COOKING INGREDIENTS

Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]

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Taxonomy
Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]

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Uses
Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

Safety
A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Cultivation
Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]

Gallery

Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.

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Thyme

Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

History
Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]

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while flavourful. Lebanese. Italian. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. It can be propagated by seed. It tolerates drought well. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. While summer-seasonal. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. assume that it means fresh. which is due to its content of thymol. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . and in those derived from them.a little less if it is ground.crazychefs. Leaves are often chopped. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. Spanish. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. storage life is rarely more than a week. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. Depending on how it is used in a dish.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. soups and stews. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. Dried.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Albanian. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). and of herbes de Provence. Greek.g. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. Persian. and Turkish cuisines. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. tomatoes and eggs. the whole sprig may be used (e. In some Levantine countries. or by the sprig. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. As a rule of thumb. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. Thyme.net/ . The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. fresh thyme is often available year-round. in a bouquet garni). In French cuisine. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. Libyan. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. cuttings. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. Syrian. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. Portuguese. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh.

All thyme species are nectar sources.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. but is grown as a ground cover.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. an antiseptic. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover.crazychefs.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. The dried equivalent is 1:3. it was used to medicate bandages. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[6] Thymol. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. It also has medicinal uses. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed].[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. etc.com http://www. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. Because it is antiseptic. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed].net/ . hybrid T.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. salve. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. tisane.[5] As with bay. pulegioides × T.

There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity.net/ . 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing.com http://www. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme.Variegated lemon thyme.

net/ . neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.crazychefs.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.

0 mg Iron 6.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.2 mg Magnesium 50. It is common in Middle Eastern.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.8 g 3.Sugars 0.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).0 mg Phosphorus 58. and American cooking. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.net/ .0 μg Calcium 138.Dietary fiber 3.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.9 g .0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit. although parsley has a milder flavor. often used as spice. B1) 0.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.com http://www.1 mg Folate (Vit. European. B2) 0.3 g 0.crazychefs.1 mg recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 mg 6. B3) 1.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.

One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. which helps accommodate the long taproot. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or flat leaf (P. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. Although little known in Britain and the United States. Green parsley is often used as a garnish.com http://www. reducing pest attraction.net/ . including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. not blooming until its second year. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. it attracts predatory insects. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. While parsley is biennial. tuberosum). Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. Like many other umbellifers. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. neapolitanum). it is not related to real turnips. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). For example. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. However.crazychefs. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. which then tend to protect plants nearby. used in soups and stews. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds.

and sauces. http://www. steaks. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). 2007.com http://www. and lemon zest.com". parsley is part of bouquet garni. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew.net/ . In Southern and Central Europe.plucodes.com/npc/parsley. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor.html.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. References 1. fried chicken. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. Jett.crazychefs. "That Devilish Parsley. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899.aspx?id=1075&s=4. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. e. Ossobuco alla milanese. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. Last retrieved April 26. "Parsley on plucodes.drugs.com/PLUdetails. with fish. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). a mixture of parsley. garlic. ^ a b c John W. In addition. leaf. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. 4. 2.g. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon).com". or 4900. Parsley as an oil. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. lamb or goose. http://www. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine.70% by mass. soups..[3] Parsley is high (1. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. root." West Virginia University Extension Service. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. [1]) in oxalic acid. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins.

Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .crazychefs.com http://www.

Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .com http://www. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.crazychefs.

it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes.com http://www. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. Oregano is an important culinary herb. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). Oregano growing in a field. It is a perennial herb. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. e. fried vegetables. capers. and grilled meat. produced in erect spikes. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. as well as cultivars. of the mint family. Together with basil. spicy flavor. growing to 20-80 cm tall. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and lovage leaves. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. and to add a nice. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. which is popular in southern Italy. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. 3-4 mm long. The flowers are purple.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food.net/ . O vulgare gracile. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. each with distinct flavours.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . native to Europe. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. Unlike most Italian herbs.g.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces.crazychefs. Greek. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia.

West Asia) have similar flavors. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. which.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. It varies in intensity. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. however. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. warm and slightly bitter taste.crazychefs. Balkan peninsula. together with paprika. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. In the Philippines. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. Asia Minor) and O. Oregano growing in a pot.[5][6] Additionally. In Turkish Cuisine. salt and pepper.net/ . it can be usually found on table. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries.com http://www. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. heracleoticum (Italy.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. especially for mutton and lambs meat. The influence of climate. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. It has an aromatic. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. differs significantly in taste. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. useful for relieving children's coughs. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". including Poliomintha longiflora. thymol. and caryophyllene. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. limonene.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. expectorant. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. A Cretan oregano (O. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. fungal infections. indigestion. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. emmenagogue. pinene. stimulant. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". this latter is used in at least one Old English work. Lippia berlandieri. influenza.crazychefs. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. oregano. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. Plectranthus amboinicus. Used topically. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content.[7] and painful menstruation. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States.html.[12] References 1. ^ Organic Gardening 2. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. Aqueous extracts. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. cholagogue. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram.com http://www.net/ . mild fevers.at/~katzer/engl/Orig_vul.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).[8] Hippocrates. but is usually stronger. ^ http://www. capsules. stomachic and mildly tonic. antispasmodic. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. also called Cuban oregano. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. enteric parasites. ocimene. useful for relieving children's coughs. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. Coleus aromaticus). Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena.uni-graz. this substitution would not work the other way round.Main constituents include carvacrol. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. In the Philippines. the father of medicine. carminative. especially in the United States. diaphoretic. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. stomach upsets.

6. draft revision for "organum". (2005). Steinar. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID 16218659.net/ .) and Origanum vulgare L. http://jn. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. March 2009. ^ Epikouria Magazine. http://www. 12.ac. Food Chem. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".". PMID 12730411. 24 November 2008.asp?item=1374&year=2008. ^ a b Faleiro. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". 7.1021/jf0510079.medicalnewstoday. Leonor. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. ^ Epikouria Magazine.com http://www. Retrieved 2008-11-26.nutrition.php. Medical News Today. 28. (Cav. http://info. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. 53 (21): 8162–8168.uwe. Draft revision for "oregano".uk/news/UWENews/article. draft revision for "origanum". Fall/Winter 2007 10. (01 May 2003).2008.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4.3. 133 (5): 1286–1290. J. Retrieved 200811-26.co.crazychefs. ^ ["http://www. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9.uk/wild-oregano-oil-carvacrol.dmannose. 11. et al. Fall/Spring 2007 5.com/articles/130620. June 2008. doi:10. J Nutr. ^ Dragland.org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286. Agric.10. et al. University of the West of England.

it seems. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. however. recorded in the 10th century. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).net/ . and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo.[2] In Greek mythology. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. Also.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. it was from the giant fennel. umbelliferous herb. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. It is a hardy. In Ancient Greek. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. meaning "hay". site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC.com http://www. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. Ferula communis. perennial. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. This came from the Old English fenol or finol.crazychefs.

5 m.crazychefs.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.01 mg 7.net/ . bulb.Dietary fiber 3. B3) 0. but thinner.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. and grows to heights of up to 2.047 mg Folate (Vit.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. about 0. they are finely dissected. B1) 0.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. It is erect.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . and grooved. with hollow stems.29 g 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. half as wide or less.com http://www.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike).232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0.20 g 1. B2) 0.5 mm wide. glaucous green.

Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. including northern Europe. for its edible. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. It propagates well by seed.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. In North American supermarkets.net/ . the United States. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. both raw and cooked. It is of cultivated origin.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable.com http://www. syn. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). which is also known by several other names. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. it is often mislabelled as "anise". by the late 19th century. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. and in other open sites in many regions. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. but is more aromatic and sweeter. "bronze-leaved" fennel. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. in pastures. both in its native range and elsewhere. vulgare var.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. though usually not as strong.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. F. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became.20 mg Manganese 0. notably the Italian name finocchio. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe.crazychefs.

green seeds are optimal. braised. which are very similar in taste and appearance. pastas. where bulbs and fronds are used. or eaten raw. For cooking.com http://www. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. anise-flavoured spice. badesoppu in Kannada. or cooked in risotto. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. brown or green in colour when fresh. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. in side dishes. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. salads. often tossed with chicory and avocado. fish. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. It may be blanched or marinated. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. though smaller. and risottos. mouri in Bengali. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. The bulb is a crisp. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery.Fennel. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. but also the most expensive. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. variyali in Gujarati. stewed. Many egg. sompu in Telugu.net/ . Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. grilled. both raw and cooked. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic.crazychefs. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. foliage.

[12] For adults.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole.net/ . Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. Fennel tea.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. used to ease flatulence in infants. This use.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or its polymers. act as phytoestrogens.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. although not supported by direct evidence. sometimes with some sweetener.crazychefs. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent.com http://www. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. as it is said to improve eyesight. also employed as a carminative. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder.

com http://www.net/ .Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. followed by India. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet.crazychefs.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. badian (star anise). There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. fennel and coriander. which promote growth of breast tissue. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas.[17] However. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.

Hindi. synonym C.crazychefs. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. In Farsi (Persian). the "real' cassia. In Telugu. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. Chakka meaning bark or wood. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . Ceylon. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. In Bengali. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia.[3] In Sri Lanka.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni.net/ .[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. it is called darchin (‫. and in Gujarati taj. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. it is called Dalchina Chakka.[5] In Malayalam.[2] In Marathi. native to Sri Lanka.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is called "Darchini" ( ).com http://www. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. it is known as "DalChini ( )". In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. in the original Sinhala.C. itself ultimately from Phoenician. In Urdu. which are often called cinnamon too. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. cinnamon is known as kurundu.

but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. aloe and cinnamon. and in Song of Solomon.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia.com http://www. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. in Proverbs. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC.crazychefs.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt.net/ .[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers.

Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. which are arranged in panicles. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796.8–49. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape.net/ . "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. and used them to construct their nests.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. 7–18 cm (2. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. in a letter of about 1292.1 inches) long.2 feet) tall. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. The flowers. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. p.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and coffee.com http://www.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa.75–7. They established a trading post in 1638.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. sugar. took control of the factories by 1640. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. although in the first century. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt." (Braudel 1984.crazychefs. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years.Ages. "The shores of the island are full of it". and have a distinct odor. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. tea. However. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. have a greenish color. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. a Dutch captain reported. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers.

Madagascar. and Vietnam. Vietnam.[15] According to the FAO. which is left to dry. followed by China. verum). Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. the West Indies. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. India. Java. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin.net/ .5 mm) inner bark is used.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Bangladesh. and Egypt. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. Sumatra. Zanzibar. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together.com http://www. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. eg. Only the thin (0.crazychefs. the outer woody portion is removed. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Brazil. According to the International Herald Tribune. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. Chips are trimmings of quills. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. The next year. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots.

less dense. using only the thin inner bark. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). or "Indonesian cinnamon".Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. zeylanicum).[16] Ceylon cinnamon. is generally a medium to light reddish brown. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi).net/ . and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. hard and woody in texture. has a finer. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu .crazychefs. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". "Vietnamese cinnamon". Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). However. and more crumbly texture. for example.com http://www. the related species. and is considered to be less strong than cassia. many websites. as all of the layers of bark are used.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. bread-based dishes. True cinnamon. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ‫. drinks. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. tea. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia.com http://www. but when cassia is present. a deep-blue tint is produced. when whole. The two barks. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. and liqueurs. It is of a golden-yellow color. used in a variety of thick soups.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. and then quickly distilling the whole. especially apples. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. such as apple pie. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. and sweets. In the Middle East.5% to 1% of its composition. hot cocoa. macerating it in seawater.crazychefs. and fruits. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. are easily distinguished.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. In the United States. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder.net/ . Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. rather than cassia. especially in Mexico.

In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity.[34] Notes 1. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. love. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. cassia. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. although it remains untested. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. Encyclopaedia Britannica. ^ a b "Cinnamon". beta-caryophyllene. linalool. few seem able to succeed. 2008.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. eugenol.com http://www.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh.crazychefs. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. The Cinnamon Challenge.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits).net/ . who failed. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. luck. and anethole.0. and Myanmar (Burma). according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. and money. Sri Lanka (Ceylon).[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. However. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. In Hoodoo. cinnamaldehyde. cinnamyl acetate.and a very hot aromatic taste.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.

An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. 9.1021/jf050709v. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. ^ http://www. tr.za/index. ^ http://news.com http://www. retrieved 200705-01 21. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.0. 437 7. Encyclopedia of Spices. Cai YZ. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. p. Breyne) extracts".com/spices/vietnamese-cassia-saigon-cinnamon-wholecracked-ground thespicehouse.1021/jf051513y.php?storyId=6672644.htm. http://lakdiva. ^ Yule. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. http://www. doi:10. 22. Agric. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. "Solid.CO%3B2-N 15. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". Agric.html. p. 8.co.org/tennent/v1_p5_c02. http://www.2.html. Food Chem.co.en. J. ^ http://www. Henry. Sun M. The History of Food.ihaystack.net/ .jstor.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/south_asia_sri_lanka0s_spice _of_life/html/1. p.org/sici?sici=00754358(1970)60%3C222%3ATSTOTR%3E2. http://www. PMID 16104824. 23. revised ed. ^ [1] 16. doi:10. retrieved 200807-15 6.com/eclectic/kings/cinnamomum. p. Emily.com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. PMID 16190627.iol.henriettesherbal. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour. retrieved 2008-07-15 11.com/Spices/cinnamon. Torres RP (December 1998). 437f.com 17. http://dsr. Col. ^ Harris. Sánchez C. ^ Mancini-Filho J. ^ "Cassia. ^ The Epicentre." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. ^ Knox.html#pg598. ^ Felter. 53 (20): 7749–59.ac. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.org/templates/story/story. Batlle R. Mancini DA.jp/toyobunko/III-2F-b-2/V-1/page/0487.nii. 2009.stm 3. Nerín C (August 2005). PMID 10077878. retrieved 2008-07-15 12.npr.html. ^ Shan B. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. Robert. Food Chem. ^ [2] 18. p. ^ Tennent.htm 20. Cinnamon. 10. Cozzolino FF.crazychefs.thespicehouse. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009.. 437). Cathay and the Way Thither. Cinnamomum.bbc.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14.437. http://www. J.org/docrep/007/ae017e/ae017e12.theepicentre. Anthea Bell. 4.fao. ^ http://links. Van-Koiij A.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_June/ai_3289703 13. Sir James Emerson.—Cinnamon. 53 (17): 6939–46. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". Harvey. ^ López P. Account of the Island of Ceylon. ^ http://findarticles. ^ http://www. Corke H (October 2005).

whfoods. doi:10. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde.1. ^ George Mateljan Foundation. doi:10. Medicinal Seasonings. Cinnamon. ^ Verspohl.my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH.nutrition.php?featured_food=80.1.diabetesjournals. Archer (1988). Eleventh Edition. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. Anderson RA (December 2003). Retrieved 2008-05-11.com/ingredient_index.com/news/health/803646/chillies_are_the_spice_of_life__pepper s_have_been/index. ^ Taher. http://www.. Retrieved 2008-05-11. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). ^ Khan A. doi:10.com. ^ [3]. (2005). a publication now in the public domain..1002/ptr.113.com http://www. Retrieved 2007-12-17. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". Retrieved 200805-11. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. Muhammad et al.2337/diacare. 30.3215.com/genpage. ^ Beck. http://eprints. Eugen J. Akram et al.com. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes". Leslie.sciencedaily. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro".com/releases/2004/07/040716081706.com/doi/abs/10. www. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. http://www. Khattak KN. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food.3. Research: Thalido. 27. 33. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". 29. 28. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography".. Ali Khan MM. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". ^ Yronwode. http://www. Agricultural Research magazine. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. Braudel.redorbit. Corn. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). http://www.futuremedicine.1016/00219673(88)90035-0.. 34. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. Retrieved 200808-05.htm. doi:10. July 2000.24. http://care. ground.net/ . Safdar M. et al.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/977.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68.12.lesliebeck. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID 14633804.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14633804. Fernand (1984).1643.113.26.crazychefs. retrieved 200705-01 25.html?source=r_health.2217/14750708. 26. Cat. http://www.3. Charles (1998). Kristof et al.. retrieved 200705-01 32. ^ Ranjbar.utm. Alan W. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. The Perspective of the World.2217/14750708.sciencedaily..pdf. http://jn.luckymojo. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www. New York: Kodansha International. ^ Vanschoonbeek.

pickled. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. used without qualifiers.M. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. one of the oldest vegetables.Department of Export Agriculture."[3] Uses Onions. They are known by the common name "onion" but. which it is not. They are now available in fresh. Fritsch & Matin from Iran.net/ .crazychefs. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. it usually refers to Allium cepa.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. frozen. canned. chopped. and Allium asarense R. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. and dehydrated forms.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. Onions can be used.com http://www. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. powdered. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber.

Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. In Bronze Age settlements.com http://www.net/ . athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. spicy. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. recent evidence has shown that dogs. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. and also to relieve headaches. However. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. In ancient Greece. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. an onion can be sharp. due to toxicity during digestion. coughs. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. snakebite and hair loss. transported and stored.[5] However. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". cats.[5] The onion is easily propagated. Depending on the variety. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated.chopped or sliced. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life.

monounsaturated 0.1 g 1.02 mg Vitamin K 0.crazychefs. 0 μg 9.34 g 0.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Dietary fiber 1.7 g Fat .042 g .116 mg Vitamin B6 0.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.1 g 89.4 mg Vitamin E 0.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.21 mg Magnesium 0.saturated 0.013 g .4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.24 g .net/ . Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.com http://www.Sugars 4.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .12 mg Folate (Vit. B1) 0. B2) 0. B3) 0.polyunsaturated 0.

Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). Peruvian Sweet. Texas 1015. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow.crazychefs. Mexico. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. In the United States. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. osteoporosis. and other diseases. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. anticholesterol.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. Imperial Valley Sweet. Texas 1015. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. Empire Sweet. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. followed by Western Yellow. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. Texas 1015. Imperial Valley Sweet.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. Empire Sweet. anticancer. Northern Red. Western White. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. Peruvian Sweet. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. onions are used to heal blisters and boils.com http://www.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. For all varieties of onions. Empire Sweet. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). Western White. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Peruvian Sweet. However. If you are allergic to onions. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. Imperial Valley Sweet. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. and Vidalia.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. pungent yellow (New York Bold). Shallots have the most phenols. In general. eleven times the amount found in Western White.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. Mexico.net/ .[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. Mexico. diabetes. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. and Vidalia.[10] In many parts of the world. Western Yellow. Northern Red.

As onions are sliced or eaten. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. differs among Allium species. where it binds to sensory neurons. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. allylpropyldisulfide.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.include reactions to onions. ginger. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. diarrhea. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. cells are broken. leeks.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. The volume of sulfenic acids released. limiting the amount of gas generated. and the irritation effect. creating a stinging sensation. garlic. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. and bananas. breathing difficulties.net/ . chives. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. 2008. allylmercaptan and allicin. Eye irritation can. Symptoms can include irritable bowel.crazychefs. On January 31.com http://www. all present in garlic. nausea. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). mouth and throat ulcerations. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. it can lead to an allergic reaction.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. therefore. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. garden lilies. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. shallots.

but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. the Welsh onion. which have been developed in more recent times. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. Finally. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year.net/ . Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Allium fistulosum.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. more commonly today. which can be planted directly in the ground. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types.crazychefs. from sets started from seed the previous year. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. "short-day" onions. which is said not to produce dry bulbs.

Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).149 Spain World Total 64.net/ . Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.220 Turkey 1. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.302 1. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.346 2.637 Japan Egypt 1. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat. Vale. Oregon (USA).758 Russia 1. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.750 South Korea 1.793 India 5.Produce bulblets in the flower head.crazychefs.764 Pakistan 1.500 China United States 3. each of which forms a bulb. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .com http://www. a hybrid of Allium cepas.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.com http://www.net/ .crazychefs.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. It remains in effect as of 2009. passed in 1958.The Onion Futures Act.

sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. commonly known as garlic.net/ . spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. 1793. Allium sativum.[1] A bulb of garlic. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. Medical Botany. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. Its close relatives include the onion. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. known as garlic. shallot. leek. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. It has a characteristic pungent. and chive. the most commonly used part of the plant. from William Woodville. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes.com http://www.

softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. Garlic is grown globally. are common weeds in fields. They can suffer from pink root. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. and Allium oleraceum. stems (scape). with Russia (1. for consumption (raw or cooked). with approximately 10. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". according to Zohary and Hopf. In North America.[5] The "wild garlic". Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. which grows wild in southwestern Asia.Yunnan province of China. There are different types or subspecies of garlic.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. "crow garlic". the so-called elephant garlic. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". The papery. respectively. The leaves. and for medicinal purposes.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. India (4. Allium vineale. Garlic plants can be grown close together. The cloves are used as seed.net/ . cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars.crazychefs.com http://www. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. In cold climates. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. accounting for over 77% of world output.

A = aggregate (may include official. including eastern Asia. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. semiofficial.000 128.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. or ginger. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form.Alaska) in fifth place (1. the Middle East. C = calculated figure. southern Europe. south Asia. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. and parts of South and Central America.686. Southeast Asia.000 645.000 221.000 142. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.000 254.com http://www. tomato. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. P = official figure. northern Africa. It is often paired with onion.810 168.crazychefs.088. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. or estimates). coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. California.4%).400 140. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods.000 325. F = FAO estimate.net/ .000 15.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.000 125.

Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. They are also known as "garlic spears". salt. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or vegetables.crazychefs. cleaned. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. In Japan and Korea. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. and then stir-fried with eggs. breads and pasta. oil. and spices. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. In eastern Europe. United Kingdom and Australia. and is now being sold in the United States. garlic toast. almond. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. Blending garlic. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. and roast them in an oven. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. meat. "stems". In some cuisine. or "tops". 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. the resulting product. bruschetta.com http://www. called black garlic. oil. and a chunky base produce skordalia. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. crostini and canapé. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. Immature scapes are tender and edible. meats. The leaves are cut. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. is sweet and syrupy. Garlic.net/ .

Storage

Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—theheart.org, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. persillade. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. insects. and release of AMS several hours more.[50] In Europe. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin.net/ . allylpropyldisulfide. allylmercaptan and allicin. all present in garlic.[51] To ward off vampires. The herb is. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. usually enjoy these sensations. shallots. Among the members of the onion family. garden lilies. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. Since digestion takes several hours. chives. such as pistou. hung in windows. shallots. garlic. garlic could be worn. and vampires. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. thus mellowing its spiciness. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic.com http://www. leeks. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. and worms from eating the plant. werewolves. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. including onions. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden.crazychefs. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". It is carried to the lungs and the skin. deterring animals like birds. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. However. Humans. however. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. However. therefore.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. or leeks. where it is excreted. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. When eaten in quantity. and bananas.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. making garlic much more potent than onions. included in many garlic recipes.[48] Due to its strong odor.in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. ginger. forming allyl methyl sulfide. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide.

com http://www.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. However.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. as well as other medications.In Daoism mythology.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. and menstrual irregularities. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. emesis. are largely unknown. at worst. antiparasitic value of garlic. saquinavir. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. indicated Muhammad. You can help by converting this article to prose.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. antihypertensives. antiplatelets. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. minimal risks to normal individuals. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation.net/ . Editing help is available. sweating. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". and diarrhea. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. bleeding.crazychefs. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. calcium channel blockers. indigestion. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. and hypoglycemic drugs.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. similar to the effect of aspirin. dizziness. allergic reactions. nausea.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. if any exist. if appropriate.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. Garlic can thin the blood.

(2004). third edition (Oxford: University Press. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting.com http://www. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. (2005). as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities.htm.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". 112 7.unigraz.nj.html 8.at/~katzer/engl/Alli_sat. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. ^ a b c d Tabor. 2000).There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. garlick)". ^ a b Lee. J. ^ McGee p. 2. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum.com/warrenreporter/index. http://www. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. et al.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container.net/ . including burns to children. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. Retrieved 5 June 2009. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. A bulb of garlic.org/Vol79/79_6/8.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. Notes 1. 4.com/alternative-therapies/herbs-for-health/medicinal-garlic/ 9. topical use of raw garlic. 3.net/10113/877. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. Domestication of plants in the Old World. ^ http://www.jhortscib. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. G.handle. In particular. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. is discouraged.natural-holistic-health. http://www. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. one the bulbs will grow peeled. et al.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. bigger. 397 6. Retrieved 2007-08-28. p. split. 197 5. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). ^ http://www. Ethiopia".ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came.html. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. Retrieved 5 June. http://hdl.

(2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci.jnutbio.lehoux/Tropes. Sylva. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". 167 (4): 346–53.1162/106361403773062678. 12.A. 2006. 5:109–115. 35. 31. 13. PMID 17918162.C. ^ Chan KC. doi:10..167. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". Biochem. ^ a b Steiner M. Arch. Yin MC. R.uk/staff/daryn. Garlic. ^ Borrelli F. 20. Squadrito GL. ^ Kojuri J.1002/mnfr.1001/archinte.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. A. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. Oztürk HS. "Tropes.4. 24. Ramacciato. 5. 18.200700058.ama-assn. Herald Publishing Co.325. et al (November 2007). Med. and Mary U. Intern.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. Lawson LD.01. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health .4. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology".com 54 | P a g e http://www. PMID 15157944. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". ^ Benavides GA. Facts. Paul B. P. A Modern Herbal. Chao WJ (March 2007). Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Charlson M. N.005. Capasso R. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Ferraresi. Daryn (2003). 22. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. doi:10. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. Aytaç B.)." Int.1016/j. 33. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". Med. McFerren M (February 2007).1186/1476-511X-6-5. http://archinte. J. 34. (p. Block E.167. U. 28. PMID 15277094. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. http://personalpages. Güven C (2002). Dent. 29. Acad. et al (February 2007). doi:10. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. PMID 2291748. 23. 15.346. 167 (4): 325–6.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans".org/cgi/content/extract/167/4/325. [2] ^ Hamel. (Mrs.S. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . Accessed: December 18. Mills RW. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. Nutr. Intern. 17. ^ Goodbye. 26. ^ Mader FH (October 1990). 21. PMID 9641475. doi:10.. doi:10. doi:10. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). 32. ^ Durak I.10. Izzo AA (November 2007). http://archinte.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M.2004.200700072. 25. PMID 17951430. PMID 15218732.ama-assn. ^ Gardner CD. Sci. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients".ac. doi:10. J. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345.pdf. F.1073/pnas. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".crazychefs.. Motta.. Lin RS (June 1998).1001/archinte. doi:10. Maud. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. PMID 17325296. PMID 17966136. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. 11. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. 19. et al (June 2004). "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L.org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346.1002/mnfr. 30. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. Natl.. 2005 ^ Groppo. ^ Durak I. Proc. Better Nutrition. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech).0705710104. 14.A 400 Year History. Sartoratto. PMID 17328819. Kavutcu M. Olcay E. PMID 17325291. Akrami M (March 2007). 15 (6): 373–7.manchester. and Empiricism" (PDF).net/ . Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. 27. Hyg. Arch. Sova P (May 2004). Vosoughi AR. 104 (46): 17977–82. July 1. 16. J. doi:10. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. PMID 17123684.

net/ ..January 29.jst. http://joi. Kominato Y. 2007.com http://www. Lau B. Microbiology (Reading.org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993).goldbamboo.Vol 9 No. 2007.uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. "Allixin. 049 ..htm 44. 65.2005. PMID 8441577. Fuwa T. Castro C. ^ Pickering.go.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65.economicexpert. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. Sanders N. 43. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF).JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.asm. H.1128/AAC.crazychefs. http://linkinghub. Yoshida S.473. PMID 11600262. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. ^ Health Canada . PMID 8644128. Matuura H.ukmi. Retrieved 2007-0707. ^ Garlic . "Effect of allixin.com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic.jst.jlc.. Thomson M. ^ a b c d Hogg. "Garlic burns". ^ a b McNally. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. Summer 2005 . Sagi A. (2001). 37. Chesson C. 64. Iwai K.sgmjournals. Ronen M (November 2001). 122.com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582. 40. Houghton Mifflin. 53. 120. ISBN 0-30436561-0. ^ John S.unito. ^ http://www. Steckelberg JM. doi:10. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (1989-01-30). David (2003). PMC: 538912. Long D. Imafuku M. 52.com/a/Garlic.. "Garlic burns". http://linkinghub.". Aon MA. p. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. Yoffe B.jp/JST.pdf. ^ Shuford JA. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".. PMID 15616341. 85 (3): 157–64. ^ Baruchin AM. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea.html 45.jp/JST. http://aac. 211 51.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50.blogspot. (1991-08-01). Nishimura S. 41. Engl. Nishino H. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. National Health Service.html 54. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 38. 49. garlic advisory 63.1. Jennifer (2002-12-13).. doi:10. Slattery M. 211. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. Book 65 57. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. NLM Gateway. Retrieved December 7. 310–311 47. ^ Oi Y. ^ McNally p. Sterling Publishing. Volume 7. Bordia T. 1988.com/topic-t6335-a1-6Allium_sativum. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. Complementary Medicines Summary.Garlic-in-Oil 61.".0. Agents Chemother. http://mic. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". Scolaro M. Sumida T.elsevier.it/didattica/infochimica/2006_aglio/pagine/agronomy.jlc. Lett. ^ Lemar KM. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9.. Ali M (June 1996). ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter.ch. PMID 11481410. ^ Macpherson et al. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. ^ http://lem. ^ http://washokufood. 66. Itakura Y. Passa O. ^ McGee p.) 62. a stress compound from garlic.elsevier.html 46. Antimicrob. W. ^ Kodera Y. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. Shishido C.go. Toxicol. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. p.com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390. 39. et al (October 2005).36. Patel R (January 2005). James. http://joi. UK Medicines Information.49. In Search of Dracula. on mutagenesis. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. PMID 16207909.. ^ Macpherson et al. Pickering p. Jordan W. Raymond T (1994). 4 .1099/mic. section "Conclusion" 48. Retrieved December 7. ISBN 0-395-65783-0.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". ^ http://www. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". ^ Fareed G. http://www.28095-0. Teel R. 42.nhs. 49 (1): 473. 58. ^ Bukhari.

にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Jiro Yoshida. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. Bull. PMID 9355906. Chem. Turner. E. McMahon FG (June 1993). a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. [4] Lawson. 405-407 (2002). Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Campbell JH (July 1997). (1985). Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. H. D. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Hile. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55.P. PMID 8506890. M. Block. A. Isao Sumioka. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. Jain AK. Vargas R. Balise. Makoto Ichikawa. Lawson. E. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". "The effect of the aged garlic extract. I. The chemistry of garlic and onions. Belz GG (October 1997). Garty BZ (March 1993). Campbell GR.. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. http://circ..com http://www. (2001). Vol. PMID 8441577. D. R. K. Yukihiro Kodera.. Hamilton.. M. Naoki Kashimoto. 50. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". A. Kraemer. Z. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Bull. Koch. Am.Garlic. and Related Species (Second Edition). Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Med. 129: 144–151. Naoto Uda.crazychefs. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. Boudoulas H. R.M. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3).org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9355906. Kozue Ogasawara. Kamenetsky. G. New York: Avery.. Chatterjee..com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6. http://linkinghub. Lloyd. Gardner. H. (1992). [3] Yukihiro Kodera. 3rd ed. Andy (2004).References Japanese garlic. Zhang. 50. Kiazand. Am. E. PMID 9247357. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. Garlic. 94 (6): 632–5. Retrieved 1 May 2005. L. E. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. Sci. J. D. Wang.net/ .. D. A. Balch. Masanori Ayabe.. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. 354-363 (2002).. Shafir. Zemah. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. J. and H. P. L. Block.elsevier. Soc. Breithaupt-Grögler K. (2000). Simmons DL. C. (1996). ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Rabinowitch (2004). Block... L.jp[青森県産]. Susumu Yoshida. Pharm. Lawson. D. Vol. L. Prescription for Nutritional Healing.. (2004). Williams & Wilkens. Efendy JL. A. P. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. H. Shan. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. 'Kyolic'. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. Ling M. Barzilay. C. Selfsufficientish . Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Chem. Z. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". "Garlic burns". Gotzkowsky S. Lemar... Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L.-Z. Pharm. L.. R. S. Hort. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J. Block. D.ahajournals.

31 (6): 904–8. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. 49 (1): 473. Pharmacol..K. Yeh.crazychefs. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. Bernhard H. Lin RS (June 1998). Agents Chemother. Steiner M. et al. Eid.. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient.2005. (1998).net/ . Samer R. D. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.49. Salunkhe. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". Kadam. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). PMID 8169881. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005).473. Leeks". Silagy C. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". http://meta.1128/AAC. Cardiovasc. PMID 9641475. Antimicrob. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Garlic. Geierstanger. et al. PMC: 538912. Mader FH (October 1990). Y-Y. PMID 15616341. Yeh. Shuford JA. Patel R (January 2005). PMID 2291748. Y-Y.wkhealth. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. J. doi:10. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets.1. Abstract. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. et al. pp.com http://www.Lindsey J. SunWook Hwang. "The Onion Family: Onions.. Steckelberg JM. Marcel Dekker. (1999). McGee.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904.asm. (eds). FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. 310–3. (1997).. S. Neil A (1994).12. H. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". Scribner. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.S. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". Michael Bandell. Harold (2004). http://aac. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".com/pt/pt-core/templatejournal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage. In: Ohigashi. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Macpherson. Veena Viswanath.

terminating in four spreading sepals.crazychefs. Zanzibar. syn. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. Pakistan. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. and Sri Lanka.com http://www. when they are ready for collecting. and consist of a long calyx.5-2 cm long. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. after which they develop into a bright red. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. it is called đinh hương. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. In Vietnam. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Madagascar. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world.net/ . Cloves are harvested when 1.

In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. especially for digestive problems. In Vietnamese cuisine. Cloves are used as a carminative. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle.000 tonnes). but as they are extremely strong.crazychefs. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. cloves are often used to season pho broth. often in combination with cumin. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. which sells Djarum Black.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. Cloves are used in cheeses. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. In south Indian cuisine. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies.com http://www. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. they are used sparingly. spleen and stomach meridians. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. it is used in almost all dishes. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. warm and aromatic. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. but with the addition of other spices). entering the kidney. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110.[1] In north Indian cuisine. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. along with other spices. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. During Christmas.

Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. including for multiple sclerosis.[7] Nevertheless. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. Ternate.crazychefs. and Zanzibar. In the late fifteenth century. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. along with nutmeg and pepper. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles.com http://www.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands.direct stomach qi downward. were highly prized in Roman times. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan).[6] History Until modern times. RH (AHG). they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands).[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. including Bacan. vomiting and diarrhea. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. It is also used in severe burns.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. Moti. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). a kg costing around 7 g of gold. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. Ayurvedic herbalist K. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. including cloves. mainly from the Maluku Islands. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. and Tidore.[5] In West Africa. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. most of the West Indies.net/ . Makian. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[7] Cloves. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. pimples etc. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. Khalsa.P. Subsequently. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. Brazil. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets.

htm. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. Erich Stoger. Andrew and Page.com/diseases/special-diets-for-illness. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. comprising 72-90%. kaempferol. stigmasterol and campesterol. methyl salicylate (painkiller). 94.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-clove. John Wiley and Sons Inc. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4.tibetmed.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. 5.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. pp. ^ Dorenburg. Erich Stoger.[8] Notes and references 1. xv. ^ Balch.net/ . Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. ©2003.nlm. ^ "TibetMed . Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7.nih. Karen. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". Steven Clavey. Special Diets for Illness 6. crategolic acid. and eugenitin.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". and Andrew Gamble. Alan. and several sesquiterpenes. 3. due to the high price of importing them.. tannins. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.html National Institutes of Health.com http://www. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. James. Steven Clavey. Avery Publishing. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. Jack (2004).org/questions/question_44. ^ a b Turner. 2. 8.squarespace. gallotannic acid.. Medicine Plus. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. ^ http://oneearthherbs. ^ http://www. Phyllis and Balch. 3rd ed. Spice: The History of a Temptation. Vintage Books. pg. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ©2000. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. rhamnetin. the flavonoids eugenin.html Tilotson.crazychefs. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. http://www. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. Prescription for Nutritional Healing.

Shallot
Shallot

Shallots

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Details
Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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Cardamom
Cardamom

True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

Varieties
There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]

Uses

Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.

Gallery

Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

Notes
1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer. Rediff.com, 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

Bibliography
1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum
Hook.f.

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Usages
Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Identification
Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357.1021/jf058156b.iso. Retrieved 10 November.chinaios.2004-0058. Vaishali C. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1.com http://www.88.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 .5555/jaoi.3. et al. while Lederer et al.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . Ines et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974.htm?csnumber =4844. (2005). ^ International Organization for Standardization.crazychefs.703. 6.Specification".) -. 18 May 2009 2. ^ International Organization for Standardization.1542/peds.com/BZ-shuju/standshow.atypon-link. (2006). NPR. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院.htm?csnumber=19183. http://www. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". 3.org/iso/catalogue_detail.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.iso. Retrieved 8 June 2009. 5. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". http://www.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al.Botanical nomenclature". Retrieved 8 June 2009. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. doi:10. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. ^ Louisa Lim. doi:10. f.com/AOAC/doi/abs/10. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". PMID 15492355. f. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706.2005. 4. ^ Lederer. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. Retrieved 8 June 2009. http://www. http://www. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. ^ Joshi.

Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C.net/ . native from the east Mediterranean to East India.crazychefs. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.com http://www.

cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. in Turkey. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway.net/ .com http://www. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. parsley and dill.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. locally called "Kermun". being oblong in shape. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. and yellow-brown in colour. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. longitudinally ridged. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). In Northern India and Nepal. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds.crazychefs. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. maduru. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". the white variety being suduru and the large variety. in Iran and Central Asia. including kamūnu in Akkadian. Kerman. cumin is known as kimyon. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. the story goes.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". In Arabic.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). cumin is known as zireh. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. a member of the parsley family. in northwestern China.

Egypt. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23).[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. Mexico. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. and this practice continues in Morocco. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today).net/ . 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Uzbekistan. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. In South Asia. Seeds. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. Morocco. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der.com http://www. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. India. In Sri Lanka. Turkey. have been dated to the second millennium BC.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. Tajikistan. when added to hot milk and consumed. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. and Chile. today it is mostly grown in Iran. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold.crazychefs. Syria.

2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. pinnate or bipinnate. Middle Eastern. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. and borne in umbels. and in some traditional breads from France. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. white or pink. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. tacos. popular in Indian.crazychefs. enchiladas. curries. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. adobos. North African. but are smaller and darker in colour. Cuban. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. and other Middle-Eastern. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Northern Mexican cuisines. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. It is traditionally added to chili. and bahaarat. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. garam masala.com http://www. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. sofrito. thread-like leaflets. Today. Pakistani. It is an herbaceous annual plant. Indian.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. either ground or as whole seeds. curry powder. Contrary to popular belief in the US. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. containing a single seed. The flowers are small. and is found in achiote blends.net/ . Sri Lankan.

Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.435 mg Folate (Vit. well-drained soil. 64 μg 44.saturated 1. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. However.7 mg Vitamin E 3.25 g .com http://www.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . Cultivation of cumin requires a long. it is drought-tolerant.Sugars 2.5 g Fat .327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit.crazychefs. B2) 0. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. It is grown from seed. sown in spring. and needs fertile.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.81 g 8. B3) 4.net/ .24 g 22. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F). It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.very common in Mexican cuisine.33 mg Vitamin K 5. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. hot summer of 3–4 months.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.27 g 17.Dietary fiber 10.

8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). to eat. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". Not related to curcumin.v. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. from the Swedish word "spisa".com http://www. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it.net/ . In Swedish. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two.a small cat). For example.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. In Polish the difference is even less significant. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. lighter in colour. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day.crazychefs.Zinc 4. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin".a cat and 'kotek' . as in 'kot' . Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. a chemical found in turmeric.).

Nicola S. (2005). ^ Growingtaste.gov. and Carum carvi L. ^ a b c Li.html 6. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 .com.arsgrin.1021/jf0487351.1002/ffj. ^ a b Wang. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.313. doi:10. Retrieved 2008-03-13.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry.com http://www. from China".05. 2000)." premiumwanadoo.1016/j. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). 2. 9. 3. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN".gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.com/html/fcumin.1302. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . Rong.com 7. doi:10. www. ^ "Kamūnu. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. 2000. p. ^ http://www. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61.aca. doi:10. et al.030. ^ a b Iacobellis.". "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. third edition (Oxford: University Press.ars-grin." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition).net/ .foodreference.crazychefs. 8. http://www. ^ "KMN.pl?12617.2009. Lu et al.77. 4. Essential Oils". (2009). 206 5. Domestication of plants in the Old World. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L.

Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.net/ .com http://www. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale.com http://www. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene.crazychefs. cineol. sedative. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. and galangal. In laboratory animals.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. shogaols and gingerols.net/ .Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. and citral) have also been identified. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). or spice. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. cardamom. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. medicine. West Africa and the Caribbean. antipyretic and antibacterial properties.

nuts. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. ginger ale. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. particularly gingerols and shogaols. stimulating the production of saliva. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar.crazychefs.net/ . For storage. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. Ginger is also made into candy. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. cookies. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. salt. crackers and cake. and ginger beer. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. and sugar. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. and tender green chili peppers.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. Alay in Marathi. in Tamil Nadu. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. Additionally.com http://www. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. Ginger has a sialagogue action. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. in Gujarati. ghee. Allam ( ) in Telugu. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. Inji in Tamil. In South India. which makes swallowing easier. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. enchi in Malayalam. to which honey is often added. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. especially in the Tanjore belt. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [edit] Regional use In India. or frozen for longer term storage. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. and Aduwa in Nepali.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. Adrak.

Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. parkin and ginger biscuits. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. On the island of Corfu. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. ginger is called gyin. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. gingerbread. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. during their occupation of the islands. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. In Japan. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. In Arabic.crazychefs. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. In Vietnam. In the Caribbean. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. is made. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. In Western cuisine. and a variety of nuts and seeds. In the Ivory Coast. a type of ginger beer. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. France. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea.com http://www. In China. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. Greece. and making drinks such as sorrel. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. In Burma. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. ginger snaps.net/ . a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). In the traditional Korean kimchi. However.

Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. cough and cold. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. though studies been inconsistent. which several scientific studies support. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11].crazychefs. though it does interact with some medications.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger.com http://www.net/ . including warfarin. morning sickness and chemotherapy. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile.

which is considered a panacea. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. belching and nausea. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. clotting. gas. and heart rhythms. in food etc.com http://www. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. In Indonesia. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. reducing "winds" in the blood. particularly if taken in powdered form. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. and individuals who have had ulcers. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. it is considered good for a sore throat. In Burma.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger.[14] In Congo. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. bloating. In the United States. In India. ginger can cause heartburn. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. and although it's generally recognized as safe. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage.crazychefs. In China. ginger is included in several traditional preparations.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. people use ginger for making tea.

in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. or washed and scraped.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. with over 30% of the global share. Nepal(~11.5%). applied generally to the older and poorer roots. washing and scraping gives white ginger.com http://www. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. the root is gathered when the stalk withers.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. now leads in global production of ginger. Production trends India. which has slipped to the second position (~20. Traditionally. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall.000 158.7%). but this generally reduces its value.000 F 177. replacing China. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. it is immediately scalded. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. produces black ginger. Scalding.5%) and Nigeria(~10%).crazychefs.net/ . followed by Indonesia(~12.

www.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan .pl?42254.387. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".gov.000 57. Also referred to as galangal. Asarum canadense.ars-grin.000 34.arsgrin.crazychefs. The plant also contains aristolochic acid.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. Retrieved 2008-03-03. A = Aggregate(may include official.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.net/ .000 28. the flower buds are the part eaten. but it is not related to true ginger. galangal. is also known as "wild ginger". http://www.000 8. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family.000 42. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. Galangal is also called Thai ginger. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). is used in cooking and medicine. a carcinogenic compound. semiofficial or estimates).270 1. F = FAO estimate.com http://www.contains ginger material References 1. and its root has similar aromatic properties.

On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. MPH (1998).). "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". 11. PMID 9821826. MD.7.2. Retrieved 2006-09-06.1021/jf071460f. Retrieved 2007-0808. (2007). ^ Al-Amin.com 7.html. http://www. 9. M. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. doi:10. PMID 10793599. MD. http://archfami. doi:10. New York: Scribner pp.foodchem. David Kiefer. Retrieved 5 November. Sheng-Chu Kuo. Jaw-Chyun.H. Kim Farrell.523. http://unitproj. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats".crazychefs. MD. http://bja.1016/j.net/ . & Pittler.. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). Retrieved 2007-08-06.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.oxfordjournals. 6.ucla. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-08-02. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".com/china_blog/2007/01/the_beverage_of_champions_1. ^ MD O' Hara. 425-426. 13. (2006). http://www. (01 Mar 2000). "Ginger". ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. doi:10.org/cgi/content/full/7/6/523. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats".com http://www. Retrieved 2007-08-02.edu/biomed/spice/index. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397.uspharmacist. Li-Jiau Huang.com 5.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). Ali Taghizadeh et al.01. Susan (2007-01-15). ^ Afshari.com 12. Tin-Yun Ho. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger".amaassn. http://timeblog.edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch. Retrieved 2007-08-02.cfm?displayID=15. Harold (2004).html. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. Antoine. doi:10. et al. Kathi Kemper. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. Zainab M. ^ Jakes. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). Mary. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). "Beverage of Champions". http://www.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716.mayoclinic.umm.library. 14. 8.com/oldformat.1001/archfami.2006. 3. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Shih-Lu Wu. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. 10.013. ^ Chen. E. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. & MSt.cambridge.org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367. ^ Al-Achi.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2.com/health/ginger/NS_patient-ginger. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. ^ Ernst. 15. http://journals.6. ^ McGee. 4.

For these reasons. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. slightly bitter. and to impart color to mustard condiments.crazychefs. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.net/ . Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine.com http://www.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. In medieval Europe. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. for dyeing. Erode. Zingiberaceae. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season.

cereals. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. Turmeric City. but also in masak lemak. yogurt. turmeric is also used fresh.Yellow City. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric).[citation needed] Sangli. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. dairy products. relishes. not only in curry. orange juice. or Textile City. popcorn color. custardlike yellow color.net/ . It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. ice cream.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. powdered form. cake icings. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. rendang. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. yellow cakes. and mustard. much like ginger. In non-South Asian recipes. and many more. biscuits.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. such as in pickles. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight.com http://www. Although usually used in its dried. etc. gelatins. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sweets. sauces.crazychefs. Over-coloring. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes.

Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. are spiced with turmeric. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. It is unknown why it works. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking.com http://www.net/ . use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan.In combination with annatto (E160b). which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. and other digestive disorders. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). Japan. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome.[4] cancer. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. yogurt. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. Within one week of using turmeric.crazychefs. is also treated with turmeric powder. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. winter butter and margarine. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. salad dressings. a traditional dish in South Asia.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). an uncurable and debilitating disease. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. burns and bruises. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. dry mixes. Indians.

found in black pepper. Bangalore. and Pakistan. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. and the U. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . which supports nerve growth. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. improves the absorption of turmeric. and colorectal cancer.S. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. Snake Bite Anti venin. research activity into curcumin is exploding.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. Alzheimer's. In 1998 researchers at St. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. Bangladesh. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. John‘s Medical College.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. with no adverse effects.net/ . THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol.crazychefs. or BDNF. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.com http://www. multiple myeloma. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair.

It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. jaggery. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. During the south Indian festival Pongal. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. as a part of the marriage ritual. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures.net/ .crazychefs. This happens in economically lower situations. and it is used for power and purification rites. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. and coconut and cooked in steam. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. Also. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. However.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. part of the Bengali wedding. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. such as saris. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. In southern India. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice.com http://www.

2. ^ http://news. 64(4):353-6.I. et al. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". or Natural Yellow 3.W. doi:10.ars-grin. Joseph T.pl?12676. 6.com/condition-center/heart-disease/surviving-a-heart-attack.com http://www.stm 5.de Shoba G. 75300. (2009).C. Judy] (June 2009).aolhealth. www. AOL Health.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.6-heptadiene3. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Majeed M. E. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. Joy D. keto and enol.090.2008. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. The systematic chemical name is (1E.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1.thieme-connect. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.crazychefs.07. ^ Chan. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 .172. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms.ars-grin. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. ^ http://www. ^ [|Ketteler.net/ . ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN".de/DOI/DOI?10. Planta Med. Retrieved 2008-03-04. | accessyear = 2009}} 3.foodchem. Retrieved June 2009.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. Notes 1. http://www. http://www.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.co. 1998 May. Rajendran R. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Srinivas PS. a polyphenol.1016/j.gov.5-dione.bbc.6E)-1.uk/1/hi/health/1668932.

also known as Candleberry. The nut is round. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics.net/ .) Willd. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. Indian walnut.9–7. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Euphorbiaceae. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. simple and ovate. 4–6 centimetres (1. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. The leaves are pale green. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. flowers. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage.6–2. which allows its use as a candle (see below). 10–20 centimetres (3. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). hence its name. Kemiri.com http://www. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content.9 in) long.4 in) in diameter. with an acute apex.crazychefs.

leaves and flowers. including: leis from the shells. ulcers. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. a varnish with the oil. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. named kukui were burned to provide light. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. burned with charcoal. Outside of Southeast Asia.net/ . In Java. pounded seeds. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi.crazychefs. as the candlenut is much more bitter. In Malaya. fevers. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. and gonorrhea. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Hawaiʻi. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. ink for tattoos from charred nuts.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. giving them greater underwater visibility. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. This led to their use as a measure of time. is quite different. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. swollen joints. however. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. they are mildly toxic when raw. On the island of Java in Indonesia. The flavor. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery.com http://www. In Sumatra. the nuts.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. are applied around the navel for costiveness. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. lit one end. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi.

4. protection and peace. Betty. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. Susan. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. ^ Scott. In plantations. the god of agriculture. http://books. One of the legends told of a woman who. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts.com/books?id=PpKyFZXO_jEC. Beatrice H. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. Finally. University of Hawaii Press. tukilamulamu. 26. 2. used as soap or shampoo. ^ Dunford. she was given new life.net/ . was routinely beaten. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade.crazychefs. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. Honda. ripe nuts. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil.google.[citation needed] References 1.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage).google.com/books?id=WOdrGIP3zksC&client=firefox-a. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil.html. Lilinoe Andrews. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. Mikiala Ayau. http://books. 122. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. Bess Press. "Chapter 4: Canoes". and the husband was eventually killed.com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a. http://canoeplants. (1993).google. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants.com/kukui. ISBN 9781573061377. ^ "Kukui". ^ Krauss. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. ISBN 9780824822514. Being a kind and just woman. still nowadays. University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved 2009-03-06.[5] In Tonga. Craig Thomas (2000). despite her best efforts to please her husband.com http://www. 5. 50-51. This larva is eaten by some people. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. http://books. pp. p.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats).). whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. p. Liana I.

and very often simply pepper. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Kannada:meNasu.net/ . Telugu:miriyam. white pepper. . Konkani:miriya konu. Malayalam:kurumulaku. known as a peppercorn when dried. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. cultivated for its fruit.crazychefs. Peppercorns. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. red pepper (as in bell or chile). green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. . green pepper. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning.com http://www. However. unrelated plants.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. containing a single seed. . and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. dark red when fully mature. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. The terms pink peppercorns. The fruit. . may be described as black pepper.

Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. in the early 20th century. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and other similar forms. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying.crazychefs.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. this was shortened to pep.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali.S. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. including decortication. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. French poivre. White pepper consists of the seed only. wrinkled black layer.[4] In the U. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. the spice is called black peppercorn. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. Once dried.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor.net/ . Dutch peper. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. In the 16th century. with the skin of the pepper removed. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical.. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant.com http://www. often alongside table salt. and the naked seed is dried. chemical or biological methods. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes.

and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius).[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. also green.net/ . Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry.com http://www. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. is made from the unripe berries. Fresh.Black. which is mostly no longer an issue. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. from Bangka Island.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. made from the largest. largely unknown in the West. unpreserved green pepper berries.crazychefs. Schinus terebinthifolius. green. Pickled peppercorns. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. particularly Thai cuisine. with a bright aroma. like black. are used in some Asian cuisines. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. Schinus molle. the Peruvian pepper tree.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.

as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. or trellises. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. but when full grown and still hard. poles.[11] Black pepper is native to India. and ultimately fall off and are lost. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. The flowers are small.crazychefs. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. Competing plants are cleared away. if allowed to ripen. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. moist. entire. the berries lose pungency. The leaves are alternate. The cuttings are usually cultivars. well-drained and rich in organic matter. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is a spreading vine. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. and before the fruit is mature. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red.net/ . The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years.com http://www.

net/ . In fact. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. in what is now the state of Kerala.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good.com http://www.crazychefs. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money.[14] J. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. particularly the Malabar Coast. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. Chile peppers. its most important source was India.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum.

It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. Sumatra. By the 16th century.net/ . Black pepper. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south.com http://www. barged to Alexandria. nor how it reached the Nile from India.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. Sunda. changed the course of world history. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. Malaysia. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine.crazychefs. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. Long pepper. Madagascar. pepper was also being grown in Java. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. or used the pepper locally. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. the Middle East. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE.Until well after the Middle Ages. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. but these areas traded mainly with China. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. this trade advantage. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. growing in the north-western part of India. Returning from India. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. Trade routes of the time were by land.

whereas.. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. first the Persians and then the Arabs. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. and the luxuries of the table. is fifteen denarii per pound." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. There is no evidence to support this claim. pepper was a luxury item.. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. Apicius' De re coquinaria. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". and of black. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. if expensive.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. I wonder.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency.H. seeing that in other substances which we use. the banquets of kings.[22] In addition. and the prices reflected it. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen.net/ . Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. especially Venice and Genoa. After the fall of Rome. while that of white pepper is seven. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. Edward Gibbon wrote. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. affordable only to the wealthy. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". clad in a wrinkled cover. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. 12.crazychefs. Similarly.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. seasoning in the Roman Empire. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall.com http://www. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. who travelled east to India. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. I season delicacies. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. it is sometimes their sweetness. four. Once into the Mediterranean.

Pepper. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. "we seek Christians and spices. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. as well as around Africa. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the 17th century. A depiction of Calicut.crazychefs." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. the effect is small. his representative replied. and salt-cured meats were common fare. However. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. In 1498. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not).[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative.net/ . started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. Pepper harvested for the European trader.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. has some antimicrobial properties. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. Today. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English.com http://www. especially in winter.

Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. earache. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). indigestion. including long pepper. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. but if this estimated 10. lung disease. joint pain. diarrhea. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). hernia. however. being stronger. Siddha and Unani medicine in India.com http://www. but both were used. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". insomnia. heart disease."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China.crazychefs. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself.[26] By the 12th century. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. hoarseness. Note the cook's pepper mill. oral abscesses. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. as well as she could for sneezing. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. Like many eastern spices.. either long or black. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. Long pepper.[25] In the 3rd century CE.000 pounds (4. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. insect bites.. each load being equal to 223 lbs. was often the preferred medication. liver problems. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful.net/ .China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". gangrene.

often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. left on black pepper. limonene. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. and toothaches.crazychefs. milligram-for-milligram. woody. Few.sunburn. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers.net/ . a substance present in black pepper.com http://www. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. which give citrusy. which is stripped of the fruit layer. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. if any.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. Some sources say that piperine. sabinene. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. causing the sneezing.[31] As a medicine. and linalool. vitamin B.[31] Also. irritates the nostrils. tooth decay. caryophyllene. a mildly carcinogenic compound. and floral notes. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. Refined piperine. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. The outer fruit layer. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. chapter five.

000 short tons).[33] Once ground. by monetary value. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper.000 t (299. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. the most widely traded spice in the world. Sri Lanka (6%). Thailand (4%). and China (6%). most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. The price of pepper can be volatile. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. for example. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. India (19%).[35] By weight. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are used for this. Brazil (13%). Malaysia (8%). sometimes instead of pepper shakers.000 t (391. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer.com http://www.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. India.net/ . The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. but has fallen to just over 271. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998.crazychefs. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). As of 2008.

pl?28589. Pepper. and Builder. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. Retrieved 2009-01-29.org/florataxon.com/2008/03/27/stories/2008032751741300.[36] Notes 1. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious.poor crop management. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. Retrieved 2008-01-29. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. Egyptian Pharaoh. Text online.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. Random House. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". ^ Dalby p. Black pepper is marica. 4. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". 13.gov. ^ Innes Miller. ISBN 0375407219.ph/wps/wcm/resources/file/ebb81841763712b/black%20pepper. Gernot (2006). 17. M. www. ^ Katzer.com 9. p 94. Alejandra (2001). Retrieved 2009-01-29. Vietnam dominates the export market. Compass Point Books. The riddle's answer is of course pepper.ars-grin.gov. p. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. Flora of China. 83 21. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. http://www. p. http://books. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). http://www. 2. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well.crazychefs. http://www. 200803-27. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares.da.arsgrin. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ Peppercorns.org/cgi/content/full/88/4/706 14. ISBN 075653836X. 7. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. The Hindu Business line.htm. Using fresh green peppercorns. 20. ^ J. 19. Warrior. ^ Ochef. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus".000 t (99.000 short tons). 93. 88. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90.thehindubusinessline. 12. from Penzey's Spices.2307/2657072. Ramses II. 10. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press.amjbot. ^ Translation from Turner. p. 11.net/ . ^ a b Jaramillo. Retrieved 13 November 2005. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. Retrieved 6 November 2005. http://www. 3. The Spice Trade.M1. disease and weather.google. 1969).pd f. 6. 18.com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". Retrieved 17 October 2006. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation.efloras. Retrieved 6 November 2005. PMID 11302858. Innes Miller. Retrieved 12 August 2006. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. 8. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. 80 16. using almost none of its production domestically. Spice.com http://www. Retrieved 6 November 2005. doi:10. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). http://www. 5. 2006-1120. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10).

CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. 31. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. 74–75. http://books. ^ Montagne. J.com http://www.accesstoinsight. 23.com/books?id=tg7R4hU8hkC&pg=PA395&lpg=PA395&dq=Pepper+safrole&source=web&ots=38F TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. Retrieved 2009-01-29. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). 204. 428.00969. table 2. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. G.22.pdf. References Dalby. Full text at Blackwell website. 25. 34. ^ Jaffee p. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. doi:10. 30. 35.crazychefs. 160. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Alan (2002). 2008-05-15. 726. ^ U.. Dover. ^ Dalby pp.karvycomtrade.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices. 32. Jaffee. Steven (2004). 12. ^ Dalby p. ^ a b James A. also Turner pp. p.ch05. purchase required. Vol. Prosper (2001). Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. Why does pepper make you sneeze?.net/ . 10. Andrew (2002).x. ^ a b McGee p. Dangerous Tastes. Buddhist Monastic Code II.google. 2005.2000. http://www. Retrieved November 12. http://siteresources.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". ISBN 0521367085. 2. Retrieved 2008-01-29.1046/j. Cambridge University Press. 171. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". pp. ISBN 9781580084178. Davidson. "Mill". 156. "Spices. Duke (1993-08-16). 27. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. 108–109. ^ Jaffee p. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2/bmc2. 26. ISBN 0600-60235-4. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. 77. http://books. ^ H.com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01. Dorman and S. Deans (2000). Larousse Gastronomique.1365-2672. ISBN 0520236742. 33.S. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. 29.com/books?id=7IHcZ21dyjwC. Berkeley: University of California Press.worldbank.google. ISBN 0849336201. 36. Hamlyn.pdf. D. 395. p. ^ Dalby p." 24. CRC Press.html. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. ^ Turner p. ^ Turner p. 28. Karvy Comtrade Limited. http://www. ISBN 0-486-27587-6.

"Black Pepper and Relatives". 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. OCLC 56590708. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.McGee. ISBN 0375707050. Spice: The History of a Temptation.com http://www. Turner.crazychefs. London: Vintage Books. Scribner. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. OCLC 61213802. Jack (2004).net/ . Harold (2004). Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. 427–429. pp.

net/ . Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.crazychefs. including red.Sugars 2.224 mg Folate (Vit. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. Today.17 g 0.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . yellow. B1) 0. sweet.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Dietary fiber 1.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.057 mg 4. Peppers are native to Mexico.com http://www.64 g 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.Pepper.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. Central America and northern South America.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.40 g .86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. B3) 0.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. green and orange. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. B2) 0.

With the similar meaning. an unrelated plant. which has its roots in the word for pepper. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. were a highly prized condiment. meaning Bulgarian pepper. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. At that time peppercorns. "green pepper"). meaning pepper-fruit. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e.com http://www. Across Europe. which are green and yellow. In British English. In France it is called "poivron". the fruit of Piper nigrum.net/ . the term "paprika".. In Norway. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. India. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. the word ピーマン ("pîman. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". regardless of their color.g. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). instead of using as a spice. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. or "piment. Sweden. In parts of Ohio. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. respectively). although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Malaysia and New Zealand. Indiana. When cut off. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. in Dutch. It is eaten with fried noodles. "groene paprika". g. " In Japan. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". "gele paprika". with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). the fruit is called a "mango"[1].crazychefs. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. In the United States and Canada. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. such as Australia. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. and Pennsylvania. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. they are called "capsicum". meaning Big pepper. "Miris" is Chilli. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. like pasta. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". "red pepper". whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. Grilled.

black and brown.net/ . in salads. in various soups and stews. pink. purple. rainbow. yellow. more rarely. aqua.com http://www.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". Varieties The color can be green. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. orange and. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. It is eaten as a raw snack. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment.crazychefs. yellow or orange peppers. maroon. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. blue. violet. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. white. red. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).foodreference. ^ http://www. balsamea Willd. indigenous to Europe. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita.com http://www.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . also known as M. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. [1]) is a hybrid mint.com/html/fmango.crazychefs. The plant.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2].Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species.

it can grow anywhere. blunt spikes. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. with a few exceptions.net/ . with smooth stems.20 in) diameter.6 in) cm broad. Flowering is from mid to late summer. dark green with reddish veins.com http://www.5–4 cm (0.6–3. he treated it as a species. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including stream sides and drainage ditches. fleshy. spreading by its rhizomes.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. square in cross section. noted since 1843[8]. 72. it is usually sterile.24– 0.crazychefs. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. 6–8 mm (0. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. The flowers are purple. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. If placed.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall.5 in) long and 1. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. forming thick. and bare fibrous roots. The chromosome number is variable. and 120 recorded.59–1. 84. with 2n counts of 66.31 in) long. Being a hybrid.

some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3.[10] Similarly. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. confectionery. ice cream. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. chewing gum.crazychefs. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. and is often used as a flavouring in tea.1. and toothpaste.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms.com http://www. thus promoting belching. particularly menthyl acetate.net/ .[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine.

In addition to that. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. as a natural insecticide. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Foliage lime-scented. it is advisable to plant it in a container.[12] Outside of its native range." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. [21].[13] and in the United States. Leaves aromatic. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. If you choose to grow peppermint. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. A mild. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. Leaves wrinkled. the Galápagos Islands. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried.com http://www. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. [18]. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. hairless. and it is considered invasive in Australia. Stems reddish. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. It needs a good water supply. Eau De Cologne Mint).crazychefs. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. which they then call "after-dinner mints. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. [16]. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'.net/ . New Zealand. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds.

ed. R. (1989).1016/j. M. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 4th Edition. C.crazychefs. 2. In: Stace. & Grey-Wilson. C. ^ Harley.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . http://www. a popular confection. ^ a b Akdogan. Retrieved 3 June 2009. ed.02. 6. ^ World Health Organization.glu. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . 9. M. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. G. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. A. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15.dld.int/publications/2002/9241545372. (1992). Mehmet (2004). Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.net/ .006. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2".. Flowers open from bottom up. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. http://whqlibdoc. (2007).Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. et al. Retrieved 2009-02-07.org/en/node/199. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13.pdf. doi:10. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats".contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . ^ Linnaeus. C. 5. ISBN 978-1563636783 10. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. Mentha L. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". ^ a b Blamey. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. Thomson Healthcare. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12.com http://www.. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2007. 11. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577.. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. 7. page 640. ^ a b Huxley. (1753).who. ^ Cappello. (1975). A.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1.

Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . Mehmet (2003). 20. Retrieved 3 June.S. ^ Akdogan. Zheljazkov. http://www. Bienvenu (1998). http://www. Australia". ^ Edwards.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. Retrieved 3 June.com http://www. doi:10. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. doi:10. http://het.1023/A:1006185103897. http://www.28. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)".1151. Derek R. populations.interscience.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119.htm?csnumber=32041.Specification".1002/jsfa.1071/AP99036. http://tih. (2007).)". Ambika et al. 21.. ^ International Organization for Standardization. D. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. Mehmet et al.wiley.257. 25.. ^ Sharma. 19.org/books/249/249_8. Retrieved 3 June. ^ Farley.htm?csnumber=11633.10): 119 . J. Retrieved 6 June 2009.actahort. Retrieved 3 June. ^ Akdogan. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 . Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 .com/cgi/content/abstract/23/1/21. on kidney tissue in rats". 17. Valerie Howland (2006). Frédéric et al.. F. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice".E. Retrieved 7 June 2009.iso. ^ International Organization for Standardization.iso.org/books/629/629_21.htm. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. Retrieved 8 June 2009.E. http://www3. and Mentha spicata L. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.. 27.sagepub. paraquat. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint".org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature".16. (2004). "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)".D. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.2740311104.122. 24. doi:10.)". "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. ^ International Organization for Standardization. http://www. Retrieved 7 June 2009. 23. F.actahort. http://het. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .org/iso/catalogue_detail. Bienvenu (1999).net/ .sagepub.iso.. V.219.sagepub.htm.com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213. et al.159.224. Retrieved 6 June 2009. 18. 26.com/journal/118500486/abstract. ^ Adamovic. ^ a b c Jullien. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. 22. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria.htm?csnumber=4844. S. Plant Cell. http://www.

to the Alliaceae family.) J.). along with the onion and garlic. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. Two related vegetables. the elephant garlic and kurrat.com http://www. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum (L.net/ . ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. although different in their uses as food.Gay The leek. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. also sometimes known as Allium porrum. ampeloprasum var.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. porrum (L. is a vegetable which belongs. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk.

Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. intended for harvest in the season when planted.crazychefs. Once established in the garden. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. leeks are hardy. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. to be planted out as weather permits. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. and they have few pest or disease problems. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and overwintering leeks. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens.net/ . They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖.com http://www.

Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below).com http://www. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. carrots and potatoes and different meats. although less bitter than scallion. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. The tender core may be eaten. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. the vegetable is crunchy and firm.crazychefs. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. which turns it soft and mild in taste. In its raw state. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. The onion-like layers form around a core. Fried. due to the layered structure of the leek. Raw. along with leek soup. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber.Cuisine Leeks for sale. as the leek ages. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. Lamb is the most popular. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. which can be used in salads. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. but. having been overlooked for several centuries[1].net/ .

In her book. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.E.C.Sugars 3.Dietary fiber 1.com http://www.E.crazychefs.monounsaturated 0. B3) 0.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.saturated 0.04 g .233 mg Folate (Vit.C. as well as other recipes with leeks.9 g .[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero. B1) 0.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.8 g Fat . as well as wall carvings and drawings.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.15 g 0.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. onwards.3 g 1.net/ . Cultural significance Raw Leeks. 83 μg 14. who consumed it most often in soup. B2) 0. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.004 g .polyunsaturated 0.

refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V.net/ . you know. representing Wales. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. David‘s Day.Vitamin E 0. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. According to one legend. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. Shakespeare. In the play. for example. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field.com http://www.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. good countryman. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.12 mg recommendations for adults.crazychefs. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St.

.p. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. ^ Guiliano. 3. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. Domestication of plants in the Old World. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2000). Knopf. 1978.com http://www. Mireille.net/ . (Penguin Books. French Women Don't Get Fat. third edition (Oxford: University Press. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. ^ Jane Grigson.Notes 1.crazychefs.

graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. Celery.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.6 g Fat Protein Water 0.Dietary fibre 1. with fewer than 100 individuals left.2 g 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.com http://www. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten. dulce) or celeriac (var.crazychefs.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.net/ .Sugars 2 g 3g .

and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. such as chicken noodle soup. often used as a base for sauces and soups. 30 AD. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. as celery salt. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. Actually very small fruit. Celery is a staple in many soups. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. and in Old Bay Seasoning.crazychefs. horses. and small rodents.net/ . and carrots make up the French mirepoix. onions. dogs.In temperate countries. on the Chicago-style hot dog. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. squirrels. birds. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). celery is also grown for its seeds.com http://www.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Celery. Celery. onions. Celery salt is used as a seasoning.

for people with celery allergy. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. M. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content.[8] In the European Union. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC).[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. at Kastanas. Celery contains androstenone. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides.com http://www. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. foods that contain or may contain celery. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. even in trace amounts. father of the Cabeiri. Lemnos and Thebes. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. However. have to be clearly marked as such. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets.net/ .[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. making avoiding such foods difficult. they note "since A. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. In Homer's Iliad. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. however.crazychefs. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock.

insect damage and rot). cracks.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. the whole plant having a coarse. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. 2–3 mm diameter. mainly in having stouter leaf stems.. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). at our Great Mens tables. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. and the most crisp and tender. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. produced in dense compound umbels.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. In the past. Under optimal conditions. In North America. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. straightness and thickness of petiole. and Praetors feasts. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. sweetish. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. earthy taste. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems.crazychefs. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves.[14] With cultivation and blanching. borrowed from Greek. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. as the Grace of the whole Board". The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring.net/ . apium Italicum. They are ranged under two classes. 1. from the Latin selinon. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. fields are harvested only once. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery..5–2 mm long and wide. The plants are raised from seed.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. white and red. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. shape. splits. seleri. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. but the leaves may be used in salads.com http://www. and a distinctive smell. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. many of which differ little from the wild species. due to extremely uniform crop growth. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. The flowers are creamy-white. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color.

Ko SN. ^ William Robinson and W. M. gentle handling. Thayer translation [1] 4. ^ Cantwell. http://www. http://postharvest.46.com: Celery and Negative Calories 6. Holmiae. 16. 8. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. ^ "Smallage". (2005). Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. 227. (2002-06-10). ^ OED. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. Western Journal of Medicine 158.17:1697-1699. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. C (1753). ^ snopes. Wilson IBH.nsf/pages/smallage. West J. Suslow.L.6 (June 1993): 610-611. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). Kraft D. 2000) p. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. Radauer C.com http://www. 10. ^ Teng CM. Heiner DC. ^ Calcium sources 7. Zohary and M. 12. Thomson. ^ Celsus. 3. Lee LG. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". de Medicina. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. ^ Bublin M. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 13. T.[16] References 1. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". ^ Pliny. 1920).202.. Hopf. ^ Celestin J. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. 11.ucdavis. ^ R. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. M. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. ^ D. 2003. et al. 2.. ^ a b Fragiska. 14. Post-harvest technology research and information center.crazychefs. Scheiner O. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 9..shtml. and proper sanitation.practicallyedible. Retrieved 2009-05-03.net/ . (Laurentii Salvii). "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. Natural History XIX. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. s. (3rd ed.com/edible. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. P.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". "Celery". 15.v. p.edu/Produce/ProduceFacts/Veg/celery.

01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.crazychefs.21 g . Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.Sugars 96. (Discuss) For other uses. see sucrose.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates . Sugar.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97. see Sugar (disambiguation). B2) 0. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.98 g 0g 0g 0.com http://www.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.Sugars 99. For the common table sugar. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.net/ .91 g .Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. Magnification of grains of sugar.

77 g Thiamine (Vit. sugar maple (in maple syrup).net/ .[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. mainly sucrose.crazychefs.com http://www. and in many other sources. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. lactose. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. and fructose.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. B3) 0.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B1) 0. obesity and tooth decay.026 mg Folate (Vit. but also appears in fruit. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances.Water 1.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption. It forms the main ingredient in candy. B2) 0. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. honey. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. sorghum.

etc. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including palm sugar and fructose. means "pebble". store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. molasses or treacle. and texture) of beverages and food. (Compare the OED.com http://www. Etymology In the case of sugar. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. "fructose". Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). Generically known as "syrups". which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. Scientific Scientifically. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. In this informal sense. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Spanish and/or Italian.) will likely denote a sugar. zahari. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). the Spanish word azúcar. the Italian word zucchero. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb).crazychefs. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. "dextrose". preservation.Popular In non-scientific use.) The Greek word for "sugar". Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide.[4] It came to English by way of French. In a list of ingredients. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. such as glucose. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars").net/ .

cook or consumer. plus sugars naturally present in honey. syrups and fruit juices. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates.net/ . trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides .crazychefs. Natural sugars come in fruit. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. important molecules in the body. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). This includes all the sugars referred to above. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. has a "missing" oxygen atom. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). A notable exception. Sugars include monosaccharides. as its name suggests.Culinary sugars Grainier. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. making the sugars reactive.com http://www. 3. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. disaccharides. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. 2. deoxyribose. raw sugar. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds.containing 1. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

including NADH and ATP.net/ . which is made of glucose. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. with less than 0. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. which form part of nucleic acids. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. galactose and mannose. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. Monosaccharides include fructose. or DNA. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. In these closed-chain forms. After digestion and absorption.com http://www. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone.water (H2O) per bond. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Note for example glycoproteins. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. lactose (milk sugar . Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). proteins connected to one or more sugars. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis.crazychefs. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. glucose. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. If combined with fine ash.made from one glucose and one fructose). Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. sweeter than the original sucrose. and galactose. This resulting syrup. producing invert sugar. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. which has the formula C6H12O6. fructose. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. sugar will burn with a blue flame.

^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. History of Science and Technology in Islam. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. ^ Wuebben. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When.com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. Glyn (2004). Sugar Blues. Joseph and Mike Carlson. ISBN 063205476X.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0.80 g/ml Notes 1. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6.com/worldofsugar/internationalSugarStats. James. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West.Bulk Density Chart.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. ^ scientificpsychic.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7.net/ . Cambridge: Woodhead.crazychefs. Sugarcane. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The International Sugar Trade. A C Hannah. 4.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. Michael (January 2001). Temple University Press. ISBN 1566398320.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. 1996.webmd.com http://www.illovosugar. OCLC 51837990 84251137." http://men. OCLC 44493265. ^ "Engineering Resources .70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0." Powder and Bulk References Adas. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. Blackwell Publishing. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. 5. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan.htm 3.com/features/sugar-what-kinds-eat-when 2.

com http://www. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.crazychefs. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane.25% of the total volume). using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. sugar beet molasses is used.net/ . This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. for light brown sugar. Although in some areas.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. especially in the Netherlands. Products for industrial use (e. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products.g.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). without mixing them separately. It is.35 mm. however. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. Brown sugar contains from 3. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs.

Nutritionally.net/ . as opposed to white sugar. White and Deadly" . as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. which did not have full control over brown sugar production.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. In other applications. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar.[2] John Yudkin.com http://www. History In the late 1800s. much like adding molasses would do.crazychefs. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. in his studies (cited in "Pure.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar.[1] However. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. apart from pure carbohydrate. The effort was so successful that by 1900.

Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. Retrieved 2008-09-20. http://www. light brown.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. 3. http://www. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". Muscovado.html.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07. which is then crystallized. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes.org ^ Levenstein.wildernessfamilynaturals. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. ^ New Scientist. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www.fao.net/ . http://www. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left).1. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. but most is now produced in Mauritius. Harvey. 2. 4. 2003. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. 6. Retrieved 2008-09-20.com http://www. centrifuged.".com/PressRelease. largecrystalled.htm#bm07. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. Retrieved 2008-09-20.wholesomesweeteners. 32-33 5.com/muscovado_sugar. or Demerara sugar.csrwire. cane sugar. resulting in the characteristic large. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals.crazychefs.3 fao. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. an island off Africa. where sugar cane was grown. 7. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. Demerara is another unrefined.com/brands/Wholesome_Sweeteners/Organic_Tur binado_Sugar. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. giving it a higher mineral content.php?id=3026.htm#sugarmade. crystals. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. References 1. light brown.

refined salt (table salt). This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. It is a crystalline solid. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. including humans. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. white. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content.com http://www. the two major components of salt. pale pink or light gray in color. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. and iodized salt.crazychefs.net/ .Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). which some use to prevent caking.[citation needed] Conversely. Chloride and sodium ions. but toxic to most land plants. including high blood pressure. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body.

History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. salt provided the best-known food preservative.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC. and the dye Tyrian purple. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. as were salted birds and salt fish. however. especially for meat.net/ .crazychefs.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi.[2]:44 Along the Sahara.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in the millennia before then. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). In 1960. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. the caravans still transported some 15. glass.com http://www.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC.000 tons of salt. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.

and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. water.[1] It is widely. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. and Egyptian. the Roman exonym for the Celts. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". In many Pagan religions esp. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. (Judges 9:45.net/ . a root for salt found in Celtic.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. which was illegal under British rule.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife.crazychefs.com http://www. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. Halych in Ukraine. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water.) In the Sermon on the Mount. Greek. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. Hallstatt. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error.also gave us Gaul. began open pan salt making.fire. though incorrectly.[citation needed] The root hal(l). In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". taking their names from hal(l)-. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6).Salzburg. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. the Hallstatt Celts. God sent down four blessings from the sky . During the first millennium BC. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. who had heretofore mined for salt. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. salz.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology.

to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water.In the native Japanese religion Shinto.net/ . This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt.crazychefs. such as in Sumo Wrestling. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. In Aztec mythology. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Halite. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people.com http://www.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal.

Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. which is most widely used presently.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. One example are bath salts. Today. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. Purification usually involves recrystallization. is mainly sodium chloride. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. natural sea salt harvested by hand. Injected water dissolves the salt.crazychefs.5% of salt production. In recrystallization.net/ . which are kiln-dried. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. and the making of soaps and detergents. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Different natural salts have different mineralities. giving each one a unique flavor. food uses account for 17.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). Fleur de sel. Refined salt. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. After the raw salt is obtained.com http://www. and thus is rarely eaten. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water.[12] However. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries.

silicon dioxide.[29] However.165 g/cm3.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom.com http://www.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. calcium or magnesium carbonates.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. Some people also add a desiccant. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but was determined to be unnecessary. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. Single-serving salt packets.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. and calcium aluminosilicate. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. sodium aluminosilicate. fatty acid salts (acid salts). Table salt has a particle density of 2. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . magnesium oxide.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. however. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride.154 g/cm3. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. and a bulk density (dry. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. such as a few grains of uncooked rice.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity.net/ . calcium silicate. condiments such as soy sauce.crazychefs.

or sodium iodate. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. iodized salt is more common in the United States. specifically endemic goiter. magnesium. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. with insufficient salt intake. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. which gives the table salt a yellow color. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck.net/ . especially important for pregnant women. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. In Canada. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm.crazychefs. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. which can cause goitre. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. The reason for this is unclear. cretinism in children. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride.[32] Another additive. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. potassium. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. In France. neurological problems. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. or even an electrolyte disturbance. In the United States. fluorinated table salt is available. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. which can cause severe. and myxedema in adults. even fatal. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. sodium iodide.[33] Drinking too much water.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. dizziness. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment.[31] Today.

the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased.[38] heartburn." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. such as in treatment of dysautonomia. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy.crazychefs.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It can exacerbate renal disease.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. salt consumption is higher." ([41] p3). Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. independently of blood pressure effects. the risks have been exaggerated for most people." ([44]. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake." ([41]. in Japan. forced salt intake. can cause hypernatremia. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years.net/ . since salt was quite valuable).[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease." ([41].[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal.com http://www. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. p18) However. combined with an inadequate intake of water. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment.

net/ . In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. but achievable population goals. have been found to consume little salt.[50]. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. However. for a typical adult. such as the Yanomami in South America.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. A salt mill for sea salt.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. SACN states. Some isolated cultures.crazychefs.

Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. LoSalt. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996.crazychefs. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet.1g sodium).[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". Australia. which will increase potassium intake. calories.[57] In March 2007. When other health claims are made about a food (e.6g sodium).8 g salt) per day. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet.net/ . it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).[51] In the United States.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures." In the UK. etc.5g salt per 100g (or 0.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". Low is 0.300 mg of sodium (= 2. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. Amber (Medium). "low". Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. then that is a medium level of salt. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. or Green (Low). One manufacturer. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. Those who have kidney failure. without recourse to salt substitutes.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute.'[55] Campaigns In 2004.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.).[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride.g.3 g sodium = 5. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt.com http://www. low in fat.

com/salary. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application.answers. Retrieved 2008-12-14. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. such as brine wells and salt lakes. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.com. Costs can reach staggering amounts. 8.3 million tonnes). China (32. Triamterene. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. called halite. 7. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. Germany (17. 2.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Salt. Dytac. 1913. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. 4th edition". 3. http://www.net/ . The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). India (14. Notes 1.5). Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone).[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general.wikisource. Answers.crazychefs. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. Catholic Encyclopedia.7). Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. 6.3). In 2002. and Canada (12. and by mining rock salt. Eplerenone and Inspra.9). http://en.in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.com http://www. and Hall in Austria. the top five producers being the United States (40. 4. 5.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. ^ "Salt".

Vol. Fall/Winter 2006 10.wiley. Salt Institute. ^ Table 27. ^ http://www. salt uses.com/index3.crazychefs. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www.com http://www. Epikouria Magazine. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/393201. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. 2008 29. no. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 898 .com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effe ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. ^ Iodized Salt 31. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. ^ HE-620 24. "The (Political) Science of Salt". Mason (2006-12-19).pdf 33.roskill. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. http://www3.co.bbc. salt history. ^ References on food salt & health issues.dep.9% sodium chloride 25.htm.fr/Ftp/Afssa/26447-26448. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. http://books. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. 12. ^ What is Salt?. Science.anl. ISBN 9780309056663. Kuemmel (1994).google.Weather Curriculum 18. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. salt history. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38.eu-salt.newton. http://www.gov/askasci/gen01/gen01420. 5379.stm 38. J. ^ David A. 14.interscience. Retrieved 200907-08. ^ B. Salt Institute. sodium.907 37.co. 28. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20.afssa. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. Retrieved 2009-0708.9.htm 15. p. ^ Iodized Salt 32. ^ a b http://news. Transportation Research Board. 14 August 1998. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. 10.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www.com/reports/salt 16.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. 11. pp.htm 19. salt manufacture. Ask a Scientist. salt manufacture. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia.net/ . 281.uk/aboutsaltwhat01.com/journal/114028130/abstract.saltsense. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. sodium. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. ^ Gary Taubes. ^ Nauticus . ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. Victoria) Salt 34. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. salt uses. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt.

NY: G. doi:10. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. ^ Susan R. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. ^ Understanding labels 55. doi:10. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. Salt: A World History. S. Barber. 62. 28 January 2008.06. New York: W. Mark (2002).40. 2006. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. Norton & Co.W. New York: Walker & Co. Sodium 52. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods".P. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk.net/ .. Feldman. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. Sodium chloride. 2007. Legal Medicine 2005. Published online 2005.pub2 References Kurlansky. Schindler. Friedrich Schulz. OCLC 48573453. (accessed13 January 2007) 49. ^ U. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 0802713734.guardian. ISBN 0393320197..com http://www. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43.healthandwellbeing. ^ Cook NR. The Story of Salt. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. Cutler JA.1915040902051820.1016/j. and S.crazychefs. http://www.ac.hyp. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. Elizabeth Wayland (1999).1002/0471238961.uk/society/2008/jan/28/foodanddrink. John Wiley & Sons. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. http://www. Further reading Kurlansky.005 48. Putnam's Sons. D. Erwin Koops. 7. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57.uk/cash/. BMJ. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. 47-50.2004. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York. Mark. OCLC 48426519. ^ Salt TV ads 59. 61. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41.a01.co. The Mummies of Ürümchi. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. ^ Salt Matters 60.legalmed. Obarzanek E et al. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. Inc.334(7599):885.

com http://www. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch.Laszlo. Salt: Grain of Life. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round.talk by Dr Trevor Beard. Arts and traditions of the table. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. 2001. The Stationery Office.crazychefs. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . New York: Columbia University Press. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . Pierre. Department of Health.net/ .

such as Cambodia. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. mainly Kerala.crazychefs. Indonesia. found commonly in Thailand. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. Malaysia. It can also be found in India. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. Vietnam. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. phrik thai. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper.com http://www. the Philippines and Singapore. phrik khi nu(lit. as well as in neighbouring countries.net/ .

crazychefs." which can best be described by the English equivalent." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant.000 to 100.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili. "Big things come in small packages.com http://www.net/ . Although small in size compared to other types of chili. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

and among the group of capsicum annuum. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. orange. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan.net/ . Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). The more decorative. Thai hot. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. and then red.crazychefs. creating a rainbow effect. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. Ladâ. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws).org/wiki/Thai_pepper" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. has peppers that point upward on the plant. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. but slightly less pungent variety. Thai).As well as the Malay word. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. and go from green to yellow.com http://www. phrik khii nuu ( . and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit.wikipedia.

furrowed. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. Celeriac has a celery flavour. Unlike other root vegetables. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. it can also be used on its own. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. about the size of a large potato. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves.crazychefs. It has a tough. gratins and baked dishes.com http://www. which store a large amount of starch.net/ . The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. It is a kind of celery. usually mashed. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. or used in casseroles.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A.

raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Among them are 'Prinz'.2 g . perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. especially in Europe. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Celeriac soup. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. 'Ibis'. rinsed. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. and 'Kojak'.Dietary fiber 1.Sugars 1. Celeriac. 'Diamant'. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out.3 g 1.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths.crazychefs. There are a number of cultivars available.6 g 9.net/ .5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates .8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.

As a nightshade. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. aubergine. The stem is often spiny. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. or brinjal (Solanum melongena).crazychefs. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. The flowers are white to purple.com http://www. and see text The eggplant.net/ . It bears a fruit of the same name. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pakistan and Sri Lanka.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S.

The fruit is fleshy. The name aubergine. and contains numerous small. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. which are edible. from Arabic al-badinjan. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. In Indian and South African English. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. but much larger in cultivated forms. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). History Solanum melongena." Aubergine and brinjal.net/ . it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. soft seeds.com http://www. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. New Zealand. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. which is used in British English. flower The plant is native to India.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. Australia. In the Caribbean Trinidad. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. 1500 CE.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. The name eggplant.crazychefs. used in the United States.

Traditional. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. especially purple. Ichiban. in white skin Dourga. Classic. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. green.crazychefs. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. shape and color. Dusky. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. slightly pendulous cucumber. There are even orange varieties. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size.com http://www. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Pingtung Long.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. Burpee Hybrid.net/ . and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. and Tycoon. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Black Magic. and Black Beauty. Some cultivars have a color gradient. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. whiteskinned. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. A much wider range of shapes. or white.

braised (紅燒茄子). it is called Begun ( ). allowing for very rich dishes. and masala and then cooked in oil. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. for example. along with the fish Hilsa. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. so that peeling is not required. or Eggplant Parmesan. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. It. as they are far less bitter. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. as in the French ratatouille. tahini. In Bangladesh. for example in sambhar. as in the related tomato. and deep-fried. complex flavor. battered. peanuts. It can be sliced.com http://www. As a native plant. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. The fruit flesh is smooth.crazychefs. and achaar. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. In one dish. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. In the Caucasus. rice. In some parts of India. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. tahini. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. The thin skin is also edible. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat.net/ . it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. or tamarind. tomatoes. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. It is often stewed. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. chutney. and garlic. the Arabian moussaka. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. In Iranian cuisine. or other fillings and then baked. curries. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'.

though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. the most serious of which is Verticillium.com http://www. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. showing the inside. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. Egypt. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. aphids. pepper (capsicum). (Adults can be removed by hand. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%).net/ . Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. flea beetle. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. and potato. and spider mites.) to 60 cm (24 in. are also troublesome to eggplants. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. depending on cultivar. For this reason. This is called Beguni ( ).) between rows. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. such as tomato. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae.) between plants. containing both female and male structures. Flowers are complete. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases.crazychefs. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries.

C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.com http://www. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.(2.35 g . New Jersey is the largest producing state.Dietary fiber 3. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.net/ .4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world. B1) 0.crazychefs. P = official figure.Sugars 2. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.7 g 0.[5] In the United States. F = FAO estimate.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. semi-official or estimates).01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.043. B2) 0.19 g 1.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .039 mg 5.

Brazil.crazychefs. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.net/ .2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0. However.Niacin (Vit.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.01 mg/100g). B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. while 1.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. B3) 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.[8] On average.com http://www. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed].084 mg Folate (Vit. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium.16 mg Manganese 0. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant.

giganteum.crazychefs. stenoleucum. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. trongum. luteum. ruber. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. mainly by Dikii. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species.F. subrepandum. tongdongense. oblongo-cylindricum. Dunal. ovigera. and (invalidly) by Sweet.C. rumphii. which used to include Dunal's S.net/ . esculentum. There is an actual S.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. variegatum. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. album. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. S. brownii. multifidum.Varieties Solanum melongena var. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. edule. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. aethiopicum. Solanum oviferum Salisb. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. On the other hand. aethiopicum. capsicoides). leucoum. H. Names for various eggplant types. But this is not correct. inerme. sinuatorepandum. divaricatum.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S.com http://www. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. globosi. Scopoli's S. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. insanum. Solanum longum Roxb. racemiflorum. violaceum and viride. inerme and subinerme at that time. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. Similarly. ovigerum and S. esculentum.-Lag. that of Blanco to S. lasiocarpum. such as agreste.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. racemosum. violaceum. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var.

Hui (2006). ISBN 1574445510. D.com http://www. (2001). S. Technology. common.net/ . ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). 2. CRC Press.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. ^ Doijode. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant.crazychefs. Footnotes 1. and Engineering by Yiu H. Handbook of Food Science.

"Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989.uga. http://faostat. Volume 329:437 August 5. 18(1): 59-62 13. The New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved 2007-04-24. ^ Westerfield. Domino.133(42):2081-3 12. ^ Kabashima K. Andréa Thomaz.Aubergine 8. ^ B. ^ Health24.fao.pdf. N. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25.) reveals female predominance. 1993 Number 6 9. Dieges PH. 5.edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/C934.3. P. 2008 10. Vol.caes.com http://www.* YP Venkatesh.50(2):101-102 11. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com . Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). 6. FAO. Bruno Caramelli. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). Ebury Press. Erich Hornbach. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. http://pubs. Robert (2008-11-14). ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. ^ SN Pramod. Arq Bras Cardiol. volume 82 (nº 3). esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. 7. pp.crazychefs. 202 4. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. Retrieved 2009-07-01.net/ . Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. 2008-11-11. Tsenge Demana.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. Miyachi Y. 2004. Toorenenbergen AW. ^ Solanum melongena var. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. A. ^ "FAOSTAT".aspx?PageID=567#ancor. ^ Edward F. Harish Babu * . Mahesh † and Y. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. 273-6. P.

com http://www. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. yellow. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. odd pinnate. with a serrated margin.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. woody stem that often vines over other plants. Solanum lycopersicum. One species. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. The tomato is native to South America. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. syn. and have a weak. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. see section Fruit or vegetable below). the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color.4–0.8 in) across.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long.net/ .Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S.crazychefs. It is a perennial. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable.

Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. ancestor of L. the other by currant tomatoes. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. and cultivation began in the 1540s. according to Smith. cerasiforme. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. corn and salt. means "wolf-peach".[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. tomatl. However. However. now Mexico City in 1521. lumpy tomato. a barber-surgeon. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas.com http://www. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. earlier in 1493. lycopersicum. was the first European to take back the tomato.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. who named it pomo d‘oro. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed].[4] The large. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe.crazychefs.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy.[6] Gerard's Herbal. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. an Italian physician and botanist. meaning plump thing with a navel. They also took it to the Philippines.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. such as Florence. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. likely to be the original salsa recipe. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. The specific name. a mutation from a smoother. The exact date of domestication is not known. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. smaller vegetable . the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. in certain areas of Italy. golden apple. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan.net/ .

[6] Nonetheless. broths. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. Thomas Jefferson. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). Gerard's views were influential. Rick. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time.largely plagiarized from continental sources.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. The C. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish.net/ . British consul in Aleppo c. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. Over the past 15 years. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. most famously in Worthing.[6] But by the mid-1700s. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. Charles M. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. The Spanish tomato dish. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. In Victorian times. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The University of California. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. and as a garnish. California. who ate tomatoes in Paris. ―within the last forty years.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. and in general. By the mid-18th century.M. but the fruit is safe). cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. Currently. a pioneer in tomato genetics research.com http://www. sent some seeds back to America. Paella. particularly Florida and California. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. and before the end of that century. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. 1799 – c.crazychefs.

the largest producer. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. production and 35% of world production. through cherry tomatoes.net/ .0–2. purple. followed by United States and Turkey. orange. California accounts for 90% of U. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. For processing tomatoes. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0.4–0. green. or white fruit are also available. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. they are known as plum tomatoes. about 5mm in diameter. Most cultivars produce red fruit. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. black.[12] According to FAOSTAT.S.4 in) diameter range. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. 18 September 2009.com http://www. It may be deleted after Friday.0 in) diameter. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2.8 in) size as the wild tomato.6–2. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. and have a lower water content. China. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion.crazychefs. pink. but a number of cultivars with yellow. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions.

[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. and are shaped like large strawberries. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular.net/ . along with zucchini.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. but unlike commercial hybrids. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed].Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well.crazychefs. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance.[18] and productivity. plum tomatoes. As in most sectors of agriculture. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower.[19] Hybrid plants remain common.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. based mostly on shape and size. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. as well as heirloom tomatoes. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes.com http://www. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes).

including Brandywine (biggest red). Lucky Cross). and purple. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. including yellow. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. etc. brown. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. white. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars.produce fruit in colors other than red. Burracker's Favorite. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. Red Boar). types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. Black Krim (lower left corner). As an intermediate form. orange. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. some tomato cultivars . they are bigger then cherry tomatoes.cherry tomatoes are small and round. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. although some determinate heirlooms exist. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. et cetera. often via mail-order. disease and pest resistance. pink. black. or home growers interested in canning. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Determinate. low acidity. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop.net/ . A variety of specific cultivars. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. or bush. and lack of mealiness. but must be bought as seed. multiple colors (Hillbilly.com http://www. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. but are smaller than plum tomato. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. ivory.crazychefs. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. which usually discourages fruit set.especially heirlooms . they are often good choices for container growing.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. Green Zebra (top right).

which interrupts the lifecycle. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. and A . tomato fruitworms. whiteflies. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. tomatoes required cross-pollination. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease.fusarium wilt strain I & II. red spider mite. and remain. original state. their traditional pollinators. As the name implies. carried by the beet leafhopper. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. N nematodes. cutworms. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. entirely within the closed corolla. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. As a floral device to reduce selfing. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus.com http://www. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. In the wild. T . aphids. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.verticillium wilt.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping.[24] and Colorado potato beetles.net/ . tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10.crazychefs. slugs. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. The most common letters are: V .tobacco mosaic virus. flea beetles.alternaria. cabbage loopers. F . and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. but manure or compost work well. The stamens were.fusarium wilt strain I. FF . although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. too.

The pollen moves through pores in the anther. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. as with most species.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. depending on variety. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). Unripe tomatoes are firm. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. by cultured bumblebees. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. In more temperate climates. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. However. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. In an outside setting. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They may be recognized by their color.net/ . or more often today.com http://www.crazychefs. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. This is not the same as self-pollination. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life.

Sugars 2. as tomato sauce. especially in cooked tomatoes. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. anthocyanin. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole.crazychefs. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. carotene. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine".com http://www. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. In some studies lycopene. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. and other antioxidants. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Though it is botanically a berry. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. in pieces. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. or paste. They contain lycopene.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene.6 g 4g . a subset of fruit.Recently. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97).Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). The tomato is acidic.net/ . Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .

whether because of pruning or flowering. They are bred to continue ripening. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. Known for its tomato growth and production. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported.crazychefs. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature.[28] In October 1965. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. or pickled. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Spain. When that tip eventually stops growing. although erect bush varieties have been bred. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. initially decumbent.5 °F). These hairs facilitate the vining process. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fully functional. often by sun. it will not continue to ripen. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. and grow as a series of branching stems. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. lateral buds take over and grow into other. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. The fruit is also preserved by drying. there are variations. Tomato plants are dicots. Embracing it for this protest connotation. Of regular leaves. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. Determinate types are annual in all climates.5 °C (54. generally three feet tall or shorter.make salsa. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. meaning covered with fine short hairs. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. such as rugose leaves. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. annually celebrates La Tomatina. vines. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes).com http://www.net/ .

Similarly. have the anthers fused along the edges. other insects. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). appearing on the apical meristem. making the Linnaean name correct.crazychefs. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. variegated.g. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L.. These vary. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus.com http://www. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). This is because they are native to the Americas. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. tobacco. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing.net/ . and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. would be more correct. peach. chili peppers.[31] Their flowers. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. "wolf-peach"). moths. while paste tomatoes have very few. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. called locular cavities. 'lyco'.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. wolf. and be dried/fermented before germination.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. i.Karst. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. with both names found in the literature. Technically. according to type.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.) H. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization.. or other external forces that present in the Americas. very small cavities. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. genetic evidence (e. butterflies. among cultivated species. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. angora leaves. Therefore. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry.deeply grooved. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. However. which frequently used it and still do). Other species in that family are potatoes. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. Despite this. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum.e. However. As a true fruit. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. plus 'persicum'. (derivation.

the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. 304)). A. a tomato is the ovary. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. Oregon. Hedden (149 U. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. However. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. from a culinary standpoint. As noted above. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. pest tolerance.net/ . Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. disease tolerance. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. etc. size. and organizations. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. However. U.crazychefs. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. Monsanto. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. cucumbers. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. New York. 1883.S. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. together with its seeds. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. of Reynoldsburg. and numerous other traits. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. AVRDC. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. Corporations including Heinz.S. Ohio.S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The U. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. nutritional value. U. This argument has had legal implications in the United States.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. In 1887. color.W. flavor. corporations. shape. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. North Carolina. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. Livingston. BHNSeed.com http://www. In 2006. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. Bejoseed. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. universities. as are vegetables. University breeding programs are active in Florida.S. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications.

2006.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). Kentucky. Massachusetts. which is toxic to humans and animals. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. Pennsylvania. Michigan. On October 30. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ .com http://www. stems.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. Georgia. harmless. Maine. contain the poison Solanine. Ohio. Minnesota.net/ . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the U. Speakers from the British Isles. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. New Hampshire."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Vermont and Wisconsin. North Carolina. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. The fresh fruit is. Virginia. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth.crazychefs. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak.S. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). Tennessee. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. Connecticut. however. Rhode Island. Indiana. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me.[36] The affected states included Arkansas.

000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. On August 30." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. Lancashire.S. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. 40. respectively. with 49. the District of Columbia. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. New Mexico (98). The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. China. fresh serrano pepper. fresh jalapeño pepper.151.6:1). 2008. such as raw tomato. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far. Oklahoma in 1986.[38] As of July 8. in 2000.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.crazychefs. UK.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. Yong Huang. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley.net/ . the U. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). and Arizona (49). with a harvest of more than 32.000 kilograms (250.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot.1 reported cases per million. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. 2008. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.8 m (65 ft) length. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. and fresh cilantro. French and Germans. As of July 2008.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Canada. 2007. Florida. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.84 pounds (522 kg).com http://www.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. from April 10.7 and 16.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista.273 illnesses from this outbreak. it caused at least one death. one would arrive at an estimated 40. Illinois (100). of the cultivar 'Delicious'. Lake Buena Vista.

similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak.net/ .crazychefs.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. indeterminate. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. Derived from Cherokee Purple. Fusarium.S. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow.com http://www. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.S. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry.

good for Tomatoes on a vine. in Korea.net/ .'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. Tomato fruit. pickling. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato plants in the garden. Tomato slices. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Young tomato plant. Tomato Flower.com http://www.crazychefs.

crazychefs.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.net/ .

com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. 3.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po.fao. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). p. http://www. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. p. culture. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world.gov. Processing Tomato Production in California." See: Natural History Museum.nationalarchives. 1876.html". p.universityofcalifornia. ^ "http://www.Smith. October 26. 2002-05-08.M. S. ^ The Friend. D. Columbia.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Subsection Lycopersicon).2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. Yourarchives. 12.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.ucdavis. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. 223 10. 2. Appletons' journal Published by D. ISBN 1-57003000-6.17. T. ^ a b Hartz. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. ^ "UC Newsroom.edu/. Retrieved December 11 2009.html". Horticulture: Principles and Practices. 5. ^ a b Smith.The East Hampton Star . Retrieved 2009-04-02. University of Illinois Press. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. F. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. 8. I. Normania. and cookery.nationalarchives. http://tgrc.crazychefs.edu. Appleton and Co. Andrew F (1994). Smith. Wettst. webpage: books-google-TTp17.com. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes." 15. 2009-01-26. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. M.ucdavis. section Lycopersicon Mill. 13. (1994). 1994..html.smithsonianmag.html.edu/news/article/4319.edu.easthamptonstar. 2008. 519 [1] 9. ^ Tomato history 4. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . http://www. The Tomato in America. Retrieved 2009-04-02. http://www. 6. et al.C. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ http://faostat. During the three months of the local harvest.aspx. Peralta.uk/index.. Universityofcalifornia. Andrew F.. E.uk. USA: University of South Carolina Press. & Spooner. Tgrc. The tomato in America: early history. ^ "C.five tons to the acre. ^ "http://www. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. 1881.gov. Retrieved 2009-04-02.com http://www. (2002).smithsonianmag.aspx?PageID=567 14. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. http://www.Food & Wine". it handles more than 1. 11. G. (2002-0508)". In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. Footnotes 1.smithsonianmag. 7. Easthamptonstar. ^ Acquaah. Culture. http://yourarchives.com/dnn/Archive/Home20080814/FoodWine/Seasons/ta bid/6280/Default.smithsonianmag. (2001). page 57: ". UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87.net/ .Your Archives". ISBN 0252-07009-7. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. Retrieved December 11 2009. and Cookery. A. Cyphomandra.

http://www.smithsonianmag.gardenweb.stm.osu. ^ http://www. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home".html.net/ .edu/sustainable/profiles/bot_tom. 31. http://ohioline.cornell.edu/stories/Jan07/SolanacaeNSF. 17. Retrieved June 30.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.smithsonianmag.crazychefs.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.html. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ^ "http://www.mx. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens.co. Retrieved 2008-10-27. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.html. http://www.org/pub_releases/2007-05/aafc-nmt051607. Retrieved July 14.smithsonianmag. http://www. http://www.uk/2/hi/health/7370759. Retrieved 2008-10-27. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. Retrieved 200705-24.ncsu.mx.edu.plants. 25.com/faq/lists/tomato/2004111539004321.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 2006.gardenweb. Ohioline.Tomato". ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention".news.ucdavis. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. 26.com.osu. Retrieved 200810-27. Plb. ^ "Crop Profiles . Ncsu. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium.html".am/wiki/Tomato#Early_tomatoes 21.smithsonianmag. Sinaloa.html. page 57: "The plants are still growing.edu. http://www. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. ^ "Selecting. 2006.html. 27. http://www. which are carried in the wind. http://news. ^ "http://www. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension.html".umn." 19.eurekalert.php.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5532.umn.bbc.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". ^ "http://www. http://www." 18. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. 30.html. Faq.smithsonianmag.com/All-About-Tomatoes_a6fd3933f91c4.html 23.smithsonianmag. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension.html.am/wiki/Tomato#Novelty_tomatoes 22. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2007-05-24. Retrieved December 11 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-02. HYG-5532-93".cornell. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". 28. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre.html".edu. Retrieved December 11 2009.edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.edu.com/genpage.com http://www.8M". ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".ucdavis. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'". The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once.edu." 20. "Tomato genome project gets $1.gob.sinaloa. http://wwwplb. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. News. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. 32.whfoods. ^ http://www. 29.com/science-nature/passion-fortomatoes.com. http://faq.gob. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. 24. 33.ufseeds. http://www.smithsonianmag.16.kr.html.plants. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. ^ http://www.html.edu. Retrieved December 11 2009. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips. http://www.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Smithsonianmag.

2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC".uk/news/9a5a1671ceba4f43741dc008f237c1ea. http://www.34. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".uk. ^ Voetsch. Cbsnews.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. 38. Tomato Recipe". 9781879906549.CBS News". ^ "ITN. http://www. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. http://www.1086/381578.vegparadise. Retrieved 200904-02. Foodsafetynetwork. Tomato Nutrition. Retrieved 2009-0721. http://www.cdc.html.google. http://www. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". 40.cbsnews. 41.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/map. United States. ^ a b Pittenger.com. 42. (2004-04-15).com http://www.journals. 37. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. Retrieved 2008-1027. ISBN 1879906546. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". Vegparadise. Retrieved 2009-0402.foodsafetynetwork. ^ "August 8. http://www.ca. 38:S3. California Master Gardener Handbook.com/books?id=WhWjHB1Zjf8C&pg=PA643.ca/en/article-details. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 39. Nationalpost.com/highestperch8. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"".cdc. http://www.com. 2007-08-30.edu/doi/full/10. by state".crazychefs. 35. Cdc.co. p.co.net/ .html. Dennis R. 36. Retrieved 2008-10-27. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Itn. 643.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce .nationalpost.html. Clinical Infectious Diseases.com/stories/2006/10/30/national/main2138331. 2004.uk. http://itn.uchicago.com/news/canada/story.com. (2002).html?id=585498.shtml. et al. ANR Publications. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History.co.gov. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0.com http://www. including essential oils. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. especially in Grenada.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. extracted oleoresins. argentea from New Guinea. both are used as adulterants of M. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. or sliced finely. fragrans products. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. It also grows in Kerala. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. Species About 100 species. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. In Indonesia. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. malabarica from India. the fruit is also made into jam. called selei buah pala. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices.7 in) wide.net/ . Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. a state in the south part of India. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". called Jaiphal in Hindi. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0.crazychefs.4 oz) dried. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. and Bombay Nutmeg M.2 and 0. and nutmeg butter (see below).6 to 0. nutmeg and mace. or Spice Islands.

In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. green. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. mulled wine. Painkiller.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. In the Caribbean. sauces. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. cauliflower. In Penang cuisine. "Lau Hau Peng". and string beans. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine).com http://www. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. In Arabic. they are also used in soups. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. and baked goods. In Indian cuisine.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. In European cuisine. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. saffronlike hue it imparts. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). and eggnog.net/ . and Barbados rum punch.crazychefs.

and has applications as an industrial lubricant. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. 758 – ca. and sweets. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. medicines. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. used as flavourings. in toothpaste. reddish brown in colour. The oil is colourless or light yellow. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. although this is disputed. syrups. preserving agents.com http://www. for instance. beverages. which can be turned into myristic acid. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil.crazychefs. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. It is semi-solid. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation
needed]

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

Footnotes
1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". http://emj.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/22/3/223. 5. ^ "Erowid". http://www.erowid.org/plants/nutmeg/. 6. ^ "MDMA". http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=5469. 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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References
Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

Commercialization
The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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sugar beets. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. or molasses. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. particularly processed foods. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. steak sauce. autolyzed yeast. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins." However.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. About 1. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. sugar cane.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. it also said that.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. hydrolyzed yeast.crazychefs. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. with 4% annual growth expected. However. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. soy extracts. frozen.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. based on anecdotal reports.net/ . which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. and protein isolate.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. yeast extract. being an amino acid. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. Canned.com http://www. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. not reproducible. Fermented products such as soy sauce.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer.

randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). such as hydrolyzed protein. and converted to its monosodium salt. dextrose or citrate). ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. MSG. Albert Y. and crystallization. [monosodium glutamate].. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. flavour enhancer). Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1.2. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled.celiac. Foster..com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes.com http://www. followed by either the name of the food additive. pp. ^ Leung.crazychefs. and (3) microbial fermentation.7% women).g. (2) synthesis.". Steven (August 2003). the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. On Food and Cooking. concentration.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. References 1. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. "Monosodium Glutamate". In the hydrolysis method. 621. In the 2004 version of his book. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. In 1993. 373-375." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. New York: Wiley. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. For this reason.g. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate].). acidification. Drugs. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. ^ http://www. age 40–59 years. and mineral ions and growth factors.net/ .html 2. even in large amounts. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. purified.

1111/j. Toxicol. 8.fda. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Beiser A. Regul.nytimes. Daviglus. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids.1002/14356007. Zhu. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". PMID 18497735. ^ a b Geha RS. Chirality 6 (4): pp. ^ He.2008.pdf 9.co.nih.jstor. Armstrong.html 4.x.jp/ajinomoto/ACompany/company/zaimu/pdf/fact/food_biz.274. Daniel W (1994). ^ Sand.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". doi:10. ^ http://www. Dongshuang.com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute. Garside. MSG. 11. 7. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S.html. Toxicol. 13. (1993). Julia (2008-03-05). Sano. Kelly M..F. Ren C. Pharmacol. Alan R. "A Short History of MSG". 14.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10736382. doi:10. J. doi:10. Shizuko (2005).4. PMID 8282275. Beifan. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". 16. Shigeru.1525/gfc.1999. ^ http://www.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract.ajinomoto. ^ Freeman M.gov/entrez/query. PMID 16999713. doi:10. http://www. "Monosodium Glutamate".a16 711. ^ a b Tarasoff L.3. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods".gov/~lrd/msg. Food Chem.cfsan. "Yes. Chiaki. Jeremiah (August 2008). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. (October 2006).. Guo. http://www. Yangfeng. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ^ http://vm. Dyer. Kimber L. doi:10. Wu. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. Linguang.nutrition. 15.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. http://www. (April 2000). 10. Nutr. doi:10.2006.1002/chir. Yamaguchi. Tetsuya. Stamler.530060410. New York Times. http://jn. Linda. Zhao. ^ Moskin.17457599.html 12.5.1337.celiac. Case study: monosodium glutamate". Takehara. et al. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.nlm. Daniel. Van Horn. doi:10. ^ Walker R (October 1999). Zhou.00160. Jordan (2005). ^ "Production process". Shioya. Ka. PMID 10597625. 31 (12): 1019–1035. the Secret Behind the Savor". 38–49.com/amino/eng/product. Masahiro. ^ Kawakita. PMID 10736382.org/stable/3421360 5. Anjimoto Co. Liancheng.1038/oby.ca/Articles/Fall1990-1. 277–282. Martha L.1006/rtph.38. ^ http://www. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. ^ a b Rundlett. 1875–1880.2005.ajinomoto. "The significance of excursions above the ADI.net/ .ncbi.com http://www. Inc. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.crazychefs. 6.

com http://www. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1.crazychefs.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 荳油 3. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 酱油 2.net/ . 豆油 3. 醬油 2.

[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Soy sauce was invented in China. In its various forms.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. water. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. [4] By the mid-19th century. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia.[3] In the 18th century. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands.com http://www.500 years.net/ . "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. and salt.crazychefs.

sojae) and other related microorganisms. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans.crazychefs.com http://www. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. Today.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions.net/ . Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. such as in giant urns and under the sun. literally "delicious taste"). They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Although there are many types of soy sauce. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A.

This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. ): A thin (nonviscous). Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. pinyin: jiàngyóu. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping.com http://www. Despite their rather similar appearance. or a mixture of both. Korean. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. since it is saltier. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG.3-DCP (1. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. but it also adds flavour. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. Another type. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. An additional classification of light soy sauce. and Chinese cuisine. Since it is lighter in color. slightly sweeter. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. lighter brown soy sauce. It has a richer. traditional Chinese: 醬油. with relatively low amounts of other grains. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). one of the two types. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish.net/ . It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In traditional Chinese cooking. shuānghuáng (雙璜). There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. fragrance and saltiness. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). like extra virgin olive oil. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. consistency. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". Thai.crazychefs. opaque.

The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". Technically. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. due to the addition of alcohol in the product.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. Shiro (白?. that is used in its production. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. where it is known as "shōyu". this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. It contains little or no wheat. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. for example sashimi.crazychefs. Usukuchi (淡口?. or 醤油). a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi.net/ .com http://www. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable.

"twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process.Saishikomi (再仕込?. 1 litre bottles. not pasteurized. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?.crazychefs. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. it is much darker and more strongly flavored.net/ . All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". Consequently.com http://www. Amakuchi (甘口?.

com http://www. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. which has a thick. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. usually implies limited quantity. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. powder. in a pinch. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet.crazychefs. In Indonesia.net/ . 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. It is a unique variety.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor.

uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. WanJaShan(萬家香). which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. O'Long(黑龍). Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭).Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. Malaysia. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (called Joseon ganjang. is made entirely of soy and brine. Founded in 1909. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). lit. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia.net/ . soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油).4% of soy sauce purchases. Joseon ganjang. Later. thin and dark brown in color. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan.crazychefs. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. 조선간장. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce.com http://www. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China.

[12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. nước tương. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced.net/ . wheat.crazychefs.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. or sometimes simply tương. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine.3-DCP (1.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. it is also a table condiment. salt. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. China. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. pronounced SOO-kah). It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking.com http://www. It can also be very salty.[6] Furthermore.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. and caramel. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases.

A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. Retrieved 2008-01-07. Lee Kum Kee. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. (1781). 8. p. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. http://www. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). King Imperial. Soon Teck• and Kang.) In March 2008.gmp. that affected the brands Golden Mountain.asp?id=7598 10. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed".com http://www. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). 7.tw/newsdetail. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application.[1] Notes 1. Norio. ^ Tanaka. XXVII.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. ^ http://www. 2.org. ^ Jung. ^ Titsingh. Seong-Gook (2002). 6. Isaac.org.miyajimasoy. p. Individuals with a wheat allergy. 6. 4. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007.net/ . some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption.co. 2 (January 2000).tcoc. Retrieved 200801-07. Kimlan. ^ http://www. Tung Chun and Wanjasham.[citation needed] In Vietnam. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea".gov.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. including six samples with up to 11. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. Vol.uk/news/pressreleases/2001/jun/soysaucerecall.Kong and Taiwan. Golden Mark. ^ Tanaka. 2nd edition.htm. Golden Swan. ^ http://www. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. Pearl River Bridge.crazychefs. 7. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). Celiac disease.smartfood. III. Sinsin.317 2. OCLC 9752305 5.tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9.food. ^ Tanaka.jp/science/kouenkai/kouenkai."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. p. 3.000 to 18. Jammy Chai. pp. http://www.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. Press release.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. an increase over 23 to 5. Despite these being small in number in the UK. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. No. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. marinades and other types of sauces.tw/60anniversary/century-gofun.com. the leaflet does include oyster sauce.

2323/jgam.com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15. Retrieved 2008-01-07.1263/jbb. Charles W (2005). ^ Daniells.48. ISBN 1587161389.crazychefs.com. http://www. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce".201. Makio (2005-04-18). ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. Kentucky: CRC Press. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151.com/news/ng.nutraingredients. Edition 2. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. Fereidoon. ^ Shahidi. http://books. 14. 12. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 186. Stephen (2006-06-06).11. nutraingredients.100.net/ . 13. Florence.144.google. PMID 12469319. doi:10. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. ISBN 0632059877. p. et al. 103. Hoboken. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. 18. doi:10.food scares hit Vietnam 20. ^ Bamford. chemical veggies -. ^ Toxic soy sauce. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. p.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. Food. Marian (2003). ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. PMID 16198255.com http://www. ^ Tanasupawat. Somboon (2002-06-18). 16. fermentation and micro-organisms. Naczk. ^ Kobayashi. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand".

1% Lignoceric acid: <1.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.0–83.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.9150–0.com 211 | P a g e http://www.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.net/ .5 °C) 84 cP 1.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.5–20.3% Myristic acid: <0.4677–1.8% Behenic acid: <0.5% Linoleic acid: 3.0% Stearic acid: 0.0% Arachidic acid: <0.3–3.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.5–21.9180 (@ 15.5–5.

[1] It is commonly used in cooking. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. World production in 2002 was 2. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. cosmetics. Japan and China. in France. and Moraiolo. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. Picholine. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. Hojiblanca.[3] Of the European production. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing.4680–1. Italy and Greece. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. pharmaceuticals. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide.6 million tonnes. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. 93% comes from Spain. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. Australia. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics.6 (refined and pomace) 0.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea.crazychefs.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). Leccino Pendolino. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. Olive oil is used throughout the world. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported.000 tons of olive oil annually. as well as in Crete. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. principally Italy. and Manzanilla de Jaén. North Africa and the Near East. In 2006.net/ . Koroneiki. in Greece.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. which produce approximately 350. Alberquina.com http://www. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. but especially in the Mediterranean. family Oleaceae). in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}.

Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. After extraction the remnant solid substance.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest.000 US gallons (181. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. The US imported 47.crazychefs.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. In North America. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. with production increasing to meet demand.000 m3) came from Italy.800. in Portugal.California.com http://www.net/ . Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. Oblica and Leccino. and by its flavor. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. Spain. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. Mission. still contains a small quantity of oil. The California Olive Oil Council. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. of which 34. by its chemistry. and Turkey. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. defining quality standards.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. Spain. with 23 member states. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production.600. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. Spain. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). a private trade group. called pomace. IOOC terminology is precise. The USDA uses a different system.000 US gallons (131. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). and monitoring authenticity. in Croatia. Galega. often in "prestige" packaging.

[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print.crazychefs. mostly hexane. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. and by heat. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market.net/ .[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. 25. both in Italy and abroad. but there are no guarantees. EU officials took issue with the new law.com http://www. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. for blended oils.[12] In some cases. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. but safe. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil.[15] Under EU rules. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. particularly in Italy.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). it is believed. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids).[16] In April 2008. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. Almost 700 people died. of free oleic acid it contains. measured by weight. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. however.[14] In March 2008. defined as the percent. is extremely lax and corrupt. product as superior olive oil.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label.[14] In February 2008.

In order to classify it by taste. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. and is judged to have a good taste. of not more than 0. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only.com http://www. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. absence of defects. of no more than 1.crazychefs. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. The US is not a member. Used on salads.5% acidity. and are based on acidity. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. has an acidity less than 2%. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. contains no more than 0. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters.the oil degrades. but may not be described simply as olive oil. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. and is judged to have a superior taste. Pure olive oil.S.8% acidity. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. expressed as oleic acid. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. It has a free acidity.3 grams per 100 grams (0. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market.net/ . another cause of rancidity. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. These grades were established in 1948. It is fit for consumption. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. The U. This is also called its organoleptic quality. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil.

S. (34 kJ/ml). U. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label.0% and is "fairly free from defects". This is incorrect.S. which may be as low as 10-15 °C.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp. First of all.S. Grade B or U. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures. "cold" does not define any precise temperature. Grade A or U.com http://www. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". U.4% and is "free from defects". These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.net/ . It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2.S.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. U. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.crazychefs.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.S. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5% and is "reasonably free from defects". Grade C". with less flavour.U. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.S. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. Grade D or U.S.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel.S.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.S. Grade C or U.

around 14 l.35 23.crazychefs.62 12.1 0. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. Portugal and Lebanon. so the term "first press" is meaningless. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.7 11. over 26 liters per year. Northern Europe and North America consume far less. Tunisia.pressed".com http://www. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2 7 1. Spain and Italy.net/ .1 1.7 l. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. around 8 l.8 7. around 0.

suggesting a different taste. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. After grinding. not in the oil mills. This is done in specialised chemical plants. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. which is much faster and more accurate. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. 4. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". 2. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. After grinding. 1.34 1. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. If ground with mill stones.crazychefs. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. then placed into the press. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. Green olives produce bitter oil. no or very little organoleptic defects). the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation).com http://www. 3. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1.net/ . the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes.

omega-6 fat 3.7%) and sterols (about 0.omega-3 fat <1. altitude. In the United States.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.monounsaturated 73 g . most notably oleic acid.net/ . Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g . The composition varies by cultivar. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.com http://www.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 g . region. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats.polyunsaturated 11 g . and extraction process.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. including oleocanthal and oleuropein.crazychefs.2% phytosterol and tocosterols).5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. time of harvest. To achieve this possible benefit.

and that it exerts antiinflamatory. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits.crazychefs.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease.com http://www. During the second phase. During the first stage.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. rather than its fatty acid profile. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis.This decision was announced November 1.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. It is theorized that. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. The study was conducted in two stages. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood.net/ . they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. antithrombotic. This way. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. and oleuropein. For example. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. at least in part. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. 2004.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. in the long term. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants).[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. This could. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet.

Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. cookware. A very fresh oil. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat.net/ . The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. not for foods to be eaten cold.[citation needed]. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). It is also used for sauteing ingredients. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. as available in an oil producing region. blenders. In time. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste.crazychefs. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. For example. Also. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. Also. Used cold. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. etc.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.com http://www. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. oils deteriorate and become stale. like salads. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ . topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus.com http://www. and mild laxative properties. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions.crazychefs. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. acting as a stool softener.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. It does have demulcent properties. It is also good for the management of pain.

from L. olive oil" (cf. elaion "olive tree". medicines. and skin care application. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. Besides food. from O.N.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. huile). 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. from Gk.Fr. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. olive oil. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. oile (12c. olio). as a fuel in oil lamps.crazychefs.Fr. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. and O. olie.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". 1175. It. drawn and engraved by J.. magical." In ancient Greece.Fr. oleum "oil.com http://www. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. Homer called it "liquid gold.net/ . probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. from Anglo-Fr. Mod.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. soap-making.

000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. In the centuries that followed. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.crazychefs.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen.com http://www. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times).[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today. olive presses became common. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5.net/ .[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. Bodrum. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.

net/ . the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. stored in special containers. According to the historian Pliny. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. during the 13th century BC. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. he maintained. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential.crazychefs. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. wrote of abundant olive trees. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. drained the water from the bottom. and area consisting of present day Palestine. together with naked appearance of athletes. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. where it is thought to have represented wealth. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC.[46] Until 1500 BC.[dubious – discuss] During this time. Lebanon.over 4. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. According to legend. when the oil had risen to the top. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. the fertile crescent. allowing more time for more oil to be made. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). and Israel. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil.. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff).000 and 3.com http://www. "the best in the Mediterranean". Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia.000 tons of olive oil per season. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete.[citation needed]. oil containers are preferred. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. Sinuhe.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates.

"Agricultural Statistics 2005". Retrieved 2008-07-04. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". 158. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak.gourmetretailer. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit).PDF. and.net/ .[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. light upon light. http://findarticles. 4."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. http://www. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047". One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. the tourch is in a glass bulb. 2.com http://www.com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display. Olive Production Manual. Louise Ferguson. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. ANR Publications.internationaloliveoil. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. References 1. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism.crazychefs. "The Olive Tree. http://www. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. ^ USDA. its oil almost glows. http://www. ^ International Olive Oil Council. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. Retrieved 2007-05-25. and the Mount of Sinai. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. even without fire touching it. Joann L Coviello.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.gov/nass/pubs/agr05/05_ch3. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. ^ G. and this secure city.html.org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo. neither Eastern nor Western. 3. In Islam. originating from King David. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. To douse the flame. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. in the consecration of altars and churches. ^ USDA. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). Margaret Lindstrand (2005). 5. traditionally. Retrieved 2007-05-25.usda. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. Steven Sibbett. ^ "findarticles. p. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases.imitate the original Menorah.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047.

http://news. ^ "www. ^ a b "Telegraph article".jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. 19 CFR 134. The New York Times (H. http://www. G.46. 7.com". 15. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. Dennis. ^ Mueller. PMID 3776973. 21.Scotsman. 55 (3): 175–86.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. United States Department of Agriculture. 19. D.). 17. ^ Durant. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. ^ "www. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud .23/. 2004.com/news-eu/1204304521.html". "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".eubusiness. Tom. and Maurizio La Guardia. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27.23/.nytimes.net/ . Menotti A. http://oliveoilonly. http://www.com/news-eu/1204304521. 25.com http://www.010. ^ Riding.co.phrs. US Customs Department. 23. M. Tripoli.usda. Di Majo.gov/AMSv1. http://www. ^ a b McGee. http://www.oxfordjournals.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. 11.htm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3776973.6.com News".internationaloliveoil. Karvonen MJ. J.internationaloliveoil. Nutrition Research Reviews 18.com/gst/fullpage. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26.southafrica. ^ "EUbusiness. ^ New York Times.2007. Pharmacol. Alan (1989-05-21).01.southafrica.co. Epidemiol.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institutionini. 20. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Telegraph". ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini. 12. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. November 2.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. (December 1986). "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". Slippery Business The New Yorker. doi:10.telegraph.telegraph. 16. ^ Keys A.uk/news/main.org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. John. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). 2007-08-13.com/world/Forty-arrested-in-new-39fake39. J. Retrieved 2008-11-09.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. http://query. 14. Retrieved 2008-11-16.xml. http://aje. et al.htm".crazychefs. S. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. ^ "Eubusiness. Giammanco.scotsman. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure.eubusiness. Am.jp. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. Raymond & Co. http://www. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".1079/NRR200495 24. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.xml.htm.1016/j. Retrieved 2008-11-16.ams. http://www.html.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. Giammanco. PMID 17321749. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28.4005000. 18. 13. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. Tabacchi. http://www.com". 10. 124 (6): 903–15. Res.uk/news/main.

^ "www." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007.telegraph.tchain. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster.com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36. Gruendel S. Suppl.Telegraph".com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. A : Wu. doi:10.xml. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. Dello Russo A. Medina E. Raimondi AS. Olea europaea L.html. Mar. (27 March 2000). ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. PMID 15830923.". ^ "Quite Interesting . europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). ^ Ehud Galili et al. d'Episcopo L.. 19. doi:10.1021/jf0630217.28. Poulsen HE.61. (January 2005). Marotta T." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. Olives 41.org 31. 21. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease.co. Israel". 39. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte.uk/portal/main. ^ [2] Ichihashi. 38. PMID 10737284. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. PMID 17110467. ^ a b Davidson. http://www. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". et al. Alonso MG. 43. ^ http://www.tchain. 1S45-50. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. Faseb J. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". ^ Mayo Clinic.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. Guida L. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. PMID 17263460. Nazim U.1096/fj. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". (January 2007).videojug. 11. Toshinori Bito. 10.1. Catherine Breton. ^ Pagnol. 19. ^ Machowetz A.net/ . ^ Guillaume Besnarda. A : Bito.com http://www. 44. Ahmed. 2000. Vol." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). JDermatol-Sci. Nov. 23.06-6328com. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". An Wu. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". 2085-2090.75. 21 (1): 45–52. T. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. 19 November 2007 30. ^ Romero C..crazychefs. Vol. p. Etienne N. 2000. ssp.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". ^ Ferrara LA. T : Ueda. ". p. http://www. 29. et al. doi:10. ^ Turner R. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. M : Osawa. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. 45. Masato Ueda. 37.html". Pagnol. ^ Rosenblum. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. No. J Agric Food Chem. Masamitsu Ichihashi. s. 55 (3): 680–6. Osamu Nikaido. "olive" and "oil" 40.ama-assn.1024/0300-9831. Use Olive Oil. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. Brenes M. 35. André Bervillé. N U : Budiyanto. De Castro A (February 2007). 1: Prevent Cancer. s. Vargas J. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". pp. p. Toshihiko Osawa.v. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. 34.v. but cites no source. Carcinogenesis. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. M : Ahmed. "New Year's Resolution No.

Scanlon. 47.).htm. B.R.com http://www. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". 2005 49. ed.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95.org. ^ Nigel M. 2001.crazychefs. Kennell. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. http://www.youngmuslims.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. Harrington Park Press.net/ . pp119–33 50. Provencal. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". ^ F.46. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil".il/ad/egypt/texts/sinuhe. ^ "www. http://www. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48.reshafim. ^ Thomas F. Riley. Verstraete and V.htm". "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. Processing methods. C.htm. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.youngmuslims.

[4][5] A carotenoid dye. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). Saffron. sativus flower bears three stigmas. crocin. A C.net/ .Saffron Saffron crocus C. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.or hay-like fragrance. Saffron has further medicinal applications. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform.crazychefs. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles.com http://www. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. each the distal end of a carpel. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. ən] / [ˈsæf. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia.

2 in) in length.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. must be dug up.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop.net/ .The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild.crazychefs.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. broken apart. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C.98–1." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). It is a sterile triploid form. In autumn.com http://www. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. and replanted. as was once generally believed. which means "yellow. in Central Asia. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. A corm survives for one season.[11] Upon flowering. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. purple buds appear. Being sterile. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. Only in October.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves.5 centimetres (1.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.

Only in mid-autumn do they flower. where hot.9 in) deep.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. rats. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. well-watered.com http://www. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. leaf rusts.crazychefs. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. maximizing sun exposure.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. Moroccan. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn.e. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare.8–5. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). and corm rot pose other threats. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. are critical factors affecting yields. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. Nematodes.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. in concert with climate. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). and birds. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields.net/ . they fare poorly in shady conditions.500 mm (39–59 in). Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands.[16] Furthermore. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. loose.000–1. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. where annual rainfall averages 1. Greek. low-density. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits.. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. Planting depth and corm spacing.

crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic.and β-carotenes. and various α. a product results that is itself water-soluble.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0. including zeaxanthin.11 gr) of dried saffron.0.[19] many of which are carotenoids. It also has many nonvolatile active components. However.com http://www. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. and thus oil-soluble.8-carotenoic acid).crazychefs.2 oz of dried saffron).8-diapo-8. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0. lycopene.net/ . This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8.[19] Meanwhile.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds.

0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 3.crazychefs.0 10.0–8.com http://www.0 11.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0 12.0 8.0 0.0 2.0–15.0 1.0 9.0 6.0 1.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 6.0–7.0–13.5 10.0 1.0 6.0 12.0–14.5 40.0 6.net/ .0–1.0 4.

It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. the heat. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. p. Santorini. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a volatile oil. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron.6.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal.3-diene-1.com http://www. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. dried hay like". Significantly. combined with enzymatic action.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels.6. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is.6.crazychefs. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.4.6-trimethyl-2. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.net/ . The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal.0 Source: Goyns 1999.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. incidentally. When saffron is dried after its harvest. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.Fiber (crude) 5.[18] Safranal.

crazychefs.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. sativus.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.com http://www. Thus.net/ . cartwrightianus. ointments. and in the mithridatium. cough.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.[28][29] Later. There. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. and scabies.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. mascaras.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.[33] potpourris. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. and medical treatments. In late Hellenistic Egypt. divine offerings. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. physicians in Gaza. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. Since then.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. colic. townspeople in Rhodes. C. a sterile mutant form of C.000 years. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.

the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. At such sites. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. a Chinese medical expert.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. and used in dyes.crazychefs. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. Wan Zhen. saffron threads were woven into textiles.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. a less expensive dye. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece.net/ . medicines. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.[44] From there. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.[44] During his Asian campaigns.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.[43] Thus.[39][40] Later.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. perfumes. rice.Asia The 17.[53] On the other hand. Isfahan.[42] ritually offered to divinities. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. For example.[51] However. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. and body washes. dating to 978–993 AD. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. or jackfruit.

[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. tea. and then the saffron is obtained.[59][60] Only in southern France. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. indeed. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed.crazychefs.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Italy.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. coffee. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain.[58] Soon after.com http://www. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. However. under which saffron adulterators were fined. named for its new specialty crop. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. France.saffron is in Kashmir. saffron cultivation spread throughout England.net/ . imprisoned. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. It can be used to aromatise wine. and Italy. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War".[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. and executed. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania.[62] By 1730. did significant cultivation endure." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. In Europe. which grew prosperous. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. The Essex town of Saffron Walden.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. and Spain.

Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron.com http://www. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. noodles.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. particularly in China and India. and in perfumery. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Indian. European.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. and antioxidantlike properties.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). Pennsylvania. and chicken or trout dishes. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). Turkish.crazychefs.net/ . Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. Medicinally.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Arab. Central Asian. and Cornish cuisines. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. immunomodulating. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

100/€1.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram).net/ . and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.crazychefs. Annually. India.000 flowers.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. are generally mellower in colour.500/€7. For example.100–11. the average retail price is $1.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. In Western countries. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. Greece.550 per kilogram).[5] Iran. Spain's varieties. Switzerland. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. flavour.200/£1. France. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad.000-170. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and other countries.[2] A pound comprises between 70. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. elasticity.500 per kilogram. Aside from these. slight moistness. and aroma.000 threads.com http://www. Morocco. are the major producers of saffron.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. and Italy.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. they are graded by government-imposed standards. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5. in decreasing order of production.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east.000 flowers. Spain. England. Vivid crimson colouring.000–75. the United States.000 and 200. Azerbaijan.000 per pound (US$1.

There.some organically grown. near L'Aquila. and crop failures in Kashmir. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma).com http://www. and safranal (fragrance) content. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. Repeated droughts. picrocrocin (taste). which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. Sardinia. aroma. is in San Gavino Monreale. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it also has very high crocin. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. and safranal content.. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. shape. and colourative effect. blights. unusually pungent aroma. for quality and quantity. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. picrocrocin.crazychefs.S. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. In the U. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content.79 in).net/ . Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. combined with an Indian export ban. among the world's darkest. contribute to its high prices. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production).

a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. and I (finest quality). and thus a greater colourative intensity. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). in India.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. paprika. many growers. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. However. and other powders used as diluting fillers.com http://www. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I).[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). pliability. and consumers reject such lab test numbers.[77] However. pomegranate fibers. red-dyed silk fibers.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets.[80] Thus. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. III. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil.national standards bodies. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste.net/ . aroma. with turmeric. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. II.crazychefs. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. traders.

p. 17. p. p. 3. 8. 1. p.". ^ M. 24.asp?AcNo=20043148643. p. 53. 3. p. http://books. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. Retrieved 2007-12-01. pp. 6. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. 13. 422. 23. 14. stigma extracts and their constituents. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. ^ Rau 1969. 272. 4. p. 2–3. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. ^ Willard 2001. 3–4. Sterling. 16. ^ DPIWE 2005. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. ^ a b McGee 2004. ^ Harper 2001. p. 4. 21.org. p. 18. ^ a b Deo 2003. p. 2. www. 2. 20. 3. ^ Grigg 1974. 22. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. Grilli Caiola . ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. Kansai. 19. http://www. Honshū. 423. p. crocin and safranal. 1. pp.net/ . 3. 15.com/books?id=AaTpWEIlgNwC.com http://www. ^ Willard 2001. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. 12. p.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 5. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ Dharmananda 2005. ^ Willard 2001. 4. ^ a b c Hill 2004. 7. ^ Kumar V (2006). p.google. ^ McGee 2004. 1. pp. ^ Deo 2003. 9. 103.Saffron reproductive biology 11.crazychefs.cababstractsplus. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Deo 2003.cababstractsplus.org/google/abstract. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 287. in mice.

1. ^ Willard 2001. 56. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 59. 68. ^ Willard 2001. p. 12. p. p. p. ^ Hill 2004. pp. 64. ca. 2. p. ^ Willard 2001. p. 256. 11. p. ^ Honan 2004. 34. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. p. p. 99. ^ Willard 2001. de Medicina. p. 50. 138. 41. ^ a b Willard 2001. 26. 95. 29. Loeb Classical Library Edition. Victoria (30 December 2002). ^ Willard 2001. 31. ^ Goyns 1999.pdf 70. 43. 48.25. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999.au/news/acevs%20saffron. 132–133. 41. ^ Celsus. ^ Finlay. 133. pp. 1. 44. p. 45. ^ Hayes 2001. p. 60. ^ McGee 2004. 37. 35. ^ Willard 2001. 1935 [1] 38. p. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 58. p. p. ^ Willard 2001. 72. 33. 63. ^ Rau 1969. p. 46. 34–35. pp. p. 62.pdf 71. 55. 101. 39. pp. p.au/AnnualReports/ACEVS%20Report%202007. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. p.net/ . p. p. ^ Ferrence 2004. 6. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b c Willard 2001. 138. 422. p. 61. 30 AD.crazychefs. 32. ^ http://www. 40. 55. p. p. 20. 273. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. p. ^ a b Dalby 2002. 47. 142–146. p. ^ Dalby 2003. 51. 1. 2–3. 2. 58. 70. Kuo & Wang 1964. pp. 138–139. Random House. 17–18. p. 67. ^ Willard 2001. pp. 35. 2. 128. 66. ^ Willard 2001.vision.edu. 54. ^ Willard 2001. transl. 30. 42. ^ a b Willard 2001. 1. 49. 41. ^ Dalby 2002. 57. ^ Chang. 59. ^ Willard 2001.edu. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ http://vision. p. p. 143. ^ Honan 2004. p. ^ Willard 2001.com http://www.iovs. p. ^ Humphries 1998. 54–55. 52. pp. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. 117. ^ Willard 2001. 63. 1. ^ Deo 2003. ^ Willard 2001. 103–104. ^ Fletcher 2005. 27. 28.org/cgi/content/abstract/49/3/1254 69. 65. ^ Lak 1998b. ^ Willard 2001. 73. 224. 36. pp. ^ http://www.

NW. University of California Press. Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. B (2003). <http://books. ^ Lak 1998. Dalby.cri. Institute for Traditional Medicine. 2006. Retrieved on January 10.au/news/newsitems/200311/s982047. 102–104. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 11. pp. Abdullaev. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10 2006. "Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. 81.pdf>. PY. 78. "Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L. 2008. 2006. P (2002). ISBN 0415-23259-7. A (2002). Darling Biomedical Library (2002). Retrieved on January 10. "Growing Saffron—The World's Most Expensive Spice". 79. PMID 11788779 Assimopoulou.net. 2006. 53 (15). PMID 16317646 Chang.au/landline/stories/s556192. Retrieved on July 27.crazychefs. "Effect of drying temperature and air flow on the production and retention of secondary metabolites in saffron". Crop & Food Research (New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research) (no. CT Kuo & CK Wang (1964).cfm?displayID=22>. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2003. "Saffron". VP Papageorgiou & Z Sinakos (2005). MJ Gregory & RC Menary (2005). <http://www. Dharmananda.net.)". ^ Willard 2001.org/cgi/content/full/227/1/20>. ^ a b Tarvand 2005b.google. p.htm>. "The pharmacological action of 藏红花 (zà hóng huā—Crocus sativus L. Landline (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Liang.abc.ucla.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=7IHcZ21dyjwC>.library.crop. Experimental Biology and Medicine 227 (1). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.htm>. 76. 8.htm>. p.abc. <http://www. 2006[dead link]. 2006. Routledge (UK). Retrieved on January 10. <http://www.org/arts/saffron.74. 245 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 201. p.ebmonline. Retrieved on January 10. Dalby. 77. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. A (2003). Davies. 20). AN.itmonline. S (2005). 75. FI (2002). Darling Biomedical Library (UCLA). ^ Willard 2001. ^ Tarvand 2005.nz/home/productsservices/publications/broadsheets/020saffron.com http://www. <http://www. ^ Goyns 1999. <http://www. ^ Hill 2004. 80. "Saffron: An Anti-Depressant Herb". "Kashmiri saffron producers see red over Iranian imports". ISBN 0-520-23674-2.): effect on the uterus and/or estrous cycle".net/ . <http://unitproj. References Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2003). W. extract and its bioactive constituents". ^ Hussain 2005. Courtney. 274. PMID 16028982 Deo. Phytotherapy Research 19 (11). 82.edu/biomed/spice/index. Food in the Ancient World from A to Z. "Tasmania's Saffron Gold".

Retrieved on January 10. Fotedar. Retrieved on January 10.bbc. 2006. BBC News. Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1).crazychefs. "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera". D (1998). Retrieved on January 10. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine". Lak. ISBN 0-312-34068-0.gov. Retrieved on January 10. Wiley. Grigg. 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Agricultural Systems of the World. SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005). Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4). Harper. JH.pdf>. MH (1999). Jessie. Saffron. JC (2002). 2006. Hussain. Martin's Press. Retrieved on January 10. 2006.at/~katzer/engl/Croc_sat. <http://news. The New York Times. ISBN 1-58008-024-3. Online Etymology Dictionary. ISBN 90-5702-394-6. <http://books. AW (2001).bbc.html>.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>. 2006. J (1998). Honan. <http://www. <http://www. ISBN 0-521-09843-2.net/ . The Essential Saffron Companion.com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=l-QJaUp31T4C>.DPIWE (2005). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2). PMID 15259204 Fletcher. A (2005).dpiwe. BBC News. Leffingwell. "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". ISBN 0-471-21423-X. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution". Retrieved on January 10. Principles and Methods of Toxicology.leffingwell.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/212491.bbc.stm>. SC (2004). Humphries. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www.com/2004/03/02/science/02MEDI.nytimes. Hill. "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress".ikashmir. "Saffron (Crocus sativus L. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5). Taylor & Francis. PMID 16180089 Katzer.html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>.uni-graz.tas. Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. WH (2004). BBC News. St.php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>.co. Goyns. 2006. Ten Speed Press. DB (1974). Lak. <http://news.com http://www.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4216493. 2006. Cambridge University Press. PMID 8590890 Hayes. Hasegawa. D (1998b). 2006. <http://www.)". 2006.stm>.org/pdf/Vitasta1998-1999. Taylor & Francis. <http://news. 2006. SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995). The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen.co. ISBN 1-56032-814-2. Retrieved on January 10. T (2004).etymonline. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron".co. S (1998–1999). Retrieved on January 10. D (2001). Food & Agriculture. "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. N (2005).com/download/saffron. saffron".uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/213043.st m>. "Saffron". Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. G (2001).google.pdf>. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron". 2006[dead link]. <http://www. "Saffron".com/index. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). Ferrence. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron".

2006. Reconstructing History. JB (2005). Tarvand (2005b). "What is Saffron?". New Scientist. 2006.html>.McGann.com/channel/earth/mg18524831.tarvandsaffron. 2006.com/saffron. Retrieved on January 10.newscientist. <http://books. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Cancer Letters 57 (2).crazychefs. "Grading and Classification". B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nair.tarvandsaffron. Willard. 2006. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice.usda. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3.html>.htm>. "Saffron". SR (1969).barc. Retrieved on January 10. 2006. F (2005).gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b.cfm?chemic al_id=140>. Retrieved on January 10. PMID 2025883 Park. <http://books. <http://www.com http://www. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". 2006. SC.pl. Pearce. Tarvand Saffron Company. H (2004).".com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>. K (2003). "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10. Scribner. Beacon Press.google. Tarvand Saffron Company. Time Life Education. <http://www.net/ . McGee. The Cooking of India. 2006[dead link]. Retrieved on January 10.htm>. <http://www.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>.com/classification. <http://www.000. Rau.com/irish/saffron. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). P (2001).reconstructinghistory. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). USDA Phytochemical Database. <http://www. Retrieved on January 10.google.

crazychefs.net/ .Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Dead Sea. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.

measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide.[9].crazychefs.com http://www. ca 170 AD. Though. endives.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. called xoana.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. are borne generally on the last year's wood. two stamens and bifid stigma. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry.5 cm long. The small white flowers. from Lebanon. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis.[1] and in the Iliad. Asia and parts of Africa.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. they were reverently preserved for centuries. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. Theophrastus. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. the olive suckers readily from the stump. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin."[7] indeed.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. Its fruit. referring to their wooden material. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. In Homer's Odyssey.net/ .[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. It is short and squat. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). which he describes as very simple: "As for me. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. olives. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage.(XVII. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. the olive. by a spring. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially.

the olive has been the symbol of peace. wisdom. The olive tree itself. Today. As emblems of benediction and purification. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. wild-type olives.The leafy branches of the olive tree .[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. play an important role in the Bible. glory and peace . does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. The Book of Jacob 5. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. olives were grown commercially in Crete. For example. Over the years. Chile and Argentina. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel.net/ . the pits give rise to thorny. and one of the most significant. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today.[12] After the 16th century. glory. and its cultivation began in Mexico. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. in On the Nature of Plants.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. Peru. but he makes clear (in 1.16. fertility. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries.crazychefs. as well as olive oil and olives. Theophrastus. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. kotinos. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. indeed. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. spread far and wide by birds. for which the Greeks had a separate name. As far back as 3000 BC.com http://www. and then in the 18th century in California. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. in both the New and Old Testaments. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. power and pureness. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there.

600 years old. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. claimed to be over 2.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni).000 years old. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. The older an olive tree is. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. which is made into top quality olive oil.com http://www. Montenegro. Istria in Croatia. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears.and fire-resistant. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. The age of an olive tree in Crete. disease. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. One olive tree in Bar. and can live for very long.net/ . Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. drought-. has been calculated to be about 1. named "Plato's Olive Tree". is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times.crazychefs.

Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. Specifically. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia.400 years ago. According to a recent scientific survey. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil.net/ . 1600-2000 years old. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. All seven trees continue to produce olives.crazychefs.2.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. both in Galilee region. In the same natural garden. fine wood. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens.com http://www. though showing a preference for the coast.6 km) as the limit. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. A supposedly even older tree. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. a few other millenary trees can be admired. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. olive leaf. called the "Peisistratos Tree". see Olive (fruit). and the olive fruit. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. Italy. and. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. Modern experience does not always confirm this. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC.

Israel. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2.com http://www. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. northwest Africa) where winters are mild. such as South Africa.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives.net/ . Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. Australia. Sudan. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. Argentina. the Mediterranean Basin. Niger. Chile.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). laperrinei (Algeria. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp.crazychefs. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. Olive plantation in Andalucia. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants.

net/ .com http://www.crazychefs.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ .com http://www. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.

Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. In recent times. 'Bosana'. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . stuffed (with pickled pimento. originating in Dos Hermanas. The olive grove of Amfissa. anchovies.crazychefs. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one.com http://www. Rich taste and thick pulp. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. rounded-oval fruit. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. which consists of 1. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . but only a few are grown to a large extent. 'Manzanilla'. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. A prolific bearer. in southern Spain. a large. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. Seville. often after being pitted. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive.200.Cailletier cultivar. with purple-green skin. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. grown around the world.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. It is used mostly for oils. the most common olive grown on Sardinia.

Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. originating in the south of France (Aude département). Spain. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. Spain. and elongated. originating from the southern Peloponese. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. though difficult to cultivate. 'Nabali'. Moreover. brown olive grown in Catalonia.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'.[23] 'Barnea'. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece.[21] 'Koroneiki'. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. good for eating and for oil. Greece. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. Due to their highly valued flavour. named after the city of Kalamata. 'Kalamata'. This small olive. these cultivars are now grown in other countries.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. round. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain.crazychefs. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. 'Souri'. It has a strong but sweet flavour. which. large. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. Spain. used as a table olive. It is green. They are black and generally used for table consumption. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. originating in Toledo. 'Arbequina'. disease-resistant. another modern Israeli. Their flavour is mild and nutty. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. It is mainly used for oil. even on clay if well drained. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. good for eating and for oil. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. The flavour is mild and nutty. originating in the province of Córdoba. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. a large. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. It is used both for oil and for table olives. originating in the south of France. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. The olive is medium sized. They grow in any light soil. medium size. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop.com http://www. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. and coastal climate conditions. They are green. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. and elongated. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. 'Hojiblanca'.net/ . 'Picual'. a small. 'Cornicabra'. 'Empeltre'.

if they are pruned correctly and regularly.crazychefs. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. In southern Europe. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground.) Olives like hot weather. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. This method is used for olives used for oil. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. In some places in Italy and Greece. it is valued by woodworkers. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. Another method uses an electric tool. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. Olives grow very slowly. up to several centuries. the oliviera. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. They tolerate drought well. removing fruit from the tree. More specifically. and with the season and the cultivar. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. soon vegetate. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. embryonic buds. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. In Italy. the trees are regularly pruned. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system.poorer soil. Occasionally. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. 114).[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit.com http://www. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. being very hard and close-grained. to facilitate germination. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. However. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. which form small swellings on the stems. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. In Greece. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. Olives are propagated in various ways. and can remain productive for as long. P. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. but the time varies in each country. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. A. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. as in Languedoc and Provence. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder.net/ .

through to full purple black ripeness. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. which is a natural preservative. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. which can be eaten fresh. which leads to a superior finished product. The olives are soaked in water to wash. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. the fruit is not bruised. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process.net/ .2 kg of oil per tree per year.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. the creation of lactic acid. Typical yields are 1.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. a bitter carbohydrate. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. or green with hints of colour). which is healthy for future production. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. which is why they taste milder than green olives. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds.g. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. Fresh are often sold at markets. The method also involves sawing off branches. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. then drained.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products.com http://www. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water.crazychefs. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. Olives can be used green.. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar.5-2. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As a result. After some weeks. large fruit (e.

oleae[27]. an unnatural method. A species of bacterium. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. olives suffer occasionally from frost. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. but can be left to cure for up to three months. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. diseases. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. chili. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot.crazychefs. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. lemon zest. garlic cloves. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die.net/ . The ten largest producing countries. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. of which the water is changed daily.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. their main predators are wasps. juniper berries and anchovies.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. leaving sawtooth damage. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. wine. or removing the pit and stuffing them. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. In France and north-central Italy. causing great damage to plantations. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. capsicum (pimento). vinegar. Pests. feta. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. lemon juice. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. and weather A fungus. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. especially to young trees. olive oil. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. Lye-curing. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. induces tumour growth in the shoots. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste.com http://www. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6 to 8. Sometimes. spices. Cycloconium oleaginum. Popular flavourings are herbs. salt-curing.

000 49. 82.000 20.160. 6.crazychefs.000 275. ^ Homer. Odyssey. 4. 3. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.8 16.0 3. 4.4 30.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.981 1. and to cultivate olive-trees.000 280. Bibliotheke.000 1. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.300.140.7 27.9 6.1 25. ^ ". ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures. p. 38." (Diodorus Siculus.064 2. 1. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.[31] References 1.net/ .100 3.149. 4. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens. book 5"... In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. 2.888 178.000 1.000 498.000 998. ^ Theophrastus.800. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced. 3.14." (Herodotus.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17. On the Causes of Plants.13.000 250.000 318.3 8. 1)..3 20.000 430. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.830 2.685 765. 1 ). 27. 1992.400.339 300.5 6.317.089 6. Ancient Greek Agriculture. ^ Pausanias. An introduction. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.5 63..500.000 594.6 31.com http://www.000 8. 7. to make bee-hives. most notably South Australia.000 550. 5.5.1).988 500.597. 5. 81. Description of Greece 1.000 470.

^ a b M.fao. J.brijuni. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. 13. 29 April. http://www. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14.A. Spring/Summer 2006 26. J. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Volume 18:27-35 20. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 27. ^ "Old Olive Tree". op. pp 110–113. Riley (2002). Epikouria Magazine. Elena "Unusual Olives". Odes 1. Simhoni.htm. E. Masuelli. (1999) Ancient Trees. Retrieved 2007-08-31. J. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. & Ouazzani. 30. A. me cichorea levesque malvae. 1999. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. ^ Fotiadi. (September 2002). Retrieved 2007-08-31. 2001. 28.15. 1996. http://www. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. 69. ^ Burr. John Hutton. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp.com/ 25. ^ Lewington. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. "Plants of the Bible" 1885.jsp. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". 2004". TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. 23.. nov. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. ^ [1] 21.8.279 18. 1981. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. ^ O. Apps3.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". 35. Brijuni National Park. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. M Bauza & R. AGRISCIENTA.cit. ^ Janse. Syst. Zatoun. Volume 15. 24. Rackham. Bacteriol.31. 105. p. 17. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". Tabak & O. Moody. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. R. ^ Gooch.zatoun. Ellen. http://apps3.org. ca 30 BC 9. ^ Balfour. 29. M. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. Available through Google Books 11. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". vol. 32:166–169.. http://www. p. The Making of the Cretan Landscape.com/content/dlb533pw9cbwc59e/. 1779. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". rev. D.org/wiews/olive/intro.. R. Madrid. 1982. Juárez. 4th edition.fao.com/study. ^ Belaj et al.net/ . Australian Olives. ^ Lumaret. Leshonenu (Hebrew). Number 4). EspasaCalpe S..pasoroblesolivefestival. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22." Horace.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. Retrieved 2009-05-18. Y.crazychefs. Cavagnaro P. ^ Riley. Int. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. Epikouria Magazine. N. nom. ^ Muncipality Bar. Kislew.springerlink.W. J.aspx?PageID=151.hr/Home.com http://www. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. cited in F. & Parker. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. Processing methods.. ^ "FAO. ^ http://www. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19.

crazychefs. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. with an entire margin. western North America. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India.31. with slender branched stems. and south to northern Mexico. (French tarragon. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. glossy green.net/ .) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter.R. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. however. seldom produces flowers. Corresponding to its species name.com http://www. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. L. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves are lanceolate.

[1] Russian tarragon (A. sunny spot.net/ .Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. due to the presence of estragole. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. without excessive watering.crazychefs.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. A perennial. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. dracunculoides L. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). but cannot be grown from seed. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. which is the Armenian. Russia and Ukraine. by extension. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. Fresh.[1] However.com http://www. Persian and Russian word for . Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. It is normally purchased as a plant. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. and particularly suitable for chicken.[1] It likes a hot. Georgia and. Spreading plant can be divided easily. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. it normally goes dormant in winter. fish and egg dishes.

^ a b c d McGee. Workman Publishing. Foerstner J. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. 233. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. Horst. Machinek A. Wiley-VCH.net/ . Properties and Uses. References 1. Stuckey. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Ley JP. Krammer G. ^ Surburg.[3] In Slovenia. ^ Gatfield IL. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Maggie (2002). 2. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. ISBN 9783527607891. The Bountiful Container.Cis-Pellitorin. 3.com http://www. pp. Johannes Panten (2006). tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. Rose Marie Nichols. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste.

Lamiaceae. Garden sage.net/ . with woody stems. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. and blue to purplish flowers. In the United States. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. Kitchen sage. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. It is a member of the mint family. though other species. Common sage. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. Purple sage. grayish leaves. Dalmatian sage. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. cheeses (Sage Derby). The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. sage has a slight peppery flavor. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and some drinks. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). In the Balkans and the Middle East. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). Culinary sage. In Western cooking. Broadleaf sage. In French cuisine. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. it is used when roasting mutton.Salvia officinalis (Sage.com http://www.crazychefs. Britain and Flanders.

[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. flavonoid glycosides. chlorogenic acid. antifungal. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. flavones. ursolic acid.[1] In a double blind. nicotinamide. which contains cineole. hypoglycemic. antispasmodic. and thujone. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.trichomes are visible. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. The underside of a sage leaf . cornsole. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. salvia. and tonic.net/ . oleic acid. astringent. antibiotic. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. fumaric acid. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. and estrogenic substances.crazychefs.more trichomes are visible on this side. caffeic acid.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . borneol.com http://www. means ―to heal". estrogenic. The Latin name for sage.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ursonic acid. cornsolic acid. niacin.

doi:10. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages.00463. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". OBeWise Nutriceutica. and for other uses. ^ Akhondzadeh S.1365-2710.php. They are easily raised from summer cuttings.net/ . especially in sunny dry environments.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. a cultivar with white. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. yellow and green variegated leaves. and more.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. a white-flowered cultivar. References 1. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. ^ a b c "Sage". 'Alba'. Noroozian M. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). 'Berggarten'. increasing women's fertility.2003. a purple-leafed cultivar. hemostatic. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. a small leaved cultivar. a local anesthetic for the skin. 'Tricolor'. (2003).1046/j.com http://www. 2. snakebites. and tonic. Pliny. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. PMID 12605619. Retrieved 2008-02-04. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. Mohammadi M. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. a wild undershrub he called sphakos.crazychefs. Applied Health. 'Extrakta'.appliedhealth.[4] It was sometimes called S. Khani M. Ohadinia S. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. a styptic. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'.x. Jamshidi AH. 'Icterina'. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. and used as a diuretic. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar.com/nutri/page8453. emmenagogue. http://www.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. a cultivar with large leaves. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. Dioscorides. and for low ground cover. 'Lavandulaefolia'.

Spiridon E. (2000). 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. CRC Press. p.com http://www.3.net/ . pp. ISBN 9789058230058. Deni Bown (New York: DK. ^ a b Kintzios. 4.crazychefs. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sage: The Genus Salvia. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. 10-11.