enchiladas. white or pink. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. Sri Lankan. and borne in umbels. and is found in achiote blends. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. It is traditionally added to chili. garam masala.

and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates.81 g 8. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. and needs fertile.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.33 mg Vitamin K 5.24 g 22. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.very common in Mexican cuisine.5 g Fat . However. 64 μg 44. it is drought-tolerant. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.saturated 1. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.crazychefs.25 g . Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3. well-drained soil. B3) 4. hot summer of 3–4 months.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Sugars 2.579 mg Vitamin B6 0.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates .7 mg Vitamin E 3.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. Cultivation of cumin requires a long.27 g 17.435 mg Folate (Vit. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. It is grown from seed. sown in . B2) http://www. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.Dietary fiber 10. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).

).crazychefs.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. a chemical found in turmeric.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron.a cat and 'kotek' . In Swedish.v.a small cat). The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). For . Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. as in 'kot' . In Polish the difference is even less significant. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. Not related to curcumin. lighter in colour. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the http://www. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin".Zinc 4. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. However. to eat. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. from the Swedish word "spisa". cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".

"Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L.030.1302. ^ Growingtaste." premiumwanadoo. Lu et al. Rong. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. p. Retrieved 2008-03-13.html http://www. doi:10. ^ "KMN." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition).1021/jf0487351. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. ^ a b Wang. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . doi:10.05. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN".com 7. 4.1002/ffj.". 206 . 3. Domestication of plants in the Old Zi-Tao Jiang (2004).gov. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. www. Essential Oils". Nicola S. ^ a b Iacobellis. 2.aca. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b c Li. 9. ^ http://www. 2000. (2005).313. 2000). from China".crazychefs.1016/j. third edition (Oxford: University Press. et al. ^ "Kamūnu. doi:10. and Carum carvi L. 8.ars-grin. (2009).

com http://www. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.

In laboratory animals. shogaols and gingerols. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. and citral) have also been identified. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. http://www. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae).[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. medicine. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. sedative. and galangal. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have . cardamom. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. or spice. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. West Africa and the Caribbean. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids.

the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. stimulating the production of saliva. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. or frozen for longer term storage. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. For storage. Inji in Tamil. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. to which honey is often added. Alay in Marathi. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Adrak. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. in Tamil Nadu. In South India. ghee. Allam ( ) in Telugu. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. crackers and cake. salt. Additionally. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter.crazychefs. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. and ginger beer. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. and tender green chili peppers. and Aduwa in http://www. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. ginger ale. which makes swallowing easier. particularly gingerols and shogaols. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. Ginger has a sialagogue action. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. nuts.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. Ginger is also made into candy. enchi in Malayalam. cookies.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also . a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. in Gujarati. especially in the Tanjore belt. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. ginger is called Aada in Bengali.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. [edit] Regional use In India. and sugar. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil.

Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. a type of ginger beer. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. and making drinks such as sorrel. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. France. In Arabic.crazychefs. gingerbread. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. In China. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. parkin and ginger biscuits. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. is made. Greece. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the Ivory Coast. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. during their occupation of the . called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. and a variety of nuts and seeds. In Burma. In the traditional Korean kimchi.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. However. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). ginger snaps. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. In Vietnam. On the island of Corfu. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called http://www. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. In Western cuisine. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. In the Caribbean. In Japan. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. ginger is called gyin.

Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. though it does interact with some medications. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing .[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis.crazychefs. which several scientific studies support.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. morning sickness and chemotherapy. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. and used frequently for dyspepsia and http://www. though studies been inconsistent.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. cough and cold. including warfarin.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.

bloating. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. reducing "winds" in the blood. in food etc. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. belching and nausea. In Burma.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. particularly if taken in powdered form. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West.[14] In Congo. gas. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. In http://www. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. people use ginger for making tea. it is considered good for a sore throat. and heart rhythms. ginger can cause heartburn. and individuals who have had ulcers. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. and although it's generally recognized as . In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. In India. clotting. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. In the United States. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is considered a panacea. In Indonesia.

5%). Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates.crazychefs. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting.7%). washing and scraping gives white ginger. followed by Indonesia(~12.000 158. but this generally reduces its value. Traditionally.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). which has slipped to the second position (~20. with over 30% of the global share. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. it is immediately scalded.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. produces black http://www. or washed and scraped.000 F 177. Production trends India. now leads in global production of ginger. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale .Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. replacing China. Scalding. Nepal(~11.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

000 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. Also referred to as galangal. http://www. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine.000 34.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . but it is not related to true A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.000 8. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . The plant also contains aristolochic http://www.ars-grin. semiofficial or estimates). and its root has similar aromatic properties. is also known as "wild ginger". Retrieved 2008-03-03. Galangal is also called Thai ginger. Asarum canadense. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 42. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".000 28. a carcinogenic compound. A = Aggregate(may include official. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).net/ .Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138.270 is used in cooking and medicine. www. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family. F = FAO estimate.387. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine.arsgrin. galangal. the flower buds are the part eaten.contains ginger material References 1.

Antoine. http://archfami. (2007).). Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". ^ MD O' Hara. E.01. ^ McGee. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. http://www. Retrieved 8.cfm?displayID=15. Shih-Lu Wu. David . ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Harold (2004). Retrieved 2007-08-06.2. Susan (2007-01-15). ^ Al-Amin. http://www. doi:10. New York: Scribner pp. Li-Jiau Huang. MD.cambridge. 14. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. 15. Sheng-Chu Kuo. Retrieved 2007-08-02. "Beverage of Champions". "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF).html. "Ginger". ^ Chen. Retrieved (inactive 2008-06-25). Retrieved 2007-08-02. Tin-Yun Ho. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". 4.7.oxfordjournals. PMID 9821826. 10. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. MD.ucla. http://journals. MPH (1998).com 12. Retrieved 2006-09-06. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. Kathi Kemper. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". doi:10. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by (2006).crazychefs. & Pittler. 11.html. doi:10. 13. ^ Ernst.1021/jf071460f. & MSt. ^ http://www. Ali Taghizadeh et al. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. doi:10. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. ^ Jakes. 9. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. Jaw-Chyun.library.H.1016/j. http://timeblog. ^ Afshari.uspharmacist. MD. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice".. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). Retrieved 2007-0808. http://bja. 425-426. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367– Retrieved 5 November. Mary.foodchem. 3. Zainab M. 6. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". PMID 10793599. http://www.umm. Kim Farrell.mayoclinic.amaassn.htm&pub_i d=8& "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". (01 Mar 2000). http://unitproj. et 7.

turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. In medieval Europe. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron . and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family.crazychefs. For these reasons. Zingiberaceae. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. Erode. and to impart color to mustard condiments. for dyeing. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in http://www. slightly bitter.

but also in masak lemak. Over-coloring. and mustard. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. yellow cakes. not only in curry. and many more. relishes.[citation needed] Sangli. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. turmeric is also used fresh. powdered form. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. sauces. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. Although usually used in its dried. popcorn color. orange juice. Turmeric City. cereals. biscuits. sweets. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. dairy products. such as in pickles.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. much like ginger. ice cream. In non-South Asian recipes.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. cake icings.crazychefs. yogurt. custardlike yellow color. gelatins. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric).Yellow City. http://www. rendang. or Textile City.

and other digestive disorders.[4] cancer. burns and bruises. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. an uncurable and debilitating disease. It is unknown why it works. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. Within one week of using turmeric. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. is also treated with turmeric powder.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. dry mixes. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. Japan.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. yogurt. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. salad dressings. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). winter butter and margarine. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. a traditional dish in South Asia. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease.In combination with annatto (E160b). are spiced with turmeric. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). . in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries.

This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. and the U.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. found in black pepper. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. and Pakistan. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric.S.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. Bangladesh. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of . which supports nerve growth. Bangalore.crazychefs. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. Alzheimer's. multiple myeloma. Snake Bite Anti venin. research activity into curcumin is exploding. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. or BDNF. John‘s Medical College. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some http://www. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . improves the absorption of turmeric. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. In 1998 researchers at St. with no adverse effects. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. and colorectal cancer. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India.

turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. During the south Indian festival Pongal. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. such as saris. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. However. and coconut and cooked in steam. Also. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial http://www. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. In southern India. This happens in economically lower situations.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. part of the Bengali wedding. as a part of the marriage ritual. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. and it is used for power and purification rites.crazychefs. jaggery. particularly in North India and the Deccan . The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire.

Rajendran R.ars-grin. Majeed ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. Srinivas PS. 75300. Shoba G. et al.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect.I.6E) Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. 64(4) .2008. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Joy Retrieved June 2009. E. Retrieved 2008-03-04.foodchem. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . Judy] (June 2009). It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. Notes | accessyear = 2009}} 3.090. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". AOL Health.W.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.07. Joseph T. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.ars-grin. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. 2. ^ [|Ketteler. ^ http://news. 1998 May. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN" "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". or Natural Yellow 3. keto and enol.1016/j. a polyphenol.aolhealth. ^ Chan.crazychefs. ^ http://www. (2009). See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.stm 5. Planta Med. http://www.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1. www. The systematic chemical name is (1E.172.

The nut is round. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. hence its name.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. also known as Candleberry. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. The leaves are pale http://www. Indian walnut.9 in) long. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World .6–2. Kemiri. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. with an acute apex. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. flowers.9–7. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. which allows its use as a candle (see below). is a flowering tree in the spurge family. 10–20 centimetres (3.4 in) in diameter. simple and ovate. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). 4–6 centimetres (1. Euphorbiaceae.) Willd. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft).

[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. fevers. giving them greater underwater visibility. In Malaya. In Java. the nuts. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. lit one end. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. they are mildly toxic when raw. named kukui were burned to provide light. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. ulcers. burned with charcoal. This led to their use as a measure of time. are applied around the navel for costiveness. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. In Sumatra. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. leaves and flowers. Outside of Southeast http://www. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. In Hawaiʻi. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. as the candlenut is much more . The flavor. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. is quite different. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. On the island of Java in Indonesia. including: leis from the shells.crazychefs. however. swollen joints. pounded seeds. a varnish with the oil. and gonorrhea. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil.

whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). tukilamulamu. still nowadays. 4. Bess Press. protection and peace. Being a kind and just woman. ^ Dunford. was routinely beaten. University of Hawaii Honda. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). ISBN 9781573061377. Mikiala Liana I. Lilinoe Andrews. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. This larva is eaten by some people. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 50-51. One of the legends told of a woman who. ^ "Kukui". Betty. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. Beatrice H. despite her best efforts to please her husband. http://books. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. used as soap or shampoo. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. Hawaiians of Old (3 The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. Craig Thomas (2000). "Chapter 4: Canoes". each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. 5. 122. http://books. and the husband was eventually killed. she was given new life. (1993). and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. ^ Scott. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade.). Susan. Retrieved 2009-03-06.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for http://www.[citation needed] References 2. p. . p.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). In plantations. University of Hawaii Press. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻ http://canoeplants. ripe nuts.[5] In Tonga. ^ Krauss. 26. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. the god of agriculture.crazychefs. pp. ISBN 9780824822514.

Konkani:miriya konu. . Kannada:meNasu. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. green peppercorns are simply the immature black http://www. Telugu:miriyam. . red pepper (as in bell or chile). is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. unrelated plants. known as a peppercorn when dried. may be described as black pepper. However. Malayalam:kurumulaku.crazychefs. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. . The fruit. which is usually dried and used as a spice and . and very often simply pepper. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Peppercorns. .[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. cultivated for its fruit. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. containing a single seed. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. dark red when fully mature. The terms pink peppercorns. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. green pepper. white pepper.

the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. Once dried. the spice is called black peppercorn. Dutch peper. In the 16th century. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. with the skin of the pepper removed. and other similar forms. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali.S.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. in the early 20th century. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. chemical or biological methods.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. often alongside table salt. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. this was shortened to pep. White pepper consists of the seed only. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world.. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same . both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through http://www. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days.[4] In the U.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. French poivre. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. including decortication. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. wrinkled black layer.crazychefs. and the naked seed is dried. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine.

crazychefs.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. with a bright aroma. Pickled peppercorns. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns".[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. the Peruvian pepper tree. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. largely unknown in the West. http://www.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo.Black. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. Schinus terebinthifolius. which is mostly no longer an issue.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. like black. particularly Thai cuisine. Fresh. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. made from the largest. from Bangka Island. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. unpreserved green pepper berries.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). is made from the unripe berries. also green. are used in some Asian cuisines. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. Schinus molle. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green .

The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn . The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. well-drained and rich in organic matter. Competing plants are cleared away. poles. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. moist. and before the fruit is mature.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. The cuttings are usually cultivars. The leaves are alternate. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes.crazychefs. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. entire. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark.[11] Black pepper is native to India. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. It is a spreading http://www. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. if allowed to ripen. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. the berries lose pungency. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. and ultimately fall off and are lost. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. or trellises. but when full grown and still hard. The flowers are small.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding.

[14] J. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. its most important source was India. particularly the Malabar Coast.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times.crazychefs. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. Chile peppers. the dried fruit of closely related Piper http://www. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". The term "peppercorn rent" still exists . were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. in what is now the state of Kerala. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. In fact.

net/ .Until well after the Middle Ages. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. changed the course of world history. Malaysia. this trade advantage. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. but these areas traded mainly with China. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. the Middle East. barged to Alexandria. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. Trade routes of the time were by land.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. nor how it reached the Nile from India. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. growing in the north-western part of India. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. probably made black pepper less popular at the http://www. Black pepper. Returning from India. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome.crazychefs. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. Long pepper. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. According to the Roman geographer Strabo.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. or used the pepper locally. Madagascar. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. Sunda. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. pepper was also being grown in Java. Sumatra. By the 16th century. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. along with other spices from India and lands farther east.

who travelled east to India. seasoning in the Roman Empire. clad in a wrinkled cover. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. pepper was a luxury item. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. it is sometimes their sweetness. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. There is no evidence to support this claim. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . 12. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. seeing that in other substances which we use. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. After the fall of Rome.H. especially Venice and . Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. I season delicacies. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen.. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or http://www. while that of white pepper is seven. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. and of black. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. Apicius' De re coquinaria. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. and the luxuries of the table.[22] In addition. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. Once into the Mediterranean. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. the banquets of kings. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. I wonder.crazychefs. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. whereas. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. Similarly.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages.. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. four. and the prices reflected it. first the Persians and then the Arabs. affordable only to the wealthy. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. if expensive.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. Edward Gibbon wrote. is fifteen denarii per pound.

Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. the effect is small." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. as well as around Africa.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. has some antimicrobial properties. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. "we seek Christians and spices. In 1498. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. However. and salt-cured meats were common fare.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. his representative replied. Pepper harvested for the European trader. In the 17th century. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). especially in winter. A depiction of Calicut. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. Pepper.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade.crazychefs. .

— Alice in Wonderland (1865). He was told it came from the markets of Shu.[25] In the 3rd century CE. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time.[26] By the 12th century. Like many eastern spices. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. was often the preferred medication. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). including long pepper. joint pain. http://www. as hujiao or "foreign pepper".crazychefs. being stronger. hernia. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. insomnia. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. each load being equal to 223 lbs. but both were used.000 pounds (4. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. earache. as well as she could for sneezing. Long pepper. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. oral abscesses. diarrhea. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. hoarseness.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. however. Note the cook's pepper mill. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. lung disease. gangrene."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". either long or black.. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. liver problems. but if this estimated 10. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. insect . heart disease. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ".

sunburn. limonene. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. causing the sneezing. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. and linalool. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. sabinene. which is stripped of the fruit layer.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk.[31] Also. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. Few. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. irritates the nostrils. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. Refined piperine. vitamin B. left on black pepper. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. a mildly carcinogenic compound. which give . being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. and floral notes. milligram-for-milligram. if any. Some sources say that piperine.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. caryophyllene. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper.[31] As a medicine. a substance present in black http://www. The outer fruit layer. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. and toothaches. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. tooth decay. woody. chapter five.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage.

India (19%). Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. are used for this. Brazil (13%). pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 short tons). but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. India. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders").Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. by monetary value.crazychefs.000 t (391. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns.[33] Once ground.000 t (299. As of 2008. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. The price of pepper can be volatile. but has fallen to just over 271. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this http://www.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. Malaysia (8%). Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of . dispensers of pre-ground pepper. for example. Thailand (4%). the most widely traded spice in the world. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Sri Lanka (6%).[35] By weight. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. and China (6%). sometimes instead of pepper shakers. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008.

poor crop management. 80 16. ^ J. 8. Retrieved 6 November 2005. ^ Peppercorns. disease and The riddle's answer is of course pepper.2307/2657072. 12. http://www. http://www. Alejandra (2001). 200803-27.pd f. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Egyptian Pharaoh. ^ Katzer. 10. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. ^ a b Jaramillo. 6. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08).com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF).pl?28589.efloras. ^ Translation from Turner. 4. Retrieved 2008-01-29. ^ Innes Miller.thehindubusinessline. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper.000 short tons). 18. and Builder. Vietnam dominates the export market. 19. p. http://www. Innes Miller. ^ Ochef. 1969). from Penzey's 14. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). The Spice Trade. using almost none of its production domestically.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. 7. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Pepper. ^ Dalby p. p. 88. Retrieved 2008-03-02. http://books. Gernot (2006).htm. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. Flora of China. Text online. Retrieved 6 November 2005. http://www. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares.[36] Notes 1. Compass Point Books. 83 21. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon 2. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 20. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. The Hindu Business line. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. Warrior. Using fresh green peppercorns. Retrieved 13 November 2005. Retrieved 12 August 2006.000 t (99.M1. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. PMID 11302858.da. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". 5. 11. ISBN 0375407219. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. 2006-1120. doi:10. Spice. ISBN 075653836X. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN".amjbot.crazychefs. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well.ars-grin. Random House. p . 3. Retrieved 17 October 2006. 13. Black pepper is marica. Ramses II. http://www.

428. 108–109. Dover. http://books. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 726. table 2. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. doi:10.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper" ds/IndiaSpices. Buddhist Monastic Code II. 171. Duke (1993-08-16). Retrieved 2008-01-29. 30. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. Cambridge University Press. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. ^ Jaffee p. ^ Turner p. 204. 33. 27. Dorman and S. 29. 2005. Andrew (2002). ISBN 0520236742.00969.x. ^ "Karvy's special Reports .ch05. 28.pdf. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils".karvycomtrade.worldbank. Berkeley: University of California Press. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. ^ H. G. ^ Dalby p. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. ISBN http://www.html.22. ^ Turner p. 25. 31. 77. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji ^ Dalby p. . p. References Dalby.pdf.S. http://www. 2. 74–75. purchase required. Hamlyn.2000. 32. p. ^ Jaffee p. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). Dangerous Tastes. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. ISBN http://www. ISBN 0521367085.crazychefs. "Spices. ^ a b McGee p.1365-2672. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. Vol. Retrieved November 12.accesstoinsight. Alan (2002). Karvy Comtrade Limited. 395. 35. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). ^ U. CRC Press. Larousse Gastronomique. 2008-05-15. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. Davidson. ISBN TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. ^ Dalby pp. http://books. ^ Montagne. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. http://siteresources. ^ a b James s_20080515_01. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Jaffee. Deans (2000). 26. Prosper (2001). "Mill"." 24. also Turner pp. Full text at Blackwell website. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. 156. D. 10. 12. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. J. pp. 23. Steven (2004). 160. ISBN 0600-60235-4.1046/j.

427– http://www. Turner. Jack (2004).McGee. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). . Spice: The History of a Temptation. London: Vintage Books. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Scribner. Harold (2004). OCLC 61213802.crazychefs. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Black Pepper and Relatives". annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. OCLC 56590708. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. ISBN 0375707050.

4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.057 mg 4. B1) 0.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.224 mg Folate (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. Today. yellow. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.Pepper.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .crazychefs. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian http://www. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. .Sugars 2. Peppers are native to Mexico. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Dietary fiber 1.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.64 g 0. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.40 g .099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0. B3) 0. B2) 0. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. Central America and northern South America.17 g 0. green and orange. including red.

but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. the word ピーマン ("pîman. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. and Pennsylvania. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. they are called "capsicum". rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. g. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. regardless of their color. It is eaten with fried noodles. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. " In Japan. like pasta. Sweden. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper").Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. which are green and yellow. instead of using as a spice. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. in Dutch. meaning pepper-fruit. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". "groene paprika". At that time peppercorns. "gele paprika". which has its roots in the word for pepper. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. meaning Big pepper. In British English. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. respectively). and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. were a highly prized condiment. With the similar meaning. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. an unrelated plant. "green pepper"). the fruit of Piper nigrum.g. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. In France it is called "poivron". Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language.crazychefs. In Norway. such as Australia. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. the term "paprika". 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "red pepper". In Argentina it's called "Morrón". Indiana." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets).net/ . In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani".com http://www. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). Malaysia and New Zealand. Grilled. "Miris" is Chilli. When cut off. In the United States and Canada. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". meaning Bulgarian pepper.. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. Across Europe. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". India. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. or "piment. In parts of Ohio.

pink. more . in various soups and stews. It is eaten as a raw snack. aqua. blue. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. violet. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. orange and. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. yellow.crazychefs. red. depending on when they are harvested and the specific http://www. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. rainbow. in salads. purple. Varieties The color can be green. black and brown. maroon. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. yellow or orange peppers. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. white.

com http://www. indigenous to Europe.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint .Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. Peppermint (Mentha ×[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.foodreference.crazychefs. [1]) is a hybrid mint. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. ^ http://www. The . a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). balsamea Willd. also known as M.

crazychefs. and 120 recorded. it is usually sterile.6–3. 84. and bare fibrous roots.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. he treated it as a species. including stream sides and drainage ditches. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively.20 in) diameter. with smooth stems. The chromosome number is variable. fleshy. with a few exceptions. dark green with reddish veins. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm ( http://www. blunt spikes. forming thick.24– 0.5–4 cm (0. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. spreading by its rhizomes. square in cross section.59–1.31 in) long.5 in) long and 1. Flowering is from mid to late summer. If placed. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. noted since 1843[8].net/ . Being a hybrid. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. it can grow anywhere.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. 6–8 mm (0.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. with 2n counts of 66. The flowers are purple. 72.6 in) cm broad.

with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl http://www.crazychefs. particularly menthyl acetate. and is often used as a flavouring in tea. confectionery. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. and toothpaste.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content.1.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. ice cream.[10] Similarly. chewing .[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. thus promoting belching.

Eau De Cologne Mint). 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Galápagos Islands. Foliage lime-scented. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. [18].net/ . and it is considered invasive in Australia. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. If you choose to grow peppermint. It needs a good water supply. which they then call "after-dinner mints. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole http://www. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Leaves aromatic." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. and contribute only their own spearmint genes.[12] Outside of its native range. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. it is advisable to plant it in a container. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose.crazychefs. New Zealand. as a natural insecticide. [21]. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results.[13] and in the United States. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. A mild. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. Stems reddish. hairless. Leaves wrinkled. [16]. In addition to that. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants.

C.. ^ a b Akdogan. 11. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". G. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. . ^ EcoSMART Product label 13.02.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 .who. 5. doi:10. (2007).2007. ed. ^ a b Blamey. page 640.glu.pdf. Thomson Healthcare. Mentha L. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. ed. http://www. M. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints.1016/j. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. Mehmet (2004). "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387.dld. ^ a b Huxley..[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 http://www. A. ISBN 978-1563636783 10. ^ Cappello. C. Flowers open from bottom ^ World Health Organization. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. ISBN 0-34040170-2 2. (1992). A. et al. 4th Edition. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". M.006. http://whqlibdoc.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". ^ Harley. a popular confection. R. & Grey-Wilson. C. ^ Linnaeus. 6. 9.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. In: Stace. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. (1975). Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . Retrieved 3 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-07. (1753). (1989).

iso.. Retrieved 3 June.. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. ^ Sharma. http://www3. Mehmet (2003). on kidney tissue in rats". "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L.159. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .com/journal/118500486/abstract.)". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". http://www.htm. http://tih.S. doi:10.htm. Frédéric et al. Mehmet et al. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. 27.crazychefs. ^ a b c Jullien. ^ Akdogan.2740311104. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.D.htm?csnumber=32041.Specification". http://het. Retrieved 8 June (2007). Zheljazkov.. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 .sagepub.257. 25. paraquat. ^ Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .10): 119 .org/books/629/629_21. Retrieved 3 June. Retrieved 6 June 2009. Bienvenu (1998). Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .org/iso/ .com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". http://www. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)".iso. Plant Cell.16. Bienvenu (1999). ^ International Organization for Standardization. F.actahort. doi:10.actahort.interscience.219.122. populations. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. V.)".1023/A:1006185103897.1071/AP99036. Retrieved 7 June 2009.1151. 19. ^ International Organization for Standardization. http://www. (2004). ^ Edwards.1002/jsfa.28. Retrieved 6 June 2009.E. 23. J.. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . 21. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats".htm?csnumber=4844. Ambika et al. Retrieved 7 June 2009.224. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . http://www.E. Derek R. D.sagepub. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. et al. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev.sagepub. ^ Farley.wiley.iso. Retrieved 3 http://www. F. Retrieved 3 June. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. ^ Adamovic. ^ International Organization for Standardization. Valerie Howland (2006). 24. 18. 20. and Mentha spicata L. http://het. doi:10. 17. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". S. Australia"..

is a vegetable which belongs. also sometimes known as Allium porrum. although different in their uses as food.) J. porrum (L. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum .Gay The leek. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum.crazychefs. along with the onion and garlic. the elephant garlic and kurrat. Two related http://www.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. porrum (L. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. to the Alliaceae family. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.). Allium ampeloprasum var.

intended for harvest in the season when planted.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. Once established in the garden. and overwintering leeks. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in . Growing Leek field in Houthulst. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following http://www. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. to be planted out as weather permits. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue.crazychefs. leeks are hardy. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. and they have few pest or disease problems.

having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. Fried. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. which can be used in salads. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. due to the layered structure of the leek. although less bitter than scallion. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. The tender core may be eaten. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. It has a fresh smell similar to . leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. as the leek ages. carrots and potatoes and different meats. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie http://www.Cuisine Leeks for sale. Raw. In its raw state. along with leek soup. but. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. The onion-like layers form around a core. which turns it soft and mild in taste. Lamb is the most popular.crazychefs.

8 g Fat . as well as other recipes with leeks. who consumed it most often in soup. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.Sugars 3.saturated 0.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. 83 μg 14.15 g 0. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.C. B1) 0.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates . providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.04 g .4 mg Vitamin B6 http://www. onwards.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit. B3) 0.E.Dietary fiber 1.E. B2) 0. In her book.9 g . pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient .004 g . as well as wall carvings and drawings.3 g 1.233 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.polyunsaturated 0.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.crazychefs.monounsaturated 0.C.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.

Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. According to one legend. In the play.crazychefs. Shakespeare. representing Wales. you know. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. and is worn—or the daffodil—on . David‘s Day.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. for example. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed http://www. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. good countryman. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field.12 mg recommendations for adults. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V.Vitamin E 0. . ^ Jane Grigson. Knopf. Mireille.Notes http://www. (Penguin Books. ^ Guiliano. French Women Don't Get Fat. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. third edition (Oxford: University Press. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. 2000). 3. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. Domestication of plants in the Old World.. 1978.

(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. Celery. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.Dietary fibre 1. with fewer than 100 individuals http://www. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.6 g Fat Protein Water 0. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.Sugars 2 g 3g . 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable.2 g 0. dulce) or celeriac (var.

In temperate countries. birds. often used as a base for sauces and soups. celery is also grown for its seeds. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). dogs. such as chicken noodle soup. horses. 30 AD. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots.crazychefs. and in Old Bay Seasoning. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. Actually very small fruit. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. on the Chicago-style hot dog. and small rodents. Celery. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. Celery is a staple in many http://www. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. onions. as celery . squirrels. Celery. onions. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed].[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. Celery salt is used as a seasoning.

for people with celery allergy. have to be clearly marked as http://www. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. foods that contain or may contain celery.crazychefs. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. even in trace amounts. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. father of the Cabeiri. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss . the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. making avoiding such foods difficult.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. However. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. M." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. they note "since A. Lemnos and Thebes.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium.[8] In the European Union. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC).[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. In Homer's Iliad. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. at Kastanas. Celery contains androstenone. however.

sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). produced in dense compound umbels. and Praetors feasts. white and red.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. splits. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. . fields are harvested only once. as the Grace of the whole Board".and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. apium Italicum. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. insect damage and rot). as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term.. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. shape. 2–3 mm diameter. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by http://www. the whole plant having a coarse. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. many of which differ little from the wild species. They are ranged under two classes. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. In the past. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. seleri. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. The plants are raised from seed. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. Under optimal conditions. In North America. at our Great Mens tables. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. and the most crisp and tender.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking..5–2 mm long and wide. borrowed from Greek. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. sweetish. 1. due to extremely uniform crop growth.crazychefs. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. and a distinctive smell. straightness and thickness of petiole. but the leaves may be used in salads. The flowers are creamy-white. earthy taste. from the Latin selinon.[14] With cultivation and blanching. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant.

^ R.17:1697-1699. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Natural History XIX. (3rd ed. 10. ^ D. ^ Celestin J.L. p. Western Journal of Medicine 158.ucdavis. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82.46. Thayer translation [1] 4. ^ "Smallage". C (1753). Thomson. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. ^ William Robinson and W. . Retrieved 2009-05-03. Ko SN. ^ OED. M. 13.[16] References 1. ^ snopes. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables.practicallyedible. (Laurentii Salvii). Lee LG. 1920). 14. ^ Bublin M. Holmiae. M. Wilson IBH. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal.crazychefs. (2005). "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". Scheiner O. P. s. Post-harvest technology research and information center. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". 16. Radauer C. ^ Calcium sources 7. http://postharvest. 9. Heiner DC.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery.. and proper sanitation.v.202.shtml. 3. Retrieved 2008-03-04. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). ^ Celsus. 227. 2.. Zohary and M. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. ^ a b Fragiska. West J.6 (June 1993): 610-611. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis".com http://www. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. ^ Pliny. http://www. 15. et al. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens".com: Celery and Negative Calories 6. gentle handling. 8.nsf/pages/smallage. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. 2000) p. de Medicina. ^ Teng CM.. "Celery". Kraft D. 11. T. (2002-06-10). Hopf. ^ Cantwell.

com http://www. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.Sugars 96.crazychefs. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.91 g .01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B2) 0. see sucrose. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. Magnification of grains of sugar.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97. (Discuss) For other uses. For the common table sugar. brown Nutritional value per 100 g ( . see Sugar (disambiguation).03 g Riboflavin (Vit.Sugars 99.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .21 g .98 g 0g 0g 0.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. Sugar.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. sugar maple (in maple syrup).77 g Thiamine (Vit.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and fructose. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. sorghum.Water 1. mainly sucrose.026 mg Folate (Vit. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. lactose.crazychefs. B2) 0. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. but also appears in fruit.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions. obesity and tooth decay. It forms the main ingredient in candy. and in many other sources. B3) 0.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. B1) 0.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc . http://www.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit.

molasses or treacle.[4] It came to English by way of French. means "pebble". Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb).net/ . the Italian word zucchero. preservation. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Popular In non-scientific use. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). Spanish and/or Italian. such as glucose. Etymology In the case of sugar. Generically known as "syrups". Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. "dextrose". etc. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. In this informal sense. the Spanish word azúcar. and texture) of beverages and food. zahari. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of http://www. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity.) will likely denote a sugar. (Compare the OED. "fructose". Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. including palm sugar and fructose. Scientific Scientifically. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar.) The Greek word for "sugar". Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars.crazychefs. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). In a list of ingredients. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose".

Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. important molecules in the body. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. deoxyribose.containing http://www. as its name suggests. making the sugars reactive. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. This includes all the sugars referred to above. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. 2. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. and 4 or more monosaccharide units . disaccharides. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). plus sugars naturally present in honey. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides .Culinary sugars Grainier. Natural sugars come in fruit. raw sugar. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. Sugars include monosaccharides. syrups and fruit juices. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. 3. cook or consumer.crazychefs. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. A notable exception. has a "missing" oxygen atom. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

water (H2O) per bond.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). producing invert sugar. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. which has the formula C6H12O6. This resulting syrup. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance.made from one glucose and one fructose). which is made of glucose. Note for example http://www. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. If combined with fine ash. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. Monosaccharides include fructose. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. or DNA. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. After digestion and absorption. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. fructose. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. sugar will burn with a blue flame. In these closed-chain forms. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). sweeter than the original sucrose. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. glucose. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. lactose (milk sugar . 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. including NADH and ATP. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. with less than . Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. galactose and mannose. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar .crazychefs. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. and galactose. proteins connected to one or more sugars. which form part of nucleic acids. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group.

Sugar Blues. Blackwell Publishing. 5. Sugarcane.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. The International Sugar Trade. Joseph and Mike Carlson. Glyn (2004).webmd. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. Cambridge: Woodhead." Powder and Bulk References Adas. ISBN 063205476X. James.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0.80 g/ml Notes 1. 4." http://men.Bulk Density Chart.illovosugar. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. ^ scientificpsychic.crazychefs.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. Michael (January 2001).56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. OCLC 51837990 2.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. ^ "Engineering Resources .net/ . Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Temple University Press. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. ISBN 1566398320. History of Science and Technology in Islam. ^ Wuebben. A C Hannah. OCLC 44493265.htm 3. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. ^ International sugar statistics http://www.

The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. especially in the Netherlands. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. Products for industrial use (e. for light brown sugar.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. It http://www.25% of the total volume). Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. Although in some ." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking.g. Brown sugar contains from 3. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. sugar beet molasses is used. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft.crazychefs. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. without mixing them separately. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs.35 mm. however.

One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. In other applications. Nutritionally. much like adding molasses would do.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar.crazychefs. as opposed to white sugar. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. in his studies (cited in "Pure. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar.[2] John Yudkin. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. The effort was so successful that by 1900. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). White and Deadly" . Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of http://www. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. apart from pure . brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar.[1] However. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. History In the late 1800s. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring.

Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. 32-33 5. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar".htm#sugarmade. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess measuring cup containing muscovado (left). damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. but most is now produced in Mauritius. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. Demerara is another unrefined. 6. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar".php?id=3026. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. References 1. http://www. or Demerara sugar. http://www.fao. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and binado_Sugar. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. cane sugar. centrifuged. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. There is more molasses in natural brown resulting in the characteristic large.3 fao. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. which is then . light brown. an island off Africa. light brown. ^ Levenstein. crystals. giving it a higher mineral content. where sugar cane was grown.csrwire. 4. Muscovado.". 7. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar http://www.wholesomesweeteners. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. Retrieved 2008-09-20. ^ New Scientist. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. 3. http://www.1. largecrystalled. 2.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup.crazychefs.html.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed.htm#bm07. Retrieved 2008-09-20.

which some use to prevent caking. including humans. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. Chloride and sodium ions. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems.[citation needed] Conversely. but toxic to most land plants. and iodized salt. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt).Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. refined salt (table salt). Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. the two major components of salt. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body.crazychefs. pale pink or light gray in color. including high blood pressure. . This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. It is a crystalline http://www.

especially for http://www.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. however. glass.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC.crazychefs.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . and the dye Tyrian purple. the caravans still transported some 15. as were salted birds and salt fish.000 tons of salt. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). in the millennia before then. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. salt provided the best-known food preservative. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. In 1960.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.

" a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. the Roman exonym for the Celts.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. water. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork".crazychefs. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt.[1] It is widely. taking their names from hal(l)-. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". the Hallstatt Celts. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". the earliest being the story of Lot's wife.Salzburg. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. though incorrectly. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. Hallstatt. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.also gave us Gaul. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and . within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. Halych in Ukraine. and Egyptian.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. a root for salt found in Celtic. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. salz. God sent down four blessings from the sky . In many Pagan religions esp. During the first millennium BC.) In the Sermon on the Mount. (Judges 9:45. Greek.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. began open pan salt http://www. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. which was illegal under British rule. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. who had heretofore mined for salt.[citation needed] The root hal(l). as it avoided paying the "salt tax".

Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations.[9] The Ancient http://www. such as in Sumo Wrestling.crazychefs. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt .[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. Halite. In Aztec mythology.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt.

which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. After the raw salt is obtained. Fleur de sel. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. food uses account for 17. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency http://www.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. which are kiln-dried.5% of salt production. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). giving each one a unique flavor. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide.[12] However.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. Refined salt. and thus is rarely eaten. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. One example are bath salts. In recrystallization. Purification usually involves recrystallization. and the making of soaps and detergents.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. natural sea salt harvested by hand.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. which is most widely used presently. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. Injected water dissolves the salt. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. has a unique flavor varying from region to region.Different natural salts have different mineralities. is mainly sodium .[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. Today.

[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. sodium aluminosilicate. calcium silicate.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. calcium or magnesium http://www. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. condiments such as soy sauce. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. and a bulk density (dry.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. magnesium oxide. but was determined to be unnecessary. however. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate.crazychefs.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. Some people also add a desiccant.154 g/cm3. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. Single-serving salt . ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1.165 g/cm3. Table salt has a particle density of 2. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. fatty acid salts (acid salts). silicon dioxide. and calcium aluminosilicate. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride.[29] However. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough.

In Canada. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[32] Another additive. iodized salt is more common in the United States. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. potassium. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. In the United States. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9).net/ . In France. dizziness. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans.[33] Drinking too much water. fluorinated table salt is available. cretinism in children. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. neurological problems. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. even fatal. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide.crazychefs. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. and myxedema in adults. which can cause goitre.[31] Today. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. magnesium. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. sodium iodide. or even an electrolyte disturbance. which gives the table salt a yellow color. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. specifically endemic goiter. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. or sodium iodate. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. especially important for pregnant women. which can cause severe.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. with insufficient salt http://www. The reason for this is unclear.

Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. salt consumption is higher.crazychefs." ([41]. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. independently of blood pressure effects. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. in Japan. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 http://www. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions.[38] heartburn. It can exacerbate renal disease.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma." ([41] p3). such as in treatment of dysautonomia.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. forced salt intake.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. combined with an inadequate intake of water. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are . the risks have been exaggerated for most people.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). since salt was quite valuable). or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal." ([44]. p18) However. can cause hypernatremia." ([41]. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Some isolated cultures.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of . http://www. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. SACN states.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. have been found to consume little salt. A salt mill for sea salt. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors.[50]."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. for a typical adult. but achievable population goals. such as the Yanomami in South America. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time.

[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1.8 g salt) per day. Low is 0.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. calories.g. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride.). "low".com http://www.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI).1g sodium). etc. without recourse to salt substitutes. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. .3 g sodium = 5. or Green (Low). then that is a medium level of salt. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication.crazychefs. which will increase potassium intake. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia.300 mg of sodium (= 2. Amber (Medium). maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. LoSalt.5g salt per 100g (or 0.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. low in fat. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2.6g sodium).[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High).3g salt or less per 100g (or 0." In the UK. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. One manufacturer. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.[51] In the United States. When other health claims are made about a food (e.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. Those who have kidney failure. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium.[57] In March 2007. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.'[55] Campaigns In 2004. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt.

1913. 3. Costs can reach staggering amounts. 4. India (14. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources.5). called halite. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. In 2002.9).crazychefs. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). http://www. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. and Canada (12. Dytac. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test.3).3 million tonnes). 7. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. Triamterene. Retrieved 2008-12-14. 2. such as brine wells and salt lakes. 5. Germany (17. Notes 1. the top five producers being the United States ( The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. http://en. Answers.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. and Hall in Austria. China ( New York: Robert Appleton Company. 6. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). Eplerenone and Inspra. Catholic http://www. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. and by mining rock their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in .wikisource. ^ "Salt". drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride.7). 4th edition".

salt uses. 16. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. 898 . 11. Vol. Retrieved http://www.Weather Curriculum 18. Science.wiley. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. ^ http://www. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. 281. ^ Table 27.saltsense.roskill.afssa. Transportation Research Board. Retrieved Salt Institute. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. ^ HE-620 24. ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. Ask a Scientist. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". ^ References on food salt & health issues.stm 38. 28. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. ^ Fall/Winter 2006 10. salt history. Mason (2006-12-19). ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. 5379. no.htm. Victoria) Salt 34.9. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. ^ Iodized Salt 31. pp. ^ a b http://news. ^ David A. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.crazychefs. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. salt manufacture. Retrieved 2008-07-29. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". Epikouria 19.9% sodium by weight which equals 37. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22.anl. p.9% sodium chloride 25. ^ Nauticus . ^ Iodized Salt 32. http://books. ISBN 9780309056663. Kuemmel (1994). ^ Gary Taubes. salt uses. 2008 29. http://www. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. ^ What is Salt?. salt history.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). "The (Political) Science of Salt".interscience. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35.pdf 33. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". sodium. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. 14 August 1998. 10. salt ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ 15. sodium. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. Salt Institute.

40. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. Sodium chloride. Feldman. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases.hyp. Putnam's Sons. 2006. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. doi:10. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. Schindler. Norton & Co. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1016/j. ISBN 0802713734. Further reading Kurlansky. OCLC 48573453. OCLC 48426519.legalmed. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. New York: W. Published online 2005. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). Sodium 52. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) doi:10. The Mummies of Ürü Friedrich Schulz. New York: Walker & Co..W. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. John Wiley & Sons.crazychefs. Erwin Koops. 62. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia.pub2 References Kurlansky. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. 28 January 2008. and S. Mark.06. Obarzanek E et al. BMJ. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. Legal Medicine 61.005 48. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. 47-50. ^ Susan . ^ Cook NR. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. NY: G. http://www. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. 2007. Cutler JA. D. Elizabeth Wayland (1999).com http://www. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. ^ U. Mark (2002). Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". Salt: A World History. http://www. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57.334(7599):885.1002/0471238961..a01. ^ Understanding labels 55. Barber.healthandwellbeing. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. ^ Salt TV ads 59. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. (accessed13 January 2007) 49.2004. The Story of Salt. 7. ^ Salt Matters 60. Inc. S. New York. ISBN 0393320197.1915040902051820.

Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . The Stationery Office. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round.crazychefs. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pierre. Salt: Grain of Life. . New York: Columbia University Press. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy .talk by Dr Trevor Beard. Department of Health. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. Arts and traditions of the table.Laszlo.

mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. Indonesia. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . mainly Kerala. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . as well as in neighbouring countries. phrik khi nu(lit. It can also be found in India. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. the Philippines and Singapore. phrik thai. found commonly in Thailand. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. Vietnam. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. http://www. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. such as Cambodia.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu).

These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. the chili padi is relatively strong at http://www.000 to 100. "Big things come in small packages. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili. Although small in size compared to other types of chili.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian ." which can best be described by the English equivalent. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia.crazychefs. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region.

net/ . Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. and then red. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. has peppers that point upward on the plant. Thai). essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. but slightly less pungent variety.As well as the Malay word. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. and among the group of capsicum annuum. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian).com http://www. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. creating a rainbow effect. and go from green to yellow. Ladâ. Thai hot. orange. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. phrik khii nuu ( .wikipedia. The more decorative.

celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. about the size of a large potato. or used in casseroles. It has a tough.crazychefs. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. Unlike other root vegetables. which store a large amount of starch. it can also be used on its own. Celeriac has a celery flavour.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. gratins and baked dishes. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. It is a kind of celery. http://www. usually .' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves.

There are a number of cultivars available. and 'Kojak'. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. especially in Europe.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths.2 g .5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. Among them are 'Prinz'.com http://www.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.crazychefs. rinsed.6 g 9. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. 'Diamant'.Dietary fiber 1. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail.3 g 1. Celeriac. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. Celeriac soup.Sugars 1. 'Ibis'. raw Nutritional value per 100 g ( .5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum.crazychefs. As a nightshade. The stem is often spiny. and see text The eggplant. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. or brinjal (Solanum melongena).com http://www. aubergine. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. It bears a fruit of the same name. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. The flowers are white to purple. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) .

from Arabic al-badinjan. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. flower The plant is native to India.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it." Aubergine and brinjal. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. The name http://www. 1500 CE. In Indian and South African English. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. and contains numerous small. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. soft seeds. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. History Solanum melongena. but much larger in cultivated forms. used in the United States. which is used in British English. New Zealand.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. In the Caribbean Trinidad. The name eggplant. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. The fruit is fleshy. Australia. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù.crazychefs. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one . which are edible. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants.

Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple.crazychefs. slightly pendulous cucumber. A much wider range of shapes. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. . from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. Pingtung Long. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. and Black Beauty. especially purple. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Burpee Hybrid. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. in white skin Dourga. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. Some cultivars have a color gradient. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. Traditional. shape and color. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. and Tycoon. or white. Dusky. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Classic. whiteskinned. There are even orange http://www. Ichiban. Black Magic. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size.

as they are far less bitter. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. It. It can be sliced. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. and deep-fried. It can also be found in Chinese http://www. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the . the Arabian moussaka. for example in sambhar. it is called Begun ( ). or Eggplant Parmesan. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste.crazychefs. As a native plant. In Bangladesh. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. The thin skin is also edible. and achaar. along with the fish Hilsa. rice. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. tomatoes. as in the related tomato. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. braised (紅燒茄子). The fruit flesh is smooth. and masala and then cooked in oil. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. and garlic. or other fillings and then baked. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. as in the French ratatouille. battered. or tamarind. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. In Iranian cuisine. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. tahini. so that peeling is not required. In the Caucasus. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. peanuts. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. complex flavor. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. In some parts of India. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. It is often stewed. curries. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. tahini. In one dish. allowing for very rich dishes. for example. chutney.

and spider mites. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. showing the inside. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. are also troublesome to eggplants. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. such as . Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. depending on cultivar. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. pepper (capsicum). This is called Beguni ( ).com http://www. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). Flowers are complete. aphids. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates.) between plants. the most serious of which is Verticillium. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. containing both female and male structures. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. Egypt. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden.) to 60 cm (24 in. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries.) between rows. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). flea beetle. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases.crazychefs. For this reason. (Adults can be removed by hand. and potato.

4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .com http://www. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. New Jersey is the largest producing state. B1) 0.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Dietary fiber 3. semi-official or estimates).(2.7 g 0.Sugars 2.043.19 g 1.35 g .01 g 3% Riboflavin ( .039 mg 5. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. F = FAO estimate.[5] In the United States. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. B2) 0.crazychefs.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world. P = official figure.

com http://www.[8] On average. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals.crazychefs.16 mg Manganese 0.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive . B3) 0.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.084 mg Folate (Vit. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. However. Brazil. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0.Niacin (Vit. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.01 mg/100g). 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. while 1. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium.

crazychefs. brownii. subrepandum. Solanum longum Roxb. which used to include Dunal's S.Varieties Solanum melongena var. mainly by Dikii. sinuatorepandum. inerme and subinerme at that time. Dunal. violaceum and viride. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. that of Blanco to S. multifidum. capsicoides). An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. H. ovigera. aethiopicum. violaceum. S. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. inerme. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant.C. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. Similarly. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. rumphii. Solanum oviferum Salisb. But this is not correct. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var.-Lag. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. trongum. racemiflorum. luteum. insanum. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. There is an actual S. giganteum. such as agreste. . variegatum.F. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. http://www. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). aethiopicum. oblongo-cylindricum. On the other hand. ruber. and (invalidly) by Sweet. ovigerum and S. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. Scopoli's S. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. Names for various eggplant types. stenoleucum. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. divaricatum. esculentum. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. lasiocarpum.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. edule. globosi. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. album.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. esculentum. tongdongense.

com http://www. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (2001).crazychefs.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. and Engineering by Yiu H. Technology. Hui (2006). D. S. ^ Doijode. 2. Footnotes . The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". ISBN 1574445510. Handbook of Food Science. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). CRC Press. common.

133(42):2081-3 12. The New England Journal of Medicine.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. 6. ^ Edward F. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. Volume 329:437 August 5. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). Dieges PH. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. Mahesh † and Y.uga. 2008 10. pp. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. 7. 202 N. http://pubs. 5. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles http://www. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 2004. 18(1): 59-62 13.crazychefs. ^ Kabashima K.fao. ^ "FAOSTAT". Harish Babu * . Domino. ^ B. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. Miyachi Y. Robert (2008-11-14). FAO. ^ Solanum melongena var. Erich . volume 82 (nº 3). Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. ^ SN Pramod. P. http://faostat. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008.caes. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis . ^ Health24. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.* YP Venkatesh. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. Ebury Press. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". Vol. Andréa Thomaz. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. A.Aubergine 8. ^ Westerfield. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) reveals female predominance. P. Tsenge Demana. Retrieved 2009-07-01. 1993 Number 6 9. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2008-11-11. Toorenenbergen AW.50(2):101-102 11.3. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. Bruno Caramelli. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables.

Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. Solanum lycopersicum. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of . Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height.8 in) across. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. One species. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. and have a weak. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. It is a perennial. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. with a serrated margin. yellow. woody stem that often vines over other plants. The tomato is native to South http://www.crazychefs. odd pinnate. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. syn. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S.4–0. see section Fruit or vegetable below).

corn and salt. cerasiforme. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. who named it pomo d‘oro. a mutation from a smoother. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the other by currant tomatoes. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. ancestor of L. .[6] Gerard's Herbal. lumpy tomato. However. originated and was encouraged in http://www. an Italian physician and botanist. smaller vegetable . The specific name. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. However. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. and cultivation began in the 1540s. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. such as Florence.crazychefs. a barber-surgeon. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. The exact date of domestication is not known.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. likely to be the original salsa recipe. according to Smith.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. means "wolf-peach". in certain areas of Italy. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. tomatl. earlier in 1493. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. meaning plump thing with a navel. They also took it to the Philippines. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. golden apple.[4] The large. was the first European to take back the tomato. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). now Mexico City in 1521. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes.

and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. British consul in Aleppo c. particularly Florida and California. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. Currently. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. By the mid-18th century. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). ―within the last forty years. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. The Spanish tomato dish. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies.crazychefs. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. and before the end of that century. Paella. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. Thomas . Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. sent some seeds back to America. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant).largely plagiarized from continental sources. broths. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. but the fruit is safe). In Victorian times. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. and as a garnish. Charles M. Rick. The University of California. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. who ate tomatoes in http://www.[6] But by the mid-1700s. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations.M. Gerard's views were influential. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. The C. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. California. Over the past 15 years. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop.[6] Nonetheless. 1799 – c. and in general. most famously in Worthing. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato.

com http://www. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. through cherry tomatoes. 18 September 2009. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.8 in) size as the wild tomato. It may be deleted after Friday. but a number of cultivars with yellow.4–0.S.[12] According to FAOSTAT. black. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. production and 35% of world production. For processing tomatoes.6–2.4 in) diameter range. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. they are known as plum tomatoes. about 5mm in diameter.0–2. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. green.crazychefs. or white fruit are also available. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. China.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. California accounts for 90% of U. followed by United States and Turkey. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions.0 in) diameter. orange. the largest producer. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. Most cultivars produce red fruit. . and have a lower water content. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. purple.

The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower.[18] and productivity. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications .net/ . all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or http://www. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. and are shaped like large strawberries. As in most sectors of agriculture.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. as well as heirloom tomatoes. along with zucchini. plum tomatoes.crazychefs. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. but unlike commercial hybrids. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. based mostly on shape and size. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed].Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance.

174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.especially heirlooms . disease and pest resistance. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. but must be bought as seed.crazychefs. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time.produce fruit in colors other than red.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. which usually discourages fruit set. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. brown. including yellow. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate".[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. or home growers interested in canning. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. multiple colors ( http://www. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. orange. Determinate. etc. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. Green Zebra (top right). black. Red Boar). they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. they are often good choices for container growing. A variety of specific cultivars. Burracker's Favorite. although some determinate heirlooms exist. Lucky Cross). As an intermediate form. including Brandywine (biggest red). often via mail-order. ivory.cherry tomatoes are small and round. but are smaller than plum tomato. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. and lack of mealiness. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. and . Black Krim (lower left corner). low acidity. et cetera. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. pink. some tomato cultivars . white. or bush. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores.

N nematodes.alternaria.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. As a floral device to reduce selfing. aphids. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus.fusarium wilt strain I. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production.verticillium wilt. whiteflies. tomatoes required cross-pollination. slugs. T .com http://www.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. tomato fruitworms.tobacco mosaic virus. their traditional pollinators. original state. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. and A . entirely within the closed corolla.fusarium wilt strain I & II. flea beetles. FF . cabbage loopers. which interrupts the lifecycle. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. cutworms. The most common letters are: V . ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. The stamens were. In the wild. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars.crazychefs. too. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. As the name implies. carried by the beet leafhopper. red spider . but manure or compost work well. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. F . as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. and remain. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes.

The pollen moves through pores in the anther. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. In more temperate climates. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. as with most species. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. depending on variety. However. They may be recognized by their http://www. This is not the same as self-pollination. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. by cultured bumblebees. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). or more often . In an outside setting. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. Unripe tomatoes are firm. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene.

com http://www. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue).[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine.6 g 4g . Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. as tomato sauce. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things.Sugars 2. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. a subset of .Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. and other antioxidants. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". In some studies lycopene.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. anthocyanin. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. especially in cooked tomatoes. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . or paste. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). Though it is botanically a berry. in pieces. They contain lycopene. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines.Recently. The tomato is acidic. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich).crazychefs. carotene.

although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. or pickled. vines. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines.5 °C (54. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing.crazychefs. generally three feet tall or shorter. Determinate types are annual in all climates. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. it will not continue to ripen.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened.make salsa. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and . today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). They are bred to continue ripening. annually celebrates La Tomatina. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. Embracing it for this protest connotation. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. such as rugose leaves.5 °F). and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. Spain. Known for its tomato growth and production. Tomato plants are dicots. Of regular leaves. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. often by sun. meaning covered with fine short hairs. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. and grow as a series of branching stems. there are variations. initially decumbent. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. These hairs facilitate the vining process. whether because of pruning or flowering. fully http://www. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. lateral buds take over and grow into other. When that tip eventually stops growing. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. The fruit is also preserved by drying. although erect bush varieties have been bred.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets.[28] In October 1965. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands).[citation needed] Once fully ripe. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight.

many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. called locular cavities. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. Similarly.) H. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. appearing on the apical meristem. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. However. As a true fruit. butterflies.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. wolf. according to . beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. i. chili peppers. tobacco. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. and be dried/fermented before germination. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.g. "wolf-peach"). other insects.. with both names found in the http://www. However. very small cavities. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. which frequently used it and still do). (derivation. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). Other species in that family are potatoes. Despite this.[31] Their flowers. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. while paste tomatoes have very few. variegated.e. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. peach. This is because they are native to the Americas. among cultivated species. have the anthers fused along the edges. angora leaves.Karst. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. or other external forces that present in the Americas. plus 'persicum'. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). 'lyco'. These vary. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. Therefore. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum.crazychefs. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. making the Linnaean name correct. genetic evidence (e. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. would be more correct. moths. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants.deeply grooved. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. Technically. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing.

As noted above. 1883. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. shape. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. cucumbers. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. disease tolerance. U.S. The U. Oregon. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. nutritional value. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. Livingston. In 1887. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. However. Ohio. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. pest tolerance. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. Monsanto. BHNSeed. and numerous other traits.S. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. corporations. universities. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. as are vegetables. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. However. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture.W. etc. U. color. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" . A. Bejoseed. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. In 2006. 304)). of Reynoldsburg. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. from a culinary standpoint. flavor. size.S. Corporations including Heinz. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. University breeding programs are active in Florida. North Carolina. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. a tomato is the ovary. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a http://www. together with its seeds. New York. Hedden (149 U.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production.crazychefs. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. AVRDC. and organizations. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications.S.

which is toxic to humans and animals. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. Kentucky. Vermont and Wisconsin. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ .S.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. Massachusetts. however. harmless. On October 30. Minnesota. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network).com http://www. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. 2006.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. stems. . The fresh fruit is. Indiana. Virginia. Tennessee. North Carolina. Ohio. New Hampshire. Michigan. Pennsylvania. Speakers from the British Isles. Maine.crazychefs. Georgia."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. contain the poison Solanine. the U. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Rhode Island. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes.

2008. respectively. French and Germans.S. Illinois (100).151.6:1). in 2000. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley.[38] As of July 8. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). with 49.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. UK. of the cultivar 'Delicious'.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz).8 m (65 ft) length. and fresh cilantro.84 pounds (522 kg). one would arrive at an estimated 40. discovered the unique plant in Beijing. Florida.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. the District of Columbia. fresh serrano pepper. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. and Canada. 2007.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista.7 and 16. 2008. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. On August 30. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. Yong Huang. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. As of July 2008. Lancashire. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. Lake Buena Vista.1 reported cases per . China.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival.crazychefs. such as raw tomato. with a harvest of more than 32. from April 10. fresh jalapeño pepper. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.273 illnesses from this outbreak.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. New Mexico (98). It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. Oklahoma in 1986. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. 40.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the http://www. and Arizona (49). Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. the U. it caused at least one death.000 kilograms (250. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants.

but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. Derived from Cherokee http://www. Fusarium. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. indeterminate. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large .[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small.S.

Tomato Flower.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. Tomato fruit. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes http://www. in Korea. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato plants in the . Young tomato plant. good for Tomatoes on a vine.crazychefs. Tomato slices. pickling. .Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

fao. The tomato in America: early history. I.Smith.Your Archives". ^ "http://www. 519 [1] 9. Footnotes 1.five tons to the acre. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.. Culture. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . Retrieved 2009-04-02. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . http://tgrc. ^ a b Hartz. E. http://www. Wettst. Andrew F (1994). Processing Tomato Production in California. (2002). Retrieved December 11 2009.The East Hampton Star . October 26. http://www. and cookery. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. Appletons' journal Published by G.2 million pounds of tomatoes every F.easthamptonstar. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 5. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. D. The Tomato in America. 2009-01-26. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. ^ "UC S. 1881. 12. 2008. it handles more than 1.aspx?PageID=567 14. Smith. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. http://www. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. (1994). Retrieved December 11 2009.M.ucdavis. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. p. ^ The Friend. 7. http://www. (2002-0508)". 6. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online).html" & Spooner.." 15." See: Natural History . Universityofcalifornia. Retrieved 2008-10-27. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world.crazychefs.smithsonianmag. p. 8. and Cookery. page 57: ". ^ "C. 2002-05-08. 11. T. 13." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1994. ^ a b Smith. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. p. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". University of Illinois Press. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 1876. ^ http://faostat. Cyphomandra.html. M. Appleton and Co. Normania. Yourarchives. USA: University of South Carolina Press. Retrieved 2009-04-02. A. Subsection Lycopersicon).html".universityofcalifornia. ISBN 1-57003000-6. ^ Acquaah. et al. (2001). ^ " Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L.C.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep bid/6280/Default. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum.Food & Wine".com. During the three months of the local harvest. section Lycopersicon Mill.html. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. Andrew F. webpage: 223 http://www. http://yourarchives. Easthamptonstar. ISBN 0252-07009-7. culture. ^ Tomato history 4. Columbia.ucdavis. 3.

8M".crazychefs. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". Retrieved 2008-10-27. page 57: "The plants are still 21. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more. Retrieved December 11 2009.umn. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home" Retrieved 2008-10-27. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes.osu. 17. ^ "Crop Profiles .com/science-nature/passion-fortomatoes. ^ http://www. ^". 25." 20. News. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once.osu. http://ohioline. ^ "http://www.plants. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes".html".cornell.gardenweb. HYG-5532-93".smithsonianmag. 32. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).com/ Retrieved 2009-04-02.ufseeds.". Retrieved December 11 2009.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2007-05-24.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.ncsu.html. "Tomato genome project gets $1.16. http://www. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.cornell. http://news. Retrieved 200705-24. http://www.plants. Retrieved June 30. which are carried in the wind. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 27.smithsonianmag. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. Ohioline." ^ "http://www. http://www.html. 26. ^ " ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. 22. 28.smithsonianmag. Ncsu. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".com/science-nature/ and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre.html". Retrieved December 11 2009. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes.gob. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat 29. 2006. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". Faq. 31. Retrieved July 14. 24.smithsonianmag. ^ " 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.ucdavis.eurekalert. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention". 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html 23. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'". Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market . ^ http://www. http://wwwplb. Retrieved 200810-27. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one http://www. http://faq.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44.umn." 18. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella by state". (2004-04-15). Vegparadise. Dennis R.nationalpost. News" Retrieved 2008-1027. Retrieved 2008-10-27.crazychefs. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . ISBN Tomato 38. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. p. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. 39. http://www. http://www. . Nationalpost.journals.1086/381578.34. http://www. Retrieved 2009-0721. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". http://www. 2004.html. 36. California Master Gardener Handbook. Itn. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2009-0402. ^ "ITN. Clinical Infectious Diseases. United ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus".foodsafetynetwork.shtml. ^ a b ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005". ANR Publications. Retrieved 200904-02. ^ "August http://www. 40. (2002). et al. 643. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". Tomato Recipe".co. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". http://www. ^ Voetsch. http://www. http://itn. 37. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 38:S3.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419& 35.cbsnews.

[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0.7 in) wide. especially in Grenada.4 oz) dried. and nutmeg butter (see below). The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. including essential oils. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. or sliced finely. called Jaiphal in Hindi. called selei buah pala. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg . 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. extracted oleoresins. or Spice Islands. and Bombay Nutmeg M. both are used as adulterants of M. fragrans products. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. nutmeg and mace.6 to 0. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. It also grows in Kerala. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". malabarica from India. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. a state in the south part of India.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica http://www. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. Species About 100 species. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices.2 and 0. the fruit is also made into jam.crazychefs. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. argentea from New Guinea. In Indonesia.

and string beans. and baked goods. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. In Indian cuisine. sauces. saffronlike hue it imparts. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang . "Lau Hau Peng". nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. they are also used in soups. Painkiller. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a http://www. In Penang cuisine. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. mulled wine. cauliflower. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. In Arabic.crazychefs. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. and Barbados rum punch. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. In European cuisine. green.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. In the Caribbean. and eggnog.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts.

and has applications as an industrial lubricant.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. in toothpaste. and sweets. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. beverages. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. syrups. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. preserving agents. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. 758 – ca. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. for instance. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. which can be turned into myristic acid. medicines. that were at the time highly valued in European http://www. used as flavourings. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. It is semi-solid. reddish brown in colour. although this is disputed. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. and as a major ingredient in some cough . The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. The oil is colourless or light yellow. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. with 4% annual growth expected. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs." However. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. frozen. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. http://www. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. soy extracts. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. sugar beets. not reproducible. About 1. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary . yeast extract.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. and protein isolate. sugar cane. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. steak sauce.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. Fermented products such as soy sauce. being an amino acid. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. hydrolyzed yeast.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly processed foods. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants.crazychefs. based on anecdotal reports. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. autolyzed yeast.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. it also said that.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. or molasses. However. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions.

MSG. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. Drugs. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . acidification. In the hydrolysis method. flavour enhancer). The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration.2. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. age 40–59 years.. Foster. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. ^ http://www. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). purified.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. 621. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. "Monosodium Glutamate". and converted to its monosodium salt. and mineral ions and growth factors. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. such as hydrolyzed protein. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. Albert Y. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. concentration. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48.html 2. even in large amounts. or its International Numbering System (INS) number.".[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. 373-375. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids.celiac.). [monosodium glutamate].g. In the 2004 version of his book. followed by either the name of the food The label must bear the food additive class name (e. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. On Food and Cooking.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. New York: Wiley. In 1993.g. (2) synthesis.crazychefs. pp. For this reason. ^ Leung.7% women). "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. and crystallization. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. Steven (August 2003). Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial http://www. References 1. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. and (3) microbial fermentation.. dextrose or citrate).

^ "Production process". 13. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review".nlm.x. 11.celiac. J.38. doi:10. ^ Moskin. Daniel. Chirality 6 (4): pp. Pharmacol. Zhao. doi:10. Shigeru. ^ Walker R (October 1999). Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.cfsan.1525/gfc. 6.. ^ a b Rundlett.crazychefs.1337. Jeremiah (August 2008). 38–49. et al. 1875–1880. ^ Sand. Ka. ^ a b Tarasoff L. Regul. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. Julia (2008-03-05). Case study: monosodium glutamate".org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10736382.3. ^ He.. "A Short History of MSG". Zhou.1002/14356007. Beifan. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.nih. http://www. 16. Kimber L.pdf 9. Sano. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". Inc.nytimes.1999. Shizuko (2005). Linguang. http://jn. Ren C. doi:10. 15. http://www. 277–282. Beiser A. PMID 16999713. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. PMID 18497735. Garside.F. Nutr.2008. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Food Chem. Jordan (2005). Yamaguchi. Anjimoto Co. Guo. Van Horn.ncbi. http://www. Linda.1038/ . Daviglus. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. (1993). Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.1016/02786915(93)90012-N.17457599.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. Tetsuya. Armstrong. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". PMID 10736382.html 12. ^ http://www. 10.5. Zhu.html?_r=1&oref=slogin.nutrition.html. 7. Martha L. ^ http://www. ^ Kawakita. (October 2006) Chiaki. "Monosodium Glutamate". ^ http://www. New York Times. Yangfeng. ^ a b Geha RS. ^ http://vm. Toxicol. Alan R.ajinomoto. Dyer. PMID 10597625. Takehara. ^ Freeman M. Stamler. "Yes.1002/chir.jstor. the Secret Behind the Savor". Dongshuang. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". (April 2000). MSG. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.1006/rtph.4.530060410. doi:10.a16 711. Liancheng. Kelly 5. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121.html 4. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. http://www.1111/j.00160.fda.2006. 31 (12): 1019–1035. 14. PMID 8282275. 8. Daniel W (1994). Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. . 荳油 http://www. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 豆油 3. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 酱油 2. 醬油 2.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1.

Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product.[3] In the 18th century. water. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. [4] By the mid-19th century.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. Soy sauce was invented in China. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. and http://www. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted . Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji.500 years. In its various forms.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima.

Although there are many types of soy sauce. Today. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. such as in giant urns and under the sun. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1.crazychefs. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed].net/ . They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). sojae) and other related microorganisms. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. literally "delicious taste"). Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap.

soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. Another type. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. traditional Chinese: 醬油. Despite their rather similar appearance. pinyin: jiàngyóu. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. opaque. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. one of the two types.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. lighter brown soy sauce. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. and Chinese . is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar.crazychefs. Since it is lighter in http://www.3-DCP (1. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. since it is saltier. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with relatively low amounts of other grains. Korean. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. It has a richer. An additional classification of light soy sauce. shuānghuáng (雙璜). Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. but it also adds flavour. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. ): A thin (nonviscous). It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). fragrance and saltiness. slightly sweeter. like extra virgin olive oil. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Thai. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. In traditional Chinese cooking. or a mixture of both. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. consistency. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce.

which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. Usukuchi (淡口?. It contains little or no wheat. Technically. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little http://www. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. Shiro (白?. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. Japan is the leading producer of tamari.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is the "original" Japanese soy . referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. or 醤油). where it is known as "shōyu". "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. that is used in its production. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan.crazychefs. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). for example sashimi.

"reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. not pasteurized. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. Consequently. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. 1 litre bottles.crazychefs.Saishikomi (再仕込?. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. Amakuchi (甘口?. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy . "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented http://www.

Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. which has a thick. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in http://www. Kecap manis Sweet soy . In Indonesia. usually implies limited quantity. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. powder. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. It is a unique variety. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. in a pinch. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor.

thin and dark brown in color. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce.crazychefs.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. lit. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. WanJaShan(萬家香). which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. Joseon . Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. Founded in 1909. Later. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. Malaysia. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste).[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. 조선간장. is made entirely of soy and brine. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). (called Joseon ganjang.4% of soy sauce purchases. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire http://www. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. O'Long(黑龍). called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). when China ceded Taiwan to Japan.

[6] Furthermore. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). and caramel. wheat. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. China. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. it is also a table condiment. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. pronounced SOO-kah). It can also be very salty. nước tươ . The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential.crazychefs. or sometimes simply tương.3-DCP (1. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. Low-sodium soy sauces are http://www. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. salt. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine.

and banned pesticides in vegetables and . Tung Chun and Wanjasham. 4. Retrieved 2008-01-07. Retrieved 200801-07. XXVII. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. p. Kimlan. Golden Swan. ^ Jung. http://www. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. Soon Teck• and Kang.tcoc. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. Golden Mark. Isaac. pp. ^ Tanaka.miyajimasoy. Vol. 7. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). http://www. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). Despite these being small in number in the UK. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD.smartfood.asp?id=7598 10.[1] Notes 1. 2.) In March 2008.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. 6. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat.Kong and Taiwan. Sinsin. III.htm. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. (1781). some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid marinades and other types of sauces. Individuals with a wheat allergy. King Imperial. including six samples with up to 11. http://www. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy).317 2. Pearl River Bridge. 6. ^ Jammy Chai. that affected the brands Golden ^ http://www. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". ^ Tanaka. 8. 2nd edition. Lee Kum times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. 3.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. 2 (January 2000).gov.gmp. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. Seong-Gook (2002). Celiac disease. an increase over 23 to 5. the country's second most popular sauce after fish 9. p.crazychefs.000 to OCLC 9752305 5. ^ Tanaka.[citation needed] In Vietnam. Norio. ^ Titsingh. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Press release. ^ http://www.

^ Tanasupawat. 13. Stephen (2006-06-06). Kentucky: CRC Press. ^ Daniells. 186. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. ^ Shahidi. et al.crazychefs. ISBN http://www. ^ Bamford. Retrieved 2008-01-07. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. 103. http://www.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones.2323/jgam. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. 16. Naczk. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". fermentation and micro-organisms. 12. Makio (2005-04-18). ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. Somboon (2002-06-18). 18. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". doi:10. 14. Japan) 1 (2): 144– ^ Kobayashi. scares hit Vietnam 20. doi:10.1263/jbb. http://books. ^ Toxic soy sauce. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. New Jersey: 15. ISBN 0632059877. PMID 16198255. Food. Florence. p. Marian (2003). chemical veggies -. Charles W (2005). ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17.100. .11. p. Edition 2.201. PMID 12469319. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD".144.

9180 (@ .crazychefs.8% Behenic acid: <0.5–21.5% Linoleic acid: 3.0–83.9150–0.5–5.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.0% Arachidic acid: <0.3% Myristic acid: <0.5 °C) 84 cP 1.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.0% Stearic acid: 0.5–20.3– 211 | P a g e http://www.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.4677–1.

and Moraiolo. North Africa and the Near East. and Manzanilla de Jaén. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. Koroneiki. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics.6 (refined and pomace) . and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Olives are grown for oil in Greece.6 million tonnes. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. World production in 2002 was 2. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. Alberquina. Olive oil is used throughout the world. Leccino Pendolino. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. Picholine. Italy and Greece. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. family Oleaceae). The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. principally Italy. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. as well as in Crete. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. pharmaceuticals. Japan and China. cosmetics. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}.crazychefs. Australia. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. in Greece. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. In 2006.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. in France.000 tons of olive oil annually. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. which produce approximately http://www.4680–1. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. Hojiblanca. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms).[3] Of the European production. but especially in the Mediterranean.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. 93% comes from Spain.

in Croatia. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. Oblica and Leccino. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC.800. The USDA uses a different system. and by its flavor. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. Spain. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. In North America. Spain. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). by its chemistry.crazychefs.000 m3) came from http://www. After extraction the remnant solid substance. of which 34. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. IOOC terminology is precise.000 US gallons (131. called pomace. with 23 member states. and monitoring authenticity.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. a private trade group. The US imported 47. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. and Turkey. The California Olive Oil Council. defining quality standards. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil.California. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method).000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. with production increasing to meet demand. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive .000 US gallons (181. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. Galega. still contains a small quantity of oil. in Portugal. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy.600. Mission. often in "prestige" packaging. Spain.

US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label.crazychefs. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. defined as the percent.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin.[12] In some . particularly in Italy. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. EU officials took issue with the new law.[14] In March 2008. it is http://www. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids).[15] Under EU rules. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). however. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior.[14] In February 2008.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. is extremely lax and corrupt. mostly hexane. product as superior olive oil. for blended oils. Almost 700 people died. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. both in Italy and abroad. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). measured by weight." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment.[16] In April 2008. but there are no guarantees. but safe. of free oleic acid it contains. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. 25. and by heat.

the oil degrades.S.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. of no more than 1. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. expressed as oleic acid. has an acidity less than 2%. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test.3 grams per 100 grams (0. and are based on acidity. It has a free acidity. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil.8% acidity. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. This is also called its organoleptic quality. but may not be described simply as olive .5% acidity. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. and is judged to have a good taste. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. Pure olive oil. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. It is fit for consumption. and is judged to have a superior taste. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. The US is not a member. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. These grades were established in http://www. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. another cause of rancidity. In order to classify it by taste. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. contains no more than 0. absence of defects. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil.crazychefs. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. The U. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. of not more than 0. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. Used on salads. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides.

U. Grade A or U. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.4% and is "free from defects". "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. which may be as low as 10-15 °C.U. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2.S.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel.crazychefs.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.0% and is "fairly free from defects".com http://www.S. "cold" does not define any precise temperature. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.S.S. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". U. (34 kJ/ml).5% and is "reasonably free from defects".[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. This is incorrect. Grade D or U. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used.S. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. Grade C". with less flavour. Grade C or U. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.S. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.S.S. First of all.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. Grade B or U.S. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures. .[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning.

35 23.crazychefs. around 14 l. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.1 1.8 7. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. around 8 .pressed".1 0. Spain and Italy.2 7 1. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. Tunisia.62 12.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. so the term "first press" is meaningless. over 26 liters per http://www. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. Portugal and Lebanon. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.7 l. around 0.7 11.

a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. 4.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. 3. not in the oil mills. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil".18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical http://www. Green olives produce bitter oil. After grinding. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press.crazychefs. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. suggesting a different taste. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the . no or very little organoleptic defects). and overripe olives produce rancid oil. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. If ground with mill stones. 2. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil.34 1. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. then placed into the press. This is done in specialised chemical plants. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. which is much faster and more accurate. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. After grinding. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. 1. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

To achieve this possible benefit.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. along with traces of squalene (up to 0. The composition varies by cultivar.5 g . and extraction process.crazychefs. most notably oleic acid.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids.7%) and sterols (about 0.2% phytosterol and tocosterols).[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.monounsaturated 73 g . (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . including oleocanthal and oleuropein.polyunsaturated 11 g . olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. fat < .saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .omega-6 fat 3. time of harvest. http://www. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. In the United States.

leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.crazychefs.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet.This decision was announced November 1. The study was conducted in two stages.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. antithrombotic. It is theorized .[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. in the long term.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants).[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. at least in part. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. For example. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. During the second phase. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. rather than its fatty acid profile. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. 2004. During the first stage. and oleuropein. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. This way. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. These types of olive oil contain more http://www. This could. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers.

tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. In time. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F).net/ .crazychefs. like salads. cookware. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. Also. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. Also. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. Used cold. A very fresh oil. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. For example.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. oils deteriorate and become stale. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. as available in an oil producing region. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. blenders. It is also used for sauteing ingredients.[citation needed]. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. not for foods to be eaten cold. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several http://www. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. etc.

It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. acting as a stool softener. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It does have demulcent properties. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal . it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory http://www. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. and mild laxative properties. It is also good for the management of pain. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen.crazychefs.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil.

probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time.Fr. olive oil" (cf.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. olive oil.N. drawn and engraved by J. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. from O.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. Mod. olio). and O.crazychefs. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. soap-making.Fr. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. oile (12c. and skin care application. as a fuel in oil lamps. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. Homer called it "liquid gold. oleum "oil. It. Besides food. huile). from Anglo-Fr.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. from L. 1175. olie. from Gk. magical." In ancient Greece. medicines. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . elaion "olive tree".com http://www.

[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC).[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. olive presses became http://www. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd . and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. In the centuries that followed. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. Bodrum.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen.

net/ . and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense.000 and 3. drained the water from the bottom. when the oil had risen to the top. Sinuhe. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. allowing more time for more oil to be made. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies.[46] Until 1500 BC. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. stored in special containers.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. "the best in the Mediterranean". the fertile crescent.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance.[citation needed]. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. According to legend. wrote of abundant olive trees. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt.crazychefs. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC.. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC.over 4. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). he maintained. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. where it is thought to have represented wealth. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. According to the historian Pliny. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential.000 tons of olive oil per season. and area consisting of present day http://www. Lebanon. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. during the 13th century BC. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah.[dubious – discuss] During this time. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. oil containers are preferred. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. and Israel. together with naked appearance of athletes. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers.

http://www. light upon light. 2. and.usda. the tourch is in a glass bulb. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table.". even without fire touching it. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. and this secure city. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. originating from King David. Retrieved 2007-05-25. ^ USDA.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888.html. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil.imitate the original Menorah. ^ "findarticles. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit).gourmetretailer.PDF. Louise Ferguson. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. 5. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. Olive Production Manual. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. 158. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. at which point the rest of the cotton burns Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. References 1. in the consecration of altars and churches."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed . Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. 3. Steven Sibbett. neither Eastern nor "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF)." He also stated that it cures 70 http://www. p. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. Retrieved 2008-07-04. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. and the Mount of Sinai. 4. its oil almost glows. http://www. ANR Publications. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. ^ USDA. Margaret Lindstrand (2005). In Islam. Joann L Coviello." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick).org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. Retrieved 2007-05-25. ^ G. To douse the flame. http://www.crazychefs. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. http://findarticles.internationaloliveoil. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". ^ International Olive Oil Council. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. "The Olive Tree.

25.6. 55 (3): 175–86. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22.".southafrica. Tripoli. ^ Mueller. ^ Keys A. http://www. S. Epidemiol. 2004.htm". ^ a b McGee. Giammanco. Nutrition Research Reviews 124 (6): 903–15. Retrieved 2008-11-09.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. United States Department of Agriculture.ams." 19 CFR 134. http://oliveoilonly.internationaloliveoil. Giammanco. G. 7.html".23/. 14. Am. http://www. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)" Slippery Business The New Yorker. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study".org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. ^ " and Maurizio La Guardia. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . (December 1986). M.1016/j. ^ "www. http://query. Di Majo. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 13. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar". 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Res. ^ a b "Telegraph article". Karvonen MJ. J. PMID 3776973. http://news.telegraph. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive .html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. http://aje.23/. Pharmacol. et al. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". 2007-08-13. http://www. ^ New York Times. ^ Durant.1079/NRR200495 John. Alan (1989-05-21). 11. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27.010. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. Raymond & Co. D.).crazychefs. 21. Tom. 15. 10. The New York Times (H.46. PMID News". November 2.xml. 18.Telegraph".southafrica. 20. ―imported by‖ language "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. ^ Riding. ^ "EUbusiness. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . Retrieved 2008-11-16. 16. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. 17.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. Dennis. http://www. http://www. Menotti J. US Customs Department. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council ^ "www. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. http://www. ^ Covas MI (March 2007).jp.01. http://www.

Marotta T. JDermatol-Sci.v.. 34. 21 (1): 45–52. 44. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". ^ .". No. p. ^ Mayo Clinic 32.html".com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". Mar. 2000. Medina E.xml. Olives 41. ^ [2] Ichihashi. Toshinori Bito. Gruendel S.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. A : Wu. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics".org 31. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. Raimondi AS.1021/jf0630217. 11. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. ^ Ferrara LA. Catherine Breton. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. N U : Budiyanto. Alonso MG. 10.crazychefs. ^ Machowetz A. http://www. 1: Prevent Cancer. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. Israel". 21. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. 43. Olea europaea L. Use Olive Oil. Brenes M. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. ssp. doi:10. J Agric Food Chem.. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". Toshihiko Osawa.ama-assn. T.Telegraph". ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. Ahmed. ^ Ehud Galili et al.html. 19 November 2007 30. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. Suppl. d'Episcopo L. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33.28. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". Poulsen HE. ^ Mayo Clinic. M : Ahmed. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. ^ Romero C. ^ "www. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". s. Etienne N. Dello Russo A. Guida L. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto.1. "New Year's Resolution No. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). 2000. 29. ^ a b Davidson.06-6328com. http://www. 45. s. (January 2005).telegraph.75. 39. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). but cites no source. De Castro A (February 2007).uk/portal/main. 38. ". doi:10. M : Osawa. pp. PMID 17110467. Vol. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. An Masato Ueda. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. 2085-2090. doi:10. ^ Pagnol. 23. et al. PMID 10737284. 37.1096/fj. (January 2007). 1S45-50. "olive" and "oil" 40.1024/0300-9831. 55 (3): 680–6. André Bervillé. 19. p. (27 March 2000)." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. http://www.videojug. Masamitsu Ichihashi.v. ^ Turner R. Pagnol. Vargas J. Nov. 19. ^ "Quite Interesting . Osamu Nikaido. T : Ueda. ^ Rosenblum. Nazim U. PMID 15830923. Carcinogenesis. p. Faseb J. et al. A : "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis".tchain.61. PMID 17263460.

htm" In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". Scanlon.youngmuslims. Kennell. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. .). Harrington Park Press. B. Processing methods. http://www. pp119–33 Provencal. 47. ^ "www.youngmuslims. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. 2001. ^ Thomas F. C. ^ Nigel Verstraete and V. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.htm. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". ^ F.46. 2005 49. ed.

crocin. ən] / [ˈsæf. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring http://www. A C.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform.Saffron Saffron crocus C. sativus flower bears three stigmas.crazychefs.or hay-like fragrance. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. each the distal end of a carpel.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. Saffron. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). Saffron has further medicinal applications.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles.

Only in October. which means "yellow. It is a sterile triploid form.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. purple buds appear. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. A corm survives for one season. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C.crazychefs.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable http://www.[11] Upon flowering.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. as was once generally believed.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. must be dug up. in Central Asia.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds.2 in) in length. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer.5 centimetres (1. In autumn. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. and replanted.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. Being sterile. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the .8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). broken apart.98–1. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves.

8–5.9 in) deep. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable.[16] Furthermore.. in concert with climate. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. Only in mid-autumn do they flower.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. are critical factors affecting yields.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). Greek. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover.e. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres ( http://www. Nematodes.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. loose. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. well-watered. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. rats. Planting depth and corm spacing. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. and birds. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. . saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops.000–1. and corm rot pose other threats. where hot. maximizing sun exposure. Moroccan. leaf rusts. they fare poorly in shady conditions. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage.500 mm (39–59 in).[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn.crazychefs. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. where annual rainfall averages 1. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer.

It also has many nonvolatile active components. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin. and thus oil-soluble.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. However.and β-carotenes.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.[19] Meanwhile. including zeaxanthin. and various α. lycopene.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. a product results that is itself water-soluble. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.8-diapo-8.8-carotenoic acid).11 gr) of dried saffron. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's .[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is http://www.0. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).crazychefs.[19] many of which are carotenoids.2 oz of dried saffron).

crazychefs.0 4.0 11.0–13.0–8.0 2.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 6.0–14.0 8.0 http://www.0 6.5 10.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 3.5 40.0 12.0 6.0 12.0 9.0 1.0–15.0 6.0 0.0 1.0–1.0–7.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % .0 10.

the scent of which has been described as "saffron.6. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.carboxaldehyde) and a http://www. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.3-diene-1.6. Significantly. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron.0 Source: Goyns 1999. incidentally.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.Fiber (crude) 5. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal.6. dried hay like". Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric . Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. Santorini.crazychefs.[18] Safranal.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. When saffron is dried after its harvest. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. the heat. combined with enzymatic action. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.4.6-trimethyl-2. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. p.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. a volatile oil. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.

000 years.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. Since then.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. and scabies. There.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. and in the mithridatium. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.[28][29] Later.crazychefs. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. townspeople in Rhodes.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. cough. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. physicians in Gaza. In late Hellenistic Egypt.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and . showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. mascaras. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. cartwrightianus. ointments.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron http://www.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. sativus. Thus.[33] potpourris. and medical treatments.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. divine offerings. a sterile mutant form of C. colic. C.

Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. medicines. saffron threads were woven into textiles. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. and baths as a curative for battle wounds.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. Isfahan.crazychefs. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac.Asia The 17.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. Wan Zhen. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical http://www.[44] During his Asian campaigns. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.[39][40] Later.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. or jackfruit. perfumes. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. a less expensive dye.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. a Chinese medical expert. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. dating to 978–993 . also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia.[44] From there. For example.[42] ritually offered to divinities.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and body washes. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. and used in dyes. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. At such sites.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong.[43] Thus.[53] On the other hand.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. rice.[51] However. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC.

[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.crazychefs.[58] Soon after. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. Italy. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and . especially Norfolk and Suffolk. imprisoned. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which grew prosperous. under which saffron adulterators were fined. In Europe. named for its new specialty crop. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. coffee. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. and then the saffron is obtained.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. and Spain. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. France.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. did significant cultivation endure. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. http://www." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. and Italy.[62] By 1730.saffron is in Kashmir.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. indeed. It can be used to aromatise wine. However. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. and executed.[59][60] Only in southern France.

modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing).[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Pennsylvania. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian) http://www. Turkish.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing).[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). and antioxidantlike properties. Arab.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. and in perfumery. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. noodles. and chicken or trout dishes. Indian. Medicinally. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. and Cornish cuisines. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. immunomodulating. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. Central Asian. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. European. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus . particularly in China and India.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County.

slight moistness. in decreasing order of production. and Italy. the average retail price is $1.100–11.000 per pound (US$1.[2] A pound comprises between 70. elasticity. Switzerland.100/€1. Spain. Vivid crimson colouring. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. Greece. Annually.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. the United States.000–75. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). and other . In Western countries.500 per kilogram. Azerbaijan. are the major producers of saffron. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. France. they are graded by government-imposed standards.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east.crazychefs. England. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide.[5] http://www. and aroma. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110. Morocco. For example.000 flowers.500/€7. flavour. Spain's varieties.000 threads. Aside from these.000 flowers. are generally mellower in colour.000-170. India. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.200/£1.550 per kilogram). A pound of dry saffron requires 50.000 and 200. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150.

and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. blights. near L'Aquila. and safranal (fragrance) content. contribute to its high prices. and colourative effect. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. among the world's darkest.. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. picrocrocin.S. unusually pungent aroma. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). Repeated droughts.some organically grown. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation.crazychefs. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. There.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Sardinia. which is among the most difficult for consumers to . Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. In the U. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. for quality and quantity. picrocrocin (taste). it also has very high crocin. is in San Gavino Monreale. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. and crop failures in Kashmir. shape. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. combined with an Indian export http://www. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour).79 in). aroma. and safranal content.

powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. in India. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250.[77] However. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. aroma. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. and I (finest quality). pliability. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide.national standards bodies. paprika. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. However. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin http://www.[80] Thus. pomegranate fibers. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO . Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron.crazychefs. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). many growers.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. and thus a greater colourative intensity. with turmeric. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I).[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. III. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. red-dyed silk fibers. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. II. traders. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. and other powders used as diluting fillers. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light.

^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. 15. 287. pp. p. 7. Kansai. 18. ^ M. ^ Rau 1969. 19. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. 3. ^ Willard 2001. Grilli Caiola . pp. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 17. 3.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). p. 423. ^ McGee 2004. 4. ^ Kumar V (2006). ^ Dharmananda 2005.asp?AcNo=20043148643. ^ a b c d Deo 2003.cababstractsplus. 5. 14. 23. 4. 1. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. ^ a b c Hill 2004. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. 2–3. ^ DPIWE 2005. 3–4.crazychefs. 1. 103. http://www. Sterling. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 272. p. 422. 3. ^ Willard 2001. http://books. 53.Saffron reproductive biology 11. p. p. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ a b Deo 2003. p. 9. p. Honshū. ^ Deo 2003. p. 3. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. ^ Harper 2001. ^ Grigg 1974. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 6. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. p. 2. 24. 12. crocin and 1. 16.". ^ a b McGee 2004. 4. 2. . ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. stigma extracts and their constituents. ^ Willard 2001. pp. 13. ^ a b Deo 2003. http://www. ^ Willard 2001. in mice.cababstractsplus. p. p. p. 22. 20.

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2006. 2006. Fotedar. "Saffron (Crocus sativus Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1). G (2001).DPIWE (2005). D (2001). SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995).bbc. < http://www. 2006. JH.ikashmir. BBC News. BBC News. Lak. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron". Retrieved on January 10.)". "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron". Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review".au/inter. Honan. saffron". 2006. Retrieved on January 10. Lak. T (2004). 2006.tas. Hasegawa. D (1998b). Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. <http://books. ISBN 0-312-34068-0. Goyns. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution". Humphries. Retrieved on January 10. Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. JC (2002). WH (2004). 2006. Retrieved on January 10. Ten Speed Press.html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>.stm>.com/download/saffron. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-58008-024-3.php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>. SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005). MH (1999). The Essential Saffron Companion. The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen.crazychefs. St.leffingwell. A (2005). Retrieved on January 10.pdf>.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/212491. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5). DB (1974).com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=l-QJaUp31T4C>. ISBN 0-521-09843-2. ISBN 90-5702-394-6. Food & Agriculture. Retrieved on January SC (2004).bbc. 2006. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron". "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. ISBN "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress".gov. AW (2001).co. Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4) S (1998–1999). < Taylor & Francis. Leffingwell. Cambridge University Press. PMID 8590890 Hayes. Harper. D (1998). Hill. < m>. Jessie. J (1998). Martin's Press. Online Etymology Dictionary. Principles and Methods of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). BBC News. 2006. Hussain. <http://www. Retrieved on January 10. "Saffron".html>. N (2005).etymonline. "Saffron".nytimes.stm>. 2006.pdf>. Grigg. ISBN 1-56032-814-2. <http://www.uni-graz. Wiley. The New York Times. The Agricultural Systems of the World. 2006[dead link]. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2). Retrieved on January 10. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine". Retrieved on January>. PMID 16180089 Katzer. 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera".net/ . <http://www. <http://news. PMID 15259204 Fletcher. <http://news.

Tarvand Saffron Company. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. P (2001).>. SR (1969).reconstructinghistory. 2006. McGee.000. <>. Retrieved on January 10.tarvandsaffron. Nair. Retrieved on January 10. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "What is Saffron?".usda. PMID 2025883 http://www. 2006. <http://www.html>.cfm?chemic al_id=140>. H (2004). ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005).google. 2006. New Scientist. JB (2005).google. Reconstructing History. <http://www. Scribner. <http://www.tarvandsaffron. Cancer Letters 57 (2).net/ . <http://www. Retrieved on January 10. F (2005). SC.McGann. The Cooking of India.html>. Retrieved on January Retrieved on January 2006. "Grading and Classification". USDA Phytochemical Database. K (2003).". ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 2006[dead link]. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron".htm>. "Saffron". Retrieved on January Beacon Press.htm>. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). Tarvand Saffron Company.newscientist. Retrieved on January 10. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). Tarvand (2005b). Rau. Pearce. <http://books. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. Time Life Education. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". Willard. <http://books.crazychefs. . 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L. Dead http://www.

Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. the olive suckers readily from the stump. are borne generally on the last year's wood.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. ca 170 AD. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. the olive. Theophrastus. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. endives. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. two stamens and bifid stigma. called xoana. Its fruit.(XVII. It is short and squat. referring to their wooden material. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea.crazychefs. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. The small white flowers. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves.[9]."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. http://www. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. they were reverently preserved for centuries. In Homer's Odyssey. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock.5 cm long. olives. by a spring.[1] and in the Iliad. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. which he describes as very simple: "As for me.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. Asia and parts of Africa. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry."[7] indeed. from Lebanon. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. and smooth mallows provide . which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes.

Peru. Chile and http://www. and its cultivation began in Mexico. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. The Book of Jacob 5. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. Theophrastus. As emblems of benediction and purification.[12] After the 16th century. For example. in On the Nature of Plants. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. wild-type .[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As far back as 3000 BC. fertility. wisdom.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there.crazychefs.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. and one of the most significant. and then in the 18th century in California. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. for which the Greeks had a separate name. but he makes clear (in 1.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. Today. the olive has been the symbol of peace. kotinos. Over the years. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. spread far and wide by birds. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. power and pureness.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. olives were grown commercially in Crete. The olive tree itself. play an important role in the Bible. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. in both the New and Old Testaments. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. glory. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. as well as olive oil and olives. indeed. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World.16. the pits give rise to thorny. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible.The leafy branches of the olive tree . it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. glory and peace . it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel.

has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. and can live for very long. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically.000 years old. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Istria in Croatia. drought-.and fire-resistant. The age of an olive tree in . although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. which is made into top quality olive oil.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. One olive tree in Bar. disease.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni).600 years old. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14].Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. Montenegro.crazychefs. has been calculated to be about 1. claimed to be over 2. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. named "Plato's Olive Tree". The older an olive tree is. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is http://www.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca.

Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. Cultivation and uses For more details on this http://www. Italy. though showing a preference for the coast.400 years ago. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. see Olive (fruit). a few other millenary trees can be admired. 1600-2000 years old. In the same natural garden. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest.2. All seven trees continue to produce olives. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. called the "Peisistratos Tree". and the olive fruit. olive leaf.6 km) as the limit. both in Galilee region.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. fine wood. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. Specifically. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. . two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. A supposedly even older tree. Modern experience does not always confirm this. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55.crazychefs. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. According to a recent scientific survey. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC.

using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces .[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. Olive plantation in Andalucia. laperrinei (Algeria. such as South Africa. Argentina. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. Sudan. Chile. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). They are also grown in the Córdoba http://www.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). Niger. northwest Africa) where winters are mild.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. the Mediterranean Basin. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. Israel. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. Australia. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp.crazychefs.

com http://www.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

crazychefs.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.

a large. rounded-oval fruit. often after being pitted. The olive grove of Amfissa. Seville. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions.200. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. but only a few are grown to a large extent. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. A prolific bearer. with purple-green skin. Rich taste and thick pulp. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . in southern Spain. stuffed (with pickled pimento. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so.Cailletier cultivar.crazychefs. anchovies. 'Manzanilla'. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . 'Bosana'. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. originating in Dos http://www. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. It is used mostly for oils. grown around the world. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. In recent times.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. which consists of 1. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops.

net/ .[citation needed] 'Lucques'. They grow in any light soil. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'.[23] 'Barnea'. Spain. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California.crazychefs. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. originating in Toledo. a small. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. these cultivars are now grown in other countries.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. even on clay if well drained. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. good for eating and for oil. Spain. The olive is medium sized. though difficult to cultivate. and elongated. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. originating in the south of France (Aude département). round. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. 'Hojiblanca'. originating from the southern Peloponese. good for eating and for oil. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They are black and generally used for table consumption. Greece. It has a strong but sweet flavour. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. It is used both for oil and for table olives. Their flavour is mild and nutty. Spain. and coastal climate conditions. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. 'Empeltre'. Moreover. 'Kalamata'. a large. named after the city of Kalamata. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. This small olive. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. medium size. 'Arbequina'. and elongated. which. around Kalamata and Mani in http://www. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). used as a table olive. They are green. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. 'Picual'. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. 'Souri'.[21] 'Koroneiki'. originating in the south of France. originating in the province of Córdoba. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. The flavour is mild and nutty. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). another modern Israeli. Due to their highly valued flavour. 'Nabali'. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. It is green. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. brown olive grown in Catalonia. 'Cornicabra'. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. large. It is mainly used for oil. disease-resistant. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status.

that has large tongs that spin around quickly. as in Languedoc and Provence.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. In southern Europe. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. and with the season and the cultivar. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. Occasionally. which form small swellings on the stems. up to several centuries.crazychefs. In some places in Italy and Greece. to facilitate germination. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. embryonic buds. More specifically. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. being very hard and close-grained. P. and can remain productive for as long. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. In Italy. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. They tolerate drought well. it is valued by woodworkers. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. the oliviera. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A.poorer soil. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. Olives are propagated in various ways. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. However. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. Another method uses an electric tool. In Greece. soon vegetate. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. the trees are regularly pruned. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. This method is used for olives used for oil. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent . The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. removing fruit from the tree. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. 114).) Olives like hot weather. but the time varies in each country. Olives grow very http://www.

) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. As a . large fruit (e. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. which leads to a superior finished product. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. a bitter carbohydrate. or green with hints of colour). which is a natural preservative. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. Olives can be used green. After some weeks. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. The method also involves sawing off branches.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. which is why they taste milder than green olives. the fruit is not bruised.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. the creation of lactic http://www. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. through to full purple black ripeness. which can be eaten fresh. Typical yields are 1. The olives are soaked in water to wash. then drained.g. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy.. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water.2 kg of oil per tree per year. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. which is healthy for future production. Fresh are often sold at markets.crazychefs.5-2.

Lye-curing. capsicum (pimento). It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. leaving sawtooth damage. Cycloconium oleaginum. but can be left to cure for up to three months. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. salt-curing. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot.crazychefs. lemon juice. olive oil. In France and north-central Italy. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. juniper berries and anchovies. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. spices. Sometimes. diseases. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. causing great damage to plantations. feta.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. and weather A fungus. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. an unnatural method. Popular flavourings are herbs. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. chili. A species of bacterium. oleae[27]. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. The ten largest producing countries. .6 to 8. garlic http://www. lemon zest. Pests. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. induces tumour growth in the shoots. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. especially to young trees. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. or removing the pit and stuffing them. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. of which the water is changed daily. their main predators are wasps. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. vinegar. olives suffer occasionally from frost.

4 30.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication. 5.888 http://www.14.0 3.800.830 2. On the Causes of Plants. Odyssey.000 1. and was the first to instruct men in these matters. Bibliotheke. 4.3 20. and to cultivate olive-trees.000 20..160.[31] References 1.000 998.300.1 25. Ancient Greek Agriculture. 4. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.7 27.089 6. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. Description of Greece 1.000 49. most notably South Australia.988 500.1).crazychefs.981 1. 3.000 318. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.13. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." (Diodorus Siculus.6 31.9 6. 2. book 5". In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. 81. ^ Pausanias. ^ ". 3.000 1.597. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.000 275.400. 82.064 2.. 1.339 300. 38. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.000 250. .000 550. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.317.149. 27. 7. p. to make bee-hives.5 63.000 594.685 765. ^ Theophrastus.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus. ^ Homer..000 280. 1992.3 8." (Herodotus. 6.8 16. An introduction.100 3.000 498.000 470. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens. 1).140.000 8. 5..000 430.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.500. 1 ).5 6.

J. me cichorea levesque malvae.. Tabak & O.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. ^ Gooch. 1999. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Kislew. 105. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. nom. Spring/Summer 2006 26.jsp. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. 1981. Volume 18:27-35 20.fao. Juárez.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". ^ "Me pascunt olivae. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. ^ O. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. vol. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15.crazychefs.htm.aspx?PageID=151. op. 13. 30. 29 April. AGRISCIENTA. cited in F.. J. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil".springerlink. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. M Bauza & R. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. ^ Riley. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. 1982. 2001. p. 27. Ellen. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. Volume 15. Madrid. ^ Balfour. ^ http://www. Y. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. Odes 1. Retrieved 2007-08-31. John Hutton. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. D.pasoroblesolivefestival. & Parker. ^ Lumaret. . A. ^ a b M.31.15. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives".zatoun. 1996. Cavagnaro P. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. Retrieved 2007-03-10. http://www. J.cit.. Riley (2002).. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. Moody. 24. p. Zatoun. 1779. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. Rackham. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. Masuelli. Epikouria Magazine. ^ Janse. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. 17. ^ Burr. 4th http://www. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.brijuni. EspasaCalpe The Making of the Cretan Landscape. E. nov. Processing methods.8. (September 2002).A. Simhoni. pp 110–113. ^ [1] 21. Elena "Unusual Olives". http://www. Retrieved 2009-05-18. & Ouazzani. 2004". 29. Australian Olives. ca 30 BC 9. ^ "FAO.279 Int. ^ "Old Olive Tree". ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. ^ Muncipality Bar. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. R. M. 28.. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. 69. 23. Leshonenu (Hebrew). (1999) Ancient Trees. Available through Google Books 11. ^ Belaj et al. 25. J. rev. 32:166–169. Brijuni National Park.fao. Epikouria Magazine. Number 4). ^ Lewington." Horace. Apps3. ^ 35.W. R. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. Bacteriol. http://apps3. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L.

Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. and south to northern Mexico. with slender branched stems. (French tarragon. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets.crazychefs. however." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India.31. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb.R. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. L. with an entire margin.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. The leaves are lanceolate. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. western North . Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm http://www. glossy green. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. Corresponding to its species name. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. seldom produces flowers.

lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. It is normally purchased as a plant. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. by extension. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the . Georgia and. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. and particularly suitable for chicken. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. Russia and Ukraine. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans.[1] It likes a hot. Spreading plant can be divided easily.[1] However.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. but cannot be grown from seed. it normally goes dormant in winter.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. which is the Armenian. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise.[1] Russian tarragon (A. sunny http://www. A perennial. Fresh.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. due to the presence of estragole.crazychefs. fish and egg dishes. Persian and Russian word for . 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. without excessive watering. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. dracunculoides L.

References 1. ISBN 9783527607891. Rose Marie Nichols. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Johannes Panten (2006). 3. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Ley JP. ^ Surburg. 233. Krammer G. Wiley-VCH. Maggie (2002).Cis-Pellitorin. Horst.crazychefs. Workman Publishing. Machinek . ^ Gatfield IL. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Stuckey.[3] In Slovenia. ^ a b c d McGee. The Bountiful Container. Properties and http://www. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Foerstner J. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. pp. 2.

Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. Common sage. Garden sage. Dalmatian sage. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. Britain and Flanders. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Kitchen sage. Purple sage. cheeses (Sage Derby).com http://www. sage has a slight peppery flavor. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. with woody stems. Culinary sage. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. it is used when roasting mutton.crazychefs. Germans often use it in sausage dishes.Salvia officinalis (Sage. and some drinks. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden . such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. Broadleaf sage. and blue to purplish flowers. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. In the United States. Lamiaceae. In Western cooking. In the Balkans and the Middle East. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. though other species. It is a member of the mint family. grayish leaves. In French cuisine.

caffeic acid. flavonoid glycosides. chlorogenic acid. means ―to heal".com http://www. ursonic acid. . antibiotic.more trichomes are visible on this side. flavones. niacin. The Latin name for sage. and thujone. estrogenic. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. cornsole. and tonic. borneol.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. hypoglycemic. which contains cineole. antifungal. antispasmodic. ursolic acid. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. and estrogenic substances. The underside of a sage leaf . salvia. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic.trichomes are visible. oleic acid. fumaric acid.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . astringent. cornsolic acid.[1] In a double blind. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment.

especially in sunny dry environments.x. Jamshidi AH. a local anesthetic for the skin. 'Alba'. http://www. a cultivar with white. hemostatic. emmenagogue. and for other uses. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. a purple-leafed cultivar. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. 'Berggarten'.php. a small leaved cultivar. increasing women's fertility. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. Mohammadi M. Noroozian M. a white-flowered cultivar. ^ Akhondzadeh S. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. 'Extrakta'.com/nutri/page8453. and for low ground cover. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and . http://www. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. and used as a diuretic. Ohadinia S. a styptic.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. Dioscorides. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs.appliedhealth. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. 'Tricolor'. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. 'Lavandulaefolia'. OBeWise Nutriceutica. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. (2003). a wild undershrub he called sphakos.[4] It was sometimes called S.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. Applied Health.1046/j. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". PMID 12605619.1365-2710. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. ^ a b c "Sage". Khani M. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. 'Icterina'. References 1. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties.crazychefs. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. Pliny. and more. and tonic.2003.00463. doi:10. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). Retrieved 2008-02-04. 2. a cultivar with large leaves. yellow and green variegated leaves.

^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. Deni Bown (New York: DK. Spiridon E. ^ a b Kintzios. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. ISBN 9789058230058. p. pp. Sage: The Genus Salvia. . http://www. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. CRC Press. (2000).3.

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