COOKING INGREDIENTS

Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]

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Taxonomy
Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]

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Uses
Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

Safety
A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Cultivation
Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]

Gallery

Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.

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Thyme

Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

History
Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]

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It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. It tolerates drought well. Thyme. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. tomatoes and eggs. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Italian.net/ . which is due to its content of thymol. soups and stews. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. or by the sprig. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). Albanian.com http://www.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. Depending on how it is used in a dish. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. Leaves are often chopped. While summer-seasonal. while flavourful. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. Spanish. Portuguese. cuttings. the whole sprig may be used (e. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. As a rule of thumb. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Lebanese. and of herbes de Provence. and Turkish cuisines. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. Syrian. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Dried.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. in a bouquet garni). or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. Greek.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs.a little less if it is ground.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. assume that it means fresh.crazychefs. fresh thyme is often available year-round. and in those derived from them. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. Persian. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme.g. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. storage life is rarely more than a week. In some Levantine countries. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. In French cuisine. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. It can be propagated by seed. Libyan. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer).

and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. but is grown as a ground cover.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. The dried equivalent is 1:3.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled.crazychefs. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice.net/ . an antiseptic. etc.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed].estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. tisane. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. hybrid T. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. pulegioides × T. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb.[6] Thymol. it was used to medicate bandages.com http://www. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. Because it is antiseptic. salve. It also has medicinal uses. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed].[5] As with bay. All thyme species are nectar sources.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb.

ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme.Variegated lemon thyme.net/ . good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.crazychefs. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing.com http://www. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity.

neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .crazychefs.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.com http://www.

8 g 3. and American cooking.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.0 mg Iron 6.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.net/ .0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.Dietary fiber 3.Sugars 0.com http://www. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B2) 0.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.9 g . European. B3) 1.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.1 mg Folate (Vit.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.0 μg Calcium 138. B1) 0.0 mg Phosphorus 58.2 mg Magnesium 50. It is common in Middle Eastern. although parsley has a milder flavor.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit. often used as spice.crazychefs.3 g 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.1 mg 6. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).1 mg recommendations for adults.

For example. tuberosum).net/ . used in soups and stews.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. which helps accommodate the long taproot. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius).[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. While parsley is biennial. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. However. which then tend to protect plants nearby. Green parsley is often used as a garnish.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. it is not related to real turnips. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant.com http://www. reducing pest attraction. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Although little known in Britain and the United States. it attracts predatory insects. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. neapolitanum). or flat leaf (P. Like many other umbellifers. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. not blooming until its second year. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves.crazychefs. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable.

^ a b c John W.html. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. In addition. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. "Parsley on plucodes. [1]) in oxalic acid.crazychefs. and sauces. 4. with fish." West Virginia University Extension Service. fried chicken. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. In Southern and Central Europe. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www.com/npc/parsley. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier.com/PLUdetails. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally.drugs. http://www. e. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. garlic. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs.. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. soups. References 1. 2. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles.[3] Parsley is high (1. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. or 4900. steaks.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. "That Devilish Parsley.70% by mass. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). 2007. lamb or goose. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. Last retrieved April 26.com". Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. Goulash or Chicken paprikash).aspx?id=1075&s=4.com http://www. parsley is part of bouquet garni.g. leaf. Parsley as an oil.net/ . root. Ossobuco alla milanese. Jett. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. a mixture of parsley.plucodes. and lemon zest.com".

com http://www.net/ .Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.com http://www.crazychefs.net/ .

spicy flavor. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food.crazychefs. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. The flowers are purple.net/ . O vulgare gracile.com http://www. of the mint family.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. e. growing to 20-80 cm tall. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. capers. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. Unlike most Italian herbs. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. Greek. Together with basil. It is particularly widely used in Turkish.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. and grilled meat. produced in erect spikes. Oregano is an important culinary herb. fried vegetables.g. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 3-4 mm long. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. each with distinct flavours. as well as cultivars. native to Europe. It is a perennial herb. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. and to add a nice. Oregano growing in a field. which is popular in southern Italy.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . and lovage leaves.

Oregano growing in a pot. it can be usually found on table. It has an aromatic. West Asia) have similar flavors. In the Philippines. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. differs significantly in taste. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue.crazychefs. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. together with paprika. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. In Turkish Cuisine. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. which. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species.[5][6] Additionally. warm and slightly bitter taste.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. salt and pepper. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. Asia Minor) and O. Balkan peninsula. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. The influence of climate. however. useful for relieving children's coughs.net/ .[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. heracleoticum (Italy. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. It varies in intensity. especially for mutton and lambs meat. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles.com http://www.

[7] and painful menstruation. stomach upsets. thymol. cholagogue. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. this substitution would not work the other way round. A Cretan oregano (O. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. especially in the United States. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. limonene. fungal infections. including Poliomintha longiflora.html. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. stomachic and mildly tonic. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. useful for relieving children's coughs.com http://www. and caryophyllene. expectorant. the father of medicine. emmenagogue. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum.crazychefs. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. influenza.[8] Hippocrates. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. enteric parasites. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. also called Cuban oregano. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. Coleus aromaticus). showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs.uni-graz. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. capsules. stimulant. Aqueous extracts. Used topically. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. ^ Organic Gardening 2. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. Plectranthus amboinicus. carminative. but is usually stronger. antispasmodic. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. ^ http://www. mild fevers.[12] References 1. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. diaphoretic. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).Main constituents include carvacrol. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. oregano.at/~katzer/engl/Orig_vul. indigestion. this latter is used in at least one Old English work.net/ . ocimene. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". Lippia berlandieri. In the Philippines. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". pinene.

1021/jf0510079.10. Agric. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 53 (21): 8162–8168.com http://www. J. (2005). (01 May 2003). ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".co. 24 November 2008. ^ a b Faleiro. ^ Epikouria Magazine.php.ac.com/articles/130620. ^ ["http://www.uwe. University of the West of England. Leonor. 28. Fall/Spring 2007 5. Retrieved 200811-26.crazychefs. ^ Epikouria Magazine. draft revision for "origanum". Medical News Today. J Nutr. ^ Dragland.asp?item=1374&year=2008.2008. Draft revision for "oregano".dmannose. doi:10. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". et al. http://info.uk/wild-oregano-oil-carvacrol.uk/news/UWENews/article. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 133 (5): 1286–1290. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L.3. http://jn.org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286. draft revision for "organum". March 2009. June 2008. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. Food Chem. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4.nutrition. Steinar.". 11. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". 6.medicalnewstoday. et al. PMID 12730411. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. PMID 16218659. http://www. 12.net/ . Fall/Winter 2007 10.) and Origanum vulgare L. 7. (Cav.

recorded in the 10th century. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. umbelliferous herb. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. it was from the giant fennel. however.com http://www. perennial. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). In Ancient Greek.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. Also. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. it seems. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. It is a hardy.[2] In Greek mythology.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Ferula communis. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). meaning "hay". the diminutive of fenum or faenum. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian.net/ . areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world.crazychefs. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses.

com http://www.net/ .20 g 1. about 0. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill. and grooved. B3) 0. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). bulb. they are finely dissected. but thinner. and grows to heights of up to 2.5 mm wide. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. B2) 0. glaucous green.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.5 m. B1) 0.Dietary fiber 3. It is erect.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. half as wide or less.29 g 0. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.047 mg Folate (Vit. with hollow stems. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.crazychefs. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates .01 mg 7.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. both in its native range and elsewhere.com http://www. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. F. though usually not as strong.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It propagates well by seed. and in other open sites in many regions. it is often mislabelled as "anise".[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.crazychefs. including northern Europe. but is more aromatic and sweeter. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. In North American supermarkets. "bronze-leaved" fennel.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. both raw and cooked. notably the Italian name finocchio.20 mg Manganese 0. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole.net/ . It is of cultivated origin. syn. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. by the late 19th century. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. for its edible.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. in pastures. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. which is also known by several other names. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). vulgare var. the United States. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides.

Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. salads. anise-flavoured spice.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. braised.crazychefs.net/ .com http://www. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. variyali in Gujarati. foliage. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. in side dishes. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. green seeds are optimal. but also the most expensive. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. stewed. For cooking. though smaller. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste.Fennel. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. both raw and cooked. pastas. mouri in Bengali. which are very similar in taste and appearance. brown or green in colour when fresh. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). The bulb is a crisp. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. Many egg. or cooked in risotto. or eaten raw. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. and risottos. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. It may be blanched or marinated. sompu in Telugu. grilled. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. badesoppu in Kannada. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where bulbs and fronds are used. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. often tossed with chicory and avocado. fish.

[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. sometimes with some sweetener. also employed as a carminative. which can explain some of its medical effects: it.[12] For adults.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. Fennel tea. as it is said to improve eyesight. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties.crazychefs.net/ . Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. used to ease flatulence in infants. This use. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. although not supported by direct evidence. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. act as phytoestrogens. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. or its polymers.

[17] However. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child.com http://www.net/ .Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. fennel and coriander.crazychefs. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. which promote growth of breast tissue.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. badian (star anise).[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. followed by India.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.

[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. it is known as "DalChini ( )". it is called "Darchini" ( ). Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon.[2] In Marathi. cinnamon is known as kurundu.crazychefs.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia.[3] In Sri Lanka. it is called darchin (‫.com http://www. Ceylon. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. in the original Sinhala. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. it is called Dalchina Chakka. Hindi. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.C. Chakka meaning bark or wood. and in Gujarati taj. which are often called cinnamon too.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. In Farsi (Persian). and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . In Bengali. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. itself ultimately from Phoenician. In Urdu.net/ . zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the "real' cassia. native to Sri Lanka. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. In Telugu.[5] In Malayalam. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. synonym C.

a song describing the beauty of his beloved. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. in Proverbs. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt.com http://www. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. and in Song of Solomon. aloe and cinnamon.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo.net/ .[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers.crazychefs.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil.

However. which are arranged in panicles.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. a Dutch captain reported.2 feet) tall. p. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more.1 inches) long. "The shores of the island are full of it". Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. and have a distinct odor. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire.net/ . 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score.crazychefs. They established a trading post in 1638.com http://www. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. and used them to construct their nests.[9] In Herodotus and other authors.Ages.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas.8–49. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. tea. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. sugar. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. and coffee. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. have a greenish color. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. although in the first century. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. 7–18 cm (2. The flowers. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. in a letter of about 1292. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea." (Braudel 1984.75–7. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. took control of the factories by 1640.

Zanzibar. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. According to the International Herald Tribune. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. Java. Madagascar. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. followed by China. Brazil. which is left to dry. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. eg. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. The next year. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots.5 mm) inner bark is used. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon.crazychefs. and Vietnam. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. Only the thin (0. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. the West Indies.com http://www.[15] According to the FAO. India. and Egypt. Sumatra. verum). Bangladesh. Chips are trimmings of quills. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka.net/ . Vietnam. the outer woody portion is removed.

zeylanicum). using only the thin inner bark. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. However. has a finer.net/ . (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . and thicker (2–3 mm thick).com http://www. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon".crazychefs. as all of the layers of bark are used. less dense. "Vietnamese cinnamon". Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. the related species. or "Indonesian cinnamon". and is considered to be less strong than cassia. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). many websites. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. for example. hard and woody in texture. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is generally a medium to light reddish brown.[16] Ceylon cinnamon.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. and more crumbly texture. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C.

used in a variety of thick soups.com http://www. especially apples.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. In the Middle East. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. are easily distinguished. ‫. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. and sweets. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. In the United States. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. a deep-blue tint is produced. but when cassia is present. such as apple pie.5% to 1% of its composition. and then quickly distilling the whole.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.crazychefs. True cinnamon. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. hot cocoa. and liqueurs. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality.net/ . it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. drinks. and fruits. especially in Mexico. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. tea. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. rather than cassia. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. It is of a golden-yellow color. when whole. macerating it in seawater. The two barks.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. bread-based dishes.

[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae.net/ . Sri Lanka (Ceylon).com http://www. love." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. few seem able to succeed. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. who failed. and money. and Myanmar (Burma). and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). cinnamyl acetate. The Cinnamon Challenge. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. eugenol.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. beta-caryophyllene. However.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. In Hoodoo. 2008. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. ^ a b "Cinnamon".[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. although it remains untested.0. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). by the absorption of oxygen as it ages.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. Encyclopaedia Britannica. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. linalool. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate.and a very hot aromatic taste. cinnamaldehyde. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. and anethole. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. luck.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance.[34] Notes 1.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. cassia. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.

Harvey. Cinnamon. p.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/south_asia_sri_lanka0s_spice _of_life/html/1.—Cinnamon.html.CO%3B2-N 15. ^ http://news. retrieved 2008-07-15 11.stm 3. http://www. ^ "Cassia. ^ http://www.com/Spices/cinnamon.php?storyId=6672644.nii.437.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. J. ^ Mancini-Filho J. tr. revised ed. http://dsr.thespicehouse. http://www. doi:10.0.jp/toyobunko/III-2F-b-2/V-1/page/0487.org/docrep/007/ae017e/ae017e12. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7.html. Agric.1021/jf051513y. Mancini DA. ^ Felter.com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. ^ http://findarticles. p.bbc.org/tennent/v1_p5_c02. 437 7. Cozzolino FF. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009.. PMID 10077878. Cathay and the Way Thither.htm 20. p. Agric. ^ http://www. Encyclopedia of Spices. 53 (17): 6939–46. Sánchez C.1021/jf050709v.iol.co. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. ^ Knox. Col. Robert.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". 4. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.za/index. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. Cinnamomum. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.htm.henriettesherbal." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. 53 (20): 7749–59. Batlle R.com 17.org/sici?sici=00754358(1970)60%3C222%3ATSTOTR%3E2. PMID 16104824. "Solid. Henry. http://www. Account of the Island of Ceylon.jstor.org/templates/story/story. http://lakdiva. ^ López P. http://www.en. 437f. 437). Sun M. ^ Tennent. 2009.net/ . ^ http://links. Breyne) extracts". J.co. PMID 16190627. ^ Shan B. ^ [2] 18. ^ [1] 16. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_June/ai_3289703 13. retrieved 200807-15 6. Cai YZ. 23. Torres RP (December 1998). "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. Food Chem. ^ Harris.ac. The History of Food. ^ http://www. retrieved 200705-01 21.ihaystack.html. doi:10. 9. Sir James Emerson. Food Chem. Corke H (October 2005). 8. 22. Emily.com/eclectic/kings/cinnamomum.2. Nerín C (August 2005).crazychefs. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents".npr.com http://www. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.fao. p. Van-Koiij A. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger.theepicentre.com/spices/vietnamese-cassia-saigon-cinnamon-wholecracked-ground thespicehouse. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. ^ The Epicentre.html#pg598. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. Anthea Bell. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. p. ^ Yule. 10.

http://www.net/ .113. Alan W.pdf. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). retrieved 2007-12-12 31. Braudel. http://eprints. Charles (1998)..my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH.3. Eleventh Edition.1016/00219673(88)90035-0. ^ Khan A.com/news/health/803646/chillies_are_the_spice_of_life__pepper s_have_been/index. Ali Khan MM. Archer (1988). ^ Verspohl.com/ingredient_index. Retrieved 2008-05-11. Cat. July 2000. 34.2217/14750708.1. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life".luckymojo. doi:10. Medicinal Seasonings. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes". 29. Research: Thalido. Corn. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food..lesliebeck. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. Muhammad et al. http://jn. Fernand (1984). doi:10. New York: Kodansha International.com/releases/2004/07/040716081706.3215. http://care. doi:10.nutrition.24. (2005).. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study".com. doi:10.2217/14750708. www. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism.sciencedaily. ^ Taher.1643. http://www. 33. ^ Beck.com.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14633804.utm. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography".12.whfoods. Cinnamon. The Perspective of the World. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000)..1. Akram et al. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. Safdar M. http://www.com/doi/abs/10. Anderson RA (December 2003). ^ Ranjbar. ground.crazychefs.. Khattak KN.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. Retrieved 2007-12-17.htm. ^ Vanschoonbeek. Leslie.sciencedaily. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 28. Retrieved 200805-11. Retrieved 200808-05.html?source=r_health. et al. http://www.3.redorbit.futuremedicine.com/genpage.com http://www. retrieved 200705-01 32.php?featured_food=80. Agricultural Research magazine. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. 30. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. retrieved 200705-01 25. 26.. http://www. ^ Yronwode.diabetesjournals. Kristof et al. http://www. a publication now in the public domain. PMID 14633804.1002/ptr.26. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. Eugen J. ^ [3]. 27.2337/diacare.113. ^ George Mateljan Foundation.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/977.

Onions can be used. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion.M. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved.com http://www.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. They are known by the common name "onion" but. used without qualifiers.net/ . Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. canned. They are now available in fresh. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. frozen."[3] Uses Onions. and Allium asarense R. which it is not.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. it usually refers to Allium cepa.Department of Export Agriculture. pickled. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. one of the oldest vegetables. chopped.crazychefs. and dehydrated forms. powdered.

and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. recent evidence has shown that dogs. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. coughs. In Bronze Age settlements. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. snakebite and hair loss. Depending on the variety. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course.net/ . Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. spicy.[5] However.[5] The onion is easily propagated. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions".chopped or sliced. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. and also to relieve headaches. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine.crazychefs. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. cats. due to toxicity during digestion. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. an onion can be sharp. transported and stored. In ancient Greece.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish.com http://www.

24 g .crazychefs.monounsaturated 0.4 mg Vitamin E 0.com http://www.1 g 1.34 g 0.net/ .Sugars 4.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B1) 0.Dietary fiber 1.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.saturated 0.02 mg Vitamin K 0. B2) 0.21 mg Magnesium 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates . B3) 0.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0. 0 μg 9.7 g Fat .4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.1 g 89.013 g .042 g .17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.polyunsaturated 0.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

When tested against liver and colon cancer cells.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. Western White. Northern Red. Imperial Valley Sweet. Imperial Valley Sweet. In the United States.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. Mexico. and Vidalia.com http://www. Empire Sweet. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). Northern Red. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]).[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. Mexico. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. If you are allergic to onions. Texas 1015. Shallots have the most phenols. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause.crazychefs. Texas 1015. Western White.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. Western Yellow. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. Peruvian Sweet. Imperial Valley Sweet. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. and Vidalia. However. Texas 1015.[10] In many parts of the world. anticancer. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. anticholesterol. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. For all varieties of onions. eleven times the amount found in Western White. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. Mexico. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. Empire Sweet.net/ . pungent yellow (New York Bold). Peruvian Sweet. diabetes. followed by Western Yellow. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. In general. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. osteoporosis. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. Empire Sweet.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. and other diseases. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. Peruvian Sweet. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White.

limiting the amount of gas generated. shallots. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). allylmercaptan and allicin. all present in garlic. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. differs among Allium species. diarrhea. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. breathing difficulties. and bananas. Eye irritation can. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. and in rare cases anaphylaxis.com http://www. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. allylpropyldisulfide. garden lilies. leeks. and the irritation effect. 2008. The volume of sulfenic acids released. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. where it binds to sensory neurons. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. mouth and throat ulcerations. ginger. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. therefore. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. On January 31. garlic.include reactions to onions. cells are broken.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. chives.net/ . nausea. creating a stinging sensation. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. it can lead to an allergic reaction. As onions are sliced or eaten.crazychefs.

which are the leaves and/or immature plants. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. which have been developed in more recent times. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. "short-day" onions. which can be planted directly in the ground. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation.net/ . These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. the Welsh onion. more commonly today. Finally. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. from sets started from seed the previous year. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. which is said not to produce dry bulbs.crazychefs.com http://www. Allium fistulosum. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring.

Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).crazychefs. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .758 Russia 1.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Oregon (USA).302 1. each of which forms a bulb. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.com http://www. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.149 Spain World Total 64. a hybrid of Allium cepas. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.220 Turkey 1.net/ .793 India 5.637 Japan Egypt 1.346 2.Produce bulblets in the flower head. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.500 China United States 3. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.764 Pakistan 1. Vale.750 South Korea 1.

Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices.crazychefs. passed in 1958.com http://www.net/ . after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.The Onion Futures Act. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States. It remains in effect as of 2009.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba.

Medical Botany.crazychefs. 1793. the most commonly used part of the plant. from William Woodville.[1] A bulb of garlic. commonly known as garlic. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves.net/ . Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L.com http://www. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. and chive.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. shallot. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. It has a characteristic pungent. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Its close relatives include the onion. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. Allium sativum. known as garlic. leek.

India (4. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. stems (scape).com http://www. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates.[5] The "wild garlic". cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic.Yunnan province of China. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. and for medicinal purposes. according to Zohary and Hopf. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. Allium vineale. with approximately 10. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. with Russia (1. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. In North America.net/ . The cloves are used as seed. and Allium oleraceum. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. respectively. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. are common weeds in fields. There are different types or subspecies of garlic.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually.[6] One of the best-known "garlics".crazychefs. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. In cold climates. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. The leaves. for consumption (raw or cooked). "crow garlic". The papery. They can suffer from pink root. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. the so-called elephant garlic. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. Garlic is grown globally. accounting for over 77% of world output. which grows wild in southwestern Asia.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. Garlic plants can be grown close together. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil.

the Middle East. semiofficial.000 325. F = FAO estimate. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.810 168. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. southern Europe.686.000 128.000 142. C = calculated figure. and parts of South and Central America. It is often paired with onion. California.000 254. or ginger.4%).088. Southeast Asia. or estimates). The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods.400 140.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. including eastern Asia. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. P = official figure.000 125.000 645. A = aggregate (may include official.Alaska) in fifth place (1.net/ .com http://www. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". south Asia. tomato. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form.000 15. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. northern Africa. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press.000 221.crazychefs.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.

Blending garlic. or "tops". They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. is sweet and syrupy.net/ . Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. Garlic. They are also known as "garlic spears". the resulting product. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. and spices. cleaned. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. The leaves are cut. In eastern Europe. bruschetta. and a chunky base produce skordalia. breads and pasta. oil. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. meats.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. or vegetables. meat. "stems". Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. and then stir-fried with eggs. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove.crazychefs. In some cuisine. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. United Kingdom and Australia. called black garlic. salt. crostini and canapé. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. oil. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. garlic toast. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. almond. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. and is now being sold in the United States. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco.com http://www. and roast them in an oven. In Japan and Korea. Immature scapes are tender and edible.

Storage

Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—theheart.org, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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garden lilies.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. and release of AMS several hours more. thus mellowing its spiciness. making garlic much more potent than onions. where it is excreted. chives. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. all present in garlic. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. and vampires. deterring animals like birds. The herb is. hung in windows. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. including onions. leeks. persillade. and worms from eating the plant. ginger. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. garlic. Humans. However.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna.net/ . it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread.[50] In Europe. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. When eaten in quantity.in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. such as pistou. therefore. and bananas. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. or leeks. usually enjoy these sensations.com http://www. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking.crazychefs.[48] Due to its strong odor. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream.[51] To ward off vampires. Since digestion takes several hours. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. forming allyl methyl sulfide. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". allylpropyldisulfide. insects. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae).[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. included in many garlic recipes. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. Among the members of the onion family. allylmercaptan and allicin.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. however. shallots. shallots. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. However. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. garlic could be worn. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. werewolves.

and diarrhea. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. at worst.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. indigestion. allergic reactions. However. antiplatelets. if appropriate. are largely unknown. Garlic can thin the blood. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. and hypoglycemic drugs. antihypertensives.net/ .com http://www. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi".[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. bleeding. You can help by converting this article to prose.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. sweating. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". dizziness. saquinavir.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. and menstrual irregularities.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. minimal risks to normal individuals.crazychefs. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. calcium channel blockers. antiparasitic value of garlic. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations.In Daoism mythology. Editing help is available.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. as well as other medications. indicated Muhammad.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. if any exist. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. emesis. similar to the effect of aspirin. nausea. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath).

[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.html 8. ^ a b c d Tabor. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. 2000). Retrieved 5 June 2009. http://www. Retrieved 2007-08-28. A bulb of garlic. http://hdl. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L.at/~katzer/engl/Alli_sat. G. ^ McGee p. 112 7.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. http://www. ^ a b Lee. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. including burns to children. p. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. (2005).html. 4.net/10113/877. In particular. et al.crazychefs. third edition (Oxford: University Press.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection".unigraz. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting.com/warrenreporter/index. garlick)". 2. one the bulbs will grow peeled. (2004). split.com/alternative-therapies/herbs-for-health/medicinal-garlic/ 9.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876.htm.org/Vol79/79_6/8. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic.net/ . ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). bigger. et al. ^ http://www.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. 3. Notes 1. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. topical use of raw garlic. Retrieved 5 June. Domestication of plants in the Old World.jhortscib. 397 6.natural-holistic-health. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Ethiopia". is discouraged.com http://www. J. 197 5.handle.nj. ^ http://www.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container.

Natl.. PMID 15157944. Hyg. ^ Benavides GA. doi:10. Yin MC.167. A Modern Herbal. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. PMID 17123684.lehoux/Tropes." Int. Güven C (2002). doi:10. U. Ramacciato. ^ Kojuri J. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". Hypertext version of the 1931 edition.1016/j. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . Block E. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. doi:10. ^ Borrelli F. 15. "Tropes.A 400 Year History. 15 (6): 373–7. doi:10. 28.10. et al (November 2007). Intern. R. Med. Mills RW..C. 11. ^ Gardner CD. Akrami M (March 2007). Daryn (2003). F.org/cgi/content/extract/167/4/325. Squadrito GL. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". Aytaç B. Olcay E..S. Sylva. Lawson LD. 25. 5:109–115. 2006. ^ Durak I. 19.com 54 | P a g e http://www. Arch. J. July 1.0705710104. doi:10. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. (Mrs. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23.pdf. Motta. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007).. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. 26. (p. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". ^ Goodbye. A.). PMID 17328819.1162/106361403773062678. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. McFerren M (February 2007). Maud. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Lin RS (June 1998). garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve.1073/pnas. N. Sartoratto. Proc. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic".org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346. ^ Charlson M. 12. et al (February 2007).167. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). Nutr.200700072. 31.ac. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". Accessed: December 18. 17. and Mary U. ^ Durak I. Sova P (May 2004). 24. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". ^ a b Steiner M. J. Vosoughi AR. 33. 167 (4): 325–6. doi:10. Intern. 29. Herald Publishing Co. and Empiricism" (PDF). Biochem. Med. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". 167 (4): 346–53. PMID 17951430. Kavutcu M. 35.4. Paul B. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. 104 (46): 17977–82.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". PMID 2291748. Acad. 18. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -.1002/mnfr. Sci.200700058. PMID 15218732. 14.crazychefs. 27.01.1001/archinte.325. 22.jnutbio. 30.ama-assn.A.2004. P. PMID 15277094. 32.4. Chao WJ (March 2007). et al (June 2004).net/ .1186/1476-511X-6-5. 23. http://archinte. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. 13.. ^ Chan KC. 16. doi:10. PMID 17966136. ^ Mader FH (October 1990).Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux.ama-assn. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health .University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. Izzo AA (November 2007). "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. 2005 ^ Groppo. PMID 17918162. PMID 17325291.uk/staff/daryn. 20.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. PMID 17325296. Capasso R. 5. Dent. Better Nutrition. PMID 9641475. 21. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. Garlic. Arch.manchester. doi:10. http://personalpages. [2] ^ Hamel.1001/archinte. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". J. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. 34. Facts. Oztürk HS.005.346.1002/mnfr. doi:10. Ferraresi. http://archinte. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".

473.jp/JST. 310–311 47.com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic. Long D.. on mutagenesis. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. ^ Shuford JA. Iwai K. 211 51. Ali M (June 1996). Microbiology (Reading. PMID 15616341. ^ Kodera Y. Summer 2005 . ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".htm 44.unito.jlc. Sumida T. ^ Macpherson et al.go. (2001).crazychefs.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60.nhs. 49. Sterling Publishing. http://aac. 39. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). a stress compound from garlic. ^ John S.January 29. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. 1988. ^ McNally p. Antimicrob.ukmi. ^ Health Canada .org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473.blogspot. 4 . Chesson C. "Effect of allixin. Agents Chemother. 65. Retrieved December 7.economicexpert. 53.html 46.1. PMC: 538912. ^ Baruchin AM. section "Conclusion" 48.com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. p. p. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".1128/AAC. Toxicol.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. 42. UK Medicines Information. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. Yoshida S. "Allixin.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65.". 049 . Volume 7. Lett. Yoffe B.com/topic-t6335-a1-6Allium_sativum. 40. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. Lau B. ^ Bukhari. In Search of Dracula. http://joi. Imafuku M.Vol 9 No. 2007.ch.net/ .html 45.Garlic-in-Oil 61. ^ http://www. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. http://mic. ^ Fareed G. Book 65 57. PMID 8441577. ^ Oi Y. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Lemar KM.jlc. Steckelberg JM. Sagi A. doi:10. 52. garlic advisory 63. Shishido C.it/didattica/infochimica/2006_aglio/pagine/agronomy. Patel R (January 2005). Retrieved December 7. ISBN 0-30436561-0. (1991-08-01). "Garlic burns". Jordan W. NLM Gateway. et al (October 2005). 211. 2007. PMID 11600262. "Garlic burns". 41. 43.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. H. Nishino H. 120. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Raymond T (1994).28095-0. Scolaro M. Nishimura S.goldbamboo. Bordia T. ^ McGee p. W. 37. http://linkinghub.html 54. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. Slattery M. 49 (1): 473.0. ^ http://www..36. 122.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.. Sanders N..49.com http://www. ^ http://lem. Houghton Mifflin. ^ Macpherson et al. 38. ^ Pickering.. Pickering p. http://linkinghub. James.".uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. Castro C.jst. Retrieved 2007-0707. ^ a b c d Hogg.com/a/Garlic. Engl.. http://www.jst.jp/JST.2005... PMID 16207909. Aon MA. Ronen M (November 2001).elsevier. 64. ^ http://washokufood. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. David (2003). "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". (1989-01-30).) 62.elsevier. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. PMID 11481410. National Health Service. Retrieved 2009-01-30.1099/mic. Thomson M. http://joi. 66. doi:10. Fuwa T. 85 (3): 157–64.pdf.asm. Complementary Medicines Summary. PMID 8644128. Matuura H. Jennifer (2002-12-13).sgmjournals. 58. Kominato Y. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". Itakura Y. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55.org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257. ^ Garlic . Passa O. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea.go. Teel R. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. ^ a b McNally. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF).com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390.

Am.. Andy (2004). Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Med. Yukihiro Kodera. Sci. (2000).M. 50. K. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. Turner. R. Balise.. E.References Japanese garlic. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. The chemistry of garlic and onions. Jain AK. Balch. Rabinowitch (2004). Shafir. [4] Lawson. J. 3rd ed.. Lemar. Kiazand. Hamilton. M.-Z. Block. A. (2004).P. H. R. L. D. D. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. (2001). Block. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. Barzilay. Shan. Campbell GR. G. H. Boudoulas H. Z. Garty BZ (March 1993). Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Vol. M. Kozue Ogasawara. Lawson. Hort. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. J. 405-407 (2002). C. Am. Naoto Uda. New York: Avery. P. A. Jiro Yoshida. and H..にんにく専門のにんにく屋.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9355906. PMID 9355906. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. Pharm. R. D. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.. Makoto Ichikawa. E. A. Z. Bull. Block. Ling M. Campbell JH (July 1997). D. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin.com http://www. Breithaupt-Grögler K. Pharm. Susumu Yoshida. Hile.net/ .. D. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. E. and Related Species (Second Edition). (1992). Naoki Kashimoto. Retrieved 1 May 2005. 129: 144–151. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. PMID 9247357. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. A.. Kraemer. D.com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6.. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. Belz GG (October 1997). Block. Wang.crazychefs. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Zhang. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203.Garlic. 'Kyolic'. Bull.ahajournals. H. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Zemah. (1996). PMID 8506890. 94 (6): 632–5. Vargas R. 354-363 (2002). Lawson.. L.. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. Selfsufficientish . S.elsevier.. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. P.. Simmons DL. Garlic. Chem. Gotzkowsky S. L. 50. http://linkinghub. http://circ. L. Isao Sumioka. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. L. McMahon FG (June 1993). "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". Chatterjee. Masanori Ayabe. Soc. Gardner.. Chem. Koch.. Williams & Wilkens. PMID 8441577. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). I. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. Kamenetsky. [3] Yukihiro Kodera.jp[青森県産]. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. C. E.. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Lloyd. "Garlic burns". Vol. J. Efendy JL. (1985).

et al.. Y-Y. PMC: 538912. PMID 9641475. H. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets.wkhealth.crazychefs. Yeh.com/pt/pt-core/templatejournal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage. Salunkhe.2005. (1999). doi:10. 49 (1): 473. Shuford JA.K. (1998). Cardiovasc. Yeh. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). et al. Mader FH (October 1990). (eds). 310–3. Geierstanger. Steckelberg JM. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Pharmacol. Garlic. Y-Y. Veena Viswanath..org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. Antimicrob. (1997). S. Patel R (January 2005). PMID 8169881. Eid. Harold (2004). "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Neil A (1994).S. Leeks". Agents Chemother. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005).asm. Michael Bandell.com http://www. Abstract. In: Ohigashi.12. Marcel Dekker.Lindsey J. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient.473. Macpherson. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. J.. Kadam. Bernhard H. Samer R. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. McGee. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". pp. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". 31 (6): 904–8. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. Lin RS (June 1998). http://meta.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. PMID 15616341. PMID 2291748. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. et al. "The Onion Family: Onions. SunWook Hwang. Steiner M. D. Silagy C.1.net/ .49.1128/AAC.. http://aac. Scribner.

In Vietnam. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. and Sri Lanka. after which they develop into a bright red. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. Zanzibar. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. when they are ready for collecting.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. and consist of a long calyx. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. Cloves are harvested when 1. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia.5-2 cm long. Madagascar.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum.com http://www.crazychefs. Pakistan. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. syn. terminating in four spreading sepals. it is called đinh hương.

The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands.000 tonnes). In Vietnamese cuisine. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. spleen and stomach meridians.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. especially for digestive problems. along with other spices. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. which sells Djarum Black. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. Cloves are used in cheeses.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. they are used sparingly.net/ . to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. During Christmas. warm and aromatic. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. often in combination with cumin. but as they are extremely strong. cloves are often used to season pho broth.[1] In north Indian cuisine. In south Indian cuisine. but with the addition of other spices). it is used in almost all dishes.crazychefs. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom.com http://www. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. entering the kidney. Cloves are used as a carminative.

and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). Khalsa. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels.[7] Nevertheless. Makian. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus).[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria.[5] In West Africa. Brazil. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. including cloves. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices.P. Ternate.[6] History Until modern times.crazychefs. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. along with nutmeg and pepper. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. pimples etc. including Bacan. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. Subsequently. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. including for multiple sclerosis. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. mainly from the Maluku Islands. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. a kg costing around 7 g of gold.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson.direct stomach qi downward.com http://www. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. most of the West Indies. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. In the late fifteenth century. and Zanzibar. vomiting and diarrhea. were highly prized in Roman times. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. Moti.net/ . RH (AHG). The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. It is also used in severe burns. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. Ayurvedic herbalist K. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese.[7] Cloves. and Tidore. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands.

org/questions/question_44. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. John Wiley and Sons Inc. comprising 72-90%.com/diseases/special-diets-for-illness. Alan. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ http://oneearthherbs. ©2003. Erich Stoger. 5. James. ^ http://www. ^ "TibetMed . Karen. pg. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. methyl salicylate (painkiller). ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 3.html Tilotson. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. Phyllis and Balch. Vintage Books. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. 3rd ed. ©2000. Special Diets for Illness 6. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold.. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. kaempferol. and eugenitin. Andrew and Page. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. 2.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. stigmasterol and campesterol. 8. Erich Stoger. ^ a b Turner. 94. tannins. Avery Publishing. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid.tibetmed. Steven Clavey. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. gallotannic acid. and Andrew Gamble.crazychefs. Third Edition by Dan Bensky.[8] Notes and references 1.nih. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. rhamnetin. Spice: The History of a Temptation.squarespace.html National Institutes of Health.nlm. xv.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-clove. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". ^ Balch. the flavonoids eugenin. Medicine Plus.com http://www. and several sesquiterpenes.net/ .Question: Multiple Sclerosis". Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. Steven Clavey. crategolic acid. ^ Dorenburg. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. Jack (2004).htm. due to the high price of importing them. pp. http://www..

Shallot
Shallot

Shallots

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Details
Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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Cardamom
Cardamom

True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

Varieties
There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]

Uses

Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.

Gallery

Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

Notes
1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer. Rediff.com, 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

Bibliography
1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum
Hook.f.

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Usages
Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Identification
Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706.org/iso/catalogue_detail. ^ Lederer.htm?csnumber=19183. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. http://www.1021/jf058156b.88. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. Retrieved 8 June 2009. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. http://www. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS.crazychefs.chinaios. PMID 15492355.5555/jaoi. doi:10. Retrieved 8 June 2009. while Lederer et al.com/BZ-shuju/standshow. f. NPR.com http://www.2005. 6. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". 4. (2005).2004-0058. ^ Joshi. (2006). "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. Retrieved 8 June 2009. http://www. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. doi:10. f. ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院.net/ . ^ Louisa Lim.iso. 5.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . 3.com/AOAC/doi/abs/10. 18 May 2009 2.htm?csnumber =4844.Specification". by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography".) -.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. Retrieved 10 November.atypon-link. Ines et al.iso. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974.1542/peds. http://www.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. et al. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn.3.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 .asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species.703. Vaishali C.Botanical nomenclature". "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice".

ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.crazychefs.com http://www.net/ . and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. native from the east Mediterranean to East India. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.

The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands.crazychefs.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. In Northern India and Nepal.com http://www. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. locally called "Kermun". in Turkey. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. cumin is known as kimyon. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . being oblong in shape. cumin is known as zireh. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. longitudinally ridged. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. in northwestern China. In Arabic.net/ . Kerman. a member of the parsley family. in Iran and Central Asia. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. parsley and dill. including kamūnu in Akkadian. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. maduru.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. the story goes.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and yellow-brown in colour. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον.

It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. when added to hot milk and consumed. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. Mexico. and this practice continues in Morocco. In Sri Lanka. Egypt.net/ . Syria. Tajikistan. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour.crazychefs. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. Seeds. today it is mostly grown in Iran. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. and Chile.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages.com http://www. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Uzbekistan. In South Asia. Morocco. Turkey. India. have been dated to the second millennium BC. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems.

Today. adobos. popular in Indian. Middle Eastern. thread-like leaflets. North African. and in some traditional breads from France. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. but are smaller and darker in colour. Sri Lankan. and borne in umbels. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. either ground or as whole seeds. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. enchiladas. curries. and is found in achiote blends. pinnate or bipinnate. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. curry powder. garam masala. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde).crazychefs. white or pink. tacos.com http://www. It is traditionally added to chili.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. containing a single seed. Indian. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. and bahaarat. sofrito. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. and other Middle-Eastern. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. It is an herbaceous annual plant. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pakistani. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. Cuban. The flowers are small. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang.net/ . Northern Mexican cuisines. Contrary to popular belief in the US. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses.

Dietary fiber 10.crazychefs.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. hot summer of 3–4 months. B3) 4. 64 μg 44. It is grown from seed. and needs fertile. However.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. it is drought-tolerant.net/ .435 mg Folate (Vit. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F). sown in spring. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Sugars 2. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine.saturated 1.33 mg Vitamin K 5. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.5 g Fat . Cultivation of cumin requires a long. B2) 0.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. well-drained soil.81 g 8.24 g 22. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.579 mg Vitamin B6 0.very common in Mexican cuisine.7 mg Vitamin E 3.27 g 17.com http://www.25 g .5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates .

a cat and 'kotek' . unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". from the Swedish word "spisa". Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".a small cat). Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.v. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to eat. In Polish the difference is even less significant. Not related to curcumin. In Swedish.net/ . and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). However. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron.com http://www. as in 'kot' . The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). a chemical found in turmeric.crazychefs.). lighter in colour. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. For example.Zinc 4.

Domestication of plants in the Old World. ^ http://www. (2009).030. et al.1302. 2000). 3.05. doi:10.313. ^ "Kamūnu.ars-grin. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. doi:10. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". Retrieved 2008-03-13. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . third edition (Oxford: University Press. (2005). 8. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 4. Rong.gov. ^ "KMN. ^ a b Wang.com http://www.1016/j. www.com 7. ^ a b c Li.foodreference.crazychefs. and Carum carvi L. p.1002/ffj.net/ . http://www. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . 206 5. 9.2009. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. Lu et al. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. from China". doi:10.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.html 6.com.pl?12617." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition).Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004).". "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L.arsgrin. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L.aca." premiumwanadoo. ^ Growingtaste. Essential Oils". 2000. 2. ^ a b Iacobellis. Nicola S.77.com/html/fcumin.1021/jf0487351.

com http://www.crazychefs.net/ .Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

sedative. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric.com http://www. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. medicine. and citral) have also been identified. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. In laboratory animals.net/ . It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger.crazychefs. cardamom. cineol.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. and galangal. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). or spice. shogaols and gingerols. West Africa and the Caribbean.

or frozen for longer term storage. ghee. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked.crazychefs. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. ginger ale. in Gujarati. [edit] Regional use In India. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. Adrak. and tender green chili peppers. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. cookies. For storage. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. crackers and cake. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. in Tamil Nadu. to which honey is often added. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. and ginger beer. Additionally. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. nuts. and sugar. and Aduwa in Nepali. Ginger has a sialagogue action. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process.com http://www. particularly gingerols and shogaols. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. enchi in Malayalam. Ginger is also made into candy. especially in the Tanjore belt. salt.net/ . a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. stimulating the production of saliva. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. Allam ( ) in Telugu. which makes swallowing easier. In South India. Inji in Tamil. Alay in Marathi. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste.

ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. In Western cuisine. In the Caribbean. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process.net/ .com http://www. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. parkin and ginger biscuits. On the island of Corfu. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. However. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. and making drinks such as sorrel. In Burma. and a variety of nuts and seeds. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. In the Ivory Coast. is made. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. In the traditional Korean kimchi. France. In Vietnam. gingerbread. during their occupation of the islands. In China. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira).Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Japan. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. In Arabic. ginger snaps.crazychefs. ginger is called gyin. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. a type of ginger beer. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. Greece. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes.

though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.crazychefs. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. cough and cold. morning sickness and chemotherapy.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. which several scientific studies support. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. though it does interact with some medications. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. though studies been inconsistent. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11].[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States.net/ . including warfarin. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.

prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. clotting. In China. it is considered good for a sore throat. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. In Burma. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. particularly if taken in powdered form.crazychefs. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. In Indonesia.net/ .[14] In Congo. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. and individuals who have had ulcers. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. gas.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. In the United States. In India. reducing "winds" in the blood.com http://www. which is considered a panacea. in food etc. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. ginger can cause heartburn. belching and nausea. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. bloating. people use ginger for making tea. and heart rhythms. and although it's generally recognized as safe.

ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems.7%). applied generally to the older and poorer roots. Traditionally. washing and scraping gives white ginger.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285.crazychefs.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers.net/ . The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. replacing China. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). produces black ginger.000 158. but this generally reduces its value. followed by Indonesia(~12. now leads in global production of ginger.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. or washed and scraped. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Nepal(~11. Scalding.000 F 177. which has slipped to the second position (~20.5%). it is immediately scalded. with over 30% of the global share. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. Production trends India.

A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.000 57.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.387. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. the flower buds are the part eaten. A = Aggregate(may include official. and its root has similar aromatic properties.net/ . is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. Also referred to as galangal. galangal. but it is not related to true ginger. http://www. Retrieved 2008-03-03.000 8.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan .000 42.contains ginger material References 1.pl?42254. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).000 28. www.com http://www. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". Galangal is also called Thai ginger. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai.arsgrin.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138.000 34.270 1. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. a carcinogenic compound. is used in cooking and medicine.ars-grin. is also known as "wild ginger". Asarum canadense. semiofficial or estimates). F = FAO estimate.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan .crazychefs.gov.

15.library. http://www. M.html. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. MD.com 7. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".com/oldformat. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). http://www.org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367.7. MD. Antoine. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01).523.. MD.umm. Retrieved 2007-08-02. (2006).org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716. ^ Al-Amin.uspharmacist. Sheng-Chu Kuo. http://unitproj. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats".013. Retrieved 2007-0808. doi:10. ^ Afshari.ucla. http://www.2006. Retrieved 5 November. Retrieved 2007-08-02.com 5. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Retrieved 2007-08-06.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). http://timeblog. Retrieved 2006-09-06.org/cgi/content/full/7/6/523. 6. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. & Pittler. doi:10. 10. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. doi:10.com/china_blog/2007/01/the_beverage_of_champions_1. PMID 10793599.com 12. & MSt. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". 9. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". ^ Chen.01.1016/j. 4. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536.). ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.foodchem. Jaw-Chyun.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772.crazychefs. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Zainab M. ^ Jakes.com http://www. "Beverage of Champions". Kim Farrell.mayoclinic. Susan (2007-01-15). Kathi Kemper.edu/biomed/spice/index. 8. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats".cfm?displayID=15.edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch. New York: Scribner pp. Li-Jiau Huang. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. et al. Mary. http://archfami. PMID 9821826.net/ . ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). 14.com/health/ginger/NS_patient-ginger. Ali Taghizadeh et al.html.1021/jf071460f. http://journals. 425-426. 11.6. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371.2. ^ Al-Achi. E.1001/archfami. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. http://bja.H.amaassn. (2007). ^ Ernst. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. MPH (1998). David Kiefer.cambridge. "Ginger". ^ McGee.oxfordjournals. Tin-Yun Ho. Shih-Lu Wu. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. ^ MD O' Hara. 3. Harold (2004). ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". doi:10. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). (01 Mar 2000). 13.

and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season.net/ . longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. In medieval Europe. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. for dyeing. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. For these reasons.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. slightly bitter. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. and to impart color to mustard condiments. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia.com http://www. Zingiberaceae. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron.crazychefs. Erode. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C.

[citation needed] Sangli.com http://www. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes.Yellow City. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. but also in masak lemak. ice cream. Although usually used in its dried. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). turmeric is also used fresh. popcorn color. cake icings. sauces. custardlike yellow color. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. rendang. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. cereals. much like ginger.net/ .crazychefs. yellow cakes. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. and mustard. not only in curry. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. Over-coloring. sweets. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. biscuits. gelatins. such as in pickles. powdered form. dairy products. In non-South Asian recipes. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. or Textile City. etc. yogurt.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. Turmeric City. orange juice. and many more. relishes. is sometimes used to compensate for fading.

and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring.com http://www. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. burns and bruises. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. Within one week of using turmeric. a traditional dish in South Asia. and other digestive disorders. It is unknown why it works. dry mixes. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). is also treated with turmeric powder. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. Indians.net/ . yogurt.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.In combination with annatto (E160b). in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). an uncurable and debilitating disease. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. Japan. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day.[4] cancer. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. winter butter and margarine.crazychefs.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. salad dressings. are spiced with turmeric. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement.

Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which supports nerve growth. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. improves the absorption of turmeric. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. or BDNF. John‘s Medical College.S.com http://www. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. multiple myeloma. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. research activity into curcumin is exploding. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. and colorectal cancer.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. and the U.crazychefs. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. with no adverse effects. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . found in black pepper. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. In 1998 researchers at St. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Bangladesh. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric.net/ . According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. Bangalore. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. and Pakistan. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. Snake Bite Anti venin.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. Alzheimer's. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol.

and coconut and cooked in steam. Also. However. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. In southern India. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. During the south Indian festival Pongal.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure).[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. and it is used for power and purification rites.com http://www. part of the Bengali wedding. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. such as saris.crazychefs. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations.net/ .[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. jaggery. This happens in economically lower situations. as a part of the marriage ritual. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state.

http://www.foodchem.bbc. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.ars-grin.07.de Shoba G. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". 75300.co. 2.2008.6-heptadiene3.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. doi:10. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. (2009).gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.uk/1/hi/health/1668932. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . ^ http://www.stm 5. Joy D.com/condition-center/heart-disease/surviving-a-heart-attack.W. keto and enol. Judy] (June 2009).aolhealth.C. ^ [|Ketteler. E. ^ http://news. or Natural Yellow 3. Joseph T. et al. The systematic chemical name is (1E.090.ars-grin. AOL Health. 1998 May.com http://www.crazychefs. Planta Med.pl?12676.thieme-connect. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution.172. a polyphenol. Rajendran R.5-dione. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4.6E)-1.de/DOI/DOI?10. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". http://www. ^ Chan.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. 64(4):353-6.gov. 6. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Srinivas PS.I. Retrieved June 2009. www.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1. Majeed M. Retrieved 2008-03-04.1016/j. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".net/ . Notes 1.

simple and ovate. The nut is round. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L.9–7. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. also known as Candleberry. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. Kemiri. which allows its use as a candle (see below). 10–20 centimetres (3.com http://www. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana).4 in) in diameter. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. The leaves are pale green. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content.6–2.) Willd. flowers. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). 4–6 centimetres (1. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . with an acute apex. Indian walnut. Euphorbiaceae. with wide spreading or pendulous branches.9 in) long. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed.crazychefs. hence its name.

crazychefs.net/ . burned with charcoal. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. is quite different. lit one end. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. In Java.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. fevers. are applied around the navel for costiveness. Outside of Southeast Asia. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. including: leis from the shells.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree.com http://www. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. This led to their use as a measure of time. and gonorrhea. leaves and flowers. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. giving them greater underwater visibility. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. In Hawaiʻi.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. ulcers. however. they are mildly toxic when raw. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. named kukui were burned to provide light. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. In Malaya. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. as the candlenut is much more bitter. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. pounded seeds. swollen joints. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. a varnish with the oil. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. The flavor. On the island of Java in Indonesia. the nuts. In Sumatra. ink for tattoos from charred nuts.

and the husband was eventually killed.).used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood.com http://www. http://books.google. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. Mikiala Ayau. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. http://books. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. ISBN 9780824822514. This larva is eaten by some people.html. Finally. ^ Krauss. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. Liana I. she was given new life.com/kukui. One of the legends told of a woman who.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. Julie Stewart Williams (2002).crazychefs. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. Betty. ripe nuts. pp. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. despite her best efforts to please her husband.com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a. University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved 2009-03-06. Honda. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. was routinely beaten.net/ . tukilamulamu.[citation needed] References 1. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). 26. ^ "Kukui".com/books?id=PpKyFZXO_jEC. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. 5. http://books. used as soap or shampoo. Being a kind and just woman. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. Susan. ^ Dunford. In plantations. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. Craig Thomas (2000). the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. 122. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. ISBN 9781573061377. protection and peace. Lilinoe Andrews.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). still nowadays. "Chapter 4: Canoes". 2. University of Hawaii Press. 50-51.[5] In Tonga. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. ^ Scott.google. Bess Press. http://canoeplants.google. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the god of agriculture. p. 4. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. p.com/books?id=WOdrGIP3zksC&client=firefox-a. (1993). Beatrice H.

dark red when fully mature. Peppercorns. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. unrelated plants. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. Telugu:miriyam. and very often simply pepper. containing a single seed. . . may be described as black pepper. known as a peppercorn when dried.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. white pepper. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. cultivated for its fruit. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. Malayalam:kurumulaku. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. The fruit. Kannada:meNasu.net/ . However. . The terms pink peppercorns. green pepper. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka.crazychefs. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Konkani:miriya konu. . red pepper (as in bell or chile).

this was shortened to pep. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with the skin of the pepper removed.net/ . and other similar forms.S. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. wrinkled black layer. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. Once dried. In the 16th century. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. chemical or biological methods. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week.[4] In the U. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine.com http://www. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. often alongside table salt. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. Dutch peper. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. in the early 20th century. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. White pepper consists of the seed only. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. including decortication. and the naked seed is dried.. French poivre. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying.crazychefs. the spice is called black peppercorn.

[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. which is mostly no longer an issue. also green. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. like black.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. are used in some Asian cuisines. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. Pickled peppercorns. with a bright aroma. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper.Black.net/ . and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly Thai cuisine.crazychefs. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. largely unknown in the West. from Bangka Island. is made from the unripe berries. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. the Peruvian pepper tree. Schinus molle. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. green. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. unpreserved green pepper berries. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. Fresh.com http://www. Schinus terebinthifolius. made from the largest. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns.

as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily.[11] Black pepper is native to India. well-drained and rich in organic matter.com http://www. The flowers are small. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. poles. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. if allowed to ripen. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. Competing plants are cleared away. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red.net/ . but when full grown and still hard. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. The leaves are alternate. the berries lose pungency. or trellises.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. The cuttings are usually cultivars.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. It is a spreading vine. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. moist. and ultimately fall off and are lost. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees.crazychefs. and before the fruit is mature. entire.

Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. in what is now the state of Kerala.net/ . Chile peppers. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined.com http://www.[14] J. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. its most important source was India.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In fact.crazychefs. particularly the Malabar Coast. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper".

It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. changed the course of world history. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. but these areas traded mainly with China. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. nor how it reached the Nile from India. By the 16th century. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. Madagascar. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds.Until well after the Middle Ages. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. this trade advantage.crazychefs. Sumatra. pepper was also being grown in Java. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. barged to Alexandria.com http://www. growing in the north-western part of India. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Trade routes of the time were by land. or used the pepper locally. Black pepper.net/ . the ships travelled up the Red Sea. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. Malaysia. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. Returning from India.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. Sunda. Long pepper. the Middle East.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe.

I wonder. seasoning in the Roman Empire. if expensive. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. and the luxuries of the table. who travelled east to India. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.crazychefs.. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. the banquets of kings.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. Similarly. Yet within I bear a burning marrow.com http://www. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. pepper was a luxury item. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. clad in a wrinkled cover. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. I season delicacies. while that of white pepper is seven. four. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". and the prices reflected it.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. first the Persians and then the Arabs. and of black. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery".net/ . is fifteen denarii per pound. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. Apicius' De re coquinaria." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread.H.[22] In addition. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. There is no evidence to support this claim. especially Venice and Genoa. affordable only to the wealthy. 12. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. After the fall of Rome. Once into the Mediterranean. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat..With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. it is sometimes their sweetness. seeing that in other substances which we use. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . whereas. Edward Gibbon wrote. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine.

[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade.net/ . the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. In the 17th century. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. However.com http://www. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long.crazychefs. his representative replied. the effect is small. Pepper. A depiction of Calicut.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. as well as around Africa. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. has some antimicrobial properties. "we seek Christians and spices. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. Today. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. Pepper harvested for the European trader. In 1498. and salt-cured meats were common fare. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. especially in winter.

black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. liver problems.net/ .com http://www. an area in what is now the Sichuan province.000 pounds (4. but both were used. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. Like many eastern spices. Long pepper. oral abscesses. as well as she could for sneezing. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. insect bites. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. however.. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). either long or black. joint pain. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. Note the cook's pepper mill. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ".[26] By the 12th century.crazychefs. including long pepper. earache. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. insomnia. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". diarrhea. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. indigestion. each load being equal to 223 lbs. heart disease. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). but if this estimated 10. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. hoarseness. was often the preferred medication. lung disease. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. hernia.. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". being stronger. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself.[25] In the 3rd century CE.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. gangrene. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda.

it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound.[31] As a medicine. chapter five.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. Refined piperine. Some sources say that piperine. which is stripped of the fruit layer. and linalool. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a mildly carcinogenic compound.com http://www.sunburn. left on black pepper.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. The outer fruit layer.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. woody. and floral notes. which give citrusy. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. caryophyllene. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene.crazychefs. and toothaches. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging.net/ . tooth decay. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. causing the sneezing. limonene. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. irritates the nostrils. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. Few. if any. a substance present in black pepper. sabinene. vitamin B. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. milligram-for-milligram. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta.[31] Also. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper.

crazychefs. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Thailand (4%). the most widely traded spice in the world. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns.[33] Once ground.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. for example. India. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. Brazil (13%). India (19%). The price of pepper can be volatile. and China (6%).000 short tons). Malaysia (8%). which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns.com http://www. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason.net/ .000 t (299. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. Sri Lanka (6%). are used for this. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. As of 2008. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. by monetary value.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India.000 t (391. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. but has fallen to just over 271. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders").[35] By weight. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002.

American Journal of Botany 88: 706. 11. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. 7. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN".net/ . 3. 5.crazychefs.google. Alejandra (2001). Warrior. disease and weather. 10. ISBN 075653836X. 19.[36] Notes 1.M1. PMID 11302858.gov.poor crop management. 1969).ph/wps/wcm/resources/file/ebb81841763712b/black%20pepper. ^ Translation from Turner. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. http://www.com/2008/03/27/stories/2008032751741300. 83 21. from Penzey's Spices.org/florataxon. 88.com 9. 17. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. and Builder. Random House.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. Retrieved 2008-01-29. ^ Katzer. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. ^ Peppercorns.com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08).gov. http://www. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Using fresh green peppercorns. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.pd f. 2006-1120. Compass Point Books. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". The Hindu Business line. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. 20. using almost none of its production domestically. Egyptian Pharaoh.000 t (99. Pepper. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. Black pepper is marica. M. Ramses II.com http://www. 4. http://www. doi:10. The Philippine Department of Agriculture.pl?28589. Retrieved 2009-01-29. http://www. http://books. Gernot (2006). ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation.amjbot. ^ J. 2. Retrieved 12 August 2006. Flora of China. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". p.arsgrin. Text online. Retrieved 17 October 2006. Retrieved 6 November 2005. The Spice Trade. p. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press.000 short tons). p 94. http://www. 6. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10).ars-grin. ^ a b Jaramillo. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus".org/cgi/content/full/88/4/706 14.thehindubusinessline.da. www. 93. 80 16. ^ Ochef. ^ Innes Miller. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). 18. 200803-27. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. ^ Dalby p.htm. Retrieved 13 November 2005. p. Retrieved 2009-01-29.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. 8.efloras. Innes Miller.2307/2657072. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 13. Retrieved 2008-03-02. Spice. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. ISBN 0375407219. 12. Vietnam dominates the export market.

2005. ^ Dalby p. 108–109. Cambridge University Press. 12. http://siteresources. 2008-05-15. "Spices. 30. 2. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 27.crazychefs. 395. 156. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). http://www.pdf. ^ Jaffee p. pp. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. Retrieved November 12. D. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122.com/books?id=tg7R4hU8hkC&pg=PA395&lpg=PA395&dq=Pepper+safrole&source=web&ots=38F TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2/bmc2. ^ H. http://www. 10.com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01.22. table 2.. ^ Jaffee p. Dover. "Mill". 26.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices. Dangerous Tastes. ^ a b McGee p.karvycomtrade. Alan (2002). doi:10. 726. G.com http://www.ch05. ^ Montagne. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 35. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. Jaffee.S. 31. 204. 171.2000. Vol. CRC Press. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. Duke (1993-08-16). Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. References Dalby. Dorman and S. 25. 29. 33. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.accesstoinsight. ^ U. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). 74–75. 160. 32. ISBN 0849336201. Steven (2004). 34.google. Karvy Comtrade Limited. ISBN 9781580084178." 24. ^ Dalby p. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. p.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Deans (2000). Davidson.pdf.html. Andrew (2002).1046/j. 428. http://books. Retrieved 2008-01-29.00969. 28. Buddhist Monastic Code II. ISBN 0520236742.worldbank. Larousse Gastronomique. ^ Turner p. http://books. Prosper (2001). 77. Full text at Blackwell website. 23. also Turner pp. ^ Turner p. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). ISBN 0-486-27587-6. ^ a b James A.google. ^ Dalby pp. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries".com/books?id=7IHcZ21dyjwC. ISBN 0521367085.x. 36. purchase required. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. ^ "Karvy's special Reports .1365-2672.net/ . "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". Hamlyn. J. ISBN 0600-60235-4. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum.

ISBN 0375707050. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Jack (2004).com http://www. Spice: The History of a Temptation. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Harold (2004).net/ . pp. London: Vintage Books. Turner. OCLC 61213802. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). "Black Pepper and Relatives". 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. OCLC 56590708. 427–429. Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.McGee.crazychefs.

B2) 0.com http://www.224 mg Folate (Vit. Peppers are native to Mexico.40 g . Central America and northern South America. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sweet. green and orange. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. B3) 0. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world. including red.net/ .64 g 0.Dietary fiber 1. Today.17 g 0.057 mg 4.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0. yellow.Sugars 2. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.crazychefs.Pepper.

which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. the word ピーマン ("pîman. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. Indiana. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. meaning Bulgarian pepper. " In Japan. In Norway." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". they are called "capsicum". In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". instead of using as a spice. such as Australia. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. the fruit of Piper nigrum. It is eaten with fried noodles. "Miris" is Chilli. an unrelated plant. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. which has its roots in the word for pepper. Malaysia and New Zealand. meaning Big pepper.crazychefs. respectively). but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper".Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. "green pepper").. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. and Pennsylvania.g. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. or "piment. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". India. With the similar meaning.net/ . which are green and yellow. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. Sweden. "groene paprika". In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". Across Europe. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. When cut off. the term "paprika". g. "red pepper". regardless of their color. "gele paprika". It's widely used in a variety of dishes. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. like pasta. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). meaning pepper-fruit. In British English.com http://www. In parts of Ohio. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. In the United States and Canada. were a highly prized condiment. in Dutch. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. Grilled. In France it is called "poivron". In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. At that time peppercorns.

purple. It is eaten as a raw snack. red. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. pink. orange and. maroon. white.com http://www. rainbow.net/ . violet. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. in salads. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. in various soups and stews. Varieties The color can be green. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. more rarely. black and brown. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. yellow or orange peppers. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. aqua.crazychefs. yellow. blue. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine.

com http://www.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. also known as M. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2].html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . Peppermint (Mentha × piperita. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species.crazychefs.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. [1]) is a hybrid mint. balsamea Willd. ^ http://www.net/ .foodreference.com/html/fmango. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. indigenous to Europe. The plant.

20 in) diameter. forming thick.6 in) cm broad.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. The flowers are purple.59–1. with smooth stems. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. Flowering is from mid to late summer.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England.6–3. it is usually sterile.5 in) long and 1. with 2n counts of 66. If placed. 84. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. including stream sides and drainage ditches.24– 0. 6–8 mm (0. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. blunt spikes. spreading by its rhizomes. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem.31 in) long. The chromosome number is variable. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. 72.crazychefs. with a few exceptions. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. and bare fibrous roots. dark green with reddish veins. noted since 1843[8].[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. it can grow anywhere.net/ .com http://www. he treated it as a species.5–4 cm (0. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. Being a hybrid. fleshy. and 120 recorded. square in cross section. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1.

net/ . chewing gum. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. and is often used as a flavouring in tea.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content.1.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. thus promoting belching.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. ice cream. confectionery. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. particularly menthyl acetate. and toothpaste.[10] Similarly. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo.crazychefs.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.com http://www. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms.

Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. which they then call "after-dinner mints. the Galápagos Islands. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. and it is considered invasive in Australia.net/ . the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. In addition to that.[12] Outside of its native range. It needs a good water supply.crazychefs.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. A mild. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. Stems reddish. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. [21]. If you choose to grow peppermint. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'.com http://www. Leaves aromatic. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. New Zealand. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. Leaves wrinkled. [18]. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. hairless. as a natural insecticide. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. [16]. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. Foliage lime-scented. Eau De Cologne Mint).[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. it is advisable to plant it in a container. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'.[13] and in the United States. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

(2007).dld. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. (1989). Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1016/j.. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". et al.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. (1992). doi:10. ^ a b Akdogan. Mentha L. A. ^ a b Blamey. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. page 640. (1753).int/publications/2002/9241545372. & Grey-Wilson. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. a popular confection.. 11. Retrieved 3 June 2009.net/ .2007. C. Mehmet (2004). 6. M.who. Retrieved 2009-02-07. ^ Cappello.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . A. C. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. ^ Linnaeus. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. 4th Edition.com http://www. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. G.pdf.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil .006. 2. ^ a b Huxley. Thomson Healthcare. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". ed. C. ^ World Health Organization. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. http://whqlibdoc. 5. ed.glu.02. (1975).ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1.. In: Stace. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines.org/en/node/199. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". ISBN 978-1563636783 10. M. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3.crazychefs. 7. http://www. R. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . ^ Harley. 9. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". Flowers open from bottom up.

)". http://het.sagepub.actahort.28. (2004).com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119. Retrieved 3 June.1002/jsfa.219. http://tih.122. doi:10. ^ Akdogan.htm?csnumber=11633. 22.. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. J. 24. ^ Farley. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. F. S. Mehmet et al. 20. paraquat. http://www.159. http://www3. on kidney tissue in rats".com http://www. Retrieved 8 June 2009.1023/A:1006185103897.htm.224. (2007). Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .. F. et al. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". Mehmet (2003). http://www. 25. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . Retrieved 7 June 2009. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria.10): 119 . Retrieved 3 June. Bienvenu (1998). and Mentha spicata L.1071/AP99036. doi:10. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. 18. http://www.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. ^ Akdogan. Valerie Howland (2006).257.1151.2740311104.sagepub. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . http://www.interscience. D.htm.com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213. Australia".actahort. ^ a b c Jullien.E.iso.)".Specification". "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . 26..S.D. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". Retrieved 3 June.sagepub.htm?csnumber=32041. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 .htm?csnumber=4844. 19. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". V. ^ International Organization for Standardization. 21. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Zheljazkov.wiley. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". Retrieved 6 June 2009.org/iso/catalogue_detail. ^ International Organization for Standardization. doi:10.iso. ^ Edwards.com/journal/118500486/abstract. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .com/cgi/content/abstract/23/1/21.net/ . Retrieved 6 June 2009.iso. ^ Adamovic. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev.crazychefs. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". populations. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". 23. 27.. http://het. Retrieved 3 June. ^ International Organization for Standardization. Frédéric et al. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.org/books/249/249_8.16. Plant Cell. Retrieved 7 June 2009. 17.E.org/books/629/629_21. http://www. ^ Sharma. Bienvenu (1999). Derek R. Ambika et al..

also sometimes known as Allium porrum. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. is a vegetable which belongs. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum var.Gay The leek.). although different in their uses as food.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. along with the onion and garlic. Two related vegetables.com http://www. the elephant garlic and kurrat. porrum (L. to the Alliaceae family.net/ .) J.crazychefs. porrum (L.

and overwintering leeks. to be planted out as weather permits.crazychefs. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Once established in the garden. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. leeks are hardy. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. intended for harvest in the season when planted. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching).net/ . Growing Leek field in Houthulst. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses.com http://www.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. and they have few pest or disease problems.

which turns it soft and mild in taste. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick.Cuisine Leeks for sale. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient.net/ . but. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). The onion-like layers form around a core. Raw. due to the layered structure of the leek. The tender core may be eaten.com http://www. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. as the leek ages. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. carrots and potatoes and different meats. which can be used in salads.crazychefs. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. along with leek soup. although less bitter than scallion. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. Lamb is the most popular. Fried. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. In its raw state. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled.

com http://www.Dietary fiber 1.crazychefs.3 g 1. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit. who consumed it most often in soup. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3. as well as wall carvings and drawings. B3) 0. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. B2) 0.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.C.Sugars 3.9 g . pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.C.E. as well as other recipes with leeks.15 g 0.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates . Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet. 83 μg 14.04 g .03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero. B1) 0.net/ .saturated 0.monounsaturated 0. Cultural significance Raw Leeks. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.E.polyunsaturated 0.004 g .8 g Fat .4 mg Vitamin B6 0. In her book.233 mg Folate (Vit.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B. onwards.

Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh.crazychefs. Shakespeare. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. representing Wales. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. David‘s Day. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time.net/ . for example.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. In the play. good countryman. you know.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. According to one legend.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Vitamin E 0. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.com http://www.12 mg recommendations for adults.

French Women Don't Get Fat. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. (Penguin Books. Domestication of plants in the Old World.crazychefs.. 1978.net/ . Mireille. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. third edition (Oxford: University Press. 3.com http://www. ^ Jane Grigson. Knopf.Notes 1. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book.p. 2000). ^ Guiliano.

Dietary fibre 1.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.6 g Fat Protein Water 0. with fewer than 100 individuals left. Celery. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.2 g 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Sugars 2 g 3g .crazychefs. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L. dulce) or celeriac (var.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.net/ .5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.com http://www. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

30 AD. Celery. such as chicken noodle soup.com http://www. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. on the Chicago-style hot dog. and small rodents.crazychefs. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. birds. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib.In temperate countries.net/ . onions. as celery salt. horses. celery is also grown for its seeds. Actually very small fruit. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. onions. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. dogs. often used as a base for sauces and soups. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. and in Old Bay Seasoning. squirrels. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. Celery is a staple in many soups. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. Celery.

[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. making avoiding such foods difficult. at Kastanas. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. however. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. have to be clearly marked as such.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. In Homer's Iliad. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US.net/ . for people with celery allergy.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. father of the Cabeiri.com http://www. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. Lemnos and Thebes. Celery contains androstenone.crazychefs. M.[8] In the European Union. even in trace amounts. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. foods that contain or may contain celery. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. they note "since A. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. However. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy.

splits. The flowers are creamy-white. from the Latin selinon. insect damage and rot). (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. They are ranged under two classes. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. due to extremely uniform crop growth. earthy taste. as the Grace of the whole Board". mainly in having stouter leaf stems. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. produced in dense compound umbels. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. straightness and thickness of petiole. sweetish. shape. borrowed from Greek. and a distinctive smell. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. fields are harvested only once. apium Italicum.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. but the leaves may be used in salads. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. The plants are raised from seed. white and red. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. many of which differ little from the wild species. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. In North America. 1.5–2 mm long and wide. and the most crisp and tender. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. seleri. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. the whole plant having a coarse.. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. and Praetors feasts. Under optimal conditions. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. cracks.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie.com http://www.[14] With cultivation and blanching.net/ .crazychefs. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. at our Great Mens tables. In the past. 2–3 mm diameter..The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking.

202.. Post-harvest technology research and information center. ^ Calcium sources 7.shtml. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. P. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. ^ Pliny..17:1697-1699. Radauer C. Western Journal of Medicine 158. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. ^ "Smallage". Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus.nsf/pages/smallage. 13. West J. 1920).[16] References 1. 3. Wilson IBH. 227.net/ .46. ^ Teng CM. gentle handling. 2. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. et al. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. Retrieved 2008-03-04. ^ a b Fragiska. http://www. 8. Holmiae. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. "Celery". http://postharvest.practicallyedible. Ko SN. 10. 14. Suslow. Lee LG. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F).com http://www. Thayer translation [1] 4. s. M.com: Celery and Negative Calories 6. (3rd ed. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". (2002-06-10).v.com/edible. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. 2000) p. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. 2003. 9. M. ^ OED. 15. C (1753). Heiner DC.L. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". (Laurentii Salvii). Hopf. p. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6 (June 1993): 610-611. de Medicina. ^ Celsus. and proper sanitation. ^ Cantwell. Natural History XIX. Thomson. ^ snopes.. ^ Celestin J. Scheiner O. ^ William Robinson and W. 12. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". ^ D. Zohary and M. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 11.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). T.edu/Produce/ProduceFacts/Veg/celery.ucdavis. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". Kraft D. Species Plantarum: Tomus I.crazychefs. (2005). Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. 16. ^ Bublin M. ^ R.

019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates . B2) 0. Magnification of grains of sugar. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars.21 g .Sugars 99.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .91 g .03 g Riboflavin (Vit.Sugars 96.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.crazychefs. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.com http://www.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3. see Sugar (disambiguation).98 g 0g 0g 0. (Discuss) For other uses.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Sugar. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. For the common table sugar. see sucrose.

Water 1.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. sorghum. sugar maple (in maple syrup).026 mg Folate (Vit. B1) 0. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet.77 g Thiamine (Vit.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet.com http://www. and in many other sources. and fructose. It forms the main ingredient in candy. mainly sucrose.crazychefs. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. obesity and tooth decay. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. honey. lactose. B3) 0. B2) 0. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.net/ .91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. but also appears in fruit.

net/ . they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. the Italian word zucchero. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. "dextrose". the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). means "pebble".[4] It came to English by way of French. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars").Popular In non-scientific use. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar.) The Greek word for "sugar". Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. zahari. (Compare the OED. preservation. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). the Spanish word azúcar. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. Scientific Scientifically. molasses or treacle. "fructose". Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. including palm sugar and fructose. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup.com http://www. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit).) will likely denote a sugar. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. Generically known as "syrups". Etymology In the case of sugar. and texture) of beverages and food. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. In this informal sense. Spanish and/or Italian. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. such as glucose. In a list of ingredients. etc.crazychefs. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity.

where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. cook or consumer. Natural sugars come in fruit. important molecules in the body. as its name suggests.com http://www. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all.Culinary sugars Grainier. raw sugar. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. has a "missing" oxygen atom. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. syrups and fruit juices. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. deoxyribose. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. This includes all the sugars referred to above.net/ . Sugars include monosaccharides. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . 3.containing 1.crazychefs. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). making the sugars reactive. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). A notable exception. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. 2. plus sugars naturally present in honey. disaccharides.

sugar will burn with a blue flame. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. glucose. In these closed-chain forms. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. Note for example glycoproteins. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. Monosaccharides include fructose. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance.made from one glucose and one fructose). Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. including NADH and ATP. sweeter than the original sucrose. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar .[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. producing invert sugar.water (H2O) per bond.com http://www. and galactose.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form.net/ . which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. which has the formula C6H12O6. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. or DNA. lactose (milk sugar . Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. with less than 0. fructose. If combined with fine ash.crazychefs. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. galactose and mannose. which is made of glucose. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. After digestion and absorption. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. which form part of nucleic acids. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). This resulting syrup. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. proteins connected to one or more sugars.

" Powder and Bulk References Adas. Cambridge: Woodhead. Blackwell Publishing. OCLC 51837990 84251137. The International Sugar Trade.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0.webmd. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. 4.illovosugar. Sugarcane. History of Science and Technology in Islam.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. 1996. OCLC 44493265.com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary.net/ . ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty.com/worldofsugar/internationalSugarStats. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West.Bulk Density Chart. A C Hannah.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7.htm 3.com http://www.com/features/sugar-what-kinds-eat-when 2. ^ "Engineering Resources . Joseph and Mike Carlson.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4." http://men. Temple University Press. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. Sugar Blues. Glyn (2004). ^ scientificpsychic. James.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. ISBN 063205476X. Michael (January 2001). ^ Wuebben.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0.80 g/ml Notes 1.crazychefs. 5. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 1566398320. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries.

simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses.crazychefs.com http://www.35 mm. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. for light brown sugar. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. without mixing them separately. sugar beet molasses is used." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. Brown sugar contains from 3. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. Although in some areas. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. however. Products for industrial use (e. It is.25% of the total volume).5% molasses (dark brown sugar). The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. especially in the Netherlands. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed.net/ . The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs.g. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals.

the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. White and Deadly" . This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. The effort was so successful that by 1900.net/ . In other applications. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. History In the late 1800s. apart from pure carbohydrate. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories.crazychefs. Nutritionally.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. which did not have full control over brown sugar production.com http://www. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types.[1] However. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. much like adding molasses would do. as opposed to white sugar.[2] John Yudkin. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). in his studies (cited in "Pure.

it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. References 1.wholesomesweeteners. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar".[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. resulting in the characteristic large. Some Demerara is still produced in South America.net/ .csrwire. 7.html.org ^ Levenstein. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. http://www. light brown. Harvey. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. Retrieved 2008-09-20. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. 3. 32-33 5. which is then crystallized.com/PressRelease. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar".com/muscovado_sugar. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. http://www.php?id=3026. http://www. 2003.crazychefs. where sugar cane was grown.com http://www. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. cane sugar. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 6. 2. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice.htm#bm07. 4.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana.fao. Demerara is another unrefined. or Demerara sugar.1. centrifuged.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. Retrieved 2008-09-20.htm#sugarmade.". giving it a higher mineral content.3 fao. Muscovado. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. largecrystalled. but most is now produced in Mauritius. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. an island off Africa. ^ New Scientist.com/brands/Wholesome_Sweeteners/Organic_Tur binado_Sugar. crystals. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. light brown.wildernessfamilynaturals.

but toxic to most land plants. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). and iodized salt.com http://www.net/ . Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. which some use to prevent caking. refined salt (table salt). an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. Chloride and sodium ions. It is a crystalline solid.[citation needed] Conversely. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. including high blood pressure. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the two major components of salt. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong.crazychefs. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. including humans. white. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. pale pink or light gray in color.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl).

net/ . the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans).[2]:38 From about 2800 BC. In 1960.crazychefs.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. the caravans still transported some 15. and the dye Tyrian purple. as were salted birds and salt fish.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar.000 tons of salt.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. in the millennia before then. however.com http://www. salt provided the best-known food preservative. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. especially for meat. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. glass.

Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf.com http://www. During the first millennium BC. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. Greek.) In the Sermon on the Mount. water.fire.Salzburg. though incorrectly. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth.[citation needed] The root hal(l).[1] It is widely. and Egyptian. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. began open pan salt making. taking their names from hal(l)-. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. the Roman exonym for the Celts. a root for salt found in Celtic.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". the Hallstatt Celts. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". which was illegal under British rule. Halych in Ukraine. (Judges 9:45." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. salz.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted.also gave us Gaul. Hallstatt. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork".crazychefs. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). God sent down four blessings from the sky . who had heretofore mined for salt. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people.net/ . In many Pagan religions esp. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete.

Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.com http://www.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. In Aztec mythology. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people.[9] The Ancient Egyptians.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. such as in Sumo Wrestling. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. Halite.crazychefs.net/ . and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[12] However. In recrystallization.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. and thus is rarely eaten. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. Fleur de sel. After the raw salt is obtained. giving each one a unique flavor. Today. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. One example are bath salts. Injected water dissolves the salt.com http://www.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. which are kiln-dried. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. Purification usually involves recrystallization. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals.Different natural salts have different mineralities.net/ . and the making of soaps and detergents.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water.crazychefs. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases.5% of salt production. Refined salt. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is mainly sodium chloride. which is most widely used presently.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. natural sea salt harvested by hand. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. food uses account for 17. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. has a unique flavor varying from region to region.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use.

[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. such as a few grains of uncooked rice.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1.[29] However.com http://www. Some people also add a desiccant. silicon dioxide.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. Table salt has a particle density of 2. calcium or magnesium carbonates. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. and a bulk density (dry. sodium aluminosilicate. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] .net/ .154 g/cm3. and calcium aluminosilicate. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. calcium silicate. condiments such as soy sauce. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. however. but was determined to be unnecessary.165 g/cm3.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution.crazychefs. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. Single-serving salt packets. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. magnesium oxide. fatty acid salts (acid salts).[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures.

Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. potassium.[32] Another additive. In the United States.net/ . The reason for this is unclear. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. iodized salt is more common in the United States. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fluorinated table salt is available. even fatal. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. specifically endemic goiter. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. or sodium iodate. which gives the table salt a yellow color. which can cause goitre. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. sodium iodide. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. or even an electrolyte disturbance. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. magnesium.[31] Today.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. dizziness. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. and myxedema in adults. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used.[33] Drinking too much water. which can cause severe.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). especially important for pregnant women. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. In Canada. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans.crazychefs. neurological problems. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride.com http://www. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. In France. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. cretinism in children. with insufficient salt intake.

can cause hypernatremia. forced salt intake.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment.[38] heartburn. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. independently of blood pressure effects.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products.net/ . and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. since salt was quite valuable).[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention)." ([41]. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). in Japan. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. salt consumption is higher.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. It can exacerbate renal disease. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health." ([44]. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994.crazychefs.com http://www. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK." ([41]. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. combined with an inadequate intake of water.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. p18) However. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. such as in treatment of dysautonomia.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real." ([41] p3).

148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. but achievable population goals.net/ . and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time.com http://www. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. However.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. SACN states.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. such as the Yanomami in South America. have been found to consume little salt. Some isolated cultures. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. for a typical adult."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets. A salt mill for sea salt. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1.6 g or 70 mmol sodium).crazychefs. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels.[50]. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that.

'[55] Campaigns In 2004. then that is a medium level of salt.[57] In March 2007. LoSalt. Low is 0. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication.com http://www. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". without recourse to salt substitutes.3 g sodium = 5.[51] In the United States.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free".1g sodium).[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2." In the UK. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia.net/ . Australia.g. "low".6g sodium). it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures.crazychefs.).300 mg of sodium (= 2. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. Those who have kidney failure. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High).8 g salt) per day.5g salt per 100g (or 0.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. Amber (Medium). Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. calories. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. low in fat. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. which will increase potassium intake. When other health claims are made about a food (e. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. etc.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. One manufacturer. or Green (Low).

Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. Eplerenone and Inspra. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. Costs can reach staggering amounts.answers. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride.3).com http://www. 8. Notes 1. In 2002. Dytac. Germany (17.com.in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. 2. 4. India (14. and Canada (12. China (32.com/salary.3 million tonnes).net/ .wikisource. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. 5. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 7. the top five producers being the United States (40. such as brine wells and salt lakes.crazychefs. New York: Robert Appleton Company. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. and by mining rock salt. Triamterene.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Salt. 3. 1913. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. and Hall in Austria. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). ^ "Salt". 6. called halite.9). Retrieved 2008-12-14. http://www. 4th edition". http://en. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction.5). Catholic Encyclopedia.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. Answers.7).

salt history. p. http://www3. Kuemmel (1994).com/reports/salt 16.com http://www.9% sodium chloride 25. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. Retrieved 2009-0708. Transportation Research Board. Mason (2006-12-19). ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt".9% sodium by weight which equals 98. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers".co. 281.afssa. 14 August 1998. ^ Gary Taubes. Ask a Scientist.gov/askasci/gen01/gen01420.fr/Ftp/Afssa/26447-26448. http://books. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. salt history. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. ^ Nauticus . salt manufacture. 11. ^ Iodized Salt 32. 5379. no.roskill. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. salt manufacture.htm 15.newton.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/393201.9. salt uses. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. ^ David A.htm 19. Salt Institute.saltsense.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). ^ http://www. ^ Table 27.pdf 33.google.crazychefs.stm 38. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. http://www. ^ What is Salt?. 2008 29. 10. ISBN 9780309056663. "The (Political) Science of Salt". Science.com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effe ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1.dep. J. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. Victoria) Salt 34.interscience.eu-salt. pp. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26.wiley. ^ B. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. Fall/Winter 2006 10. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39.net/ . sodium. sodium.anl. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. Vol.Weather Curriculum 18. ^ a b http://news.907 37. ^ References on food salt & health issues.uk/aboutsaltwhat01. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032.co. Retrieved 2008-07-29. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". ^ Salt made the world go round 17. Salt Institute. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www.com/journal/114028130/abstract. salt uses. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. 12. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. 28. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. Epikouria Magazine. 898 .htm.bbc. Retrieved 200907-08.com/index3. ^ HE-620 24. ^ Iodized Salt 31. 14.

1002/0471238961. doi:10. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. The Story of Salt. Sodium chloride. http://www. ^ Understanding labels 55. Legal Medicine 2005. 2007.co. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. Inc.legalmed.2004. ^ Cook NR.ac.crazychefs.uk/cash/. ISBN 0393320197. 62. New York. Elizabeth Wayland (1999).06. 28 January 2008. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. Friedrich Schulz.hyp. Norton & Co. John Wiley & Sons.005 48. Mark (2002). Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. http://www. 61. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP).334(7599):885..com http://www.a01. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. 7. ^ Salt TV ads 59.W. Sodium 52. OCLC 48573453.net/ . ^ U. Barber. OCLC 48426519. and S.uk/society/2008/jan/28/foodanddrink.healthandwellbeing. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". doi:10. Further reading Kurlansky. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. Obarzanek E et al. ISBN 0802713734. Published online 2005. Erwin Koops. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. NY: G.1915040902051820. Putnam's Sons. 47-50. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. S. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. (accessed13 January 2007) 49.guardian. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41.P. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 2006. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47.1016/j. Mark. New York: Walker & Co. ^ Susan R. Schindler.pub2 References Kurlansky.. New York: W. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. BMJ. ^ Salt Matters 60. D. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. Cutler JA. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk.40. Salt: A World History. Feldman. The Mummies of Ürümchi.

net/ .talk by Dr Trevor Beard. The Stationery Office. New York: Columbia University Press.crazychefs.Laszlo. Arts and traditions of the table. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. Pierre. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . Salt: Grain of Life. Department of Health.com http://www. 2001.

net/ . Vietnam. It can also be found in India. Malaysia. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes.com http://www. as well as in neighbouring countries. such as Cambodia. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. phrik thai. Indonesia.crazychefs. mainly Kerala. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. phrik khi nu(lit. the Philippines and Singapore. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). found commonly in Thailand.

and can be found with colors maturing from green to red.crazychefs.com http://www. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia." which can best be described by the English equivalent. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region.000 to 100.net/ . "Big things come in small packages.

but slightly less pungent variety. Thai). and then red. and go from green to yellow. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam.As well as the Malay word. creating a rainbow effect. Thai hot. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan.org/wiki/Thai_pepper" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. has peppers that point upward on the plant. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental.crazychefs. phrik khii nuu ( . and among the group of capsicum annuum. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. Ladâ. The more decorative.net/ . Siling Labuyo (Filipino).com http://www. orange.

and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews.net/ . about the size of a large potato. gratins and baked dishes. which store a large amount of starch. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. Celeriac has a celery flavour. Unlike other root vegetables. it can also be used on its own.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A.crazychefs. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. or used in casseroles. It is a kind of celery.com http://www. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. It has a tough. usually mashed.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. furrowed. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel.

and 'Kojak'. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths.com http://www. There are a number of cultivars available. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. especially in Europe. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. rinsed.6 g 9.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.3 g 1.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates .Dietary fiber 1.2 g .net/ .5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Celeriac soup.Sugars 1. Celeriac. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 'Diamant'. 'Ibis'. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. Among them are 'Prinz'.crazychefs.

com http://www. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. The stem is often spiny. and see text The eggplant. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. It bears a fruit of the same name. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. aubergine. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. The flowers are white to purple. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual.crazychefs.net/ . with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. As a nightshade.

the fruit is known as a "brinjal. 1500 CE. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. Australia. History Solanum melongena. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. The name eggplant. but much larger in cultivated forms. flower The plant is native to India. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. which are edible.net/ . which is used in British English. and contains numerous small.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous.crazychefs. The name aubergine. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. New Zealand. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. In Indian and South African English. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE." Aubergine and brinjal. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety.com http://www. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. The fruit is fleshy. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. used in the United States.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". soft seeds. In the Caribbean Trinidad. from Arabic al-badinjan.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah).

Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Pingtung Long. or white. Classic. Black Magic. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. A much wider range of shapes. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. There are even orange varieties. especially purple. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Dusky. whiteskinned. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. slightly pendulous cucumber. and Tycoon. Ichiban.crazychefs. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. and Black Beauty. green.net/ . The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Traditional. Some cultivars have a color gradient. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in white skin Dourga. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. shape and color. Burpee Hybrid. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower.com http://www.

In Bangladesh.crazychefs. for example in sambhar. as they are far less bitter. It. tahini. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. In Iranian cuisine. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. as in the related tomato. along with the fish Hilsa. as in the French ratatouille. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. and achaar. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. or tamarind. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. In the Caucasus. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. The thin skin is also edible. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. battered. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. It can be sliced. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. complex flavor. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. so that peeling is not required. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. or Eggplant Parmesan. chutney. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. In one dish. The fruit flesh is smooth. and garlic. curries. the Arabian moussaka. In some parts of India.net/ . then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. peanuts. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. for example. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. braised (紅燒茄子). and masala and then cooked in oil. tahini. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. and deep-fried. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. tomatoes. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. rice. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. allowing for very rich dishes. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. it is called Begun ( ). or other fillings and then baked. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. It is often stewed.com http://www. As a native plant.

Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). such as tomato. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. showing the inside. For this reason.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. and potato. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. (Adults can be removed by hand. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. This is called Beguni ( ). flea beetle.) to 60 cm (24 in. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. are also troublesome to eggplants.com http://www.net/ . Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack.) between plants. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. Egypt. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. depending on cultivar.) between rows. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems.crazychefs. the most serious of which is Verticillium. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. aphids. Flowers are complete. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. pepper (capsicum). containing both female and male structures. and spider mites.

039 mg 5.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.19 g 1. semi-official or estimates). Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant. P = official figure.7 g 0.net/ .043.Dietary fiber 3.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.[5] In the United States.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates . B1) 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.com http://www. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data. New Jersey is the largest producing state.35 g . C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. B2) 0.crazychefs.Sugars 2. F = FAO estimate.(2. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.

B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.084 mg Folate (Vit. while 1. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.com http://www. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens.net/ .[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.Niacin (Vit. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).crazychefs.[8] On average. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins. However. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.16 mg Manganese 0.01 mg/100g). Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant. Brazil.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. B3) 0.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.

Dunal. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. ovigerum and S. aethiopicum. edule. globosi.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. Names for various eggplant types. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S.C. luteum. such as agreste. violaceum and viride. tongdongense. mainly by Dikii. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. trongum. giganteum. multifidum. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. lasiocarpum. He also recognized varieties aculeatum.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. album. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. oblongo-cylindricum. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. Similarly. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named.F. inerme. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). ovigera. brownii. racemiflorum. On the other hand. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. which used to include Dunal's S. racemosum. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. leucoum. rumphii. S. inerme and subinerme at that time. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. violaceum. But this is not correct. esculentum. ruber. insanum.net/ . variegatum.com http://www. Scopoli's S.-Lag. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. capsicoides). that of Blanco to S. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. Solanum oviferum Salisb. aethiopicum. H. There is an actual S. divaricatum. subrepandum. Solanum longum Roxb. and (invalidly) by Sweet.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant.crazychefs. stenoleucum. sinuatorepandum. esculentum.Varieties Solanum melongena var.

net/ . CRC Press.com http://www. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). common. and Engineering by Yiu H. Technology. Hui (2006).Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. 2. D. Handbook of Food Science. (2001). Footnotes 1. ^ Doijode. ISBN 1574445510. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. S.crazychefs. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology".

edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/C934. Ebury Press. Mahesh † and Y. pp. Retrieved 2007-04-24. P. 1993 Number 6 9.50(2):101-102 11. volume 82 (nº 3). esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. 202 4. Robert (2008-11-14). ^ "FAOSTAT". Retrieved 2008-SEP-25.caes. ^ SN Pramod. ^ Westerfield. Miyachi Y. http://faostat. 6. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels".fao. Volume 329:437 August 5. Domino. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça.uga. ^ B. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). P. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. ^ Solanum melongena var. Arq Bras Cardiol.net/ . Andréa Thomaz.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables.com . Vol. Bruno Caramelli.) reveals female predominance. Retrieved 2009-07-01. Harish Babu * . Toorenenbergen AW.Aubergine 8. 18(1): 59-62 13. ^ Kabashima K. Tsenge Demana. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. Erich Hornbach. 7.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. 273-6. FAO. 2008 10.* YP Venkatesh. 5. 2008-11-11.3. 2004. The New England Journal of Medicine. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004.com http://www. ^ Health24. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf).crazychefs. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. A. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. http://pubs. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners.pdf. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. N.133(42):2081-3 12. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. ^ Edward F. Dieges PH.

usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. yellow. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. with a serrated margin. It is a perennial.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long.crazychefs.4–0. The tomato is native to South America.com http://www.net/ . was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. odd pinnate. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. Solanum lycopersicum. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. see section Fruit or vegetable below). Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. and have a weak.8 in) across. One species. with five pointed lobes on the corolla.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. woody stem that often vines over other plants. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. syn. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0.

smaller vegetable . Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. lumpy tomato. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692.[6] Gerard's Herbal.crazychefs. was the first European to take back the tomato. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. However. tomatl. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. likely to be the original salsa recipe. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). means "wolf-peach". Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. the other by currant tomatoes. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. meaning plump thing with a navel. in certain areas of Italy. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. corn and salt. according to Smith. ancestor of L. a mutation from a smoother. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. an Italian physician and botanist. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. now Mexico City in 1521. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced.com http://www.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans.[4] The large. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. They also took it to the Philippines. cerasiforme. However. The exact date of domestication is not known.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. The specific name. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. golden apple. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. lycopersicum.net/ . earlier in 1493. such as Florence. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. and cultivation began in the 1540s. a barber-surgeon. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. who named it pomo d‘oro.

M. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. By the mid-18th century. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. Over the past 15 years.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. ―within the last forty years. and as a garnish.[6] But by the mid-1700s.largely plagiarized from continental sources. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. Currently. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker.[6] Nonetheless. but the fruit is safe). In Victorian times. California.net/ . Gerard's views were influential. and in general. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. 1799 – c. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time.com http://www. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. Paella. sent some seeds back to America. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. Rick. Thomas Jefferson. broths. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. particularly Florida and California. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. The C. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. and before the end of that century. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. The University of California. most famously in Worthing. British consul in Aleppo c. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. The Spanish tomato dish. who ate tomatoes in Paris. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant).[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. Charles M. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710.

4 in) diameter range. through cherry tomatoes. California accounts for 90% of U.0–2. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter.net/ .com http://www. and have a lower water content.8 in) size as the wild tomato.6–2.4–0. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. It may be deleted after Friday. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. or white fruit are also available. black.0 in) diameter. followed by United States and Turkey.crazychefs. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. production and 35% of world production. orange. China. pink. purple. For processing tomatoes. the largest producer.S. green. but a number of cultivars with yellow. 18 September 2009.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. about 5mm in diameter. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. Most cultivars produce red fruit.[12] According to FAOSTAT. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. they are known as plum tomatoes. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.

are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. as well as heirloom tomatoes. and are shaped like large strawberries. plum tomatoes.[18] and productivity. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). but unlike commercial hybrids. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed].net/ .[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular.crazychefs. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. based mostly on shape and size.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. As in most sectors of agriculture. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce.com http://www. along with zucchini. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life.

and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. Red Boar). low acidity.especially heirlooms . disease and pest resistance.com http://www. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. Determinate. they are often good choices for container growing. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. which usually discourages fruit set.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. and lack of mealiness. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. As an intermediate form. including Brandywine (biggest red). types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. pink. et cetera. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. multiple colors (Hillbilly. but are smaller than plum tomato.net/ . there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate".cherry tomatoes are small and round. Black Krim (lower left corner). brown. but must be bought as seed. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. although some determinate heirlooms exist. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. Green Zebra (top right). often via mail-order. some tomato cultivars . Lucky Cross). The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. or home growers interested in canning. including yellow. white. Burracker's Favorite. black. etc. and purple. or bush. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. ivory.produce fruit in colors other than red. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. orange. A variety of specific cultivars.crazychefs.

As the name implies. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. entirely within the closed corolla. and remain. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. but manure or compost work well. which interrupts the lifecycle.fusarium wilt strain I. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. aphids. The most common letters are: V . the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. original state. T .alternaria. tomato fruitworms. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. too. slugs.crazychefs. whiteflies. tomatoes required cross-pollination. As a floral device to reduce selfing. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. FF . [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. their traditional pollinators. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance.tobacco mosaic virus.net/ .fusarium wilt strain I & II. and A . F . (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. cabbage loopers. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. cutworms. The stamens were. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. N nematodes. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs.verticillium wilt.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. flea beetles. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. red spider mite. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. In the wild. carried by the beet leafhopper. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes.com http://www.

In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. This is not the same as self-pollination. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. or more often today. by cultured bumblebees.com http://www. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. In more temperate climates. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. depending on variety. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. Unripe tomatoes are firm. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. as with most species.net/ . Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube.crazychefs. In an outside setting. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. However. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They may be recognized by their color. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant.

has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. carotene. as tomato sauce.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants.crazychefs.Recently. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. In some studies lycopene. in pieces.6 g 4g . or paste. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). and other antioxidants. especially in cooked tomatoes. a subset of fruit. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue).net/ .[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). The tomato is acidic. anthocyanin. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine.com http://www.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene.Sugars 2. Though it is botanically a berry. They contain lycopene. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .

especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. Embracing it for this protest connotation. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes).com http://www. often by sun. meaning covered with fine short hairs. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. such as rugose leaves. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. lateral buds take over and grow into other.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. generally three feet tall or shorter.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. whether because of pruning or flowering. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. When that tip eventually stops growing. annually celebrates La Tomatina. Determinate types are annual in all climates. it will not continue to ripen. Tomato plants are dicots. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. The fruit is also preserved by drying. They are bred to continue ripening. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12.5 °F). These hairs facilitate the vining process.net/ . and grow as a series of branching stems. Spain. fully functional. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. Of regular leaves. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. although erect bush varieties have been bred.make salsa. initially decumbent. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. vines.[28] In October 1965. or pickled. Known for its tomato growth and production. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials.crazychefs. there are variations.5 °C (54.

net/ . have the anthers fused along the edges. Therefore.Karst. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs.. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. peach. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. "wolf-peach").. which frequently used it and still do). This is because they are native to the Americas.com http://www. butterflies. among cultivated species.g.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. chili peppers. with both names found in the literature.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. However. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. variegated.[31] Their flowers. angora leaves. As a true fruit. Despite this. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. or other external forces that present in the Americas. according to type. Similarly. i. would be more correct. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. 'lyco'. and be dried/fermented before germination. making the Linnaean name correct. tobacco. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination.crazychefs. while paste tomatoes have very few.deeply grooved. moths. very small cavities. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. These vary. However. wolf. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. other insects. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. appearing on the apical meristem. genetic evidence (e. called locular cavities.) H. plus 'persicum'. Other species in that family are potatoes. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. (derivation. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon.e. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). Technically.

Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. However. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. Monsanto. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use.S. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. nutritional value.com http://www. North Carolina. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. 1883. of Reynoldsburg.crazychefs.S. Bejoseed. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. As noted above. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. shape. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. as are vegetables. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. 304)). BHNSeed. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. disease tolerance. size. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. color. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. University breeding programs are active in Florida. Ohio. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically.S. cucumbers. However. a tomato is the ovary. In 2006. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. flavor. The U. etc. New York. Hedden (149 U. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations.net/ . pest tolerance. from a culinary standpoint. universities. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v.W.S. and organizations. AVRDC. together with its seeds. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. In 1887. Oregon. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. Corporations including Heinz. U. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. corporations. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. and numerous other traits. U.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. A.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. Livingston.

Massachusetts. Connecticut. contain the poison Solanine. Virginia. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . On October 30. the U. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Maine. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /.com http://www.S. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tennessee. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. The fresh fruit is. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant.crazychefs. 2006. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). Pennsylvania.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. Indiana. Michigan. stems. which is toxic to humans and animals.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Rhode Island. Kentucky.net/ . New Hampshire. Minnesota. however. Georgia. harmless.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). Ohio.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. North Carolina. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. Speakers from the British Isles. Vermont and Wisconsin.

and fresh cilantro. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). from April 10. one would arrive at an estimated 40. the District of Columbia.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. the U. Epcot's manager of agricultural science.151.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot.6:1). fresh serrano pepper. UK. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. Lake Buena Vista.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). Illinois (100). with 49. 2008.273 illnesses from this outbreak.8 m (65 ft) length.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. respectively.000 kilograms (250. 2008. 40. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. China. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. 2007. Yong Huang.net/ . Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.S.crazychefs.1 reported cases per million. with a harvest of more than 32. it caused at least one death. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. On August 30. Florida. discovered the unique plant in Beijing. Oklahoma in 1986.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported.84 pounds (522 kg).com http://www. New Mexico (98). Lancashire. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. fresh jalapeño pepper. As of July 2008. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. and Canada. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants.[38] As of July 8.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.7 and 16. such as raw tomato. in 2000. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. French and Germans. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. and Arizona (49). Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world.

Fusarium. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.S. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U.crazychefs. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France.net/ . and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink.com http://www. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. Derived from Cherokee Purple.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. indeterminate. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry.S. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes.

'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato Flower. Tomato fruit. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo.com http://www. in Korea. pickling. Young tomato plant. Tomato slices. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine.net/ . Tomato plants in the garden. good for Tomatoes on a vine.crazychefs.

net/ .com http://www.crazychefs.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

13. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. Columbia. ^ The Friend. Andrew F (1994).com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. 1876. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Universityofcalifornia. University of Illinois Press.gov. http://www.edu. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.crazychefs.html".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Culture.The East Hampton Star . http://www. The Tomato in America.. and Cookery. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. 7. and cookery.C." See: Natural History Museum. ^ a b Smith. Retrieved December 11 2009.uk/index. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . p. Retrieved 2009-04-02. The tomato in America: early history. 2008. I.edu/news/article/4319. 1881. et al. ^ "http://www. p.nationalarchives. (1994). M. http://www.easthamptonstar. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans.17. Footnotes 1. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. S. ^ Acquaah. ^ http://faostat.com/dnn/Archive/Home20080814/FoodWine/Seasons/ta bid/6280/Default. 2009-01-26.M.smithsonianmag.edu. & Spooner. page 57: ". ^ a b Hartz." 15. 6.aspx. A. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 5. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Andrew F. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". 223 10.aspx?PageID=567 14. T. webpage: books-google-TTp17. http://yourarchives.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.com http://www. 2002-05-08.smithsonianmag. Retrieved December 11 2009. (2001). UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. 8. culture. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html". D. 519 [1] 9.edu/. Appleton and Co. Processing Tomato Production in California. Subsection Lycopersicon). and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum.nationalarchives.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87..smithsonianmag. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. G.gov. ^ "C.fao. Peralta. ^ "http://www.Your Archives"..ucdavis.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour.com. Wettst. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. Normania.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.Smith.uk.five tons to the acre. Easthamptonstar.net/ . Smith.ucdavis.smithsonianmag. October 26. Appletons' journal Published by D.html. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . E. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online).universityofcalifornia. 12. 1994. 11. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. USA: University of South Carolina Press. (2002). During the three months of the local harvest. F. Cyphomandra.html. it handles more than 1. 2. ISBN 1-57003000-6.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. 3. Yourarchives. section Lycopersicon Mill. http://tgrc.Food & Wine". p. ^ "UC Newsroom. ISBN 0252-07009-7. (2002-0508)". http://www. Tgrc. ^ Tomato history 4.

com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.html. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens.edu.edu.html. Retrieved December 11 2009. 33. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". 26.html 23. ^ http://www. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".umn.osu.am/wiki/Tomato#Early_tomatoes 21.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5532. 30.bbc.mx.edu. Faq.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2007-05-24.ucdavis.plants. News.16.mx. http://ohioline.gob.html.gardenweb.am/wiki/Tomato#Novelty_tomatoes 22.ncsu. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27.edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome. http://www. ^ http://www. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.cornell. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once. http://www.smithsonianmag. 2006. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt.net/ .php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44.smithsonianmag.html". ^ "Crop Profiles .smithsonianmag.html. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention". http://www.uk/2/hi/health/7370759. http://www.edu. 25.edu. 32. page 57: "The plants are still growing. 2006.crazychefs. Ohioline. Retrieved 200810-27. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more. 31.edu/stories/Jan07/SolanacaeNSF. Sinaloa. http://wwwplb.ufseeds. Retrieved June 30. HYG-5532-93". In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".html". ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension.plants. ^ "http://www.co. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips.osu. Retrieved July 14.cornell.com. 29.umn. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ "http://www.Tomato". Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved December 11 2009. ^ "Selecting.edu/sustainable/profiles/bot_tom. 28.html".news.com/All-About-Tomatoes_a6fd3933f91c4. Retrieved December 11 2009. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. which are carried in the wind.gardenweb.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27.org/pub_releases/2007-05/aafc-nmt051607.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.eurekalert." 20.whfoods.com.gob. 24.8M". Smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27.com/genpage. "Tomato genome project gets $1. Ncsu. http://www. http://www. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.com http://www.html. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. http://faq. http://www. http://news.smithsonianmag.com/faq/lists/tomato/2004111539004321.edu. Retrieved 2009-04-02.php. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. Retrieved 200705-24. Plb. ^ http://www. http://www. 17.html.sinaloa. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like." 18.stm.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/passion-fortomatoes.html. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. http://www.html. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007). 27.kr. ^ "http://www.ucdavis.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes." 19.

co. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC".co. 2004. ISBN 1879906546. Vegparadise.ca. Retrieved 2008-10-27.co. Retrieved 2009-0721.34. ^ "ITN. p.html.gov. http://www. Foodsafetynetwork. 643. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005". United States.uchicago. 37. 38.uk.html.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/. http://www. 42. 40.google.foodsafetynetwork. http://www.uk/news/9a5a1671ceba4f43741dc008f237c1ea. Cbsnews. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. ^ Voetsch. 2007-08-30. California Master Gardener Handbook. 41. Itn. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 38:S3.com. ANR Publications. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. Tomato Recipe". et al. by state".shtml. (2002). Cdc. Retrieved 200904-02.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. Retrieved 2009-0402.html. 36.com.CBS News". Dennis R. 39.uk.com/highestperch8.cdc. ^ "August 8.com/stories/2006/10/30/national/main2138331.cbsnews. Nationalpost.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/map. http://www. 9781879906549.crazychefs. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". Tomato Nutrition. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce .edu/doi/full/10. 35. (2004-04-15).html?id=585498. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History.1086/381578.com. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/books?id=WhWjHB1Zjf8C&pg=PA643.journals. http://www. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". http://www. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27.nationalpost. ^ a b Pittenger. Retrieved 2008-1027.vegparadise. http://itn.com/news/canada/story.ca/en/article-details.cdc.net/ . Clinical Infectious Diseases. http://www.com http://www.

including essential oils. extracted oleoresins. especially in Grenada.4 oz) dried. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. In Indonesia.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. and Bombay Nutmeg M. and nutmeg butter (see below). native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. Species About 100 species.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. malabarica from India.net/ . The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. called selei buah pala.7 in) wide. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". a state in the south part of India. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). called Jaiphal in Hindi. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. fragrans products.com http://www. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. or sliced finely. or Spice Islands.6 to 0. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. It also grows in Kerala. argentea from New Guinea. the fruit is also made into jam. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia.2 and 0. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. nutmeg and mace. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. both are used as adulterants of M. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices.

In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. and eggnog. green. "Lau Hau Peng". In Indian cuisine. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). In European cuisine. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. mulled wine. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. In Penang cuisine. saffronlike hue it imparts. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. and baked goods.com http://www. sauces. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. cauliflower. and string beans. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. they are also used in soups. In Arabic. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh.net/ . Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala.crazychefs. In the Caribbean. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. and Barbados rum punch. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. Painkiller.

It is semi-solid. preserving agents. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. which can be turned into myristic acid. The oil is colourless or light yellow. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry.com http://www. medicines.net/ . Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. beverages.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. 758 – ca. in toothpaste. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. and sweets. although this is disputed. for instance. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. syrups. reddish brown in colour. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. used as flavourings.crazychefs. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation
needed]

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

Footnotes
1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". http://emj.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/22/3/223. 5. ^ "Erowid". http://www.erowid.org/plants/nutmeg/. 6. ^ "MDMA". http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=5469. 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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References
Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

Commercialization
The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. based on anecdotal reports. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. yeast extract. not reproducible. soy extracts.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. Canned.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. steak sauce.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. hydrolyzed yeast. or molasses.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. it also said that. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. being an amino acid. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001.com http://www. frozen. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing." However.crazychefs. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. sugar cane. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. particularly processed foods. and protein isolate.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. with 4% annual growth expected. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions.net/ . Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. autolyzed yeast. Fermented products such as soy sauce. sugar beets. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. About 1. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. However.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates.

"Monosodium Glutamate". and (3) microbial fermentation. The label must bear the food additive class name (e.com http://www. age 40–59 years. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. For this reason.". a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. (2) synthesis. In the 2004 version of his book. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture.7% women). "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. Albert Y.com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1..g. 621. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled.. and mineral ions and growth factors. New York: Wiley. even in large amounts. Drugs. On Food and Cooking. purified. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. Steven (August 2003). pp. [monosodium glutamate]. dextrose or citrate). 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48.html 2. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product.g.crazychefs. such as hydrolyzed protein. References 1. followed by either the name of the food additive. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. and crystallization. flavour enhancer). acidification.celiac.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. 373-375. and converted to its monosodium salt.2. In the hydrolysis method.). Foster.net/ . food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. ^ http://www. MSG. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). In 1993. ^ Leung. concentration.

Kelly M. (October 2006).x. Pharmacol. Daviglus.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Dyer. ^ He. Jordan (2005).ajinomoto.274. ^ "Production process". http://www. PMID 10736382. "Yes.1111/j.nytimes.cfsan.1006/rtph.1002/chir.pdf 9. http://jn. Chiaki.nih. Guo. ^ Kawakita.1999. ^ Freeman M. PMID 18497735.co. doi:10. Zhu.nutrition.com/amino/eng/product. Regul. ^ a b Geha RS. Shigeru. (1993).jp/ajinomoto/ACompany/company/zaimu/pdf/fact/food_biz. Inc.F. PMID 8282275.html 4. ^ http://www.. "A Short History of MSG". 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. 1875–1880. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. doi:10.38. Stamler. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Linda. Masahiro. Anjimoto Co.17457599.net/ . Tetsuya. Wu. Toxicol. Yamaguchi.1016/02786915(93)90012-N.ncbi. doi:10. Beifan. 11. "Monosodium Glutamate"..ajinomoto. Case study: monosodium glutamate".org/stable/3421360 5.2006. 277–282.5. ^ Walker R (October 1999). ^ Sand.1337. Liancheng. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". Armstrong. Ka. Chirality 6 (4): pp. PMID 10597625. 15. ^ Moskin. Toxicol.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10736382.a16 711.ca/Articles/Fall1990-1.html. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review".com http://www.1002/14356007.nlm. Food Chem. Yangfeng. Zhou. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". 38–49.html 12. Daniel. ^ http://www. Julia (2008-03-05).fda. Takehara. Van Horn. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". Daniel W (1994).celiac.00160.4. ^ http://www. Nutr. Alan R. ^ http://vm. Zhao. Linguang. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. Shizuko (2005). J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. Shioya.2008. Sano. Beiser A. New York Times. doi:10. doi:10. 14. MSG. Martha L. et al. 8. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study".530060410. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. Kimber L. Jeremiah (August 2008). Dongshuang.3. ^ a b Rundlett. Ren C.gov/~lrd/msg.1038/oby. Garside. 31 (12): 1019–1035. ^ a b Tarasoff L. the Secret Behind the Savor". Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 6. 7. 13.jstor. doi:10. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract.crazychefs. (April 2000). Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.gov/entrez/query.2005. 16.com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute. PMID 16999713. J. 10. http://www.1525/gfc. http://www. doi:10.

豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. 荳油 3.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce.net/ . 酱油 2.com http://www.crazychefs. 醬油 2. 豆油 3. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1.

water. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. Soy sauce was invented in China.com http://www. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product.crazychefs. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK).[3] In the 18th century. [4] By the mid-19th century. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. In its various forms. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version.net/ .[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. and salt. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan.500 years. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2.

crazychefs. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap.com http://www. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. literally "delicious taste"). Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed].net/ . most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. such as in giant urns and under the sun. sojae) and other related microorganisms.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. Today. Although there are many types of soy sauce.

Another type. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Chinese cuisine. since it is saltier. In traditional Chinese cooking. fragrance and saltiness. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). Despite their rather similar appearance. lighter brown soy sauce. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). or 酱清 "jiàng qing".3-DCP (1. Touchōu is sold at a premium because.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. with relatively low amounts of other grains. ): A thin (nonviscous). pinyin: jiàngyóu. or a mixture of both. but it also adds flavour. Since it is lighter in color.net/ . like extra virgin olive oil. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. It has a richer. slightly sweeter. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. consistency. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. one of the two types. shuānghuáng (雙璜). An additional classification of light soy sauce.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight.com http://www. traditional Chinese: 醬油. Korean. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽.crazychefs. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. Thai. opaque.

Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. that is used in its production. Shiro (白?.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. Technically. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi.net/ . for example sashimi. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. where it is known as "shōyu". a sweet liquid made from fermented rice.crazychefs. or 醤油). It contains little or no wheat.com http://www. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. Usukuchi (淡口?. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region.

crazychefs. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. Consequently. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it.com http://www. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process.net/ . Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?.Saishikomi (再仕込?. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. not pasteurized. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. 1 litre bottles. Amakuchi (甘口?.

which has a thick. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. powder. In Indonesia. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor.net/ .Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce.crazychefs. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. It is a unique variety. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. in a pinch. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived.com http://www. usually implies limited quantity. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet.

soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). Joseon ganjang. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. O'Long(黑龍). in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. Founded in 1909. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. (called Joseon ganjang.crazychefs.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). Malaysia. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油).4% of soy sauce purchases. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. lit.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce.com http://www. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. Later. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce.net/ . which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. is made entirely of soy and brine. thin and dark brown in color. 조선간장. WanJaShan(萬家香).

It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. and caramel. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein.[6] Furthermore. it is also a table condiment. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. China. salt.net/ . wheat. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. or sometimes simply tương.crazychefs. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces.com http://www. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce.3-DCP (1.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. It can also be very salty.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. pronounced SOO-kah). nước tương. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases.

Lee Kum Kee. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application.tw/newsdetail. Despite these being small in number in the UK.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. marinades and other types of sauces.gov. 2 (January 2000). 8. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption.Kong and Taiwan. 7.org. 2nd edition. ^ http://www. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20).uk/news/pressreleases/2001/jun/soysaucerecall. pp. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). ^ Tanaka. http://www.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. Celiac disease. Kimlan. http://www. III.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". an increase over 23 to 5.000 to 18. Retrieved 200801-07.[citation needed] In Vietnam. King Imperial. (1781). ^ Jung. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. OCLC 9752305 5. No. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. Vol. Seong-Gook (2002).org.tcoc.net/ . Golden Mark. Golden Swan.gmp. p. Isaac.jp/science/kouenkai/kouenkai. Norio.[1] Notes 1."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. 3.com http://www. 6. 7. XXVII. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho.tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9. Pearl River Bridge. Press release. Soon Teck• and Kang. ^ Titsingh. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. p.smartfood.food.htm. 6.com. 2.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.tw/60anniversary/century-gofun." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. Jammy Chai.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. Retrieved 2008-01-07.crazychefs. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. Tung Chun and Wanjasham.asp?id=7598 10. including six samples with up to 11. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations.) In March 2008. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. ^ Tanaka. 4. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce.317 2.miyajimasoy. ^ Tanaka.co. Individuals with a wheat allergy. ^ http://www. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". ^ http://www. Sinsin. p. that affected the brands Golden Mountain.

net/ . Makio (2005-04-18). Charles W (2005). ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet.google.100.11.food scares hit Vietnam 20. 13.201. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. p.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". Edition 2. Kentucky: CRC Press. PMID 12469319. chemical veggies -. 12. fermentation and micro-organisms. ISBN 1587161389. p. 103.2323/jgam. 186. Marian (2003).com http://www. Naczk. ^ Kobayashi. 16. PMID 16198255. et al.com/news/ng. Florence. http://books. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals.com. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce".crazychefs. Somboon (2002-06-18).com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15. doi:10. ^ Daniells. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". Food. ^ Toxic soy sauce. Stephen (2006-06-06). ^ Shahidi. Hoboken. nutraingredients. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 18. ISBN 0632059877. ^ Bamford.144.nutraingredients. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19.48. ^ Tanasupawat.1263/jbb. Fereidoon. http://www. 14. doi:10. Retrieved 2008-01-07.

9180 (@ 15.5% Linoleic acid: 3.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.8% Behenic acid: <0.4677–1.5–20.com 211 | P a g e http://www.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .0 % Linolenic acid: <1.3% Myristic acid: <0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.0–83.5–5.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.3–3.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.0% Stearic acid: 0.5 °C) 84 cP 1.crazychefs.5–21.9150–0.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.0% Arachidic acid: <0.

6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. World production in 2002 was 2. pharmaceuticals. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. Koroneiki.6 million tonnes.4680–1. principally Italy.000 tons of olive oil annually. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives.crazychefs. cosmetics. in France. Hojiblanca. in Greece. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production.com http://www. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. Italy and Greece.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. Leccino Pendolino. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. 93% comes from Spain. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands.6 (refined and pomace) 0. North Africa and the Near East. Japan and China. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. as well as in Crete. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. Olive oil is used throughout the world.[3] Of the European production. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. but especially in the Mediterranean. Picholine. In 2006. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. and Moraiolo. which produce approximately 350. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. family Oleaceae). Alberquina.net/ . and Manzanilla de Jaén. Australia.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms).

The California Olive Oil Council. Galega.800. with 23 member states. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil.net/ . in Croatia. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). a private trade group.000 US gallons (131. called pomace. After extraction the remnant solid substance. of which 34.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. still contains a small quantity of oil. by its chemistry. Spain. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. Mission. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. Spain. Spain.000 US gallons (181. Oblica and Leccino.crazychefs. and Turkey.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. IOOC terminology is precise. In North America. often in "prestige" packaging. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and by its flavor.com http://www. in Portugal. with production increasing to meet demand. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced.000 m3) came from Italy.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. The US imported 47. The USDA uses a different system. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. and monitoring authenticity.California. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production.600. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. defining quality standards.

This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation.net/ . then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. product as superior olive oil. and by heat. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.com http://www. of free oleic acid it contains. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. is extremely lax and corrupt.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. it is believed. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). EU officials took issue with the new law. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. both in Italy and abroad. and for genuine Italian producers to compete.[12] In some cases.[14] In March 2008.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. however. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. defined as the percent.[15] Under EU rules. particularly in Italy.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. but there are no guarantees. mostly hexane. for blended oils. 25. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section).[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. Almost 700 people died. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil.[16] In April 2008.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print.crazychefs. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids).000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. but safe. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. measured by weight. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil.[14] In February 2008.

S. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. In order to classify it by taste. and is judged to have a good taste. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. It has a free acidity. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level.net/ . Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. another cause of rancidity.the oil degrades. expressed as oleic acid. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. and are based on acidity.3 grams per 100 grams (0. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. of no more than 1. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure.crazychefs. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. Pure olive oil.8% acidity. but may not be described simply as olive oil. and is judged to have a superior taste. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade.com http://www. of not more than 0. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These grades were established in 1948. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. This is also called its organoleptic quality. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil.5% acidity. The U. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. It is fit for consumption. absence of defects. Used on salads. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. has an acidity less than 2%. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. contains no more than 0. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. The US is not a member.

(34 kJ/ml). "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. U. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.4% and is "free from defects". First of all. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. U. Grade C or U. "cold" does not define any precise temperature. Grade B or U. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.S. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means.U.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2.S.crazychefs. U.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. which may be as low as 10-15 °C.S. with less flavour.0% and is "fairly free from defects".S.S.com http://www. Grade C". Grade A or U.S. Grade D or U.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel.S. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. This is incorrect.S.S.5% and is "reasonably free from defects". Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.net/ .

56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label.7 11.35 23. so the term "first press" is meaningless. Tunisia. around 14 l. Northern Europe and North America consume far less. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. Portugal and Lebanon.1 0.pressed". around 8 l. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country.1 1.7 l.net/ .62 12. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. over 26 liters per year.crazychefs. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. Spain and Italy. around 0.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide.8 7.2 7 1.com http://www.

A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. 3. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. which is much faster and more accurate.com http://www. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. After grinding. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. no or very little organoleptic defects). The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. 2. 1. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. If ground with mill stones. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). then placed into the press. After grinding.34 1. suggesting a different taste. not in the oil mills. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. This is done in specialised chemical plants. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). and overripe olives produce rancid oil. which are stacked on top of each other in a column.net/ . The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. 4. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes.crazychefs. Green olives produce bitter oil.

The composition varies by cultivar. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. altitude. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . To achieve this possible benefit. In the United States.5 g .saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .monounsaturated 73 g . producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.omega-6 fat 3. most notably oleic acid.crazychefs. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.net/ . including oleocanthal and oleuropein.polyunsaturated 11 g . and extraction process.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. region.2% phytosterol and tocosterols).7%) and sterols (about 0.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.com http://www.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. time of harvest.omega-3 fat <1.

explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. For example.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. at least in part. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. This way. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. During the second phase. 2004.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation.crazychefs. It is theorized that. rather than its fatty acid profile. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols.This decision was announced November 1. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants.net/ . This could. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. and oleuropein. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). antithrombotic. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. The study was conducted in two stages. in the long term. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles.com http://www. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. During the first stage. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure.

For example.[citation needed]. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. cookware. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine.com http://www. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. oils deteriorate and become stale. etc. A very fresh oil. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. In time. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F).crazychefs. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. not for foods to be eaten cold. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. like salads. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. Also. Used cold. Also.net/ . as available in an oil producing region. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. blenders. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold.

[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer.net/ . who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan.com http://www. acting as a stool softener.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. It does have demulcent properties. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). It is also good for the management of pain. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils.crazychefs. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. and mild laxative properties. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies.

from O. olive oil. drawn and engraved by J. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. and skin care application. Homer called it "liquid gold..Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as a fuel in oil lamps.N.net/ .Turkey The Manufacture of Oil.crazychefs. medicines. and O. olio). Besides food. It. olive oil" (cf. 1175. olie. soap-making. from Gk. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. Mod. oleum "oil." In ancient Greece. oile (12c. huile).[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior".Fr. from L.Fr. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. from Anglo-Fr.com http://www. magical.Fr. elaion "olive tree".

[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.crazychefs.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times).000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. In the centuries that followed. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.com http://www.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olive presses became common.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. Bodrum.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.net/ . It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete.

to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. the fertile crescent. oil containers are preferred. stored in special containers. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and.over 4. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. According to the historian Pliny. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. Sinuhe. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron).[dubious – discuss] During this time. drained the water from the bottom..crazychefs.net/ .[46] Until 1500 BC. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. he maintained. Lebanon. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. together with naked appearance of athletes. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. wrote of abundant olive trees. when the oil had risen to the top.com http://www. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. where it is thought to have represented wealth. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. "the best in the Mediterranean". then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff).000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. allowing more time for more oil to be made.000 and 3.[citation needed]. and area consisting of present day Palestine. According to legend. and Israel.000 tons of olive oil per season. during the 13th century BC. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD.

PDF. Retrieved 2007-05-25. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. 4. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. Retrieved 2007-05-25. p. 3. http://www. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. Steven Sibbett. http://www. its oil almost glows. and. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. neither Eastern nor Western. ^ USDA. Margaret Lindstrand (2005). home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. 158.html. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work.com http://www.gourmetretailer. References 1.org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo. and the Mount of Sinai.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047". Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath.internationaloliveoil. in the consecration of altars and churches.usda.gov/nass/pubs/agr05/05_ch3. Retrieved 2008-07-04. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. ^ International Olive Oil Council. ^ "findarticles." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases.crazychefs. even without fire touching it. 2. Olive Production Manual. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. ^ USDA. light upon light. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047. "Agricultural Statistics 2005".jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. 5. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. http://www. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. http://findarticles. Joann L Coviello.imitate the original Menorah. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. originating from King David. In Islam. "The Olive Tree. ANR Publications.com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display. and this secure city. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. To douse the flame. ^ G. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth.net/ . Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. the tourch is in a glass bulb. traditionally. Louise Ferguson. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive.

http://aje. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . http://www.htm". 25. ^ New York Times. doi:10.com News". http://news. ^ a b McGee. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".usda.01. 2004.1079/NRR200495 24. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 15.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. Retrieved 2008-11-16. Karvonen MJ. 21.html.internationaloliveoil.). Menotti A. 7. http://www. 10.org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E.phrs. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28.co. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.eubusiness. Giammanco.4005000.1016/j. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". 13. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar". November 2.uk/news/main. http://www. Tripoli. 23.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini.xml. G. http://www. Pharmacol. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-08-13.com".internationaloliveoil. Am.scotsman. ^ Riding. 20.com http://www. ^ "www.eubusiness. 19.com/gst/fullpage.23/. http://www. et al.ams. Tom.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. 14.gov/AMSv1.com". 17. Dennis. John. ^ Mueller.46. ^ "EUbusiness. and Maurizio La Guardia. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . ^ "Eubusiness.2007. Retrieved 2008-11-16. D.co. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05.htm. 12.oxfordjournals.Telegraph". (December 1986). Alan (1989-05-21).southafrica. US Customs Department.com/world/Forty-arrested-in-new-39fake39.com/news-eu/1204304521. J.Scotsman.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260.010. PMID 3776973. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. ^ "www.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institutionini. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Giammanco.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. 11. ^ Durant.6.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. ^ a b "Telegraph article".org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3776973. Slippery Business The New Yorker.htm. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. 16. 18. Raymond & Co.telegraph. ^ Keys A. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9.html". 124 (6): 903–15. http://www.jp.23/. PMID 17321749. Di Majo. The New York Times (H.uk/news/main. Res. http://oliveoilonly. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". 55 (3): 175–86. http://www.telegraph. 19 CFR 134.xml.com/news-eu/1204304521.nytimes. J. http://query. M. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. S.crazychefs.net/ .southafrica. Epidemiol. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. Tabacchi.

1021/jf0630217. PMID 17263460.tchain. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. No. 1S45-50. PMID 17110467. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. 44. Marotta T. Carcinogenesis. et al. "[10 INSERT TITLE]".org 31. Use Olive Oil. Suppl. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans".xml. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. 19 November 2007 30." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. 29. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori".uk/portal/main. 55 (3): 680–6. Olives 41. Raimondi AS. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics".06-6328com. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42.1024/0300-9831. Gruendel S. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. Masato Ueda. ssp. A : Wu.co. T. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). M : Osawa. ^ a b Davidson. 19. N U : Budiyanto. "New Year's Resolution No. Nov.html". Toshinori Bito. Osamu Nikaido. PMID 10737284..ama-assn.html. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. Brenes M.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". 39. Olea europaea L. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast.crazychefs. Faseb J. p. ^ http://www. ^ Ferrara LA. Ahmed. ^ Machowetz A. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. ^ Rosenblum. 21 (1): 45–52.1.net/ . s. ^ Romero C.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2.com http://www. Etienne N.. 38. ^ Turner R. A : Bito. d'Episcopo L. et al. 35. Masamitsu Ichihashi.v. http://www. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). says the 6th millennium in Jericho. ^ Mayo Clinic 32.telegraph.1096/fj. Vargas J. pp. (January 2005).jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. 21." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006.com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36. Israel". (27 March 2000).28. 1: Prevent Cancer. doi:10. 2000. 2000. 34. 19. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. André Bervillé. Vol. Guida L. Vol. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. 10. p.tchain. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. ". ^ Mayo Clinic. ^ "www.". Catherine Breton. Dello Russo A. "olive" and "oil" 40." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. De Castro A (February 2007). Toshihiko Osawa. 37. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. J Agric Food Chem. 2085-2090. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". ^ "Quite Interesting . 11. Medina E. Alonso MG. ^ [2] Ichihashi. doi:10.Telegraph". Pagnol. ^ Pagnol. An Wu. http://www. 43. 45.videojug. ^ Ehud Galili et al. p.v.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". Mar. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Nazim U.61. (January 2007). ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. doi:10. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 23. PMID 15830923. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". JDermatol-Sci. but cites no source. T : Ueda. Poulsen HE.75. M : Ahmed. s.

"Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. ^ Nigel M. 47. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. B.com http://www. ed. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48.R. ^ F. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. Kennell.). ^ "www. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. Scanlon. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece".il/ad/egypt/texts/sinuhe.htm. C.crazychefs.46. 2001.youngmuslims. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil".reshafim. http://www. Processing methods. Verstraete and V. Harrington Park Press. ^ Thomas F.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95.htm". 2005 49.youngmuslims.net/ .htm.org.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Riley. Provencal. pp119–33 50.

a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). ən] / [ˈsæf. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. each the distal end of a carpel. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. sativus flower bears three stigmas. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. crocin.com http://www. Saffron has further medicinal applications.crazychefs. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent.or hay-like fragrance. A C.net/ .[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia.Saffron Saffron crocus C. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. Saffron. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. and replanted. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. in Central Asia. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. Being sterile.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. purple buds appear. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild.[11] Upon flowering.crazychefs. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). It is a sterile triploid form.com http://www. must be dug up. In autumn." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0.2 in) in length. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. which means "yellow. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. broken apart.98–1.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers.net/ . A corm survives for one season. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. Only in October.5 centimetres (1. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. as was once generally believed. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds.

Greek.com http://www. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested).Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0.net/ . flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. where annual rainfall averages 1. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). low-density.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms.9 in) deep.. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. leaf rusts.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral.e. maximizing sun exposure. Planting depth and corm spacing. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands.crazychefs. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. Nematodes.000–1. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Moroccan. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. rats. well-watered. where hot.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir.8–5. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. they fare poorly in shady conditions.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. in concert with climate. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content.500 mm (39–59 in). whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production.[16] Furthermore. and birds. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. loose. and corm rot pose other threats.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. are critical factors affecting yields. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier.

crazychefs.0. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).net/ . One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.[19] many of which are carotenoids. a product results that is itself water-soluble. It also has many nonvolatile active components.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.and β-carotenes.8-diapo-8. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin. and thus oil-soluble. However. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. lycopene. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. and various α.[19] Meanwhile.2 oz of dried saffron). including zeaxanthin.11 gr) of dried saffron.com http://www.8-carotenoic acid).[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds.

0 3.0 10.5 10.0–7.0 6.0 11.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.5 40.0 9.0 6.0 6.0–14.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.0 2.0–13.0 12.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0–1.crazychefs.0 6.0 1.0 8.0 1.net/ .0 4.0 1.0–8.0–15.0 0.0 12.

The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal.4. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties.Fiber (crude) 5. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.net/ .trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2.6-trimethyl-2.[18] Safranal. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. combined with enzymatic action.6. When saffron is dried after its harvest.com http://www.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.crazychefs. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. incidentally. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. Significantly. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. the heat. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.6. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. Santorini.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.0 Source: Goyns 1999. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. a volatile oil.5-cyclohexadien-1-one.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal.3-diene-1. dried hay like". p.6.

cough. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt.crazychefs. mascaras.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. C. physicians in Gaza. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.com http://www. ointments. In late Hellenistic Egypt.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC.000 years. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. divine offerings. cartwrightianus.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus.[33] potpourris.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. There. colic. and in the mithridatium. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. and medical treatments. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. Since then.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. townspeople in Rhodes.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes.[28][29] Later. sativus.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron.net/ . Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. and scabies. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. Thus. a sterile mutant form of C.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.

and body washes. or jackfruit. rice.Asia The 17. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. dating to 978–993 AD. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". saffron threads were woven into textiles.com http://www. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece.[46][47][48] Meanwhile.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC.[51] However. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. perfumes.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. For example. a less expensive dye.[44] During his Asian campaigns.[42] ritually offered to divinities. medicines.[43] Thus. and used in dyes. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. Isfahan. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. Wan Zhen. a Chinese medical expert. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena.[53] On the other hand.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.[39][40] Later.[44] From there.crazychefs. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. At such sites.net/ .[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict.

Italy.[58] Soon after. did significant cultivation endure. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. which grew prosperous. under which saffron adulterators were fined. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. especially Norfolk and Suffolk.saffron is in Kashmir. The Essex town of Saffron Walden.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. and Italy. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. imprisoned. named for its new specialty crop.net/ . where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. tea. However." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. indeed.com http://www. coffee. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. and then the saffron is obtained. and executed. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain.[59][60] Only in southern France. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center.crazychefs. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. and Spain.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. It can be used to aromatise wine. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". France. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. In Europe.[62] By 1730.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour.

[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. Medicinally. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. Arab.net/ . and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Indian. European. Turkish. and Cornish cuisines. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). immunomodulating. Pennsylvania.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.com http://www.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. and in perfumery. and chicken or trout dishes. Central Asian.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. and antioxidantlike properties. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. noodles.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). particularly in China and India.

500 per kilogram. In Western countries.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.200/£1. Azerbaijan.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 flowers. in decreasing order of production. are the major producers of saffron.100–11.000 per pound (US$1.000 flowers.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150.100/€1. France. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. and other countries.500/€7.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). Greece. flavour. India.000 threads.[2] A pound comprises between 70. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. and aroma. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. For example. are generally mellower in colour. and Italy. slight moistness.550 per kilogram). Spain. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand.com http://www. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. Switzerland.[5] Iran. Aside from these. elasticity. Annually. Spain's varieties.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. England. the United States. Morocco.crazychefs.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.000–75. they are graded by government-imposed standards.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2.net/ . Vivid crimson colouring.000 and 200. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. the average retail price is $1. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad.000-170.

Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. blights. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. it also has very high crocin. near L'Aquila. picrocrocin.com http://www. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. There. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). among the world's darkest. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. is in San Gavino Monreale. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma).S.some organically grown. In the U. and safranal content.net/ . and colourative effect. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. combined with an Indian export ban.crazychefs. aroma. Sardinia.79 in).. shape. contribute to its high prices. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. picrocrocin (taste). Repeated droughts. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. for quality and quantity. unusually pungent aroma. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. and safranal (fragrance) content. and crop failures in Kashmir.

red-dyed silk fibers. with turmeric. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. in India. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. However. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades.net/ . many growers. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. pomegranate fibers. paprika. pliability. and I (finest quality).[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. traders.[77] However.[80] Thus. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0).crazychefs. and thus a greater colourative intensity. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. and other powders used as diluting fillers. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. II.national standards bodies. aroma. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. III.com http://www. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest).

5. 24. ^ DPIWE 2005. ^ M. p. p. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 6.org. ^ Kumar V (2006). 19. 12. 9. p. p. 4. 2. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ Willard 2001. pp. 2. 287.crazychefs. ^ Dharmananda 2005. Kansai. http://books. 1. pp. 4.com http://www. 3. p. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. 15. ^ Willard 2001. 1. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. 21. 7. www. p. 22. ^ Willard 2001. in mice.cababstractsplus. ^ Rau 1969. crocin and safranal. 17. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. p. 3. 23.org/google/abstract. 423. 3. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 18. 14. 53.Saffron reproductive biology 11. Retrieved 2007-12-01. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. ^ Grigg 1974. ^ Willard 2001. 272. 103. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. p.cababstractsplus. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. ^ McGee 2004. 4. 422. 8. pp.google. Honshū. p. p.net/ . ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). ^ Harper 2001. stigma extracts and their constituents. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. 16. Sterling. Grilli Caiola . p. ^ a b McGee 2004. 13. p. ^ Deo 2003. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 1.com/books?id=AaTpWEIlgNwC. http://www.asp?AcNo=20043148643. ^ a b Deo 2003. ^ a b Deo 2003.". 3. 20. p. ^ a b c Hill 2004. 3–4. 2–3.

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Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10. McGee. Willard.google. "Grading and Classification". Scribner.cfm?chemic al_id=140>.McGann.gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b. "Saffron". Beacon Press. 2006. Retrieved on January 10.pl. P (2001). <http://www. New Scientist.html>. K (2003). "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. SC.net/ .reconstructinghistory. 2006. <http://www. Retrieved on January 10. 2006.htm>. Retrieved on January 10.com/classification.tarvandsaffron.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>.".htm>. Nair. Reconstructing History.newscientist. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). 2006. SR (1969). Retrieved on January 10. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.usda.com/irish/saffron.000. 2006. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). Retrieved on January 10. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). PMID 2025883 Park. Time Life Education. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. Tarvand (2005b). Tarvand Saffron Company. 2006.barc. Rau. JB (2005). "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". ISBN 0-684-80001-2. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Pearce.com/channel/earth/mg18524831. 2006[dead link]. <http://www. H (2004). <http://books. <http://www. F (2005). Cancer Letters 57 (2). <http://www.com http://www.com/saffron. The Cooking of India.crazychefs. "What is Saffron?".com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>.tarvandsaffron. Tarvand Saffron Company.html>.google. <http://books. USDA Phytochemical Database.

europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .crazychefs. Dead Sea.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.com http://www.

The small white flowers. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis.net/ . The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. the olive suckers readily from the stump. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. olives. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. In Homer's Odyssey. Theophrastus.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae.(XVII.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. ca 170 AD. by a spring. are borne generally on the last year's wood. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. referring to their wooden material. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. from Lebanon.crazychefs. endives. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years."[7] indeed. called xoana. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Its fruit. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD.com http://www.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil.[9]. and smooth mallows provide sustenance."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. Asia and parts of Africa. two stamens and bifid stigma.5 cm long. Though. the olive. It is short and squat.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens.[1] and in the Iliad. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. they were reverently preserved for centuries.

indeed. the olive has been the symbol of peace. power and pureness.[12] After the 16th century. As emblems of benediction and purification. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. The olive tree itself. and its cultivation began in Mexico. wild-type olives. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. fertility. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. kotinos. and then in the 18th century in California. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. Theophrastus. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees.16. Chile and Argentina. Peru.The leafy branches of the olive tree . they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. For example. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. Today.crazychefs. glory. spread far and wide by birds.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. the pits give rise to thorny. olives were grown commercially in Crete.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. Over the years. in both the New and Old Testaments.com http://www.net/ . As far back as 3000 BC. The Book of Jacob 5.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. but he makes clear (in 1. wisdom. and one of the most significant. for which the Greeks had a separate name. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. glory and peace . It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. in On the Nature of Plants. play an important role in the Bible. as well as olive oil and olives. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit.

It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year).000 years old. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old.net/ . has been calculated to be about 1. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. drought-. disease. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically.and fire-resistant. which is made into top quality olive oil. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. Montenegro.crazychefs. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. claimed to be over 2. and can live for very long. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. named "Plato's Olive Tree". Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. Istria in Croatia.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. One olive tree in Bar. The older an olive tree is. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old.600 years old.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. The age of an olive tree in Crete. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14].

fine wood. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. Italy. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. All seven trees continue to produce olives. In the same natural garden.400 years ago. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC.com http://www. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. Modern experience does not always confirm this.2. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv.6 km) as the limit. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. According to a recent scientific survey.crazychefs. a few other millenary trees can be admired. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region.net/ . it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the olive fruit. see Olive (fruit). and. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. olive leaf. 1600-2000 years old. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. though showing a preference for the coast. A supposedly even older tree. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. called the "Peisistratos Tree". Specifically.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. both in Galilee region. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel.

Australia. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. Chile.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. laperrinei (Algeria. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa.net/ . Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. Sudan. such as South Africa. northwest Africa) where winters are mild.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. Olive plantation in Andalucia. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. Niger.com http://www.crazychefs. Argentina. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. Israel. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results).[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. the Mediterranean Basin. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp.

crazychefs.com http://www.net/ .Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

com http://www.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.net/ .crazychefs. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

quick growth and larger or more consistent crops.crazychefs.com http://www. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. grown around the world.Cailletier cultivar. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. It is used mostly for oils. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. stuffed (with pickled pimento. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. 'Manzanilla'. anchovies. In recent times. which consists of 1.net/ . they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. originating in Dos Hermanas. in southern Spain. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. A prolific bearer.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. with purple-green skin. rounded-oval fruit.200. 'Bosana'. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. a large. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. but only a few are grown to a large extent. The olive grove of Amfissa. Seville. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. Rich taste and thick pulp. often after being pitted.

a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. 'Cornicabra'. good for eating and for oil. originating in the south of France. and elongated. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. Spain. named after the city of Kalamata. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. 'Nabali'. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. 'Picual'. good for eating and for oil. used as a table olive. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. This small olive. originating in Toledo. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. originating from the southern Peloponese. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. disease-resistant. though difficult to cultivate.net/ . comprises about 12% of Spain's production.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'.[21] 'Koroneiki'. and coastal climate conditions. The olive is medium sized. round. 'Kalamata'. a large. 'Souri'. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. The flavour is mild and nutty. Spain. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. It is mainly used for oil. originating in the south of France (Aude département). which.[23] 'Barnea'. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. They grow in any light soil. They are green. 'Empeltre'. even on clay if well drained. brown olive grown in Catalonia. 'Arbequina'. It is green. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. and elongated. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. a small. Spain. Due to their highly valued flavour.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. medium size. Greece. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California.crazychefs. They are black and generally used for table consumption. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. 'Hojiblanca'. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. Their flavour is mild and nutty. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. large. It is used both for oil and for table olives. Moreover. another modern Israeli. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). these cultivars are now grown in other countries. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. originating in the province of Córdoba. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil.com http://www. It has a strong but sweet flavour.

up to several centuries. In Italy. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. it is valued by woodworkers. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. They tolerate drought well. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. P. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. This method is used for olives used for oil. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. the oliviera.net/ . as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. Olives grow very slowly. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. In some places in Italy and Greece.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. which form small swellings on the stems. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. that has large tongs that spin around quickly.) Olives like hot weather. 114). A. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Greece. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. and with the season and the cultivar. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. However. removing fruit from the tree. to facilitate germination. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. embryonic buds. and can remain productive for as long. but the time varies in each country. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint.com http://www. Another method uses an electric tool. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. Olives are propagated in various ways.crazychefs. In southern Europe. being very hard and close-grained. More specifically.poorer soil. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. the trees are regularly pruned. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. Occasionally. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. as in Languedoc and Provence. soon vegetate.

large fruit (e.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. American black ("California") olives are not fermented.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable.2 kg of oil per tree per year. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. After some weeks. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy.g. which is a natural preservative. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration.crazychefs. through to full purple black ripeness. the creation of lactic acid. which is healthy for future production. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. The method also involves sawing off branches. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. Olives can be used green.5-2. or green with hints of colour). which leads to a superior finished product. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. a bitter carbohydrate.com http://www.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines.. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. then drained.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive.net/ . The olives are soaked in water to wash. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. which can be eaten fresh. which is why they taste milder than green olives. Fresh are often sold at markets. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. Typical yields are 1. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. As a result. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. the fruit is not bruised. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar.

or removing the pit and stuffing them. causing great damage to plantations.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. wine. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. feta. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. Pests. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. Popular flavourings are herbs.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. an unnatural method. of which the water is changed daily. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. Sometimes. oleae[27]. olive oil.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. especially to young trees.net/ . garlic cloves. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. Cycloconium oleaginum. olives suffer occasionally from frost. diseases.crazychefs. juniper berries and anchovies. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. vinegar. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. salt-curing.6 to 8. capsicum (pimento). Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. chili. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. but can be left to cure for up to three months. and weather A fungus. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. In France and north-central Italy. their main predators are wasps. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. The ten largest producing countries. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. induces tumour growth in the shoots. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. A species of bacterium. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive.com http://www. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. lemon zest.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. spices. leaving sawtooth damage. lemon juice. Lye-curing. brine-curing and fresh watercuring.

and to cultivate olive-trees.140.317.089 6.14.685 765. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.. 1.300." (Herodotus. 4. 82.000 280. 4.5 6. 2. 5. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.6 31.100 3.339 300.net/ .3 20.000 1. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees.7 27.160.1)..0 3." (Diodorus Siculus.000 20.597. 81. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.149. 1 ). 7.5 63.. 5.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication. An introduction.000 998. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.064 2. ^ Pausanias.000 470. 1).000 275. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.000 430.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus. On the Causes of Plants.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.9 6. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.400.800. 3.8 16.[31] References 1. book 5". Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.3 8. 3. Bibliotheke.000 318. ^ Homer. p.1 25.500.988 500. 4.000 550. Odyssey. ^ Theophrastus.000 1.888 178.. Ancient Greek Agriculture.000 498.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced. 38. to make bee-hives. 1992.5.13.830 2. 27.crazychefs.000 8. ^ ".981 1.000 594.4 30. Description of Greece 1. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.com http://www. 6. most notably South Australia.000 49.000 250. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.

p. 1779. 27. Tabak & O. http://www. ^ O.cit. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. Madrid. Ellen. Rackham.crazychefs.com/content/dlb533pw9cbwc59e/.aspx?PageID=151. me cichorea levesque malvae. ^ Fotiadi. Riley (2002). R. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. ^ "Old Olive Tree". 1981. J. 24. 28. Apps3. Elena "Unusual Olives"." Horace. ^ Lewington. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. Processing methods. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. ^ Burr. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. 35. J. http://www. Int.springerlink. 4th edition. J. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 2001. 32:166–169. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. http://apps3. ^ http://www. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Bacteriol. ^ [1] 21. ^ Lumaret. ^ "FAO. Moody. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. 29. http://www.jsp. "Plants of the Bible" 1885.. ^ Riley. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. M. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.. 13.8. (September 2002). vol. Simhoni. Leshonenu (Hebrew).. Masuelli. 2004"..hr/Home. R. 1982. Kislew. Y. nov. John Hutton. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. Syst. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. Volume 18:27-35 20. 23. E. ^ Gooch. Retrieved 2007-08-31. & Ouazzani.31. nom. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19.zatoun.fao. M Bauza & R. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". 30. ^ a b M.org.htm. 105.A.279 18. Odes 1. D. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. Volume 15.. Zatoun. Australian Olives. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". Brijuni National Park.org/wiews/olive/intro. ^ Belaj et al.com/ 25. op. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. ca 30 BC 9. pp 110–113. Retrieved 2009-05-18. cited in F.pasoroblesolivefestival. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. The Making of the Cretan Landscape.15. rev. 1999. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp.brijuni. Retrieved 2007-08-31. ^ Muncipality Bar.fao. AGRISCIENTA. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares.W.com http://www. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. 1996. p. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. Epikouria Magazine. 69. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". EspasaCalpe S. Number 4). A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. J. N. & Parker. Epikouria Magazine. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. ^ Janse.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". 29 April.com/study. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. Juárez. 17. Spring/Summer 2006 26. Cavagnaro P. A. (1999) Ancient Trees.net/ . ^ Balfour. Available through Google Books 11.

The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction.com http://www.31.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. seldom produces flowers.net/ . each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. The leaves are lanceolate. Corresponding to its species name.R. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. with an entire margin. with slender branched stems. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. however. L.crazychefs." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. (French tarragon. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. glossy green. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. and south to northern Mexico.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. western North America. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter.

fish and egg dishes. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. by extension. sunny spot.net/ . Russia and Ukraine. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect.[1] It likes a hot. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. Georgia and.com http://www.[1] Russian tarragon (A. Spreading plant can be divided easily.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. Persian and Russian word for . and particularly suitable for chicken. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. which is the Armenian. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). dracunculoides L. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. A perennial. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. Fresh. it normally goes dormant in winter. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. due to the presence of estragole. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. but cannot be grown from seed. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. without excessive watering.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen.[1] However. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. It is normally purchased as a plant.crazychefs. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor.

pp. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. ^ Gatfield IL. Maggie (2002). tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation.net/ . 2. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S.Cis-Pellitorin. ^ Surburg. Wiley-VCH. Workman Publishing. 3. Foerstner J. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. References 1. The Bountiful Container.com http://www. Stuckey. Properties and Uses. Johannes Panten (2006). Rose Marie Nichols. Horst. ISBN 9783527607891. Ley JP. ^ a b c d McGee. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Krammer G.[3] In Slovenia. 233. Machinek A.crazychefs.

It is a member of the mint family. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Garden sage. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. Britain and Flanders. cheeses (Sage Derby). Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. sage has a slight peppery flavor. In French cuisine.net/ . and blue to purplish flowers. Broadleaf sage. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. In the Balkans and the Middle East. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. and some drinks. Dalmatian sage. Kitchen sage. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. grayish leaves. In the United States. Culinary sage. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. it is used when roasting mutton. In Western cooking. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). Purple sage. Common sage. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. with woody stems. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. Sage is also common in Italian cooking.Salvia officinalis (Sage.com http://www. Lamiaceae. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. though other species.crazychefs. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it.

ursonic acid. and estrogenic substances. The underside of a sage leaf .Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . antifungal. oleic acid. salvia.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. estrogenic. nicotinamide. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. hypoglycemic.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. antispasmodic. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. cornsolic acid.trichomes are visible. The Latin name for sage. ursolic acid.net/ . Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. niacin. and thujone. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. chlorogenic acid.crazychefs. borneol. cornsole. which contains cineole. means ―to heal".com http://www. fumaric acid. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. Sage leaf contains tannic acid.more trichomes are visible on this side. flavonoid glycosides.[1] In a double blind. and tonic. astringent. antibiotic. caffeic acid. flavones.

and for other uses. 'Extrakta'. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. and for low ground cover.[4] It was sometimes called S. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. a cultivar with large leaves. hemostatic. ^ a b c "Sage". yellow and green variegated leaves.com/nutri/page8453. doi:10. 'Alba'. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. 'Icterina'.com http://www.x. References 1. (2003). a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. OBeWise Nutriceutica. They are easily raised from summer cuttings.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. 'Lavandulaefolia'.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". Applied Health. 'Tricolor'.1365-2710. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. Noroozian M. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). 2. a small leaved cultivar. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. especially in sunny dry environments. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. a styptic. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. and tonic. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. a purple-leafed cultivar. a cultivar with white. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mohammadi M. emmenagogue. and more. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. 'Berggarten'. snakebites. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic.1046/j. a local anesthetic for the skin.php. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. and used as a diuretic. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans.crazychefs. Jamshidi AH.2003. Khani M. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. ^ Akhondzadeh S.net/ .00463. a white-flowered cultivar. Retrieved 2008-02-04. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. Pliny. PMID 12605619.appliedhealth. Ohadinia S. http://www. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. increasing women's fertility. Dioscorides.

crazychefs.com http://www. Sage: The Genus Salvia. Deni Bown (New York: DK. (2000).net/ . ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. pp. 10-11. ISBN 9789058230058. Spiridon E. CRC Press. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b Kintzios. p. 4.3.

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