Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. and in those derived from them. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial.a little less if it is ground. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. Albanian. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. Leaves are often chopped. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. tomatoes and eggs. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. storage life is rarely more than a week. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Persian. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. Depending on how it is used in a dish.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. As a rule of thumb. In some Levantine countries. It can be propagated by seed. and Turkish cuisines. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. assume that it means fresh.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. It tolerates drought well. Syrian.g. Portuguese. which is due to its content of thymol. Dried. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. while flavourful. cuttings. Libyan. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. fresh thyme is often available year-round. and of herbes de Provence. the whole sprig may be used (e. While summer-seasonal. Thyme. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer).net/ . The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. In French cuisine. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). soups and http://www. Spanish. Lebanese. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. Greek. in a bouquet garni). Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. or by the sprig.crazychefs. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. Italian.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil.

pulegioides × T. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. .[6] Thymol. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone.[5] As with bay.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. but is grown as a ground cover. tisane. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. salve. Because it is antiseptic. The dried equivalent is 1:3. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. It also has medicinal uses. an antiseptic. it was used to medicate bandages. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed].crazychefs. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for http://www. hybrid T. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. All thyme species are nectar sources.

There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing http://www.Variegated lemon thyme.crazychefs. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/ . ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing.

crazychefs.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum .com http://www. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

1 mg 6. B2) http://www. often used as spice.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g ( . It is common in Middle Eastern.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.0 μg Calcium 138. and American cooking.0 mg Iron 6.9 g .Dietary fiber 3.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.2 mg Magnesium 50.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit. European.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 mg Folate (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.1 mg recommendations for adults. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.Sugars 0. B3) 1. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).0 mg Phosphorus 58.crazychefs. B1) 0.8 g 3. although parsley has a milder flavor.3 g 0.

tuberosum).Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. neapolitanum). which then tend to protect plants nearby. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. For example. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. not blooming until its second year. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. which helps accommodate the long taproot. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius).com http://www. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. However. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks.crazychefs. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. it attracts predatory insects. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. Like many other umbellifers. While parsley is biennial. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. or flat leaf ( . Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. it is not related to real turnips. used in soups and stews. Although little known in Britain and the United States. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. reducing pest attraction.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination.

steaks. [1]) in oxalic acid. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women.aspx?id=1075&s=4. garlic.drugs. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. "That Devilish Parsley. http://www.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. Last retrieved April 26. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. fried chicken. a mixture of parsley. leaf. soups. and sauces.[3] Parsley is high (1. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). Ossobuco alla milanese. Parsley as an oil. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. with fish. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3.70% by . References ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins." West Virginia University Extension Service. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup.plucodes. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. In addition. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally.g. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). 2007. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. http://www. "Parsley on plucodes. or". 4. ^ a b c John W. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. In Southern and Central Europe.crazychefs.. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European". http://www. e. and lemon zest. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks.html. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. parsley is part of bouquet garni. 2. lamb or goose.

Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.

com http://www.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum . vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.crazychefs. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ . as well as cultivars. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. growing to 20-80 cm tall. The flowers are purple. which is popular in southern Italy. of the mint family. fried vegetables. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. each with distinct flavours. and lovage leaves. capers. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano).g. It is a perennial herb. e. Oregano growing in a field.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. 3-4 mm long. Greek.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. Oregano combines nicely with pickled http://www. spicy flavor. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. native to Europe. Varieties There are a number of subspecies.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. Together with basil. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. O vulgare gracile. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. Oregano is an important culinary herb. and grilled meat. and to add a nice. It is the leaves that are used in cooking.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes.crazychefs. produced in erect spikes. Unlike most Italian herbs. It is particularly widely used in Turkish.

In barbecue and kebab restaurants. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Oregano growing in a pot. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. together with paprika. It varies in intensity.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. however. West Asia) have similar flavors. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. Asia Minor) and O. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. especially for mutton and lambs http://www. heracleoticum (Italy. It has an aromatic. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. useful for relieving children's coughs. Balkan peninsula. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. warm and slightly bitter taste. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. salt and pepper. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza.[5][6] Additionally. In the Philippines.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. it can be usually found on table. differs significantly in taste. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. The influence of climate. which. In Turkish Cuisine. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor.

Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. ^ Organic Gardening 2. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. ocimene. Plectranthus amboinicus. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of . Used topically. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. stomachic and mildly tonic. capsules. cholagogue. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". also called Cuban oregano. carminative. stimulant.crazychefs. ^ http://www. indigestion. influenza. emmenagogue. Aqueous extracts. Coleus aromaticus). Lippia berlandieri. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. limonene. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. expectorant. useful for relieving children's coughs. including Poliomintha longiflora. antispasmodic.html. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in".[12] References 1. http://www. diaphoretic.Main constituents include carvacrol. but is usually stronger. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. fungal infections. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. this substitution would not work the other way round. In the Philippines. mild fevers. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. and caryophyllene. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano.[7] and painful menstruation. thymol. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. oregano.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). the father of medicine. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ A Cretan oregano (O. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. enteric parasites. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep.[8] Hippocrates. especially in the United States. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant.uni-graz. stomach upsets. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language.

Fall/Winter 2007 10. Steinar. ^ Oxford English Dictionary . Fall/Spring 2007 5. J. Food Chem.3. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. ^ Epikouria Magazine. ^ Epikouria Magazine. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/ "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". 53 (21): 8162–8168. 133 (5): 1286– 28. J Nutr.dmannose. Retrieved http://www.". ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". http://jn. et al.2008. PMID 12730411. draft revision for "organum". Agric. (2005).1021/jf0510079. PMID 16218659. Draft revision for "oregano". June 2008. 12. March Leonor.php. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. ^ ["http://www. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". 11. (01 May 2003).crazychefs. ^ Dragland. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. 6. et al. ^ a b Faleiro. Medical News Today. (Cav. doi:10.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. 7. http://www. 24 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-26. University of the West of England.asp?item=1374& and Origanum vulgare http://info. draft revision for "origanum".

As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. Also. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean.crazychefs. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen.[2] In Greek mythology. recorded in the 10th century. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. perennial. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere ( .[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. it was from the giant fennel. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. umbelliferous herb. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). It is a hardy. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. In Ancient Greek. however. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. it seems. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. Ferula communis. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. with yellow flowers and feathery http://www. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. meaning "hay". is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe.

[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.01 mg 7.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.20 g 1.29 g 0. bulb. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0. with hollow stems. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. and grooved. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.Dietary fiber 3. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long. glaucous green.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . about 0.crazychefs. half as wide or less. B1) 0. B3) 0.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial http://www. and grows to heights of up to 2. but thinner. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). It is erect. they are finely dissected.5 mm wide.5 m. B2) 0.047 mg Folate (Vit.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g ( .

is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. which is also known by several other names. including northern Europe.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'.20 mg Manganese 0. though usually not as strong. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. "bronze-leaved" fennel. for its edible. vulgare var. syn. In North American supermarkets.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. and in other open sites in many regions. in pastures. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. by the late 19th century. both in its native range and elsewhere. the United States. It propagates well by seed. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. it is often mislabelled as "anise".crazychefs. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other .[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. It is of cultivated origin.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum http://www. notably the Italian name finocchio. but is more aromatic and sweeter.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. F. both raw and cooked. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise.

foliage. badesoppu in Kannada. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. which are very similar in taste and appearance. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. Many egg. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. brown or green in colour when fresh. It may be blanched or marinated. but also the most expensive. stewed. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world.crazychefs. grilled. though smaller. braised. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel http://www. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. or eaten raw. sompu in Telugu. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). fish. green seeds are optimal. anise-flavoured spice. variyali in Gujarati. For cooking. often tossed with chicory and avocado. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. mouri in Bengali. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. hardy root vegetable and may be . Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. salads. and risottos. in side dishes. The bulb is a crisp. or cooked in risotto.Fennel. where bulbs and fronds are used.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. pastas. both raw and cooked.

[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. sometimes with some http://www. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders.crazychefs. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. This use.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. or its polymers.[12] For adults. also employed as a carminative. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. although not supported by direct evidence. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. Fennel tea. used to ease flatulence in infants. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a . Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. act as phytoestrogens.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. as it is said to improve eyesight.

and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. followed by India.crazychefs.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast http://www. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. which promote growth of breast . Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas.[17] However. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. badian (star anise). fennel and coriander.

synonym C.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark.crazychefs. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. Ceylon. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. in the original Sinhala. it is called "Darchini" ( ). itself ultimately from Phoenician. In Farsi (Persian).)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. it is known as "DalChini ( )". karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.[5] In Malayalam.C. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. In Telugu.[2] In Marathi. In Urdu. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum.[3] In Sri Lanka. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . Chakka meaning bark or wood. which are often called cinnamon too. it is called Dalchina Chakka. In Bengali. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. native to Sri Lanka. . the "real' cassia. it is called darchin (‫. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. cinnamon is known as kurundu. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. and in Gujarati taj. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera.

[8] Before the foundation of Cairo.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka.crazychefs. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. and in Song of Solomon. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . aloe and . a song describing the beauty of his beloved. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. in Proverbs.

The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270.crazychefs. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild.75–7. and used them to construct their nests. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years.2 feet) tall. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. and coffee.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. However. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. "The shores of the island are full of it". Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. They established a trading post in 1638. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. 7–18 cm (2. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. which are arranged in panicles. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. The flowers.8–49. have a greenish color. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. although in the first century.1 inches) long. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. p. took control of the factories by http://www. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. tea.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. a Dutch captain reported.Ages. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in a letter of about 1292. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to . In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. and have a distinct odor. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese." (Braudel 1984. sugar.

the outer woody portion is removed. which is left to dry. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 mm) inner bark is used. Sumatra. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. The next year. According to the International Herald Tribune. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. eg. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. verum).crazychefs. and Vietnam. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. Bangladesh. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. Zanzibar. Vietnam. Madagascar. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. Java. India. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. and Egypt. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. . outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India.[15] According to the FAO. the West http://www. followed by China. Only the thin (0. Chips are trimmings of quills.

is generally a medium to light reddish http://www. hard and woody in texture. or "Indonesian cinnamon".crazychefs.[16] Ceylon cinnamon. "Vietnamese cinnamon". less dense. has a finer. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . and is considered to be less strong than cassia. using only the thin inner bark. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). for example. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. zeylanicum). Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. and more crumbly texture. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of . Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. many websites. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". as all of the layers of bark are used. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. However. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). the related species.

[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. but when cassia is present. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. and liqueurs. macerating it in . which is the main importer of true cinnamon. when whole.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. In the United States. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. hot cocoa. rather than cassia. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. True cinnamon. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. In the Middle East. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.crazychefs. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. and sweets. tea. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. and then quickly distilling the whole. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. are easily distinguished. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. drinks.5% to 1% of its composition. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. ‫. especially in Mexico.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. and fruits. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. The two barks. especially http://www. such as apple pie. bread-based dishes. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. used in a variety of thick soups. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. It is of a golden-yellow color. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. a deep-blue tint is produced.

[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 http://www. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. eugenol. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. luck. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. although it remains untested. The Cinnamon Challenge. beta-caryophyllene.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). who failed.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. and money. linalool. However. ^ a b "Cinnamon". cassia. and anethole.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. few seem able to succeed.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. cinnamaldehyde. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. and Myanmar (Burma). and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2008. cinnamyl acetate.and a very hot aromatic taste.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh.crazychefs. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. love. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) . In Hoodoo.[34] Notes 1. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India.0. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

^ The Epicentre. http://www. retrieved 200705-01 21.ihaystack. 437 7. PMID retrieved 2008-07-15 12.1021/jf051513y. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". Encyclopedia of Spices. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. retrieved 200807-15 . ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009. 437f. p. ^ http://findarticles. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. p. http://www. 2009. retrieved 2007-05-01 17. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's Agric. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. ^ http://www.html#pg598. ^ "Cassia.437. ^ http://www. revised ed. http://lakdiva. p. ^ Nerín C (August 2005). doi:10.stm 3. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Corke H (October 2005). retrieved 2008-07-15 11. PMID 16104824. ^ López P. Cozzolino thespicehouse. 8. ^ [2] 18. ^ Felter. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. Agric. Van-Koiij A. Robert. http://dsr. Cai YZ.htm. ^ http://news. 10. Breyne) extracts". "Solid. J.html. http://www.npr. Col. ^ [1] 16. ^ Harris. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Food Chem. 20.2.CO%3B2-N 15. doi:10.1021/jf050709v. 23. 4.—Cinnamon. Mancini DA. ^ http://www. Batlle R. 53 (17): 6939–46. The History of Food. Sun M. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. Emily.php?storyId=6672644.nii. Cathay and the Way Thither.html. Account of the Island of Ceylon. PMID 10077878. Torres RP (December 1998). Food Harvey. ^ Toussaint-Samat Cinnamon." remarks Maguelonne _of_life/html/1.0. 53 (20): 7749–59.theepicentre.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. Sánchez C.fao. J. ^ Shan B. Sir James Emerson. 437). ^ _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/ 13.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". ^ Knox.en. ^ http://links. 22. Anthea Bell.html. ^ Mancini-Filho also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour. p.henriettesherbal. Henry.iol. Cinnamomum.crazychefs.

Kristof et al. Braudel. http://www. ^ Verspohl. http://eprints. doi:10.26. ^ George Mateljan Foundation.crazychefs. Fernand (1984). The Perspective of the Safdar M. 30. ground.php?tname=foodspice& Akram et al. Retrieved 2008-05-11. ^ Beck. ^ [3]. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). http://www..12. New York: Kodansha Agricultural Research magazine. Charles (1998). http://www.php?featured_food=80.. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. Archer (1988). 27. July 2000. Khattak KN.futuremedicine. ^ Khan coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography".net/ . 26. doi:10. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".com http://www. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".113. Medicinal Seasonings. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. Leslie. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). Ali Khan MM. retrieved 200705-01 32. Eugen J. Eleventh Edition. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. Corn. Retrieved 2007-12-17. Cat. Retrieved 200805-11. Retrieved 200808-05. (2005). retrieved 2007-12-12 31.diabetesjournals. Research: Thalido. 29. 28.. http://www.2217/14750708.3. http://www. http://www. ^ Taher..whfoods. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism.utm.24.luckymojo. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde.1016/00219673(88)90035-0. ^ Ranjbar.1. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". doi:10.1643. http://jn. Alan W. ^ Yronwode. http://care.113. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. Anderson RA (December 2003). 33.1. ^ s_have_been/index. Cinnamon. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". retrieved 200705-01 25..lesliebeck. a publication now in the public domain. Retrieved "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro".com.2337/diacare. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.nutrition. PMID 14633804..1002/ptr. et al.2217/14750708. Muhammad et al.sciencedaily.sciencedaily. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. doi:10.pdf. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000).redorbit.html?source=r_health. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life".

which it is not. canned. one of the oldest http://www."[3] Uses Onions. used without qualifiers. Onions can be used. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. They are now available in fresh.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium.crazychefs. and dehydrated forms. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. and Allium asarense R. frozen. powdered. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. They are known by the common name "onion" but.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia.M.Department of Export . usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. it usually refers to Allium cepa. pickled. chopped.

The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. In ancient Greece. spicy.crazychefs. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. an onion can be sharp. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. snakebite and hair loss. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. cats. coughs.[5] The onion is easily propagated. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life.[5] However. recent evidence has shown that dogs. and also to relieve headaches. Depending on the variety.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. due to toxicity during digestion. transported and stored. However. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local .chopped or sliced. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped http://www.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. In Bronze Age settlements. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt.

Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. B2) 0. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B1) 0.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.polyunsaturated 0.34 g 0.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Sugars 4.monounsaturated 0. 0 μg http://www.7 g Fat .crazychefs.1 g 1.saturated 0. B3) 0.4 mg Vitamin E .02 mg Vitamin K 0.042 g .013 g .4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.1 g 89.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.21 mg Magnesium 0.24 g .Dietary fiber 1.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .116 mg Vitamin B6 0.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.

Mexico. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. Imperial Valley Sweet. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. Western White. Northern Red. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. If you are allergic to onions.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. For all varieties of onions. Empire Sweet. some studies have found their action to be http://www. Western Yellow. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. Empire Sweet. anticholesterol. However. Northern Red. and Vidalia. In general. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Texas 1015. Peruvian Sweet. Imperial Valley Sweet. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. osteoporosis. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies).[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. In the United States. Empire Sweet.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. eleven times the amount found in Western White. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. Texas 1015. diabetes. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. and Vidalia. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. Mexico. Shallots have the most phenols. pungent yellow (New York Bold). the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]).Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. Western White. anticancer.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. followed by Western Yellow. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight.[10] In many parts of the world. Texas 1015.crazychefs. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. and other .) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. Imperial Valley Sweet.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. Peruvian Sweet.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. Mexico. Peruvian Sweet.

be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. Eye irritation can. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. . or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). differs among Allium species. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. and the irritation effect. As onions are sliced or eaten. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. breathing difficulties. leeks. diarrhea. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. mouth and throat ulcerations. and bananas. chives.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. 2008.include reactions to onions. nausea. Symptoms can include irritable http://www. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. On January 31. it can lead to an allergic reaction. The volume of sulfenic acids released. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. creating a stinging sensation. garden lilies.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. ginger. shallots.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. where it binds to sensory neurons. therefore.crazychefs. garlic.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cells are broken. limiting the amount of gas generated. allylmercaptan and allicin. all present in garlic. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling.

from sets started from seed the previous year. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. "short-day" onions. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" http://www. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. more commonly today. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. which can be planted directly in the ground. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. which have been developed in more recent times. the Welsh onion. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. Finally. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring.crazychefs. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Allium fistulosum. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and . and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs.

Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).637 Japan Egypt 1. Oregon (USA). bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.149 Spain World Total 64. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.750 South Korea 1.793 India 5. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple http://www.346 2.220 Turkey 1. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .764 Pakistan 1.500 China United States 3.Produce bulblets in the flower head.758 Russia 1. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.302 1. each of which forms a bulb.crazychefs. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green . a hybrid of Allium cepas. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk. Vale.

after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. It remains in effect as of 2009.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.crazychefs. passed in 1958. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.The Onion Futures .com http://www. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

It has a characteristic pungent. from William Woodville. 1793. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum http://www. Allium sativum. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Its close relatives include the onion.[1] A bulb of garlic. and chive. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. leek. known as garlic.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking.crazychefs. commonly known as garlic. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium . Medical Botany. the most commonly used part of the plant. shallot.

[6] One of the best-known "garlics". and Allium oleraceum. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. "crow garlic". The leaves. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests.crazychefs.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. with Russia (1. accounting for over 77% of world output. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. according to Zohary and Hopf.Yunnan province of China. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable.[5] The "wild garlic". Garlic plants can be grown close together. In North America. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. respectively. and for medicinal purposes. They can suffer from pink root. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". are common weeds in fields. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. the so-called elephant garlic. Allium vineale. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. India (4. Garlic is grown globally. In cold climates.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. for consumption (raw or cooked). Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. The papery. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. The cloves are used as http://www. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength . which grows wild in southwestern Asia. stems (scape). It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with approximately 10.

4%).000 254. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. including eastern Asia. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods.000 221. California.000 325. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. P = official figure.000 142.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. It is often paired with .000 125. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". C = calculated figure. F = FAO estimate.400 140.000 645.088.Alaska) in fifth place (1. A = aggregate (may include official.000 15. south Asia. northern Africa.810 168. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. or estimates).310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official http://www. semiofficial. southern Europe.crazychefs. Southeast Asia. or ginger. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. and parts of South and Central America.000 128. tomato. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. the Middle East.686.

In some cuisine. salt. and spices. In eastern Europe. called black garlic. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. Blending garlic. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. crostini and canapé. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. In Japan and Korea. United Kingdom and Australia. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. meats. is sweet and syrupy. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. and is now being sold in the United States. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. They are also known as "garlic spears". and a chunky base produce skordalia. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. and roast them in an oven. breads and pasta. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. "stems". The leaves are . almond. or "tops". oil. cleaned.crazychefs. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. or vegetables. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. meat. garlic toast. Immature scapes are tender and edible. Garlic. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. and then stir-fried with eggs. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. the resulting product. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. oil. bruschetta.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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Since digestion takes several hours. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. or leeks. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna.[50] In Europe. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. all present in garlic. and bananas. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. allylpropyldisulfide. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. The herb is. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. therefore. however. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. where it is excreted. Humans. ginger. chives.[51] To ward off vampires.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. . deterring animals like birds. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). garlic could be worn. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. thus mellowing its spiciness. included in many garlic recipes. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. insects. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. However. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. forming allyl methyl sulfide. persillade. hung in windows. including onions. shallots. and vampires. garden lilies. making garlic much more potent than onions. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of http://www. such as pistou. and release of AMS several hours more. and worms from eating the plant. Among the members of the onion family.[48] Due to its strong cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. usually enjoy these sensations.crazychefs.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. When eaten in quantity. However. werewolves.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. allylmercaptan and allicin. garlic. leeks. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time.

which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. and menstrual irregularities. as well as other medications. indigestion. if any exist. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). emesis.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using http://www. However. saquinavir.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. calcium channel blockers. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". antiplatelets. Editing help is available. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. indicated Muhammad. bleeding. and hypoglycemic drugs. In connection with the odor associated with garlic.In Daoism mythology. are largely unknown. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal . minimal risks to normal individuals. and diarrhea. nausea. Garlic can thin the blood.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. allergic reactions. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. if appropriate.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". dizziness. antihypertensives. at worst.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. You can help by converting this article to prose. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. sweating. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. similar to the effect of aspirin. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. antiparasitic value of garlic.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week.

net/ . as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. ^ a b c d Tabor.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such http://www. Retrieved 5 June 2009.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection".jhortscib. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. 2000). is discouraged.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container.html. et al.html 8. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. In 3. A bulb of garlic. Domestication of plants in the Old World. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. G. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. ^ http://www.nj. ^ a b Lee. http://www. third edition (Oxford: University Press. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. topical use of raw garlic. (2005).com/alternative-therapies/herbs-for-health/medicinal-garlic/ 9. et al. one the bulbs will grow peeled. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. http://hdl.crazychefs. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 112 7. 2. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. http://www.natural-holistic-health. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). Ethiopia". The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. 4. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. (2004).net/10113/877. including burns to[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. ^ McGee p. bigger. p. J. 197 5.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes.htm. 397 6. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment.unigraz. garlick)". ^ http://www. Notes 1. Retrieved 5 June.handle.

org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346. Lawson LD.1162/106361403773062678. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic .crazychefs. Sylva.C.). N. Arch. Proc. ^ Kojuri J. 12. ^ a b Steiner M. Izzo AA (November 2007).1016/j. F. doi:10. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. [2] ^ Hamel. Aytaç B. 25. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. PMID 17325291. ^ Chan KC. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". doi:10. Güven C (2002). Sova P (May 2004). 18. 167 (4): 325–6. R.4.0705710104. doi:10. PMID 17123684. Vosoughi AR. 15 (6): 373–7. Sci. 35. ^ Mader FH (October 1990). Better Nutrition. 31." Int. McFerren M (February 2007).1002/mnfr. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". Akrami M (March 2007). J.A. et al (June 2004). Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. doi:10. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail..jnutbio. 5:109–115. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology".ac.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. Olcay E. 5. Natl..1002/mnfr. (p. 17. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23.167. doi:10. 167 (4): 346–53. et al (November 2007).. Motta. Maud. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". 15.167. 23. 22. . P. PMID 15218732. 26. 19. doi:10. 24. http://archinte.ama-assn.1001/archinte. (Mrs. 34. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store.1001/archinte. Daryn (2003). doi:10. Arch. 28. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. 16. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. Dent. doi:10. 33. PMID 17328819. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007).. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. J. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients".S. Capasso R. Sartoratto. ^ Benavides GA. http://archinte. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8.200700058. 2006.4. 27. 29. Ferraresi.pdf. Med. doi:10. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44.A 400 Year History. ^ Durak I. http://personalpages. PMID 2291748. Nutr. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . Squadrito GL. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. 20. Oztürk HS.. A Modern Herbal. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". Yin MC.1073/pnas. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. Hyg. PMID 15157944. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". 30.1186/1476-511X-6-5. 2005 ^ Groppo. Paul B. Mills RW. A. 104 (46): 17977–82. 13. Block E. 32. PMID 17966136. U.ama-assn. Herald Publishing Ramacciato. Acad.lehoux/Tropes. ^ Borrelli F. 14. Accessed: December 18. et al (February 2007). ^ Goodbye. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve.manchester. ^ Charlson M. PMID 15277094. 21. Kavutcu M.005. 11. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. Facts. PMID 17951430. PMID 17325296. Biochem. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". "Tropes.2004.10. and Mary 54 | P a g e http://www. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. Intern. Lin RS (June 1998).01. July 1. Intern. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. PMID 17918162. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". PMID 9641475. Med.200700072.346. ^ Gardner CD. and Empiricism" (PDF). Chao WJ (March 2007).University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. ^ Durak I. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci.

ISBN 0-395-65783-0. Sanders N. David (2003).com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582. Microbiology (Reading. doi:10. ^ ^ Oi Y. Aon MA. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Lau B. 49... Summer 2005 . http://mic. James. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2.blogspot. ^ Kodera ^ Fareed G. PMID 8644128. et al (October 2005). ^ Garlic .. 66. Sumida ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. Castro C.jst.go. Lett. PMID 15616341. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".jlc. Volume 7. 53. ^ Macpherson et al. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. ^ a b McNally. http://linkinghub. doi:10. garlic advisory 63. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. Retrieved 2007-0707. 41. 43. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Retrieved 2009-01-30. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. p. H. Book 65 57.goldbamboo. ^ http://washokufood.nhs. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. ^ a b c d Hogg.) 62. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". 310–311 47. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65. 39. 64. 120. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). ^ http://lem. 049 . 40.1128/AAC. 2007.economicexpert. Jordan .com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic. http://aac.. Scolaro M.asm. ^ Health Canada . Teel R. (1991-08-01).html 46. In Search of Dracula. Agents Chemother. Sagi A. 42. Yoshida S..elsevier. Steckelberg JM. 211. 52. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. Retrieved December 7.473. ^ Pickering. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. Nishimura S.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. Nishino 211 51. Slattery M. Bordia T. UK Medicines Information.January 29. Toxicol. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". http://joi.. (2001). ^ McNally p.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. http://joi..1.36. (1989-01-30).1099/mic. ^ Macpherson et al. Complementary Medicines Summary. PMID 8441577. 38.".sgmjournals. Fuwa T. http://linkinghub. ^ John S. PMID 16207909. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. PMC: 538912. Pickering p. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. "Effect of allixin. Engl.html 45. ^ Baruchin AM. ^ http://www. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. National Health Service. 2007. ^ http://www..".html 54.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. W. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. PMID 11600262. http://www. ^ Lemar PMID 11481410. 85 (3): 157–64. 58. "Allixin.Garlic-in-Oil 61.jst.Vol 9 No.unito. Thomson M. ISBN Shishido C. 1988. 4 .go.htm 44. Ali M (June 1996).49. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. 37. 49 (1): 473. Matuura H. section "Conclusion" 48. Raymond T (1994). Long D.pdf. Passa O. Retrieved December 7. Itakura Y.2005. ^ McGee p. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. Yoffe B. Patel R (January 2005). Ronen M (November 2001).com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390. Sterling Publishing. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. a stress compound from garlic. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30".ukmi. Jennifer (2002-12-13). Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. Houghton Mifflin. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chesson C. Imafuku M.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. "Garlic burns". http://www. ^ Shuford JA. Kominato Y.0.28095-0. Iwai K. p. NLM Gateway. on mutagenesis. "Garlic burns".

com http://www. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". ISBN 0-683-18147-5. H. Turner. McMahon FG (June 1993). Shafir. J. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). 3rd ed. Bull. Hort.. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. 94 (6): 632–5. Simmons DL. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. C. Masanori Ayabe. 50. PMID 9355906. M. Rabinowitch (2004).. http://circ.crazychefs. 354-363 (2002). L. P. Selfsufficientish . Garlic. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. M. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis.. R. Lemar.. J. Hile. The chemistry of garlic and onions. S. Breithaupt-Grögler K. PMID 8441577. Block.ahajournals. E. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. I.. Lloyd. "Garlic burns". Williams & Wilkens. and Related Species (Second Edition).com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6.. Am. Bull. Block. Kamenetsky. K. Jiro Yoshida. Vargas R. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. H. L. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Boudoulas H. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Chatterjee. C. Z. A. E. H. Campbell GR. 129: 144–151. Pharm. and H. Am. A. Shan. Z... L. Zemah. L.. Garty BZ (March 1993).org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9355906. Isao Sumioka. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. Vol. Lawson.elsevier. D. Kraemer. Gardner. 405-407 (2002).. D. (2000). Yukihiro Kodera..M. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. Naoto Uda. PMID 9247357. Sci. Block.. Andy (2004). http://linkinghub. R. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. Jain AK. Balise. E. R. Kozue Ogasawara. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. [4] Lawson. Chem. D. D.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Soc. Efendy JL. J. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Campbell JH (July 1997). Koch. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. Kiazand. Pharm. Susumu Yoshida. (1992).P.References Japanese garlic. Chem. A. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. Block. New York: Avery. (2004). Hamilton. D. D. Med. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. A. PMID 8506890. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Belz GG (October 1997). Naoki Kashimoto. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. [3] Yukihiro Kodera.. Makoto Ichikawa. Gotzkowsky S. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono.. P. (1985). L. Wang. Barzilay. (2001). E.-Z.Garlic. Vol. Ling M. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Retrieved 1 May[青森県産].net/ . Balch. 50. (1996).. Zhang. 'Kyolic'. G. Lawson.

and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). Food Factors for Cancer Prevention.asm. Tokyo: (1999). Kadam.crazychefs. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study".Lindsey J. (1997). et al. Y-Y.S. Y-Y. D. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition).2005. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". McGee.1128/AAC.49.473. Pharmacol. Patel R (January 2005). Samer R. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. http://meta. Steiner M. doi:10.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. Leeks". Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. Antimicrob.. Yeh. Geierstanger.. Marcel Dekker.wkhealth.. et al. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. SunWook Hwang. In: Ohigashi. Macpherson. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. (eds). pp. http://aac. Harold (2004). 310–3. Shuford JA. Yeh. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology.12. Mader FH (October 1990). 49 (1): 473. "The Onion Family: Onions. Cardiovasc. et al. Garlic.1. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". PMID 8169881. Eid. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. J. Salunkhe. PMID 2291748. Bernhard H. Lin RS (June 1998). Silagy . (1998). S. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". PMC: 538912.K. H. Agents Chemother. Neil A (1994). Scribner. Michael Bandell. Veena Viswanath. 31 (6): 904– PMID 15616341. Abstract.. PMID 9641475. Steckelberg JM. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid http://www.

In Vietnam. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. after which they develop into a bright red.5-2 cm long.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium http://www.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. it is called đinh hương. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. syn. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. Pakistan. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. Zanzibar. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. Madagascar.crazychefs. terminating in four spreading sepals. Cloves are harvested primarily in . called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. and Sri Lanka. when they are ready for collecting. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and consist of a long calyx. Cloves are harvested when 1. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape.

to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. spleen and stomach meridians. it is used in almost all dishes. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. but as they are extremely strong. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. Cloves are used as a carminative. In south Indian cuisine. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. cloves are often used to season pho broth. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. often in combination with cumin. During Christmas. warm and http://www. Cloves are used in cheeses. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. especially for digestive problems.crazychefs. entering the kidney. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle.000 tonnes). Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. but with the addition of other spices). Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. along with other spices. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110.[1] In north Indian cuisine. they are used sparingly. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered . In Vietnamese cuisine. which sells Djarum Black.

Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus).[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. Makian. along with nutmeg and pepper. including for multiple sclerosis. and Zanzibar.[7] Cloves. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels.[6] History Until modern times. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. It is also used in severe burns. pimples etc. and Tidore. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands)." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade.[5] In West Africa. including Bacan. were highly prized in Roman times. Khalsa. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. Ayurvedic herbalist K. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. most of the West Indies. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. Moti. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. RH (AHG).[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang stomach qi downward. mainly from the Maluku Islands. In the late fifteenth century. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of http://www. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. Ternate. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. including cloves. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. Subsequently. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices.crazychefs. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. Brazil.[7] .[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. vomiting and diarrhea. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces.

^ http://www. ^ Balch. kaempferol. http://www. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. Vintage Books. beta-caryophyllene and . 3rd ed. Phyllis and Balch. comprising 72-90%. James.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". Spice: The History of a crategolic http://www. Erich Stoger. pg. ^ Dorenburg. rhamnetin. Karen. tannins.html Tilotson.nlm. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". due to the high price of importing them. pp.crazychefs. methyl salicylate (painkiller). ISBN 0-375-70705-0. ^ http://oneearthherbs. and Andrew Gamble. Third Edition by Dan Bensky.html National Institutes of Health. 8.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. stigmasterol and campesterol. ^ "TibetMed . The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. Jack (2004). ©2003. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. Avery Publishing. 5. Steven Clavey. and several sesquiterpenes.htm. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. gallotannic acid. the flavonoids eugenin. and eugenitin. ©2000. Special Diets for Illness 6. Alan. Erich Stoger. Steven Clavey. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. 94.tibetmed. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. 2. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid.. ^ a b Turner. Andrew and Page. Medicine Plus.[8] Notes and references 1. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. John Wiley and Sons Inc. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 .Botanical nomenclature".iso. ^ International Organization for Standardization.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1.Specification". "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. 3. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. 18 May 2009 2.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. ^ Louisa Lim. . Vaishali C. doi:10.) -. 4. http://www. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. Ines et al. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". ^ Lederer. while Lederer et al. (2006).org/iso/ specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . Retrieved 8 June 2009. f. (2005). "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. 5. Retrieved 10 November. http://www.1542/peds. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments http://www.htm?csnumber=19183. et al. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974.iso.1021/jf058156b.703.5555/jaoi.atypon-link.2004-0058. Retrieved 8 June 2009. ^ International Organization for Standardization. NPR. ^ Joshi.2005. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. Retrieved 8 June 2009.crazychefs. f. http://www. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". PMID 15492355.htm?csnumber =4844.3. doi:10.88. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院.chinaios. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角".

ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.net/ . native from the east Mediterranean to East India. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum http://www.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C.crazychefs.

cumin is known as kimyon. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. including kamūnu in . In Northern India and Nepal. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . locally called "Kermun".)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. in northwestern China.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". the story goes. In Arabic. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. maduru. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. in Turkey.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". in Iran and Central Asia. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). Like many other Arabic words in the English language. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. being oblong in shape. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . cumin is known as zireh. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a member of the parsley family. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. longitudinally ridged.crazychefs. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. parsley and dill. Kerman. and yellow-brown in colour. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages.

cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real http://www. Seeds. Syria. Uzbekistan. Tajikistan.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). Morocco. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. and this practice continues in Morocco. Turkey. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding . In Sri Lanka.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times.crazychefs. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mexico. Egypt. when added to hot milk and consumed. have been dated to the second millennium BC. today it is mostly grown in Iran. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. In South Asia. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. and Chile. India. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages.

containing a single seed. Northern Mexican cuisines. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. sofrito. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and borne in umbels. curry . Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. Contrary to popular belief in the US. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. tacos. Cuban.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. North African. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. Cumin can be used to season many dishes.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum http://www. and other Middle-Eastern. Today. Middle Eastern. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder.crazychefs. and in some traditional breads from France. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. and bahaarat. garam masala. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. white or pink. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. The flowers are small. Pakistani. popular in Indian. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). but are smaller and darker in colour. either ground or as whole seeds. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. It is an herbaceous annual plant. enchiladas. Sri Lankan. pinnate or bipinnate. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. Indian. adobos. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. and is found in achiote blends. thread-like leaflets. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. curries. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. It is traditionally added to chili.

Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.24 g 22. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).81 g 8. sown in spring.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. well-drained soil.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Dietary fiber 10.7 mg Vitamin E 3.very common in Mexican cuisine. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex http://www.crazychefs. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.27 g 17.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron .5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates .327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. It is grown from seed. Cultivation of cumin requires a long. and needs fertile.25 g . and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. 64 μg 44. B3) 4.5 g Fat .saturated 1.435 mg Folate (Vit.33 mg Vitamin K 5. hot summer of 3–4 months. B2) 0. it is drought-tolerant. However.Sugars 2.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.

8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. However.Zinc 4. as in 'kot' .a small cat). unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. from the Swedish word "spisa".com http://www.a cat and 'kotek' . In Swedish. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". Not related to curcumin. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. a chemical found in turmeric. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of . Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. lighter in colour. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. In Polish the difference is even less significant. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two.crazychefs. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste.). to eat. For example.v.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q.

2000. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". Zi-Tao Jiang (2004).05. p. . 2000).030. Rong. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria 3.".html 6. ^ "Kamūnu.1302. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L.ars-grin. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . third edition (Oxford: University Press. Lu et Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . 2. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum" premiumwanadoo. www. (2005).Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. doi:10.crazychefs.77.1002/ffj. 4. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. http://www. 206 5. ^ " 7. Retrieved 2008-03-13. Essential Oils".2009. (2009). ^ Growingtaste. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. Domestication of plants in the Old World. Nicola 8. ^ a b c Li.arsgrin. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. ^ a b Iacobellis. doi:10. ^ a b Wang. from China". ^ http://www. et http://www. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Carum carvi L. 9." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition).aca. .Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. or spice. http://www. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. shogaols and . Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. and citral) have also been identified. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. cardamom.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). medicine.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. In laboratory animals. sedative. and galangal. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. West Africa and the Caribbean. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Inji in Tamil. Ginger has a sialagogue action. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. especially in the Tanjore belt. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. For http://www. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. In South India. in Tamil Nadu. to which honey is often added. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. Allam ( ) in Telugu. crackers and cake. in Gujarati. [edit] Regional use In India. stimulating the production of saliva. Ginger is also made into candy. which makes swallowing easier. nuts. particularly gingerols and shogaols. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. Adrak. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. ghee. Alay in Marathi. or frozen for longer term storage. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka.crazychefs. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to . cookies. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. ginger ale. salt. and Aduwa in Nepali. and ginger beer. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. enchi in Malayalam. and tender green chili peppers. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Additionally. and sugar.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant.

gingerbread. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. In Western cuisine. is made. called jahe as a common ingredient in local . and making drinks such as sorrel. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. ginger snaps. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. In Japan. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). In Burma. In the Ivory Coast. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. In the traditional Korean kimchi. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. On the island of Corfu. Greece. However. In Vietnam. and a variety of nuts and seeds. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. during their occupation of the islands. In Arabic. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. In the Caribbean. In China. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. France. a type of ginger beer.crazychefs. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. ginger is called gyin. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. parkin and ginger biscuits. ginger is ground and mixed with orange.

and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. including warfarin. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cough and cold.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. which several scientific studies http://www. though it does interact with some medications. morning sickness and chemotherapy. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. though studies been inconsistent. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by . Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11].Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger.

ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. In the United States. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. clotting.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. In . In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. particularly if taken in powdered form. and individuals who have had ulcers. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a http://www. In India. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. In Indonesia. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. it is considered good for a sore throat.crazychefs. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. and heart rhythms. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. gas. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. in food etc. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. bloating. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ginger can cause heartburn. belching and nausea. which is considered a panacea.[14] In Congo. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. and although it's generally recognized as safe. people use ginger for making tea. reducing "winds" in the blood. In Burma. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice.

It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Scalding. Traditionally.5%). which has slipped to the second position (~20. now leads in global production of ginger. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. Production trends India.000 F 177. the root is gathered when the stalk withers.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. with over 30% of the global share. but this generally reduces its http://www. it is immediately scalded. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff.7%). or washed and scraped.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420.crazychefs. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. followed by Indonesia(~12.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. produces black ginger. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. Nepal( . replacing China.000 158. washing and scraping gives white ginger.

contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . Asarum canadense.000 57. Galangal is also called Thai ginger.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138.387. but it is not related to true a carcinogenic compound.000 34. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).000 28. is used in cooking and medicine. semiofficial or estimates).net/ . and its root has similar aromatic properties. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae www. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. A = Aggregate(may include official.crazychefs. http://www. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".pl?42254. Also referred to as galangal.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure.000 8. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. F = FAO estimate.contains ginger material References 1. galangal. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . is also known as "wild ginger".000 42.arsgrin. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai.270 1. the flower buds are the part eaten. Retrieved 2008-03-03. The plant also contains aristolochic acid.

523.umm. "Beverage of Champions". Retrieved d=8&article_id=772. ^ 7. David Kiefer.foodchem. (2006). 13. "Ginger". Sheng-Chu Kuo. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). Harold (2004).cambridge. 10. Zainab M. 8.2006. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs" http://www.1016/j. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 9.H. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. PMID 9821826. Mary. http://www. doi:10.6.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). http://bja. Retrieved 5 November. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". 6. http://timeblog. http://archfami. Retrieved 425-426.amaassn. 3. Retrieved E. Retrieved 2007-08-02. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. ^ Afshari. ^ Jakes. Li-Jiau Huang. (01 Mar 2000).html. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367– http://www. . http://unitproj.ucla. & MSt. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). et al. 15. ^ Ernst. Retrieved 2007-08-02.013. http://journals. ^ Al-Amin. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed.mayoclinic. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". Tin-Yun Ho. Retrieved 2006-09-06. Kim Farrell. 14.oxfordjournals. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397.uspharmacist.library. doi:10. 4.7. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by 12. "A Current Look at Ginger Use".crazychefs.1001/ This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia.). ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). ^ McGee. Antoine. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". Ali Taghizadeh et Shih-Lu Wu.1021/jf071460f.cfm?displayID=15. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). MD. Susan (2007-01-15). & http://www. MD. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. doi:10. ^ Chen. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". doi:10.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. PMID 10793599. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. M. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. MPH (1998).com 5. Kathi Kemper. New York: Scribner pp. ^ MD O' Hara. 11. (2007).2. Jaw-Chyun. Retrieved 2007-08-06.

net/ . The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. for dyeing. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Erode. and to impart color to mustard condiments. Zingiberaceae. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. In medieval Europe.crazychefs. slightly bitter. Plants are gathered annually for their http://www. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. For these reasons. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C.

The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. gelatins. but also in masak lemak. biscuits. Although usually used in its dried. popcorn . Turmeric City. rendang. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. Over-coloring. cake icings. sauces. ice cream. cereals. not only in curry. such as in pickles.crazychefs. etc. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine.Yellow City. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. custardlike yellow color. yogurt. orange juice. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. turmeric is also used fresh. relishes. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). much like ginger. and many more. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. powdered form.[citation needed] Sangli. dairy products. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. sweets. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. In non-South Asian recipes. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. or Textile City.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. and mustard. yellow cakes.

arthritis [5] and liver disorders. an uncurable and debilitating disease. a traditional dish in South Asia. Within one week of using . and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome.In combination with annatto (E160b). burns and http://www. are spiced with turmeric. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. and other digestive disorders. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. It is unknown why it works.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. dry mixes. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. Japan. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts.[4] cancer. Indians. yogurt. winter butter and margarine. salad dressings. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards.crazychefs. is also treated with turmeric powder.

research activity into curcumin is exploding. Snake Bite Anti venin. Alzheimer's. and the U. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. which supports nerve growth. or BDNF. and colorectal cancer. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. John‘s Medical College. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. In 1998 researchers at St. found in black pepper. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer.[citation needed] There is evidence that . and Pakistan.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. multiple myeloma. with no adverse effects. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. Bangladesh.crazychefs. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic http://www. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. Bangalore. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal.S.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. improves the absorption of turmeric.

particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. and it is used for power and purification rites. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding . http://www. as a part of the marriage ritual. Also. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as saris. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). and coconut and cooked in steam. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. part of the Bengali wedding.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. In southern India. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. This happens in economically lower situations. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown.crazychefs. jaggery. During the south Indian festival Pongal.

Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% Shoba G.I.C.aolhealth. Notes 1.1016/ ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. ^ Chan. 2. www.stm 5.W. (2009). Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . Srinivas PS. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". The systematic chemical name is (1E. ^ http://www. Rajendran R. Majeed M.2008.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1. Joy D. http://www. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain".crazychefs. or Natural Yellow 3. a polyphenol.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. doi:10.ars-grin. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. . http://www.6E) It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance.ars-grin. 1998 May. Judy] (June 2009). It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. | accessyear = 2009}} Retrieved June 2009. ^ [|Ketteler. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 64(4):353-6.thieme-connect. Planta The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. keto and enol. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". Joseph T. AOL Health. et al. ^ http://news. 6. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers.

94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. Indian walnut. hence its name. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. simple and ovate.9–7.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. . which allows its use as a candle (see below). and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). 10–20 centimetres (3. The leaves are pale green.4 in) in diameter. flowers. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. also known as Candleberry. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). with wide spreading or pendulous http://www.crazychefs. Kemiri. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. The nut is round. with an acute apex.6–2.9 in) long. 4–6 centimetres (1.) Willd.

Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. named kukui were burned to provide light. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. The seed kernels have a laxative .Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. as the candlenut is much more bitter.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. ulcers. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not http://www. The flavor. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. This led to their use as a measure of time. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Outside of Southeast Asia. swollen joints. and gonorrhea.crazychefs. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. On the island of Java in Indonesia. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. the nuts. In Sumatra. however.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. In Malaya. leaves and flowers. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. pounded seeds. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. In Hawaiʻi. burned with charcoal. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. lit one end. a varnish with the oil. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. fevers. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. they are mildly toxic when raw. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. giving them greater underwater visibility. including: leis from the shells. is quite different. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. are applied around the navel for costiveness. In Java.

Betty. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. 26. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. used as soap or shampoo. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. the god of agriculture.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. http://books. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. University of Hawaii Press. she was given new life. ^ Scott. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. .google. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. protection and peace. http://books. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade.crazychefs. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua' ISBN 9781573061377. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. Liana I. p. p. 4. still nowadays. Modern cultivation is mostly for the Susan. Beatrice H. Retrieved 2009-03-06.html. Being a kind and just woman.). Mikiala Ayau. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. Bess Press. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. One of the legends told of a woman who. (1993). 122. "Chapter 4: Canoes". despite her best efforts to please her husband. In plantations. and the husband was eventually killed. http://canoeplants. 50-51. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. This larva is eaten by some people. ripe nuts. ^ Krauss. ISBN 9780824822514.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for pp. University of Hawaii Press. ^ Dunford. 2.[citation needed] References 1. Craig Thomas (2000). A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets).[5] In Tonga. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). ^ "Kukui". was routinely beaten. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Honda.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). http://www. Lilinoe Andrews.

and very often simply pepper. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. may be described as black pepper. The terms pink peppercorns. The fruit. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. red pepper (as in bell or chile).crazychefs. unrelated plants. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. containing a single seed. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. Konkani:miriya konu.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. However. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. . white pepper. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Peppercorns. . dark red when fully . Malayalam:kurumulaku. . green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. Kannada:meNasu. Telugu:miriyam. cultivated for its http://www. green pepper. known as a peppercorn when dried.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. .

the spice is called black peppercorn. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. Once dried. French poivre. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. and the naked seed is dried. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. including decortication. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dutch peper. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. in the early 20th century. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. White pepper consists of the seed only. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed.S. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit.[4] In the U. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the http://www.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. this was shortened to . chemical or biological methods. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying..[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. with the skin of the pepper removed. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. and other similar forms. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin.crazychefs. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. often alongside table salt.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. wrinkled black layer. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. In the 16th century.

Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. unpreserved green pepper berries. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. Fresh. is made from the unripe berries.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. Pickled peppercorns.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. are used in some Asian cuisines.Black. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. green. the Peruvian pepper tree. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. Schinus terebinthifolius. largely unknown in the West.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. Schinus molle. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. like black. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". pink (Schinus terebinthifolius).crazychefs. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. which is mostly no longer an issue. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. from Bangka Island. also green. with a bright aroma. particularly Thai cuisine. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of .com http://www. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. made from the largest.

and ultimately fall off and are lost. The flowers are small. the berries lose pungency. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. if allowed to ripen. It is a spreading . or trellises. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth http://www. moist. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum.crazychefs. well-drained and rich in organic matter.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The cuttings are usually cultivars. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. poles. and before the fruit is mature. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. Competing plants are cleared away. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. entire. The leaves are alternate. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures.[11] Black pepper is native to India. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. but when full grown and still hard. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes.

the dried fruit of closely related Piper . The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 http://www. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly the Malabar Coast. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. in what is now the state of Kerala. its most important source was India. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper".[14] J. Chile peppers. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined.crazychefs.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. In fact.

changed the course of world . along with other spices from India and lands farther east. growing in the north-western part of India.crazychefs. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. Madagascar. but these areas traded mainly with China. or used the pepper locally. Malaysia. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. barged to Alexandria.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean.Until well after the Middle Ages. this trade advantage. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. pepper was also being grown in Java. Long pepper. Returning from http://www. Trade routes of the time were by land. By the 16th century. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. Black pepper. Sunda. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. Sumatra. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. nor how it reached the Nile from India. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. the Middle East. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region.

I season delicacies.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. the banquets of http://www. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. first the Persians and then the Arabs. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. pepper was a luxury item." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . is fifteen denarii per pound. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. while that of white pepper is seven. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. whereas. I wonder.crazychefs. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes.. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. it is sometimes their sweetness. especially Venice and Genoa. who travelled east to India. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. affordable only to the wealthy. Once into the Mediterranean. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. There is no evidence to support this claim. Apicius' De re coquinaria.[22] In addition. seasoning in the Roman Empire. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as .H. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. if expensive. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. and the prices reflected it. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. Similarly. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. and the luxuries of the table. clad in a wrinkled cover. Edward Gibbon wrote. four. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. seeing that in other substances which we use.. 12. and of black. After the fall of Rome. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat.

which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. A depiction of Calicut. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). his representative replied.crazychefs. In 1498. and salt-cured meats were common fare. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. In the 17th century. has some antimicrobial properties. as well as around Africa. Pepper harvested for the European trader. especially in winter. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. "we seek Christians and spices. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a . the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. Today. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. the effect is small." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for http://www. Pepper. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. However.

"[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. diarrhea. lung disease. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. however. earache. indigestion.. but if this estimated 10. being stronger. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. joint pain. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". heart disease. was often the preferred medication.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". but both were used. insomnia. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". insect bites. gangrene.crazychefs. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. http://www. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. Long pepper. each load being equal to 223 lbs. oral abscesses. Like many eastern spices. including long .China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. as well as she could for sneezing. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. either long or black. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. hernia.[25] In the 3rd century CE. liver problems. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border.[26] By the 12th century. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). Siddha and Unani medicine in India. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct.. Note the cook's pepper mill. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine.000 pounds (4.

Few. and linalool. vitamin B. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging.sunburn. and toothaches. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. irritates the nostrils. limonene. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage.[31] Also. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. milligram-for-milligram. a mildly carcinogenic compound. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. causing the sneezing. left on black pepper. and floral notes. a substance present in black pepper. chapter five. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. The outer fruit layer. which is stripped of the fruit layer.crazychefs. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems.[29] Pepper is known to cause http://www. tooth decay. woody. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. sabinene. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene.[31] As a medicine. which give citrusy.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. Some sources say that piperine. if any. Refined . as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. caryophyllene.

pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. which mechanically grind or crush whole http://www. The price of pepper can be volatile. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. by monetary value. Brazil (13%). Malaysia (8%). pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. but has fallen to just over 271. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than . Thailand (4%).000 t (391.000 short tons). Other major producers include Indonesia (9%).000 t (299.[33] Once ground. India. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. As of 2008. are used for this.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. India (19%). so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. Sri Lanka (6%). which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. for example. and China (6%). sometimes instead of pepper shakers. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). the most widely traded spice in the world.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355.[35] By weight.crazychefs.

^ a b Jaramillo. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. ^ Katzer. PMID 11302858.poor crop management. ISBN 0375407219. Retrieved 17 October 2006. ^ Ochef. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to 14.da. 80 ^ Dalby p. 17. http://www. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. http://www. Retrieved 6 November 2005. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. 83 21. Retrieved 2009-01-29. from Penzey's Spices. 200803-27. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". doi:10. ^ Peppercorns. ^ J.ars-grin. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Random House.000 short tons) . Spice. 7.thehindubusinessline. 20. 13. Gernot Katzer's Spice 11. 93. Egyptian Pharaoh. http://www. and Builder. Compass Point Books.M1. p. p. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 2008-03-02. Pepper.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581.arsgrin. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep.efloras. Retrieved 12 August 2006. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about Vietnam dominates the export market. 5. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious.pd f.000 t (99. using almost none of its production domestically. ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. 6. 3.2307/2657072. Retrieved 6 November 2005. www. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. M. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well.amjbot. Black pepper is marica. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". Warrior.htm. 2006-1120. http://books. http://www. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Gernot (2006). Flora of China. 10. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. ^ Innes Miller. disease and weather.[36] Notes 1. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). 2. Alejandra (2001). Retrieved 6 November 2005. 18. ISBN 075653836X. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". Innes Miller. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. 88. p http://www. The Spice Trade. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)".ph/wps/wcm/resources/file/ebb81841763712b/black%20pepper. http://www. 4. 1969). ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. Text online. Retrieved 13 November 2005. The Hindu Business line. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10).com 9. Ramses II. 12. Using fresh green peppercorns. ^ Translation from Turner.

p. 2005. pp. 32. 2. J. . Alan (2002).S. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. Hamlyn. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). http://books. 23. 31. 33. ^ "Karvy's special Reports .pdf. ^ Montagne. 171. Andrew (2002). 726. 34. ISBN 0520236742. "Mill". Duke (1993-08-16). An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank).accesstoinsight.pdf. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. Berkeley: University of California Press. Full text at Blackwell website. Davidson. ^ a b McGee p. ^ Dalby pp.1365-2672. ^ a b James A. 395. Retrieved 2008-01-29.2000. 74–75. Karvy Comtrade Limited. ISBN 0600-60235-4." 24. ISBN 0521367085. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. 29. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". 27.karvycomtrade. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. Larousse Gastronomique. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.worldbank. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. 156. 12. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale.1046/j. 36. Steven (2004). ^ Turner p. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. ^ Dalby p. "Spices. http://books. Jaffee.crazychefs. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. 160. ISBN 0849336201. ^ Jaffee p. Retrieved Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: Dangerous Tastes. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Deans (2000). http://www. ^ H.ch05. Dorman and S. Prosper (2001). Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. CRC Press. TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. 428. ISBN s_20080515_01. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 2008-05-15. Retrieved November 12.html. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". Vol. 30.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". also Turner pp. purchase required. 25. 35. ^ Jaffee p.x. 77. Cambridge University Press. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. References Dalby.00969. Buddhist Monastic Code II. doi:10. G. 28.22. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. 10. ^ Turner p. table 2. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). p. ^ U. Dover. ^ Dalby p. 204. 108–109. ds/ http://www.. 26.

Scribner. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Turner. "Black Pepper and Relatives". London: Vintage Books. pp. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum . OCLC 56590708.McGee. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Harold (2004). Spice: The History of a Temptation. ISBN 0375707050. OCLC 61213802. Jack (2004). 427–429.crazychefs. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.

Sugars 2.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.Dietary fiber 1. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C http://www. Central America and northern South America.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world. sweet.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. Peppers are native to Mexico.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. including red.Pepper.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0. yellow. B3) 0.64 g 0. B2) 0. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".057 mg .86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.17 g 0. green and orange. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. B1) 0.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .40 g . Today.224 mg Folate (Vit. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". In parts of Ohio.. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. Bell peppers are botanically fruits.g. instead of using as a spice. regardless of their color. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. Grilled. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. " In Japan. "groene paprika". With the similar meaning. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. "red pepper". In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". In British English. Sweden. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. they are called "capsicum". which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. the word ピーマン ("pîman. meaning Bulgarian pepper. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. meaning pepper-fruit." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. an unrelated plant. Indiana. or "piment. the term "paprika". with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. the fruit of Piper nigrum. At that time peppercorns. In Norway. like pasta. which are green and yellow. were a highly prized condiment. respectively). India. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw.crazychefs. It is eaten with fried noodles. meaning Big pepper. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. When cut off. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy . bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". which has its roots in the word for pepper. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. g. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. "gele paprika". In France it is called "poivron". is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. In the United States and Canada. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". and "Maalu" means Vegetable. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). and Pennsylvania. "Miris" is Chilli. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. Malaysia and New Zealand. in Dutch. "green pepper"). such as Australia. Across Europe.

In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. purple. blue. black and brown. more rarely. in http://www. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. aqua. pink. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. orange and. yellow or orange peppers. yellow. rainbow. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. maroon.crazychefs. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. violet. white. It is eaten as a raw . red. Varieties The color can be green. in various soups and stews. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green.

a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). also known as M. balsamea Willd.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . ^ http://www. indigenous to Europe.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References http://www. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita The plant.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. [1]) is a hybrid mint. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2].

square in cross section. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. including stream sides and drainage . 84. If placed. with a few exceptions.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. Being a hybrid.crazychefs.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. with 2n counts of 66. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. noted since 1843[8]. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. it is usually sterile.5 in) long and 1. Flowering is from mid to late summer. with smooth stems. he treated it as a species. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.6 in) cm broad. and 120 recorded. spreading by its rhizomes.6–3. The flowers are purple. forming thick. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. and bare fibrous roots.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes http://www.20 in) diameter.5–4 cm (0.31 in) long. 6–8 mm (0.24– 0.59–1. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. it can grow anywhere. fleshy. dark green with reddish veins. blunt spikes. 72. The chromosome number is variable. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ . The oil also contains menthone and menthyl http://www. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. and is often used as a flavouring in tea.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.1. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. and toothpaste. particularly menthyl acetate. confectionery.[10] Similarly. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. chewing gum. ice cream.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. thus promoting belching. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3.crazychefs.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content.

hairless. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. If you choose to grow peppermint. as a natural insecticide. In addition to that. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. [16]. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. which they then call "after-dinner mints.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It needs a good water supply. it is advisable to plant it in a container. the Galápagos Islands.[12] Outside of its native range. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. Leaves wrinkled. A mild. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this http://www. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. Leaves . [18]. Stems reddish." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. and it is considered invasive in Australia.[13] and in the United States. Eau De Cologne Mint). Foliage lime-scented.crazychefs. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. [21].taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. New Zealand. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'.

^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita . ^ Cappello. 11. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.006. (2007). a popular confection. page 640. (1989).. (1753). (1975).. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. C. 4th Edition.1016/ http://www.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . A.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. Mentha L. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.pdf. ^ Harley.02.who. R.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. ed. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. 5. C.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. ^ World Health Organization. ^ a b Huxley. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. & Grey-Wilson.crazychefs. 9. Thomson Healthcare. A. ed. doi:10. http://www. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". http://whqlibdoc. ISBN 978-1563636783 10. 7..dld. C. ^ Linnaeus.2007. (1992). 6. In: Stace. et al. G.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12.glu. Mehmet (2004). 2. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. ^ a b Blamey. M. ^ a b Akdogan. M. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita Retrieved 3 June 2009. Flowers open from bottom up. Retrieved 2009-02-07. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4.

http://het. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .1071/AP99036. Retrieved 3 June. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. Plant Cell.. Retrieved 6 June 2009.. F.2740311104.)". ^ Bienvenu (1999). 22.sagepub.iso. on kidney tissue in rats".htm?csnumber=11633. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . Retrieved 3 June. 18. Retrieved 3 June. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)".com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119.16. ^ Sharma. ^ Farley. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)".1002/jsfa. Frédéric et al. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. http://www. ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". http://tih. Retrieved 3 June. (2007). ^ http://www.1023/A:1006185103897. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. 25.Specification".iso. Retrieved 7 June 2009. S. http://www. et al. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint".actahort. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .159. 21. populations. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". Derek R. http://www.1151. Australia". Ambika et al. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . Bienvenu (1998).E. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . 24.257. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 19.htm?csnumber=32041.wiley. http://www. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide.)". Valerie Howland (2006).htm?csnumber=4844. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. D. Retrieved 8 June 2009. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . doi:10. Retrieved 7 June 2009. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. Mehmet (2003) 119 . http://het. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .D. http://www. . ^ Edwards.28. ^ International Organization for Standardization. (2004). F. Mehmet et al. 27.219. V.iso. 20.htm..S. and Mentha spicata L. 17.sagepub. http://www3.actahort.E.sagepub. Zheljazkov. ^ Akdogan. doi:10. ^ a b c Jullien. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. Retrieved 6 June 2009.interscience.

porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. Allium ampeloprasum var. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ampeloprasum http://www.Gay The leek. is a vegetable which belongs. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. Two related vegetables. the elephant garlic and kurrat. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. also sometimes known as Allium porrum.) J. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. porrum (L.). to the Alliaceae family.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. although different in their uses as food. along with the onion and garlic. porrum ( .

intended for harvest in the season when http://www. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. and overwintering leeks. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size.crazychefs. leeks are hardy.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. to be planted out as weather permits. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. Once established in the garden. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. and they have few pest or disease problems. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna . Growing Leek field in Houthulst. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed.

com http://www.Cuisine Leeks for sale. having been overlooked for several centuries[1].net/ . while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. which can be used in salads. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. which turns it soft and mild in taste. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. The tender core may be eaten. but. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). The onion-like layers form around a core. as the leek ages. along with leek soup. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. although less bitter than scallion. In its raw state. Fried.crazychefs. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. due to the layered structure of the leek. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. Raw. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. Lamb is the most popular. carrots and potatoes and different meats. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient.

providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe. B2) 0.004 g . 83 μg 14. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.8 g Fat .5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .C.04 g .E. In her book.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.E.saturated 0. B3) 0. as well as other recipes with leeks. B1) 0. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.Sugars 3.15 g 0.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.monounsaturated 0.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.3 g 1. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.polyunsaturated 0. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. as well as wall carvings and drawings.C.Dietary fiber 1.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B. . B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.crazychefs.9 g .233 mg Folate (Vit. who consumed it most often in soup.

a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.crazychefs. In the play. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. good countryman. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton.Vitamin E 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long http://www.12 mg recommendations for adults.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. According to one legend. you know. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. representing Wales. David‘s Day.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. for example. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. .

French Women Don't Get Fat. Mireille. Knopf.p. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. ^ Jane Grigson.crazychefs. 1978. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. third edition (Oxford: University Press. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.Notes 1. 2000). Domestication of plants in the Old World. 3.. ^ Guiliano. Jane Grigson's Vegetable . (Penguin Books.

raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.2 g 0. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.crazychefs. dulce) or celeriac (var.6 g Fat Protein Water 0. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Celery.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates . either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.Sugars 2 g 3g . with fewer than 100 individuals left.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in .Dietary fibre 1.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a http://www.

onions. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with . horses. Celery is a staple in many soups. and in Old Bay http://www. birds. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. as celery salt. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. 30 AD. and small rodents. Celery. dogs. Actually very small fruit.crazychefs. squirrels.In temperate countries. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Celery salt is used as a seasoning.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. such as chicken noodle soup. Celery. onions. on the Chicago-style hot dog. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. often used as a base for sauces and soups. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. celery is also grown for its seeds. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails).

[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. M. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. Lemnos and Thebes. Celery contains androstenone. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). foods that contain or may contain celery. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. however. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. father of the Cabeiri.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. In Homer's http://www.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. However. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. have to be clearly marked as such.[8] In the European Union. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. at Kastanas." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. they note "since A. even in trace amounts. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. making avoiding such foods difficult. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso.crazychefs.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. for people with celery . chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

and Praetors feasts. as the Grace of the whole Board". white and red.5–2 mm long and wide. from the Latin selinon. due to extremely uniform crop growth. the whole plant having a coarse.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. They are ranged under two classes. many of which differ little from the wild species. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. at our Great Mens tables. but the leaves may be used in salads. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m .[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term.crazychefs. splits. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. earthy taste. cracks. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. and a distinctive smell. straightness and thickness of petiole. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. sweetish. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. apium Italicum. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. seleri.. insect damage and rot). By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. In North America.. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. The plants are raised from seed. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. 2–3 mm diameter.[14] With cultivation and blanching. Under optimal conditions. produced in dense compound umbels. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the http://www. In the past. borrowed from Greek. shape. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. and the most crisp and tender. 1. fields are harvested only once. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. The flowers are creamy-white. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended.

(2005). ^ Celestin J. 13. ^ a b Fragiska.46. and proper sanitation. (Laurentii Salvii). Wilson West J.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). Domestication of Plants in the Old World. Retrieved 2009-05-03. Suslow. ^ Calcium sources http://www. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. 3. 11. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". 15. http://www. ^ snopes.nsf/pages/smallage. et al. M. Radauer C. 16. C (1753). gentle handling. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. 227. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. 1920). "Celery". ^ OED. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity".. P. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. ^ Teng CM. p. M. Post-harvest technology research and information center. ^ R. Hopf. ^ Cantwell. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82.L.[16] References 1. de Medicina.v.ucdavis. ^ Bublin M. (2002-06-10). Retrieved 2008-03-04. Thayer translation [1] 4. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). Lee LG. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery.6 (June 1993): 610-611. 2000) p. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". ^ "Smallage". Heiner Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. Scheiner O.202. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus.crazychefs. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. ^ Pliny. 9. 2. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. ^ D. 12.. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. Natural History XIX. (3rd ed.practicallyedible. 2003. Ko SN. Zohary and M. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5.. 8. ^ William Robinson and W. Thomson. Western Journal of Medicine 158. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . 10. Holmiae.shtml.17:1697-1699. 14. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". http://postharvest. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. Celery and Negative Calories 6. T. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. Kraft D. ^ Celsus.

21 g .33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (Discuss) For other uses. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars. For the common table sugar. see Sugar (disambiguation).com http://www.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .crazychefs.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0. see sucrose. Magnification of grains of sugar. B2) 0.98 g 0g 0g .03 g Riboflavin (Vit.Sugars 96. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Sugar.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.Sugars 99. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.91 g .

[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. but also appears in fruit. lactose.Water .crazychefs.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for http://www.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. obesity and tooth decay. and fructose. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. sugar maple (in maple syrup). Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. mainly sucrose. honey. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. It forms the main ingredient in candy. and in many other sources.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. sorghum.026 mg Folate (Vit. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.77 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. B2) 0. B3) 0.

the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. etc. "dextrose". sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. In this informal sense. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water.Popular In non-scientific use. such as glucose. means "pebble". 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. the Spanish word azúcar.[4] It came to English by way of French. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". molasses or treacle. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. In a list of ingredients.) The Greek word for "sugar". and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). Generically known as "syrups". Spanish and/or Italian.crazychefs. "fructose".[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. Scientific Scientifically. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). including palm sugar and fructose. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars.) will likely denote a sugar. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. the Italian word zucchero. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. . A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of http://www. (Compare the OED. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". preservation. Etymology In the case of sugar. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. and texture) of beverages and food. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars").

containing 1. This includes all the sugars referred to above. Sugars include monosaccharides.crazychefs. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. Natural sugars come in fruit. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 3. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . important molecules in the body. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O).net/ . A notable exception. making the sugars reactive. as its name http://www. cook or consumer. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. deoxyribose. syrups and fruit juices. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form.Culinary sugars Grainier. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. disaccharides. raw sugar. plus sugars naturally present in honey. has a "missing" oxygen atom. 2. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption.

with less than 0. These disaccharides have the formula http://www. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. proteins connected to one or more sugars. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. This resulting syrup. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. fructose. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium.water (H2O) per bond. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. Monosaccharides include fructose. galactose and mannose.crazychefs. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. sweeter than the original sucrose. Note for example glycoproteins. which has the formula C6H12O6. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. glucose. producing invert sugar. lactose (milk sugar . Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose.made from one glucose and one fructose). so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. which form part of nucleic acids. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). If combined with fine ash.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). In these closed-chain forms.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. After digestion and absorption. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. and galactose. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch).net/ . including NADH and ATP. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. which is made of glucose. sugar will burn with a blue flame. or DNA. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar .

^ Wuebben. Joseph and Mike Carlson.htm . Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History.illovosugar.Bulk Density Chart. ^ "Engineering Resources .The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. 1996. OCLC 51837990 2. Sugar Blues. Cambridge: Woodhead." Powder and Bulk References Adas. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. Temple University http://www. Blackwell Publishing.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7.80 g/ml Notes 1. OCLC 44493265.webmd.crazychefs. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. A C Hannah. ISBN 1566398320. Sugarcane.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. James. Michael (January 2001). ^ scientificpsychic. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. History of Science and Technology in Islam. 5.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. 4. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. ISBN 063205476X. ^ Ahmad Y Glyn (2004). ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The International Sugar Trade. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When." link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6.

sugar beet molasses is used. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Products for industrial use (e. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar.g.5% molasses (dark brown sugar).crazychefs. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane.35 mm. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. especially in the Netherlands." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. It is. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar http://www. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. for light brown sugar. without mixing them separately. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.25% of the total volume). It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. however. Brown sugar contains from 3. Although in some areas. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead.Brown sugar Brown sugar .

though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. much like adding molasses would do. in his studies (cited in "Pure. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. In other applications. History In the late .UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. White and Deadly" . Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. as opposed to white sugar. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. apart from pure carbohydrate. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes).[1] http://www. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. Nutritionally. The effort was so successful that by 1900. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar.[2] John Yudkin. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect.crazychefs. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar.

139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cane sugar. 2003.wildernessfamilynaturals. Harvey. 6. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals.php?id=3026. an island off Africa. Retrieved 2008-09-20.3 fao. Demerara is another unrefined. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California ^ Levenstein. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. crystals. 3. giving it a higher mineral content.fao. Retrieved 2008-09-20. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. Some Demerara is still produced in South America.wholesomesweeteners. http://www. or Demerara sugar. Muscovado.html. but most is now produced in . As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. ^ New Scientist. which is then crystallized. Retrieved 2008-09-20.htm#bm07.crazychefs. 32-33 5. light brown. where sugar cane was grown. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). http://www. resulting in the characteristic large. There is more molasses in natural brown binado_Sugar. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice.1. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an and are sold as Turbinado sugar. light brown. References 1.". dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. 4. largecrystalled.htm#sugarmade. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. http://www.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. centrifuged.csrwire. 7. 2.

Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). refined salt (table salt). the two major components of salt. including high blood pressure. but toxic to most land plants.[citation needed] Conversely. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. Chloride and sodium . 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. including humans. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. and iodized salt. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures.crazychefs. pale pink or light gray in color. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. which some use to prevent caking. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. white. It is a crystalline solid. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning.

[2]:38 From about 2800 . however. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. the caravans still transported some 15. glass.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.crazychefs. China dates back to at least 6000 BC.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. as were salted birds and salt fish. In 1960. in the millennia before http://www. especially for meat. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar.000 tons of salt. and the dye Tyrian purple. salt provided the best-known food preservative.

began open pan salt making. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife.also gave us Gaul. Hallstatt.Salzburg. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James http://www. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah.[citation needed] The root hal(l). both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. (Judges 9:45.[1] It is widely. though incorrectly. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. In many Pagan religions esp. who had heretofore mined for salt.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt.crazychefs. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. the Roman exonym for the Celts. God sent down four blessings from the sky . and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. within a radius of no more than 17 . 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. the Hallstatt Celts. and Egyptian. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). Greek. During the first millennium BC. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. water. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. taking their names from hal(l)-. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. Halych in Ukraine. salz.) In the Sermon on the Mount. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. which was illegal under British rule. a root for salt found in Celtic. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf.

[10] Salt is used for Snow removal.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. In Aztec mythology. http://www. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. such as in Sumo Wrestling. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith.

Purification usually involves recrystallization. Fleur de sel.crazychefs. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although http://www. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). and is now often called sea salt or solar salt.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. food uses account for 17. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects.Different natural salts have different mineralities. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. After the raw salt is obtained. One example are bath salts. Injected water dissolves the salt.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. In recrystallization.5% of salt production.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined . 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. and the making of soaps and detergents. and thus is rarely eaten.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. Today. giving each one a unique flavor. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. natural sea salt harvested by hand.[12] However.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. which are kiln-dried. Refined salt. is mainly sodium chloride. which is most widely used presently.

however. magnesium oxide. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium . Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . silicon dioxide. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together.154 g/cm3. and a bulk density (dry.[29] However. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and http://www. calcium or magnesium carbonates. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. and calcium aluminosilicate. sodium aluminosilicate. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough.crazychefs. Single-serving salt packets. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. Table salt has a particle density of 2.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. calcium silicate.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. but was determined to be unnecessary. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1.165 g/cm3. Some people also add a desiccant. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. condiments such as soy sauce. fatty acid salts (acid salts).

or sodium iodate. which gives the table salt a yellow color. In France. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. and myxedema in adults.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). even http://www. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. dizziness.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women.[32] Another additive. In Canada. cretinism in children. specifically endemic goiter. which can cause goitre. which can cause severe. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. with insufficient salt intake. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. sodium iodide. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. potassium. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. or even an electrolyte disturbance. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. magnesium.[33] Drinking too much water. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. In the United States. fluorinated table salt is available. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. neurological problems. iodized salt is more common in the United States. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium . The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. especially important for pregnant women.[31] Today. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment.crazychefs. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. The reason for this is unclear.

147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. since salt was quite valuable)." ([41]. p18) However. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child http://www.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia).[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality." ([44].[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. can cause hypernatremia.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women." ([41]. such as in treatment of dysautonomia.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the . in Japan.[38] heartburn. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. salt consumption is higher. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. forced salt intake.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. It can exacerbate renal disease. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics." ([41] p3).crazychefs.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. independently of blood pressure effects. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. combined with an inadequate intake of water.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death.

for a typical adult.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium.crazychefs. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium.6 g or 70 mmol sodium).[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption . However."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets. have been found to consume little salt. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. SACN states.[50].[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New http://www. A salt mill for sea salt. but achievable population goals. Some isolated cultures. such as the Yanomami in South America. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy.

which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day.300 mg of sodium (= 2. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. Those who have kidney failure. or Green (Low). low in fat. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet.1g sodium). etc. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.'[55] Campaigns In 2004.5g salt per 100g (or 0. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2.8 g salt) per day.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute.[57] In March 2007. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. calories. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).).[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free".g. Amber (Medium). Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. which will increase potassium intake.[51] In the United States.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than . without recourse to salt substitutes.crazychefs. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI)." In the UK. Low is 0. "low".[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. then that is a medium level of salt. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. When other health claims are made about a food (e.3 g sodium = 5. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www.6g sodium). Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. One manufacturer. Australia.

the top five producers being the United States (40. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. India (14. called Germany (17. such as brine wells and salt lakes. 8. ^ "Salt". Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www. 6. http://en. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. and Hall in Austria. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other.5). New York: Robert Appleton Company. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. Answers.3 million tonnes). Notes 1. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. Triamterene.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. 4th edition". 7. 3. and Canada (12. 5. In 2002. China (32. Retrieved 2008-12-14.3).com. 4. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. and by mining rock their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone).9). Dytac. 1913. Eplerenone and http://www.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. Costs can reach staggering . Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application.7).

fr/Ftp/Afssa/26447-26448. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. Mason (2006-12-19). ^ HE-620 24. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. 2008 29.anl. ^ B.9% sodium chloride 25. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt".stm 38. Retrieved 2009-0708. 281. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. 5379.Weather Curriculum 18. 11. http://books. Kuemmel (1994). Victoria) Salt 34.9. J. Transportation Research Board. sodium. Epikouria Magazine. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. ^ Iodized Salt 31. salt . ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". Ask a Scientist. ^ References on food salt & health "The (Political) Science of Salt". Salt Institute. ^ a b http://news. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. 28.wiley. ^ David A.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. http://www3. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. ^ Nauticus . ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. ^ http://www. ^ What is Salt?. salt ^ Iodized Salt 32. pp. ^ European Salt Producers' Association ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. sodium.htm. 10. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers".907 37. ^ Table ^ Roskill Information Services http://www.htm Salt Institute. Retrieved 200907-08. 14. http://www. salt manufacture. 16. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. Science.roskill.htm 15. 12. Fall/Winter 2006 10. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. salt manufacture. 14 August http://www. 898 .pdf 33. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. ISBN 9780309056663. ^ Gary Taubes. salt history. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. salt uses. Retrieved 2008-07-29. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36.

^ Susan R. D. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. Published online 2005.334(7599):885.1002/0471238961. Cutler JA. doi:10. S. Legal Medicine Sodium 52. New York: Walker & Co. OCLC 48573453. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. 2006. Sodium chloride. 7. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57.1016/j. The Story of Schindler. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. Obarzanek E et http://www. http://www. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. and S. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). Salt: A World History. 28 January 2008. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. Feldman. 2007.legalmed.crazychefs. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases.. Mark (2002). ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. Friedrich Schulz. Further reading Kurlansky. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. Barber. doi:10. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls OCLC 48426519.a01.W. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. ^ Cook NR. ^ Salt Matters 60. John Wiley & Sons. Norton & Co. Putnam's Sons.hyp. (accessed13 January 2007) 49. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). New York: W. NY: G. Erwin Koops. 47-50.005 48. http://www. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Salt TV ads 59. ^ U. BMJ.1915040902051820. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. New York.P. The Mummies of Ürümchi. ISBN 0802713734. Mark.pub2 References Kurlansky. ISBN 0393320197. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 61. ^ Understanding labels 55.. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. Axel Gehl and Michael .

New York: Columbia University Press. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section .Laszlo. The Stationery Office. Arts and traditions of the table. Salt: Grain of Life. Department of Health. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ http://www. Pierre. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. by Dr Trevor Beard.

such as Cambodia. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. Malaysia. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. found commonly in Thailand. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). Indonesia. mainly Kerala. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. phrik thai. phrik khi nu(lit. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . It can also be found in India. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black http://www.crazychefs. Vietnam. as well as in neighbouring .Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. the Philippines and Singapore.

They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. "Big things come in small packages.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 on the Scoville pungency scale." which can best be described by the English equivalent. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones.crazychefs. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger .com http://www.000 to 100.

phrik khii nuu ( . Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. Thai). The more decorative. has peppers that point upward on the plant. creating a rainbow effect. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'.net/ . Thai" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C.crazychefs.wikipedia. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. but slightly less pungent variety. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. Ladâ. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). and among the group of capsicum annuum.As well as the Malay word. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). orange. and go from green to yellow. and then http://www.

furrowed. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. which store a large amount of . 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. usually mashed. It has a tough. or used in casseroles. It is a kind of celery.crazychefs. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. about the size of a large potato. Unlike other root vegetables.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. it can also be used on its own. Celeriac has a celery flavour. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. gratins and baked dishes.

Sugars 1. and 'Kojak'. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary . Among them are 'Prinz'. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . 'Ibis'.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. especially in Europe.6 g 9. Celeriac. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables.crazychefs. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg http://www. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean.Dietary fiber 1. 'Diamant'. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. rinsed. Celeriac soup. There are a number of cultivars available.2 g .3 g 1.

The stem is often spiny. aubergine. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) .crazychefs. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It bears a fruit of the same name. and see text The eggplant. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. As a nightshade. Pakistan and Sri http://www. The flowers are white to purple. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S.

The name http://www. from Arabic .[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. In Indian and South African English. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. The name eggplant. but much larger in cultivated forms. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. used in the United States. which is used in British English. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. New Zealand. 1500 CE. The fruit is fleshy. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. and contains numerous small. History Solanum melongena. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen".crazychefs. flower The plant is native to India.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens." Aubergine and brinjal. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Australia. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. soft seeds. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. In the Caribbean Trinidad. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. which are edible.

Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. Traditional. and Tycoon. green. or white. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. Black Magic. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. and Black Beauty.crazychefs. shape and color. especially purple. Dusky. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. in white skin Dourga. A much wider range of shapes. Pingtung Long. Ichiban. slightly pendulous cucumber. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. There are even orange . whiteskinned. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Burpee Hybrid. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. Classic. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Some cultivars have a color gradient. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid.

A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. peanuts. or Eggplant Parmesan. The fruit flesh is smooth. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. tomatoes. or tamarind. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani . it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. As a native plant. The thin skin is also edible. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. for example. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. In Iranian cuisine. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. It. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. and deep-fried. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. rice. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. In the Caucasus. battered. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to http://www. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In one dish. and garlic. as in the French ratatouille. It can be sliced. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. braised (紅燒茄子). and masala and then cooked in oil. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. for example in sambhar. and achaar. tahini. as in the related tomato.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. as they are far less bitter. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. so that peeling is not required. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. curries. It is often stewed. it is called Begun ( ). In Bangladesh. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. complex flavor. tahini. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. along with the fish Hilsa. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. the Arabian moussaka. or other fillings and then baked. chutney. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. allowing for very rich dishes.crazychefs. In some parts of India.

and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. depending on cultivar.crazychefs. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. and spider mites.) to 60 cm (24 in.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a http://www. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. such as tomato. For this reason. This is called Beguni ( ). Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. pepper (capsicum). Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. are also troublesome to eggplants. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. aphids. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. containing both female and male structures.) between rows. showing the inside. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. (Adults can be removed by hand. flea beetle. and potato. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. Egypt. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. the most serious of which is Verticillium. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Flowers are complete. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates.) between plants. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to .

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.35 g .crazychefs. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. B2) 0. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.19 g .Sugars 2.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .039 mg 5.043.[5] In the United States.7 g 0. B1) 0. F = FAO estimate. semi-official or estimates). New Jersey is the largest producing state.( http://www.Dietary fiber 3. P = official figure. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.

A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or http://www. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2. Brazil.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported.crazychefs.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.01 mg/100g).16 mg Manganese 0. B3) 0. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.084 mg Folate (Vit. However.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.[8] On average. while 1.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.Niacin (Vit.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible .

were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. insanum. H.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. sinuatorepandum. Scopoli's S. mainly by Dikii. globosi. Dunal.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian http://www. luteum. trongum. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. stenoleucum. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). rumphii. inerme.crazychefs. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. brownii. esculentum.C. subrepandum. There is an actual S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. . which used to include Dunal's S. such as agreste. variegatum.Varieties Solanum melongena var.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. On the other hand. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. leucoum. that of Blanco to S. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. multifidum. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. tongdongense. Solanum oviferum Salisb. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. ovigera. aethiopicum. Similarly. But this is not correct.-Lag. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. inerme and subinerme at that time. violaceum. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. S. lasiocarpum. violaceum and viride. giganteum. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. esculentum. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. oblongo-cylindricum. edule. ovigerum and S. and (invalidly) by Sweet. aethiopicum. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. ruber. Names for various eggplant types.F. divaricatum. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. Solanum longum Roxb. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. album. racemiflorum. capsicoides).

CRC Press. (2001). Handbook of Food . Footnotes 1.crazychefs. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. http://www. ^ Doijode. 2. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. Technology. ISBN 1574445510. S. D. Hui (2006). and Engineering by Yiu H.

Tsenge Demana. ^ Solanum melongena var. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 2009-07-01. 18(1): 59-62 13. http://faostat. 2004. 1993 Number 6 http://www.crazychefs. Vol. 6. Robert (2008-11-14). ^ Westerfield. 2008-11-11. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. ^ SN Pramod. Harish Babu * .caes. http://pubs.pdf. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. Domino. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. ^ B. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. Bruno Caramelli. Andréa Thomaz. 202 4. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. Miyachi Y. Volume 329:437 August 5. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989.Aubergine 8. Erich Hornbach. pp. FAO. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary 273-6. ^ Kabashima K. .133(42):2081-3 12. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. ^ "FAOSTAT". volume 82 (nº 3).fao. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels".) reveals female predominance. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf).50(2):101-102 11. Toorenenbergen AW. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. 5. 7.* YP Venkatesh. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006).3. N. Ebury Press. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. A. Dieges PH.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. Retrieved 2007-04-24. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. The New England Journal of Medicine. P. 2008 . ^ Health24.uga. Arq Bras Cardiol. ^ Edward F. Mahesh † and Y.

odd pinnate. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. see section Fruit or vegetable below). and have a http://www. It is a perennial. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 . woody stem that often vines over other plants.8 in) across. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. syn.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.4–0. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. One species.crazychefs. The tomato is native to South America. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. with a serrated margin.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. yellow. Solanum lycopersicum. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles.

meaning plump thing with a navel. tomatl. cerasiforme. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. They also took it to the Philippines. The specific name. in certain areas of Italy. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. smaller vegetable . likely to be the original salsa recipe. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. now Mexico City in 1521. corn and salt. an Italian physician and botanist. and cultivation began in the 1540s. was the first European to take back the tomato. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. a mutation from a smoother. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. However. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan.crazychefs. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian http://www. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. The exact date of domestication is not known. such as Florence. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. ancestor of L. according to Smith. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However.[6] Gerard's Herbal. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. It was probably eaten shortly after it was . an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. the other by currant tomatoes. lumpy tomato. means "wolf-peach". originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. earlier in 1493. lycopersicum.[4] The large. a barber-surgeon.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. golden apple. who named it pomo d‘oro. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language.

1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. and as a garnish.[6] Nonetheless. but the fruit is safe). Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. sent some seeds back to America. ―within the last forty years. broths. The University of California. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets.crazychefs. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). Paella. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses.largely plagiarized from continental sources.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. British consul in Aleppo c. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. Over the past 15 years. The C. Thomas Jefferson. particularly Florida and http://www. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. and in general. The Spanish tomato dish. most famously in Worthing. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. In Victorian times. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. 1799 – . Charles M. who ate tomatoes in Paris.[6] But by the mid-1700s. Gerard's views were influential. Currently. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. and before the end of that century. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. By the mid-18th century. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. California. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. Rick. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy.

com http://www. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. through cherry tomatoes.4–0. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. For processing tomatoes. pink. but a number of cultivars with . or white fruit are also available. about 5mm in diameter. black. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. purple. Most cultivars produce red fruit.6–2. orange. production and 35% of world production. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. China. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.8 in) size as the wild tomato. they are known as plum tomatoes. It may be deleted after Friday. the largest producer.4 in) diameter range. and have a lower water content. followed by United States and Turkey.crazychefs. green.0–2.[12] According to FAOSTAT. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries.S. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. accounted for about one quarter of the global output.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0.0 in) diameter. California accounts for 90% of U. 18 September 2009.

particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life.crazychefs. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. but unlike commercial . along with zucchini. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and.[18] and productivity. based mostly on shape and size.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. and are shaped like large strawberries. as well as heirloom tomatoes. As in most sectors of agriculture. plum http://www. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes).

Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pink. et cetera. including yellow.cherry tomatoes are small and http://www.especially heirlooms . these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. and lack of mealiness.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. Red Boar). Lucky Cross). and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. brown. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. including Brandywine (biggest red). fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. and purple. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities.produce fruit in colors other than red. low acidity. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. which usually discourages fruit set. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. multiple colors (Hillbilly. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. often via mail-order. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". Burracker's Favorite. but are smaller than plum tomato. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. white. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. As an intermediate form. Determinate. etc. although some determinate heirlooms exist. Green Zebra (top right).net/ . some tomato cultivars . hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. ivory. black. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. or bush. they are often good choices for container growing. A variety of specific cultivars.crazychefs. or home growers interested in canning. but must be bought as seed. orange. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. Black Krim (lower left corner). disease and pest resistance. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries.

Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. As the name implies. carried by the beet leafhopper. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. too. slugs. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. cutworms. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. and remain. but manure or compost work well. entirely within the closed corolla. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. The most common letters are: V .[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. whiteflies. red spider mite. and A . The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. F .[24] and Colorado potato beetles. In the wild.fusarium wilt strain I. T . flea . which interrupts the lifecycle. original state.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping.alternaria. cabbage loopers. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top.fusarium wilt strain I & II.verticillium http://www. N nematodes. FF . their traditional pollinators. tomato fruitworms. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke.tobacco mosaic virus. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. The stamens were.crazychefs. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. aphids. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. As a floral device to reduce selfing. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. tomatoes required cross-pollination. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars.

However. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. In an outside setting. They may be recognized by their color. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. as with most http://www. or more often today. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening .became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life.crazychefs. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. Unripe tomatoes are firm. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). This is not the same as self-pollination. depending on variety. In more temperate climates. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. by cultured bumblebees.

com http://www. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). a subset of fruit. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. in pieces. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.crazychefs. The tomato is acidic. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. as tomato sauce. especially in cooked tomatoes.Recently. carotene. In some studies lycopene.6 g 4g . anthocyanin. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. They contain lycopene. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.Sugars 2. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich).5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. and other antioxidants. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. or paste. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium).Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). Though it is botanically a berry. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue).net/ .

Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). When that tip eventually stops growing. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. fully functional. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. there are variations. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. it will not continue to ripen. These hairs facilitate the vining process. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. such as rugose leaves. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its http://www. initially decumbent. Spain.[28] In October 1965. and grow as a series of branching stems. Determinate types are annual in all climates.crazychefs. meaning covered with fine short . the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. often by sun. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. The fruit is also preserved by drying. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. Known for its tomato growth and production. Of regular leaves. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. whether because of pruning or flowering.make salsa. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. Embracing it for this protest connotation. Tomato plants are dicots. generally three feet tall or shorter. annually celebrates La Tomatina.5 °C (54. or pickled. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. vines.5 °F). especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. although erect bush varieties have been bred. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. They are bred to continue ripening. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. lateral buds take over and grow into other.

angora leaves. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. which frequently used it and still do). and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. Some smaller varieties have two cavities.. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. would be more correct. However. moths.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.g. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. Despite this. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. chili . Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera.Karst.. peach. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. other insects. and be dried/fermented before germination. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. (derivation.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. genetic evidence (e. or other external forces that present in the Americas. plus 'persicum'.com http://www. tobacco.) H. This is because they are native to the Americas. variegated. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. Other species in that family are potatoes. while paste tomatoes have very few. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. very small cavities. called locular cavities. wolf. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). making the Linnaean name correct. Technically. Similarly. Therefore. However. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. butterflies. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. appearing on the apical meristem. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). As a true fruit.crazychefs. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. among cultivated species. 'lyco'. according to type. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). These vary.[31] Their flowers. have the anthers fused along the edges. "wolf-peach"). making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon.e. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. i. with both names found in the literature.deeply grooved.

but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1883. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. flavor. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. A. of Reynoldsburg. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. Hedden (149 U.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. . These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts.W. In 2006. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May http://www. and numerous other traits. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. color. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. as are vegetables. Ohio. The U. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. U.S. and organizations. 304)). rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. together with its seeds.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. In 1887. shape. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. Monsanto. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. pest tolerance.crazychefs. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. Bejoseed. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. AVRDC. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. North Carolina. a tomato is the ovary. size. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. etc. universities. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. Corporations including Heinz. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. from a culinary standpoint. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. BHNSeed.S.S. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. However. New York. Livingston. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. As noted above. corporations. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. University breeding programs are active in Florida. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. U. nutritional value. Oregon. disease tolerance. However. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations.

Ohio. Virginia. stems. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Connecticut.S. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. On October . In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . Minnesota. contain the poison Solanine. however."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Indiana. Maine. 2006. Pennsylvania.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Vermont and Wisconsin. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. which is toxic to humans and animals.crazychefs. Rhode Island. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tennessee. Michigan. the U. Georgia.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). harmless. Kentucky.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. New Hampshire. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. North Carolina.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. Speakers from the British Isles. Massachusetts. The fresh fruit is. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the http://www. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes.

[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. 40.84 pounds (522 kg). New Mexico (98). with 49.8 m (65 ft) length. of the cultivar 'Delicious'.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada.151. respectively. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. with a harvest of more than 32. discovered the unique plant in Beijing. Illinois (100). one would arrive at an estimated 40. in 2000.273 illnesses from this outbreak.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. On August 30. Oklahoma in 1986. French and Germans. UK. the District of Columbia. such as raw tomato. As of July 2008. and Canada.6:1).7 and 16. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. 2008.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. it caused at least one http://www. and fresh cilantro.000 kilograms (250. Lake Buena Vista." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38.1 reported cases per million.[38] As of July 8. fresh jalapeño pepper.S. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. and Arizona (49).crazychefs. 2007. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. China.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Yong Huang.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. Epcot's manager of agricultural science.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by .[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. 2008. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. the U. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. from April 10.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). fresh serrano pepper. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. Florida. Lancashire. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley.

crazychefs.S. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown http://www. Derived from Cherokee Purple.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. indeterminate. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a .S.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. Fusarium. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Tomato slices. in Korea. Young tomato . Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. Tomato fruit. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine.crazychefs. Tomato plants in the garden. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pickling. Tomato Flower. good for Tomatoes on a vine.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red http://www. .Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

F. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2009-01-26. Normania. Culture. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. (1994). Retrieved 2009-04-02. D. ^ "UC Newsroom. University of Illinois 7..smithsonianmag. http://tgrc. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. ^ Tomato history 4.html". Yourarchives. Andrew F. ISBN 1-57003000-6. USA: University of South Carolina Press. Smith. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. 11. ^ http://faostat. 6. 13. p. T. webpage: books-google-TTp17. ISBN bid/6280/Default.aspx?PageID=567 http://www.html. ^ a b Smith. The tomato in America: early history. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Footnotes 1. (2002)." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. ^ The Friend. & Spooner.fao. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online).Smith. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo .universityofcalifornia.smithsonianmag. it handles more than 1. and cookery. and Triguera are nested within Solanum.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. 1876. October 26. Andrew F (1994). p. http://www.nationalarchives. 8. S. Tgrc. ^ a b Hartz. tons to the acre.ucdavis.Your Archives". UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87.easthamptonstar. Universityofcalifornia. (2001).C. 1994. ^ "http://www. culture. 2002-05-08.smithsonianmag. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus 2. Peralta.nationalarchives. ^ "C.html.Food & Wine". Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L." 15. Cyphomandra. page 57: ".gov.. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Retrieved December 11 2009." See: Natural History In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. Retrieved December 11 2009. M. The Tomato in America. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . http://yourarchives. Wettst. 519 [1] po. 223 10. A. ^ Acquaah. and Cookery. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. (2002-0508)".net/ . 12. Appletons' journal Published by D.aspx. 2008.. ^ "http://www.html". http://www. 5.ucdavis. et al. During the three months of the local harvest.M. Subsection Lycopersicon).gov. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Appleton and Co. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. Processing Tomato Production in California.The East Hampton Star .17. 3. E. section Lycopersicon Mill.

news. http://faq.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. Retrieved July". ^ "Crop Profiles .kr.smithsonianmag. Retrieved December 11 22. 2006. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look ^ " ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007). ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?".html 23.html. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".html. 31." 18. http://www. "Tomato genome project gets $1. ^ "http://www. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. 29. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". Sinaloa. page 57: "The plants are still growing. 27. 25. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine". ^ http://www. Retrieved 2006.smithsonianmag. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.html.smithsonianmag. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home".gardenweb.16.osu." 19. http://www. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato 30.whfoods.smithsonianmag.plants. Retrieved 24.cornell. Retrieved June the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips. Ncsu.gob. http://wwwplb.ucdavis. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention". http://www. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only Smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". Retrieved December 11 2009.gob.html".ncsu. Retrieved ^ http://www. Retrieved December 11 2009.html. which are carried in the".cornell. ^ "http://www. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ http://www. 32. http://www. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more." 20.html. http://news. Retrieved 200810-27. 33. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague.Tomato" of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. 26. HYG-5532-93". 21. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. http://ohioline.plants. Retrieved http://www.smithsonianmag.stm.ufseeds.html" http://www. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27. News.html. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. Retrieved 200705-24. http://www. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. Retrieved ^ "Selecting. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the http://www.

Itn. p.html. ^ 2007-08-30. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005". http://www. 40.34. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. 643. http://www. ^ a b Pittenger. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-1027. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. et ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus".com/stories/2006/10/30/national/ http://www. http://itn. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". 2004. http://www. 38.journals.foodsafetynetwork. Clinical Infectious Diseases. ^ "ITN. Nationalpost. (2002).1086/ ANR Publications. by state". Tomato "Spain's tomato fighters see red"" "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States".uchicago. 36. United States. . Retrieved 2009-0402. 41. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. 42. Tomato Recipe".vegparadise. Dennis R. 38:S3.CBS News". Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce Foodsafetynetwork. Retrieved http://www. ^ "August 8. ISBN Cbsnews. Cdc. Retrieved 2008-10-27.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953.html. http://www. California Master Gardener Handbook.nationalpost. 39. Retrieved 200904-02.cdc.crazychefs. Retrieved 2009-0721. (2004-04-15).

The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. It also grows in Kerala.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. malabarica from India. called selei buah pala. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and nutmeg butter (see below). extracted oleoresins. especially in Grenada. a state in the south part of India. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets").8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. and Bombay Nutmeg M. nutmeg and mace. the fruit is also made into jam. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". Species About 100 species.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. argentea from New Guinea. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices.4 oz) http://www.2 and 0.crazychefs. called Jaiphal in Hindi. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. including essential oils. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia.6 to 0. both are used as adulterants of . or Spice Islands. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. or sliced finely. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. In Indonesia. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. fragrans products.7 in) wide.

It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. In the Caribbean. and Barbados rum punch. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury . nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. mulled wine. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. sauces. In Penang cuisine. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. and baked goods. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. they are also used in soups. saffronlike hue it imparts. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. and eggnog. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. In Arabic. and string beans. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. cauliflower. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. Painkiller.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. green. "Lau Hau Peng".crazychefs. In European cuisine.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. In Indian cuisine. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine).

It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. beverages. medicines. for . It is semi-solid. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. that were at the time highly valued in European http://www. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression.crazychefs. which can be turned into myristic acid. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. syrups. The oil is colourless or light yellow. preserving agents. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. and sweets. although this is disputed. used as flavourings. in toothpaste. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. reddish brown in colour. 758 – ca. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. However. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. sugar cane. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. sugar .[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. soy extracts. About 1. or molasses. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky." However. Canned." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. not reproducible. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. particularly processed foods. autolyzed yeast. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. it also said that. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. with 4% annual growth expected. including hydrolyzed vegetable http://www. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. frozen. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. being an amino acid. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. Fermented products such as soy sauce. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. hydrolyzed yeast. and protein isolate. based on anecdotal reports. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent.crazychefs.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. yeast extract.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. steak sauce.

(2) synthesis. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. "Monosodium Glutamate". acidification. New York: Wiley. and crystallization.7% women).html 2. age 40–59 years. In the 2004 version of his book. flavour enhancer). 621. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. 373-375. Steven (August 2003). In the hydrolysis method. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration.. even in large amounts. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. dextrose or citrate).celiac. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. and (3) microbial fermentation. purified. For this reason. References 1. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate.2. [monosodium glutamate]. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. Drugs.). toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. MSG. such as hydrolyzed protein. ^ Leung. pp." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. and mineral ions and growth factors.crazychefs. In 1993. Albert http://www. ^ http://www. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. concentration.g.". On Food and . and converted to its monosodium salt. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate.. followed by either the name of the food additive. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids.

html 12. ^ "Production process".html. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study".com/amino/eng/product. doi:10. 8.1002/ ^ http://www.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. ^ He. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp. ^ Moskin. "Monosodium Glutamate". Beifan. doi:10. Wu.crazychefs. Daniel W (1994). Toxicol. Linguang.celiac. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. doi:10. doi:10. Case study: monosodium glutamate".1006/rtph. Nutr. Food Chem. Julia (2008-03-05). ^ Sand. Chirality 6 (4): pp. http://www.17457599. "A Short History of MSG". PMID 10736382. PMID 10597625. 1875–1880.nlm. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S.. Kelly M. et al.fda. 14. Martha ^ Walker R (October 1999).00160. .pdf 5. Jordan (2005). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.nih. the Secret Behind the Savor". http://www. ^ Kawakita.html 4. New York Times. 38–49.html?_r=1&oref=slogin.38. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. (1993).com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Dongshuang.1002/chir. Yamaguchi. (April 2000). doi:10. Yangfeng. Kimber Liancheng. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. Beiser A. Alan R. Anjimoto Co.4. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". Guo. 15.530060410.x. Inc.2008. MSG.nytimes. Chiaki. 11. doi:10. "Yes.ncbi. Garside. Zhou. 13.2006. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". Toxicol. PMID 18497735. Ka. Van Horn. (October 2006).1525/gfc. PMID 16999713.1038/oby.1111/j. doi:10. http://www. 7.. Jeremiah (August 2008). Shigeru. Shioya. ^ a b Geha RS.3. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ ^ http://vm. Daviglus.a16 711.cfsan. Dyer. Tetsuya. Takehara. http://jn. Masahiro. J. Zhu.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. ^ Freeman M. 277–282. Zhao.ajinomoto. ^ http://www.1337. ^ http://www. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. Regul.274. 6. ^ a b Tarasoff L. Ren C. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ^ a b Rundlett. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". PMID 8282275.ajinomoto. Sano.jstor.2005. Linda.F. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". Stamler. Armstrong. http://www.5. Shizuko (2005).

荳油 3. 醬油 2. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1.crazychefs.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 豆油 3. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 酱油 . 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1.

it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. [4] By the mid-19th century. In its various forms. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain.[3] In the 18th century. water. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK).crazychefs. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. Soy sauce was invented in China. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands.500 http://www. and salt.

Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). Although there are many types of soy . These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. sojae) and other related microorganisms. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. such as in giant urns and under the sun. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD ( http://www.crazychefs. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. literally "delicious taste"). Today. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹.

one of the two types. It has a richer. consistency. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. but it also adds flavour. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. Thai. Another type.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. In traditional Chinese cooking. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". and Chinese cuisine. ): A thin (nonviscous). traditional Chinese: 醬油. opaque.3-DCP (1. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). Since it is lighter in color. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). shuānghuáng (雙璜). These latter two more delicate types are usually for http://www. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. An additional classification of light soy sauce. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. since it is saltier. Korean. fragrance and . Despite their rather similar appearance. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. pinyin: jiàngyóu. lighter brown soy sauce. like extra virgin olive oil. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. with relatively low amounts of other grains. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste.crazychefs.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. slightly sweeter. or a mixture of both.

"strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. Usukuchi (淡口?. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. Shiro (白?. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than http://www. that is used in its production. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. for example sashimi. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso.crazychefs. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. It contains little or no wheat. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of . Technically. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). or 醤油). Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. where it is known as "shōyu". as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". Not all soy sauces are interchangeable.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts.

it is much darker and more strongly flavored. 1 litre bottles. Consequently. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman.crazychefs. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. Amakuchi (甘口?. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". not pasteurized. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy .Saishikomi (再仕込?. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce.

Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. powder. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. It is a unique variety. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce.crazychefs. In Indonesia. usually implies limited quantity. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. in a pinch. which has a thick. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in http://www. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for . Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses.

the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). Malaysia. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. O'Long(黑龍). dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. thin and dark brown in color. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. (called Joseon ganjang. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin.4% of soy sauce . Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). Joseon ganjang. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). is made entirely of soy and brine. WanJaShan(萬家香). Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce.crazychefs. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. Founded in 1909. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. lit. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). http://www. 조선간장.

or sometimes simply tương. pronounced SOO-kah).[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential.[6] Furthermore. it is also a table condiment. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. nước tương. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu.3-DCP (1. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). salt.crazychefs. It can also be very salty. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its .Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. and caramel. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of http://www. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. wheat. China.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces.

marinades and other types of sauces. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007.317 2. http://www. Lee Kum Kee. Celiac disease. King Imperial.[citation needed] In Vietnam. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. 2. Golden Mark. including six samples with up to 11. p.tcoc. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed".[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. No. p.000 times more 3-MPCD than "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". Individuals with a wheat allergy. . Seong-Gook (2002).Kong and Taiwan. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. 6. 2 (January 2000). some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid ^ Jung. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. ^ Tanaka. III. Press ^ Tanaka. 3. 7.[1] Notes 1.asp?id=7598 10. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy).aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20).org. pp. (1781). 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. XXVII. Jammy Chai. Golden In March 2008. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. ^ http://www. OCLC 9752305 5. 8. 6. an increase over 23 to 5.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits.000 to 18. Pearl River Bridge. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of Retrieved 2008-01-07. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat.miyajimasoy. ^ http://www. Soon Teck• and http://www. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. ^ http://www. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. Despite these being small in number in the UK. ^ Tanaka. Sinsin. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. ^ Titsingh. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce").tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9.smartfood. 4. Retrieved 200801-07. Isaac. 2nd edition. Kimlan.

google. Florence. . Fereidoon. 14. p.crazychefs. ^ Shahidi. ^ Toxic soy sauce. Makio (2005-04-18). Retrieved 2008-01-07. doi:10. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". doi:10. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. Stephen (2006-06-06). PMID 12469319. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. ^ Tanasupawat. 13. p. Edition 2. ^ 15.144. ^ Kobayashi. nutraingredients. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151.1263/jbb. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". ^ Daniells.nutraingredients. Hoboken. chemical veggies -. et Marian (2003).food scares hit Vietnam http://www. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". PMID 16198255. 103. Somboon (2002-06-18). Kentucky: CRC Press. 186. ISBN 1587161389. 18. http://www. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. ISBN 0632059877. http://books. fermentation and micro-organisms. Food.2323/jgam.48. 16. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones.201.11. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. Naczk. Charles W (2005).

5% Linoleic acid: 3.9150–0.5 °C) 84 cP 1.5–5.0% Stearic acid: 0.4677–1.0–83.3–3.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.0% Arachidic acid: <0.8% Behenic acid: <0.9180 (@ 15.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.5–21.3% Myristic acid: <0.5– 211 | P a g e http://www.0% Palmitoleic acid: .1% Lignoceric acid: <1.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.

Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. World production in 2002 was 2. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. . Leccino Pendolino. family Oleaceae). similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. principally Italy. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. oil from olives that are slightly unripe.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%.crazychefs. in France. in Greece.4680–1.000 tons of olive oil annually. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. but especially in the Mediterranean. and Moraiolo. Koroneiki. 93% comes from Spain.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. In 2006.6 (refined and pomace) 0. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio.[3] Of the European production.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. http://www. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. North Africa and the Near East. which produce approximately 350. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. as well as in Crete. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). Olive oil is used throughout the world. Italy and Greece. Japan and China. Alberquina. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Australia. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. cosmetics. Hojiblanca. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. and Manzanilla de Jaén. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world.6 million tonnes. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Olives are grown for oil in Greece.

with 23 member states. Oblica and Leccino.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules.000 m3) came from Italy. in Croatia. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life).600. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. in Portugal. defining quality standards. Spain. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production.California. The USDA uses a different system. a private trade group. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. by its chemistry. with production increasing to meet demand.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid.800. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. and by its flavor. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). The US imported 47. After extraction the remnant solid substance.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. IOOC terminology is precise. In North America. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. Spain. Mission. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. Galega.crazychefs. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. and Turkey. still contains a small quantity of oil. Spain. of which . The California Olive Oil Council. often in "prestige" packaging.000 US gallons (131. and monitoring authenticity. called pomace.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998.000 US gallons (181.

however. for blended oils.[14] In February 2008. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. but safe. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.[14] In March 2008. EU officials took issue with the new law.crazychefs. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). product as superior olive oil." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. and by http://www. but there are no guarantees. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). This practice makes it difficult for high quality.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. 25. mostly hexane. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. Almost 700 people died. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. both in Italy and abroad. it is believed. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil.[16] In April 2008. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. particularly in Italy. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section).[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. of free oleic acid it contains. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. measured by weight. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. is extremely lax and corrupt. defined as the percent.[15] Under EU rules. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's .[12] In some cases.

of no more than 1. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste http://www. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member.8% acidity. has an acidity less than 2%. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. It has a free acidity. It is fit for consumption.3 grams per 100 grams (0. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. but may not be described simply as olive oil. Used on salads. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. and are based on acidity.5% acidity. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. and is judged to have a good taste. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade.the oil degrades. These grades were established in 1948. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants.crazychefs. of not more than 0. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. Pure olive oil. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. another cause of rancidity. The U. absence of defects. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. and is judged to have a superior taste. In order to classify it by taste.S. The US is not a member. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. contains no more than 0. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible . This is also called its organoleptic quality. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. expressed as oleic acid.

Grade A or U.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. "cold" does not define any precise temperature. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used.S.S.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without http://www. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed".5% and is "reasonably free from defects". in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. U. which may be as low as 10-15 °C. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.crazychefs. with less flavour.0% and is "fairly free from defects".0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.S. Grade D or U. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. First of all. .S.S. Grade C".[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. This is incorrect. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.4% and is "free from defects". Grade B or U. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.S. U.S. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated.S.S. Grade C or U. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. (34 kJ/ml).

Tunisia. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.7 11.35 23.1 1. over 26 liters per year. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil.8 7. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.62 12. Spain and . Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13.crazychefs. around 14 http://www.7 l.2 7 1. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. Portugal and Lebanon. around 0.pressed". so the term "first press" is meaningless.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. around 8 l.1 0.

which is much faster and more http://www.crazychefs. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. suggesting a different taste. then placed into the press. which are stacked on top of each other in a column.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. 3. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. If ground with mill stones. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. not in the oil mills. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. This is done in specialised chemical plants. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. After grinding. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. 4. no or very little organoleptic defects). Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. Green olives produce bitter oil. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. After grinding. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. 1. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes.34 1. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". 2. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method).net/ .France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste.

The composition varies by cultivar.monounsaturated 73 g .omega-3 fat < . time of harvest. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat .omega-6 fat http://www.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.polyunsaturated 11 g .[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. In the United States. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. To achieve this possible benefit. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. most notably oleic acid.5 g .crazychefs.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g . olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. and extraction process.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. including oleocanthal and oleuropein. altitude. region.7%) and sterols (about 0. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.2% phytosterol and tocosterols).

by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. .[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. For example. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. During the second phase. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. rather than its fatty acid profile. During the first stage. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. in the long term. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. and that it exerts antiinflamatory.This decision was announced November 1.crazychefs. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. antithrombotic. at least in part. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. The study was conducted in two stages. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive http://www. This way. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. It is theorized that.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. and oleuropein. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. This could.

tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere.crazychefs. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. etc. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. not for foods to be eaten cold. In time. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. Also. oils deteriorate and become stale. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. A very fresh oil. blenders. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular http://www. like salads.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground.[citation needed]. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. For example. as available in an oil producing region. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen ( .) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Used cold. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. Also. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. cookware. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses.

Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. and mild laxative properties. It does have demulcent properties.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. acting as a stool softener.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal . who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan.crazychefs. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. It is also good for the management of pain.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM).[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products.

from O. oleum "oil. oile (12c. Homer called it "liquid gold. drawn and engraved by J.crazychefs. huile). The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. from L.Fr.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". as a fuel in oil http://www. Mod.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. and O. soap-making. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. magical. Besides food.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. and skin care application. It." In ancient Greece. medicines.N.. from Anglo-Fr. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. olive oil.Fr. olive oil" ( . elaion "olive tree". olio). from Gk. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power.Fr. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. 1175. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. olie.

Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. Bodrum.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet http://www.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. In the centuries that followed. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium. olive presses became common.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times).net/ . though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.crazychefs.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

stored in special containers. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). together with naked appearance of athletes. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization.[dubious – discuss] During this time. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt.000 tons of olive oil per season. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. he maintained. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. oil containers are preferred. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff).[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and.[citation needed]. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. allowing more time for more oil to be made. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. when the oil had risen to the top.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers.[46] Until 1500 BC. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. Sinuhe. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. "the best in the Mediterranean".crazychefs. the fertile crescent. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city http://www. where it is thought to have represented wealth..[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated.000 and 3. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. drained the water from the bottom. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. According to the historian Pliny. wrote of abundant olive trees.over 4. and area consisting of present day Palestine. Lebanon. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. and Israel. during the 13th century BC. According to legend. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 .

Louise Ferguson. 5. ^ G. Retrieved 2007-05-25. http://www. Olive Production Manual. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. Margaret Lindstrand (2005).com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047". Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. .com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.html. and. ANR Publications. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. the tourch is in a glass bulb. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. References 1. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree".org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo. ^ "findarticles. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. its oil almost glows. ^ USDA. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". http://www. neither Eastern nor One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath.gourmetretailer. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. and this secure city. even without fire touching it. and the Mount of Sinai. light upon light. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. Steven Sibbett. In Islam. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. Retrieved 2007-05-25. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. in the consecration of altars and churches. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. Retrieved 2008-07-04. traditionally.internationaloliveoil. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. Joann L Coviello.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. 3." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. "The Olive Tree." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). 2. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. ^ International Olive Oil Council. 158. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed http://www. ^ USDA. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. http://findarticles. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil.usda. To douse the flame. originating from King David.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work.imitate the original Menorah. http://www.crazychefs. 4.PDF.

htm". http://www.htm. 20.usda. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. http://www. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. ^ Riding. http://query. Tabacchi. http://www. Alan (1989-05-21). ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22.ams. 10. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10.xml. Epidemiol. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". ^ "www. PMID 17321749.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. http://news. and Maurizio La Guardia. Res. ^ Keys A. doi:10. 55 (3): 175–86.4005000.html. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28.xml. et al. 16. 2007-08-13. D. ^ a b". ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. US Customs Department.6. Retrieved 25. PMID 3776973. Retrieved 2008-11-09. ^ Mueller.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26.htm.eubusiness.". J. 7. Karvonen MJ. Retrieved 2008-11-16. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. M.1016/j. 124 (6): 903–15. http://aje.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07.23/. ^ "www. (December 1986). Menotti A. ^ "EUbusiness. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar". United States Department of Agriculture.Scotsman. Raymond & Co. November 2. 17. 2004. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis. Giammanco.phrs. 14.crazychefs. 23. 11.telegraph.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. http://www. ^ " http://www. 12.internationaloliveoil. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam .co. J. 19 CFR 134. 19. http://www. Di Majo. Tripoli.).gov/AMSv1.Telegraph". ^ Covas MI (March 2007).com/news-eu/1204304521. John. 21.nytimes.html".org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini. The New York Times (H. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.010. News".net/ . http://www.1079/NRR200495 24. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. S. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. ―imported by‖ language "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".scotsman.eubusiness. http://www. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . ^ Durant. Nutrition Research Reviews 18.southafrica. Tom. ^ New York Times.23/.co. ^ a b "Telegraph article".uk/news/main. Giammanco. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". Slippery Business The New

^ Turner R. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. ^ a b Davidson.. Vargas J. Poulsen HE.75." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. "." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. ^ "www. Masato Ueda. 39. ^ http://www. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. pp. http://www. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): http://www. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. 23. Brenes M.tchain. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. 45. ^ Mayo Clinic.html.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". An Wu. Vol. 43. Olea europaea L. ^ "Quite Interesting . 29. (January 2005). M : Osawa. 19. 19 November 2007 30.telegraph. 1S45-50. "New Year's Resolution No. Vol. No. (27 March 2000). 21. T.videojug. ^ Machowetz A. Use Olive Oil. s. "[10 INSERT TITLE]".1096/fj. PMID 17110467. 21 (1): 45– 36. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. Dello Russo A. 44. Osamu Nikaido. De Castro A (February 2007). ^ Ferrara LA. M : Ahmed. ^ Rosenblum. Medina E. Toshinori Bito. 2085-2090. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 38. ^ Ehud Galili et al. et al. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000).jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ 31. Raimondi 35. N U : Budiyanto. Ahmed. 2000. 55 (3): 680–6. Masamitsu Ichihashi. doi:10.28. 10. PMID 15830923. Nazim U. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice".1. ^ Mayo Clinic . André Bervillé. ssp. JDermatol-Sci. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori".Telegraph". "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. T : Ueda. Toshihiko Osawa. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42.. Etienne but cites no source.html". Israel". doi:10.ama-assn. http://www. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. doi:10. p. Gruendel S. 2000. Catherine Breton.". 1: Prevent Cancer. ^ Romero C. d'Episcopo L. A : Wu. Nov.v. Guida L.61. 34." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007.1024/0300-9831. "olive" and "oil" 40.1021/jf0630217. PMID 10737284.tchain. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?.co.v. Marotta T. Mar.crazychefs. Pagnol. Carcinogenesis. A : Bito. 11. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). 37. et al. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". Suppl. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary.06-6328com. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. Alonso MG. ^ Pagnol. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in ^ [2] Ichihashi. p. Faseb J. s. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. J Agric Food Chem. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". 19. (January 2007).xml. Olives 41. PMID 17263460. p.

^ F. Verstraete and V. 2001. Kennell. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ ^ Thomas Harrington Park Press. 47.46. ^ "www. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.reshafim. ed. ^ Nigel M. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". Provencal. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the http://www.htm". Processing methods. Scanlon.). "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. B. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48.htm.youngmuslims. pp119–33 C. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe".net/ .R. 2005 49. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. Riley.htm. http://www.

[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Saffron has further medicinal applications. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. ən] / [ˈsæf. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). A C. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. sativus flower bears three . these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.Saffron Saffron crocus C.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform.or hay-like fragrance. crocin. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. Saffron.crazychefs. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. each the distal end of a carpel.

broken apart.[11] Upon flowering.98–1. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. purple buds appear.2 in) in length. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ).com http://www.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ).The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. A corm survives for one season. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. must be dug up. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. which means "yellow. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. as was once generally believed. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. Only in October. and replanted. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when . sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 centimetres (1. in Central Asia. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. It is a sterile triploid form.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not.crazychefs. Being sterile. In autumn. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas.

and birds.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. Greek. in concert with climate.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere.000–1.. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere).8–5.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. maximizing sun exposure.crazychefs.9 in) deep. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. they fare poorly in shady conditions. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. Planting depth and corm spacing. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. and corm rot pose other threats. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. loose. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at http://www. where annual rainfall averages 1. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare.[16] Furthermore. Only in mid-autumn do they flower.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. are critical factors affecting yields. Moroccan. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields.e. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested).[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. well-watered. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. low-density. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. Nematodes.500 mm (39–59 in). leaf . where hot. rats.

[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.8-diapo-8. and thus oil-soluble.[19] many of which are carotenoids. including . lycopene. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass.[19] Meanwhile. and various α. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. a product results that is itself water-soluble.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α http://www.0.8-carotenoic acid).[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).and β-carotenes.11 gr) of dried saffron. It also has many nonvolatile active components. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.2 oz of dried saffron). crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. However.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.

0 12.5 10.0 2.0–7.0 4.crazychefs.0 1.0 6.0 6.0 3.0 11.0 1.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0 6.0 http://www.0 8.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 10.0 12.0– .0 1.0–8.5 40.0 9.0 6.0–14.0–15.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0–1.

combined with enzymatic action. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2.6. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. Significantly.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents.4.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.crazychefs. When saffron is dried after its harvest.[18] Safranal. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.6.6.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. incidentally. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. Santorini. the heat.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. a volatile oil. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.Fiber (crude) http://www. p.6-trimethyl-2.0 Source: Goyns 1999. dried hay like". the scent of which has been described as "saffron. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of .

[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.[33] potpourris. Thus. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest.000 years.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. cough.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. sativus. mascaras. Since then.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas.[28][29] . cartwrightianus. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. ointments. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. C.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. and scabies. physicians in http://www. and in the mithridatium. townspeople in Rhodes. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. divine offerings. In late Hellenistic Egypt. colic. and medical treatments. There.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. a sterile mutant form of C.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.

a Chinese medical expert.[39][40] Later. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. At such sites.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. Isfahan. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various .[43] Thus. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. medicines.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts.[53] On the other hand. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.[51] However.[42] ritually offered to divinities.crazychefs. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. dating to 978–993 AD. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena.[44] During his Asian campaigns. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. perfumes. saffron threads were woven into textiles. Wan Zhen.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. or jackfruit. and body washes. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece.[44] From there. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical http://www. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. For example.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. and used in dyes.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara.Asia The 17. a less expensive dye. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". rice. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict.

[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. named for its new specialty crop. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. and Spain. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain.[62] By 1730. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. under which saffron adulterators were fined. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. http://www. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. France.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel.[59][60] Only in southern France. Italy. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. The Essex town of Saffron Walden."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts.crazychefs. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. In Europe. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. imprisoned. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War"." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. tea.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. did significant cultivation endure. coffee.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. indeed. which grew prosperous. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. and executed. and Italy.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. It can be used to aromatise . often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange.saffron is in Kashmir. and then the saffron is obtained. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed.[58] Soon after.

European. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat http://www. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. and antioxidantlike properties. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing).[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. particularly in China and India.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. Central Asian. and in perfumery. Turkish. and chicken or trout dishes. noodles. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. Indian. and Cornish cuisines.crazychefs. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian).[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). immunomodulating. . Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. Pennsylvania. Medicinally.

France.crazychefs. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.000 and . Vivid crimson colouring. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. the average retail price is $1.550 per kilogram).000 flowers. Morocco.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.100–11. they are graded by government-imposed standards. Aside from these.000 per pound (US$1.000 threads. Annually. slight moistness.[5] Iran. are the major producers of saffron. various "boutique" crops are available from New http://www.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.000 flowers.100/€1.500/€7. elasticity. in decreasing order of production.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. and aroma. India.500 per kilogram. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. are generally mellower in colour.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. Spain's varieties. In Western countries.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.000-170. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.200/£1. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. and other countries. Greece. the United States. Switzerland. flavour. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Italy. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram).[2] A pound comprises between 70. Spain. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. For example.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150.000–75. Azerbaijan. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. England. A pound of dry saffron requires 50.

The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. among the world's darkest.crazychefs. Sardinia. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). and colourative effect. for quality and quantity. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. and crop failures in Kashmir. near L'Aquila. aroma. picrocrocin. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small . Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. and safranal (fragrance) content. it also has very high crocin.S. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple http://www. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. Repeated droughts. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. picrocrocin (taste). blights.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). which suggests the saffron's strong flavour.some organically grown. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). unusually pungent aroma. contribute to its high prices.. In the U.79 in). a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is in San Gavino Monreale. shape. There. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. combined with an Indian export ban. and safranal content. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus').

an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. However.crazychefs. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). II. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. traders. in India. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). pomegranate fibers. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. aroma. red-dyed silk fibers. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. and thus a greater colourative . and other powders used as diluting fillers. with turmeric. pliability. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income.[80] Thus.[77] However. and I (finest quality). and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.national standards bodies. many growers. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri http://www. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. paprika. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. III.

crocin and safranal. 9. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. pp. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 8. ^ Kumar V (2006). http://books. 3. 422. p. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. ^ Dharmananda 2005. p. Japan A saffron crocus flower www. 12. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. p. http://www. p.Saffron reproductive biology 11. ^ McGee 2004. p. ^ M. 3–4. p. Sterling. 3. 1. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. Grilli Caiola . 19. ^ Grigg 1974. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 3. 18. ^ a b Deo 2003. 5. 16. 272. p. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 2. 2–3. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b McGee 2004. ^ Willard 2001. 24. 2. Kansai. p. ^ a b c Hill 2004. 103. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府).". p. 53. 6. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. ^ Harper 2001. 423. 4. pp. p. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. stigma extracts and their constituents. 14. ^ Deo 2003. 22. 4. ^ DPIWE 2005. ^ Rau 1969. http://www. 4. 20. 3. p. p. Honshū. p. in mice.crazychefs. 21. 7. pp.cababstractsplus. ^ Willard 2001.asp?AcNo=20043148643. p. . ^ a b Deo 2003. 287. 13. ^ Willard 2001.

28. p. 95. ^ Humphries 1998. p. 39. p. 73. ^ Willard 2001. p. p. ^ Assimopoulou 2005.25. 1. pp. p. 41. 59. 138–139. Random House. ^ Willard 2001. 1. 2–3. ^ McGee 2004. 1935 [1] 38. ^ Dalby 2003. 422. Kuo & Wang 1964. ^ Lak 1998b. 12. ^ Willard 2001. 52. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. 103–104. 54. ^ Rau 1969. 11. 63. 273. pp. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. Loeb Classical Library Edition. p. p. ^ Willard 2001. 142–146. 26. 35. p. p. 67. 62. 43. ^ Ferrence 2004. ^ Willard 2001. p. 49. p. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. 32. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. 66.iovs. 72. ^ Willard 2001. http://www. ^ Celsus. 27. 35. ^ Hill 2004. 101. ^ a b Willard 2001. 51. 44. 30. de 37. ^ a b c Willard 2001. ^ Deo 70. 42. 2. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. p. 64. ^ Fletcher 2005. pp. 58. ^ a b Willard 2001. 224. 57. ^ Willard 2001. 48. 34. 30 AD. 143. 41. ^ Honan 2004. 1. 20. p. p. ^ http://www. 117. p. p. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. 138. 128. 40. ^ Chang. 63. p. p. 54–55. p.pdf 71. ^ Willard 2001. . ^ Hayes 2001. 70. ^ Finlay. p. p. ^ a b Dalby 2002. 60. 1. 133. p. ^ a b Willard 2001. 41. 17–18. 55. pp. 56. 68. ^ Willard 2001. 6. 1. 55. p. pp. p. 65. 59. p. ^ Willard 2001. 132–133. 99. p. ^ Goyns 69. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 2. 29. 138. pp. 58. p. transl. ^ Willard 2001.crazychefs. 45. 2. 31. ^ Dalby 2002. pp. ca. 50. p. ^ http://www. ^ Honan 2004. ^ http://vision. 34–35. Victoria (30 December 2002). 256. p. pp. 47. ^ Willard 2001. 33. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001.

htm>. pp.>. PY. "Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. University of California Press. 80. 102–104. Experimental Biology and Medicine 227 (1). http://www. ^ Willard 78.ucla. Institute for Traditional Medicine. 2006. 274. Davies. A (2003). . Landline (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). ISBN 0415-23259-7.cfm?displayID=22>. P (2002).htm>. Darling Biomedical Library (UCLA). Dharmananda. ^ Hussain 2005. Dalby. Routledge (UK). "Saffron". 2006. 201. "Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L. References Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2003).crop. B (2003).pdf>. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2003. 82. 245 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Kashmiri saffron producers see red over Iranian imports". PMID 16028982 Deo. extract and its bioactive constituents".): effect on the uterus and/or estrous cycle". Dalby. "Tasmania's Saffron Gold".net.crazychefs. Retrieved on January 10. <http://unitproj. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. 2006. ^ a b Tarvand <http://www. FI (2002).cri. <http://www. 53 (15). CT Kuo & CK Wang (1964).nz/home/productsservices/publications/broadsheets/020saffron. Journal of Agricultural and Food>. <http://books. S (2005).74.)".htm>. 79. 2006. "Effect of drying temperature and air flow on the production and retention of secondary metabolites in saffron". Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. Retrieved on January 10. "Saffron: An Anti-Depressant Herb". 20). A (2002). 77. ^ Willard 2001. Crop & Food Research (New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research) (no. Retrieved on January 10 2006. 2008. ^ Goyns 1999. ^ Lak 1998. Courtney. 2006[dead link]. Abdullaev. p. Liang. ^ Hill 2004. W. Darling Biomedical Library (2002). Retrieved on July 27. "The pharmacological action of 藏红花 (zà hóng huā—Crocus sativus L. Food in the Ancient World from A to Z. PMID 11788779 Assimopoulou.ebmonline. <http://www. "Growing Saffron—The World's Most Expensive Spice". Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 11. Retrieved on January <http://www. 76. 81. Phytotherapy Research 19 (11). Australian Broadcasting ISBN 0-520-23674-2. p. 75. ^ Tarvand 2005. Retrieved on January 10. PMID 16317646 Chang. VP Papageorgiou & Z Sinakos (2005). MJ Gregory & RC Menary (2005).

crazychefs. <http://www. "Saffron".gov. AW (2001). < 2006[dead link]. PMID 8590890 Hayes. Retrieved on January saffron". Online Etymology T (2004). JC (2002).bbc. ISBN>. D (1998). ISBN 0-521-09843-2.nytimes. 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4). Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages.pdf>. Leffingwell.)".ikashmir. BBC News. Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. Wiley. Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1). "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron".co. Lak. Lak. The New York Times. SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995).au/inter. "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution".nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>. BBC News. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10.stm>. JH. Taylor & Francis. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5). . 2006. Retrieved on January 10. S (1998–1999). <http://www. ISBN 0-312-34068-0.dpiwe. MH (1999).pdf>. The Agricultural Systems of the World.DPIWE (2005). Principles and Methods of http://www. Retrieved on January 10. <http://news. ISBN 90-5702-394-6. Retrieved on January 10. Jessie. 2006. "Saffron". < "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress". PMID 15259204 Fletcher. "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food>. ISBN Martin's Press. DB (1974). Goyns. Retrieved on January 10. 2006. Retrieved on January 10. Fotedar. SC (2004).tas. D (2001). < Ten Speed Press. G (2001). Grigg. Hill. Hasegawa.php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>. Food & Agriculture. m>. "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera". The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen. 2006. A (2005). Cambridge University Press.etymonline. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2).uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/212491. "Saffron (Crocus sativus L. Retrieved on January 10. PMID 16180089 Katzer. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron". J (1998). Humphries.uni-graz. 2006. BBC News. <http://books. Taylor & 2006. Hussain. SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005). <http://www. 2006. <http://news. Ferrence. St.html>.com/download/saffron. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). <http://news. WH (2004). 2006. ISBN 0-471-21423-X. 2006. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron". The Essential Saffron Companion. N (2005).leffingwell. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine".html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>. D (1998b).

000. USDA Phytochemical . F (2005).cfm?chemic al_id=140>.com/irish/saffron. Retrieved on January 10. Pearce. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). Nair.tarvandsaffron. Scribner. Beacon Press. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www.html>.barc. Retrieved on January "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus).com/ http://www. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. <http://www.McGann.usda.crazychefs. K (2003).". B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). JB (2005).com/channel/earth/mg18524831. 2006[dead link].newscientist. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. 2006. Time Life Education. Retrieved on January McGee. 2006. Tarvand Saffron Company. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.html>.reconstructinghistory. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". "What is Saffron?".htm>.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen.htm>. 2006. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. The Cooking of India. PMID 2025883 Park. <http://books. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved on January 10. SC.>.google. P (2001). "Grading and Classification". H (2004). Reconstructing History. 2006. Tarvand (2005b). SR (1969). Willard. New Scientist. <http://www. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". "Saffron". 2006. Cancer Letters 57 (2).com/classification. Rau. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. Tarvand Saffron Company.tarvandsaffron. <

Dead http://www.crazychefs. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea .

[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. are borne generally on the last year's wood. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. In Homer's Odyssey. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. endives. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. by a spring.(XVII. It is short and squat. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black http://www. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The small white flowers.[9].[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. the olive suckers readily from the stump.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. Theophrastus. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. ca 170 AD. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea.[1] and in the Iliad.crazychefs. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. Its fruit. called xoana. Asia and parts of Africa."[7] indeed. two stamens and bifid stigma. referring to their wooden material. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian . which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. they were reverently preserved for centuries. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. the olive."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods.5 cm long. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. olives. Though. from Lebanon. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape.

Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance.crazychefs. The Book of Jacob 5. Over the years. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization.16. for which the Greeks had a separate name. Today. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine.The leafy branches of the olive tree . wild-type olives. http://www. and one of the most significant. and then in the 18th century in California. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. play an important role in the Bible. wisdom. Theophrastus. Chile and Argentina. in On the Nature of Plants. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees.[12] After the 16th century.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. As emblems of benediction and purification.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. glory. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. indeed. spread far and wide by birds. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. the pits give rise to thorny.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. glory and peace . they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. As far back as 3000 . it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. as well as olive oil and olives. but he makes clear (in 1. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. The olive tree itself. fertility. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. the olive has been the symbol of peace. kotinos.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. and its cultivation began in Mexico. olives were grown commercially in Crete. power and pureness.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. For example. in both the New and Old Testaments.

Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears.crazychefs.and fire-resistant. which is made into top quality olive oil. Montenegro.600 years old. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. One olive tree in Bar. named "Plato's Olive Tree".net/ . and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. disease. has been calculated to be about http://www. Istria in Croatia. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14].000 years old. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. drought-. claimed to be over 2.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). and can live for very long. The older an olive tree is. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The age of an olive tree in Crete. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old.

All seven trees continue to produce olives. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century http://www. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River.6 km) as the limit. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. olive leaf. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. both in Galilee region. called the "Peisistratos Tree". Theophrastus gives 300 stadia ( . Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. A supposedly even older tree. a few other millenary trees can be admired. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. In the same natural garden. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. and the olive fruit. see Olive (fruit). though showing a preference for the coast. and. Specifically.crazychefs. 1600-2000 years old. According to a recent scientific survey. Modern experience does not always confirm this. fine wood. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. Italy.400 years ago. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region.2. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. have been determined to be over 3000 years old.

particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa).has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. Argentina. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. Chile. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. Sudan. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. such as South Africa. Olive plantation in Andalucia. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. Australia. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. northwest Africa) where winters are . olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). They are also grown in the Córdoba Province.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. the Mediterranean Basin.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea http://www. Israel. Niger.crazychefs.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. laperrinei (Algeria.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. .Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive . germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

the most common olive grown on Sardinia. often after being pitted. a large. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. grown around the world. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Cailletier cultivar. originating in Dos Hermanas.crazychefs. 'Manzanilla'. In recent times. but only a few are grown to a large extent. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. 'Bosana'. Seville. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. rounded-oval fruit. which consists of 1. Rich taste and thick pulp. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. anchovies. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the . It is used mostly for oils. in southern Spain. with purple-green skin. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. A prolific bearer. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. stuffed (with pickled pimento.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions.200. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. The olive grove of Amfissa.

originating in the province of Córdoba. and coastal climate conditions. It is . The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. The olive is medium sized. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. good for eating and for oil. which. Spain. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. 'Picual'. round. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. a small. good for eating and for oil. disease-resistant.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. They are black and generally used for table consumption. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. 'Souri'. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). a large. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. 'Nabali'. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. Their flavour is mild and nutty. 'Empeltre'. large. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. 'Hojiblanca'.com http://www. originating in Toledo.[21] 'Koroneiki'. originating from the southern Peloponese. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. They grow in any light soil. Spain. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. Due to their highly valued flavour. 'Cornicabra'. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. 'Kalamata'. medium size. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. even on clay if well drained. originating in the south of France (Aude département). originating in the south of France. Spain. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. It is mainly used for oil. Greece. though difficult to cultivate. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. 'Arbequina'. Moreover. They are green. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. The flavour is mild and nutty. and elongated. another modern Israeli. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production.crazychefs. It has a strong but sweet flavour. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. This small olive. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. and elongated. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. brown olive grown in Catalonia. named after the city of Kalamata. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil.[23] 'Barnea'. used as a table olive. It is used both for oil and for table olives. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant.

Olives grow very http://www. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter.crazychefs. but the time varies in each country. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. This method is used for olives used for oil.) Olives like hot weather. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. 114). rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. and can remain productive for as long. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. In southern Europe. up to several centuries.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit.poorer soil. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. to facilitate germination. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. A. soon vegetate. In Italy. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. P. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. it is valued by woodworkers. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. removing fruit from the tree. In some places in Italy and Greece. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. In Greece. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. They tolerate drought well. which form small swellings on the stems. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. being very hard and close-grained. as in Languedoc and Provence. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. and with the season and the cultivar. embryonic buds. More specifically. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. However. the trees are regularly pruned. Occasionally. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. Olives are propagated in various ways. the oliviera. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are . Another method uses an electric tool.

Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in http://www. After some weeks. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. American black ("California") olives are not fermented.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. The method also involves sawing off branches. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. Fresh are often sold at markets. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container.crazychefs.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. or green with hints of colour). The olives are soaked in water to wash. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. which is a natural preservative. Olives can be used green.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. which is why they taste milder than green olives.. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. large fruit (e. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. through to full purple black ripeness.g. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. As a result. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not . Typical yields are 1. then drained. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. which is healthy for future production. which leads to a superior finished product.5-2. the fruit is not bruised. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. the creation of lactic acid. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. which can be eaten fresh.2 kg of oil per tree per year. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. a bitter carbohydrate. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. but can be left to cure for up to three months. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. lemon juice. and weather A fungus. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. Popular flavourings are herbs. salt-curing. The ten largest producing countries. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. or removing the pit and stuffing them. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. Lye-curing. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. capsicum (pimento). and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the . garlic cloves. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. olives suffer occasionally from frost. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container.crazychefs. feta. oleae[27]. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. Cycloconium oleaginum. juniper berries and anchovies. diseases. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. Pests. olive oil. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. Sometimes. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. A species of bacterium. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. their main predators are wasps. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. chili. wine. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. an unnatural method. leaving sawtooth damage. In France and north-central Italy. causing great damage to plantations. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. induces tumour growth in the shoots. lemon zest. vinegar.6 to 8.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. of which the water is changed daily. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. especially to young http://www. spices.

most notably South Australia.000 430.160.685 765.8 16. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens. ^ Theophrastus.0 3.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17. 38. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. book 5". 4.. p..988 500. 27.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.100 3.000 275." (Herodotus." (Diodorus Siculus.1 25. 1).3 20. Odyssey.830 2.7 27.000 998. Bibliotheke. 1 ). the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.4 30.000 498. 6. ^ Pausanias.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.800.400.000 470. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard. 5. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.5 http://www.000 318.000 280. 1992. 5.000 49. 81.089 6. 4. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.14. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.000 8.000 550. Ancient Greek Agriculture.064 2. On the Causes of Plants. to make bee-hives. An introduction.1).5. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves. 3. 4.149.888 178. and to cultivate olive-trees.140. 2.300.000 20.339 300.000 1. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants. 1. ^ ".000 250..000 1.981 1.000 594. Description of Greece 1. ^ Homer.crazychefs. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.597. 7.[31] References 1.6 31.. 82.13.3 8.5 63. .5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.500.9 6.

Juárez. (1999) Ancient Trees. N. Masuelli. M Bauza & R. ^ Lewington. 2001. Tabak & O.brijuni.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. 1779. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. R. Spring/Summer 2006 26.A.8.fao. rev. J. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Retrieved 2007-03-10. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. J. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. ^ Belaj et al.. Retrieved 2007-08-31. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. pp 110–113. 29.31. 1996. Zatoun. Bacteriol. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. AGRISCIENTA. 35. Moody. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. ^ Balfour.15. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 105..W. 17. ^ O. E. 13. p. J. Y. Volume 25. Apps3.springerlink. & Ouazzani. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. ^ Janse. Rackham. nom. A. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. 2004". Australian Olives. http://apps3.aspx?PageID=151. 23. 69. ca 30 BC 9.htm.279 18.zatoun.crazychefs. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". 32:166–169.fao. Ellen. Syst. 4th edition. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. ^ Lumaret. Odes 1. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 1999. http://www." Horace. nov. (September 2002). ^ "FAO. Simhoni. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". ^ Burr. ^ "Old Olive Tree". ^ http://www. R.jsp. Fall/Spring (2005) 12.pasoroblesolivefestival. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. Available through Google Books 11. 24. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. ^ [1] 21. Brijuni National Park. Kislew. op. EspasaCalpe S. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea M. D. Elena "Unusual Olives".com/content/dlb533pw9cbwc59e/. ^ Riley. Epikouria Magazine. Madrid. John Hutton. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22.cit. ^ Muncipality Bar. Number 4).. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. Riley (2002). 30. 1981. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. cited in F. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. me cichorea levesque malvae. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. ^ a b M. ^ Fotiadi. Processing methods... 1982. Leshonenu (Hebrew). & Parker. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives".hr/Home.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. Volume 18:27-35 . Int. vol. Cavagnaro P. J. p. ^ ^ "Me pascunt olivae. http://www. 29 April. Epikouria Magazine. http://www. http://www.

31. however. seldom produces flowers. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. western North America. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. The leaves are lanceolate.R.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. and south to northern Mexico. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. Corresponding to its species name. with slender branched stems. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review.crazychefs. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. L. a common term for the plant is "dragon http://www. (French tarragon. with an entire . glossy green.

tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant.[1] It likes a hot. Fresh. and particularly suitable for chicken. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). Georgia http://www. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. without excessive watering. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer.[1] Russian tarragon (A. It is normally purchased as a plant. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. due to the presence of estragole.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking.crazychefs. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. by extension.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. dracunculoides L. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. sunny spot. Spreading plant can be divided easily. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. which is the Armenian. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased.[1] However. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. it normally goes dormant in winter. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. but cannot be grown from seed. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. Russia and Ukraine. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fish and egg dishes. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus . Persian and Russian word for . A perennial. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն.

Krammer G. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. Rose Marie Nichols. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. References 1. Ley JP. Wiley-VCH. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. Properties and Uses. http://www. Maggie (2002). The Bountiful Container. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. 3.Cis-Pellitorin. ISBN 9783527607891. 2. ^ Surburg.crazychefs. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Workman Publishing. Horst. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Foerstner .[3] In Slovenia. Machinek A. ^ a b c d McGee. Johannes Panten (2006). 233. ^ Gatfield IL. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Stuckey.

and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. and blue to purplish flowers. cheeses (Sage Derby).crazychefs. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. Common sage. with woody stems. It is a member of the mint family. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. In the Balkans and the Middle East. Kitchen sage. In the United States. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. In Western cooking. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. and some drinks. Lamiaceae. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). In French cuisine. it is used when roasting mutton. grayish leaves. Broadleaf sage. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Garden sage. Sage is also common in Italian http://www. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. sage has a slight peppery flavor. Britain and Flanders. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces.Salvia officinalis (Sage. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable . then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Dalmatian sage. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. Purple sage. though other species. Culinary sage.

which contains cineole.trichomes are visible. salvia. oleic acid. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. cornsole.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. and estrogenic substances. ursonic http://www.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. means ―to heal". antifungal. The underside of a sage leaf . it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. flavones. caffeic acid.crazychefs. astringent.[1] In a double blind. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. cornsolic acid. Sage leaf contains tannic . estrogenic. and thujone. fumaric acid. borneol. hypoglycemic. and tonic.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . antibiotic. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. niacin.more trichomes are visible on this side. antispasmodic. ursolic acid. The Latin name for sage. chlorogenic acid. flavonoid glycosides. nicotinamide.

They are easily raised from summer cuttings. 'Berggarten'. 'Icterina'. Retrieved 2008-02-04. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated . monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. Khani M. 'Extrakta'. and for low ground cover. a styptic. a cultivar with large leaves. PMID 12605619.1046/j. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. ^ a b c "Sage". References 1. ^ Akhondzadeh S. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. Mohammadi M. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. hemostatic. 'Lavandulaefolia'. Applied Health. OBeWise Nutriceutica. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. doi:10. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. salvatrix (Sage the Savior).2003. a white-flowered cultivar. Jamshidi AH. 'Alba'. emmenagogue.1365-2710. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus.[4] It was sometimes called S.php. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. yellow and green variegated http://www. snakebites. a small leaved cultivar. 2. Ohadinia S. Noroozian M. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. especially in sunny dry environments. and tonic. and for other uses. a purple-leafed cultivar. and more. Pliny. http://www. Dioscorides. 'Tricolor'. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". (2003). a cultivar with white.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. and used as a diuretic. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar.crazychefs. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. increasing women's fertility. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. a local anesthetic for the skin.x.

pp. Spiridon E. p. Deni Bown (New York: DK. ^ a b Kintzios.crazychefs. Sage: The Genus Salvia. CRC Press. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses.3. (2000). http://www. 10-11. ISBN 9789058230058. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios.

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