Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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In some Levantine countries. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. Greek. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. Spanish. Dried. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. in a bouquet garni). Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). As a rule of thumb.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . while flavourful. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. Depending on how it is used in a dish. Libyan. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. assume that it means fresh. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. While summer-seasonal. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. and in those derived from them. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. It can be propagated by seed. Portuguese.crazychefs. the whole sprig may be used (e. which is due to its content of thymol. fresh thyme is often available year-round. It tolerates drought well.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. Albanian. storage life is rarely more than a week. Lebanese. tomatoes and eggs. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. or by the sprig.g. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. Thyme. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. Syrian. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. Persian. Leaves are often chopped. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork.a little less if it is ground. http://www. In French cuisine.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. soups and stews. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. Italian. and Turkish cuisines. and of herbes de Provence.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" . or the leaves removed and the stems discarded.

but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. it was used to medicate bandages. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. pulegioides × T. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. tisane. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 http://www. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. All thyme species are nectar sources. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. but is grown as a ground cover. salve. hybrid T.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. It also has medicinal uses. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves.[6] Thymol.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. etc. The dried equivalent is 1:3. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern .crazychefs. an antiseptic. Because it is antiseptic.[5] As with bay.

com . ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Variegated lemon thyme. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.crazychefs. .com http://www. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.

B1) 0.3 g 0.0 mg Phosphorus 58. B2) 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.2 mg Magnesium 50. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1. and American cooking. although parsley has a milder flavor. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133. B3) 1. European. It is common in Middle Eastern.0 mg Vitamin K 1640. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.crazychefs.Dietary fiber 3.1 mg Folate (Vit.0 μg Calcium 138.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.9 g .Sugars 0.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.1 mg 6.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.8 g http://www.0 mg Iron 6.1 mg recommendations for adults. often used as spice.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.

allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. For example. tuberosum).crazychefs. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. neapolitanum). as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. Although little known in Britain and the United States. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. it attracts predatory insects. not blooming until its second year. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. While parsley is biennial.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 .[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. reducing pest attraction. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. it is not related to real turnips. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. which helps accommodate the long taproot. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. used in soups and stews. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. which then tend to protect plants nearby. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. Like many other umbellifers. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. or flat leaf (P. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock.

[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. or 4900. root. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor".com/npc/parsley. [1]) in oxalic acid. "Parsley on plucodes. 2. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. with fish. steaks. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. http://www. soups. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. Jett.html. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. lamb or Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. "That Devilish Parsley.. ^ a b c John W. ^ Health . Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. Parsley as an oil. http://www. Ossobuco alla milanese. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew.g. and lemon zest.aspx?id=1075&". a mixture of parsley. and sauces. 2007. fried chicken.70% by mass. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. parsley is part of bouquet garni. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). e. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). 4.[3] Parsley is high (1. garlic.plucodes. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. http://www. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. Last retrieved April 26. In Southern and Central Europe. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier.drugs." West Virginia University Extension Service. In addition. References 1.

crazychefs.Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.

crazychefs.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum http://www. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum.g. each with distinct flavours. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). of the mint family. and grilled meat. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. Oregano growing in a field. as well as cultivars. produced in erect spikes. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Oregano is an important culinary herb. spicy flavor. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. growing to 20-80 cm tall. and to add a nice. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian http://www. and lovage leaves.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. The flowers are purple. fried vegetables. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . e. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. O vulgare gracile. Unlike most Italian herbs. capers.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces.crazychefs. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. Spanish and in Italian cuisine.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. 3-4 mm long. It is a perennial herb. which is popular in southern . and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. native to Europe. Greek. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. Together with basil.

Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. It varies in intensity. heracleoticum (Italy. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. Oregano growing in a .[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. together with paprika. In Turkish Cuisine. salt and pepper. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5][6] Additionally. Balkan peninsula. warm and slightly bitter taste. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes.crazychefs. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. differs significantly in taste. In the Philippines. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. useful for relieving children's coughs. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. especially for mutton and lambs meat.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. Asia Minor) and O. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal http://www. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. The influence of climate. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. It has an aromatic. it can be usually found on table. which.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. West Asia) have similar flavors. however. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil.

A Cretan oregano (O. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. the father of medicine. including Poliomintha longiflora.[7] and painful menstruation. stomach upsets. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. pinene. also called Cuban oregano. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. Aqueous extracts. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. ocimene. stomachic and mildly tonic. Plectranthus amboinicus. ^ Organic Gardening 2. stimulant. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. fungal infections. In the Philippines. influenza. and caryophyllene. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn.crazychefs. emmenagogue. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. Used topically. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". oregano.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses.[8] Hippocrates. limonene. enteric parasites. thymol. cholagogue. expectorant. but is usually stronger. mild fevers. carminative. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. ^ http://www. diaphoretic.uni-graz. Coleus aromaticus).[12] References 1.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. especially in the United States. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. Lippia berlandieri. capsules. this substitution would not work the other way round. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. http://www. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United . Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. useful for relieving children's coughs. this latter is used in at least one Old English work.Main constituents include carvacrol. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed].html. which simply referred to "an acrid herb".

Agric. University of the West of England.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. draft revision for "origanum". PMID 16218659. (01 May 2003).com/articles/130620. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". 53 (21): 8162–8168. . ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". http://jn. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. ^ ["http://www. Steinar. ^ Epikouria Magazine. http://www. (Cav. http://www.uwe. ^ a b Faleiro. et al. ^ Dragland. Draft revision for "oregano".". 11. http://info. draft revision for "organum". Fall/Spring 2007 5.2008. PMID 12730411. Retrieved 200811-26.crazychefs. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. et al. J Nutr. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. March 2009.medicalnewstoday.php.1021/ ^ Epikouria Magazine. Food Chem. (2005). ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. 24 November 2008. J. June 2008. Medical News Today. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". Leonor.3. doi:10. Fall/Winter 2007 10. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 2008-11-26.dmannose. 133 (5): 1286–1290. 7.nutrition.asp?item=1374&year=2008. 6.10.) and Origanum vulgare L.

In Ancient Greek. It is a hardy. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. recorded in the 10th century.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. perennial. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. however. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. Also. meaning "hay". It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. it was from the giant fennel. This came from the Old English fenol or finol.[2] In Greek mythology. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Ferula http://www. it seems.crazychefs. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). umbelliferous .

(Its leaves are similar to those of dill.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. half as wide or less.29 g 0. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0. with hollow stems. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike).net/ . The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.5 mm wide.047 mg Folate ( http://www.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 m.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B3) 0.20 g 1.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.01 mg 7. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long.crazychefs.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.Dietary fiber 3.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. B1) 0. about 0. glaucous green.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. and grooved. but thinner. B2) 0. It is erect. bulb. they are finely dissected.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . and grows to heights of up to 2. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.

It propagates well by seed.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. but is more aromatic and sweeter.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). by the late 19th century. vulgare var. In North American supermarkets. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. and in other open sites in many regions. syn. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. the United States. including northern Europe. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. for its edible. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. notably the Italian name finocchio. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. in pastures. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. It is of cultivated origin.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. it is often mislabelled as "anise". both raw and cooked. F.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. "bronze-leaved" fennel.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group.crazychefs. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. both in its native range and elsewhere. though usually not as .[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. which is also known by several other names.20 mg Manganese 0.

Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. sompu in Telugu. though smaller. or eaten raw. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. The bulb is a crisp. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. but also the most . vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. grilled. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. braised. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. brown or green in colour when fresh. salads. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). It may be blanched or marinated. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. anise-flavoured spice. badesoppu in Kannada. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. pastas. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. green seeds are optimal. in side dishes. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. stewed. fish. where bulbs and fronds are used. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. Many egg. or cooked in http://www.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. variyali in Gujarati.crazychefs. both raw and cooked. which are very similar in taste and appearance. For cooking. mouri in Bengali. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. foliage.Fennel. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. and risottos. often tossed with chicory and avocado.

or its polymers. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. used to ease flatulence in infants. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole.[12] For adults. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. This use. also employed as a carminative. act as phytoestrogens. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties.crazychefs. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. as it is said to improve eyesight.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding http://www.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. Fennel tea. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a . Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. although not supported by direct evidence. sometimes with some sweetener.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic.

[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. badian (star anise).net/ .[17] However. fennel and coriander. followed by India.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas.crazychefs. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn http://www. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. which promote growth of breast tissue. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue.

in the original Sinhala. cinnamon is known as kurundu. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. it is called Dalchina Chakka. where it is cultivated in Java and . it is known as "DalChini ( )". In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. it is called "Darchini" ( ).(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. Hindi.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. synonym C.C. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum.crazychefs. Chakka meaning bark or wood. native to Sri Lanka. the "real' cassia. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. and in Gujarati taj. In Farsi (Persian).)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5] In Malayalam. itself ultimately from Phoenician.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. In Urdu. it is called darchin (‫. In Telugu. which are often called cinnamon too. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni .[2] In Marathi. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā.com http://www. In Bengali. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon.[3] In Sri Lanka. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. Ceylon.

Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. aloe and http://www.crazychefs. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. in Proverbs. and in Song of Solomon. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice . but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew .[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt.

Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. They established a trading post in 1638.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta.8–49. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape.crazychefs. sugar.1 inches) long.Ages. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate.2 feet) tall. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. and have a distinct odor.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino.75–7. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. and coffee. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. took control of the factories by 1640.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. which are arranged in panicles. 7–18 cm (2.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East http://www. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. p. "The shores of the island are full of it". although in the first century. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. a Dutch captain reported. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. The . one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. However. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. in a letter of about 1292." (Braudel 1984. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. have a greenish color. tea. and used them to construct their nests.

there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. According to the International Herald Tribune. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. verum). M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. Only the thin (0. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. Brazil. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. and Vietnam. Zanzibar. Chips are trimmings of quills. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. Sumatra. Madagascar. India. The next http://www. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. Vietnam. the outer woody portion is removed. and Egypt. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying.5 mm) inner bark is used. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. followed by China. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. which is left to dry. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. Bangladesh.[15] According to the FAO. eg.crazychefs. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. Mexican is divided into M00 000 . Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. Java. the West Indies.

also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. less dense. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". the related species. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . is generally a medium to light reddish brown. or "Indonesian cinnamon".rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark.crazychefs. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi).Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. hard and woody in texture. many websites. "Vietnamese cinnamon". and more crumbly texture. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. for example. using only the thin inner bark. as all of the layers of bark are used. zeylanicum). describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than . However. has a finer.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[16] Ceylon cinnamon. and is considered to be less strong than cassia. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu.

donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct.5% to 1% of its http://www. are easily distinguished. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. True cinnamon. and then quickly distilling the whole. The two barks. when whole. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. drinks. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. tea.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. a deep-blue tint is produced. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. such as apple pie.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. and fruits. especially apples. It is of a golden-yellow color. used in a variety of thick soups. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. and liqueurs. especially in Mexico. hot cocoa. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch).net/ . ‫. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. rather than cassia. In the Middle East. but when cassia is present. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. and sweets. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia.crazychefs. bread-based dishes. In the United States. macerating it in seawater.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts.

were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 . In Hoodoo. and Myanmar (Burma). in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. The Cinnamon Challenge. eugenol.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum).[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C.and a very hot aromatic taste. love.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. cinnamyl acetate. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. who failed. few seem able to succeed. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification.crazychefs. although it remains untested. and methyl chavicol[citation needed].com http://www. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). Despite thousands of video-documented attempts.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. luck. and money.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). 2008.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. beta-caryophyllene. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. ^ a b "Cinnamon". bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. Encyclopaedia Britannica. linalool. and anethole. cassia." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777.0.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. cinnamaldehyde. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. However.[34] Notes 1. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). Cinnamomum.fao. Sánchez C. 10. J. ^ http://findarticles. Encyclopedia of Spices. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's Food . ^ [2] 18. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. p.theepicentre.. ^ ^ [1] 16. ^ Mancini-Filho J. 13. Sun M. 8. 53 (17): 6939–46.htm. ^ http://www. retrieved 200705-01 21. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. Mancini DA. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. http://www. 53 (20): 7749–59. p. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour.1021/jf050709v. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. Sir James Emerson. Henry. 23. retrieved 200807-15 6.nii. Torres RP (December 1998). 4. Robert.htm 20. The History of Food.en. tr. Van-Koiij A. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. http://www. ^ "Cassia. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009.2. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Corke H (October 2005). ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.iol.html#pg598.html. PMID ^ Yule. Col. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health ^ Shan B.CO%3B2-N 15. p. http://dsr. retrieved 2008-07-15 11.1021/jf051513y. ^ http://news. ^ _of_life/html/1.henriettesherbal.thespicehouse. p. thespicehouse. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. ^ http://links. Cathay and the Way Thither. Cai YZ. Cinnamon. 22. PMID 10077878. 437f.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. ^ Tennent. Harvey.jstor. retrieved 2008-07-15 12.stm 3. http://www. "Solid. PMID 16190627. Anthea Bell.npr.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". ^ The Epicentre. ^ López P. ^ http://www. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.php? 2009. p. 437). Batlle R. Account of the Island of Ceylon.437. Cozzolino ^ Knox. doi:10. ^ _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/ http://www. Agric. Agric. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". 437 7.0.crazychefs. Food Chem. Nerín C (August 2005). revised ed.—Cinnamon. doi:10." remarks Maguelonne Breyne) extracts".

doi:10. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. http://www. New York: Kodansha http://www. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. Cinnamon. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade.1. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde.. s_have_been/index. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). Corn. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.diabetesjournals.. ^ Beck. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. Fernand (1984). ^ http://www. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr.2217/14750708.113. 33. 28.1016/00219673(88) .utm.php?featured_food=80.3215. The Perspective of the World.2337/diacare. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients".1002/ptr. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". doi:10. Eleventh Edition.. ^ [3]. 34. Kristof et al. Retrieved (2005). coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography".24. http://jn.3. Charles (1998). Ali Khan Retrieved 200805-11. Cat. Khattak ^ Khan A. Retrieved 200808-05. http://care.1643. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). et al. Agricultural Research magazine. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". ^ Yronwode.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. doi:10. Alan W. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. Eugen J. http://www. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".pdf.html?source=r_health. Medicinal References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. Research: Thalido.. ^ Verspohl. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro".com.12. Anderson RA (December 2003). retrieved 200705-01 25. 30.sciencedaily. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. PMID 14633804..whfoods. ground.2217/14750708. http://www. Retrieved 2007-12-17.113. http://www.lesliebeck.redorbit.. Safdar M. a publication now in the public Muhammad et al. retrieved 200705-01 32. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". 27.sciencedaily. ^ George Mateljan Foundation. Leslie. ^ Vanschoonbeek. Braudel.crazychefs. Archer (1988). http://www. http://eprints. doi:10. July 2000. ^ Ranjbar.1.26. www. Akram et al. Retrieved

leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. powdered.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved."[3] Uses Onions.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. Onions can be used. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. They are now available in http://www. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. it usually refers to Allium cepa.Department of Export Agriculture. chopped. and dehydrated forms. which it is .M. used without qualifiers. one of the oldest vegetables. pickled. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. and Allium asarense R. frozen. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. canned. They are known by the common name "onion" but.

Depending on the variety. an onion can be sharp. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack.chopped or sliced. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. In ancient Greece. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it.crazychefs. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. However. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. and also to relieve headaches. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. spicy.[5] The onion is easily propagated. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. coughs. recent evidence has shown that dogs. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy http://www. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. due to toxicity during digestion. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side . These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". and other animals should not be given onions in any form. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. In Bronze Age settlements. snakebite and hair loss. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. cats. transported and stored.[5] However.

4 mg Vitamin E 0.24 g .34 g 0.1 g 89.saturated 0.polyunsaturated 0.Sugars 4.Dietary fiber 1.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates . B1) http://www.12 mg Folate (Vit.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.1 g 1.monounsaturated 0.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron . B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.02 mg Vitamin K 0.013 g . B3) 0.042 g . 0 μg 9. B2) 0.21 mg Magnesium 0.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.7 g Fat .crazychefs.

[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. Imperial Valley Sweet. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. However. the variety with the lowest phenolic content.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. Empire Sweet. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). For all varieties of onions. Peruvian Sweet. followed by Western Yellow. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. osteoporosis. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. Mexico. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]).[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. Empire Sweet. Peruvian Sweet. Imperial Valley Sweet. Texas 1015. diabetes. If you are allergic to onions. Imperial Valley Sweet. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. Western White.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac . and Vidalia. Texas 1015.[10] In many parts of the world. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. In general. and Vidalia. In the United States. Western Yellow. Northern Red. pungent yellow (New York Bold). the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. Mexico. Peruvian http://www. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. Shallots have the most phenols. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. Empire Sweet. Texas 1015. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. Northern Red. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. and other diseases. anticholesterol. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. Mexico. Western White. eleven times the amount found in Western White. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. anticancer. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers.crazychefs.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. onions are used to heal blisters and boils.

and . Eye irritation can. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. The volume of sulfenic acids released. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. ginger. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. allylmercaptan and allicin. 2008. nausea. limiting the amount of gas generated. cells are broken. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). it can lead to an allergic reaction.crazychefs.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. garden lilies. breathing difficulties. diarrhea. leeks. mouth and throat ulcerations. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. all present in garlic. differs among Allium species. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. On January 31. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. garlic. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. shallots. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. and the irritation effect.include reactions to onions. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. chives. Symptoms can include irritable bowel.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the http://www. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. As onions are sliced or eaten.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where it binds to sensory neurons. creating a stinging sensation. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. allylpropyldisulfide. therefore.

The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. Allium fistulosum. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. Finally. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. the Welsh onion. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. which have been developed in more recent times. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. from sets started from seed the previous year. more commonly today. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. "short-day" . which can be planted directly in the ground. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. Seed-bearing onions are day-length http://www. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year.crazychefs.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation.

Oregon (USA).crazychefs. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.764 Pakistan .500 China United States 3.220 Turkey 1. Vale. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.Produce bulblets in the flower head. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a hybrid of Allium cepas.793 India 5. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.149 Spain World Total http://www. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat. each of which forms a bulb.637 Japan Egypt 1.750 South Korea 1. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .302 1. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.758 Russia 1.346 2. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).

Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.The Onion Futures Act.crazychefs.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. It remains in effect as of 2009. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United http://www. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. passed in 1958. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced .

It has a characteristic pungent.[1] A bulb of garlic. Allium sativum. Medical Botany. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. 1793. the most commonly used part of the plant.crazychefs. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. from William Woodville. leek.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. known as garlic. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. Its close relatives include the onion. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. shallot. and . commonly known as garlic. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal http://www. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking.

It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. Garlic is grown globally. which grows wild in southwestern Asia.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. In cold climates. "crow garlic". Garlic plants can be grown close together. and for medicinal purposes. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic.[5] The "wild garlic". is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. the so-called elephant garlic. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. and Allium oleraceum. with Russia (1. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. stems (scape)."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. according to Zohary and Hopf. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense.crazychefs. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late . Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. respectively. are common weeds in fields. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum.[6] One of the best-known "garlics".6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The cloves are used as seed. for consumption (raw or cooked). Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. India (4. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. They can suffer from pink root. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. The papery.Yunnan province of China. Allium vineale. with approximately 10. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. accounting for over 77% of world http://www. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. In North America. The leaves. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates.

net/ .000 125. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. or estimates).000 142. California. or ginger.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.810 http://www.088.000 221. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world".000 128. including eastern Asia. and parts of South and Central America. the Middle East.Alaska) in fifth place (1. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output.000 645. southern Europe. A = aggregate (may include official. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. C = calculated figure. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. semiofficial. south Asia.000 15.crazychefs.000 254. It is often paired with onion. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. Southeast Asia. tomato. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.686. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods.400 140.4%). The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form.000 325. northern Africa. P = official figure. F = FAO estimate.

United Kingdom and Australia. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. and roast them in an oven. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. oil. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. meats. and a chunky base produce skordalia. Garlic. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. meat. and spices. almond. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. They are also known as "garlic spears". and then stir-fried with http://www. Blending garlic. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. breads and pasta. and is now being sold in the United States.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. crostini and canapé. salt. Immature scapes are tender and edible. or "tops". The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. In Japan and . The leaves are cut. or vegetables. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. cleaned. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. is sweet and syrupy. "stems". and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. bruschetta. called black garlic. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. In some cuisine. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. In eastern Europe. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli.crazychefs. the resulting product. garlic toast. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. oil.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
50 | P a g e
Cooking Ingredients/

leeks. However. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. therefore. thus mellowing its spiciness.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking.crazychefs. usually enjoy these sensations.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. However. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood.[51] To ward off . insects.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. persillade. where it is excreted. werewolves. allylmercaptan and allicin. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. and vampires. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". garlic. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. hung in windows. or leeks. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. and bananas.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). and worms from eating the plant. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. Among the members of the onion family.[50] In Europe. allylpropyldisulfide.[48] Due to its strong odor. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. shallots. shallots.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. making garlic much more potent than onions. chives. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. deterring animals like birds. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. such as pistou. The herb is. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. Because of the AMS in the http://www. however. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. and release of AMS several hours more. included in many garlic recipes. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. forming allyl methyl sulfide. garden lilies. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. ginger. all present in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. When eaten in quantity. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. Since digestion takes several hours. Humans. including onions. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. garlic could be worn.

[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. However. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. indicated Muhammad.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. antiplatelets.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. dizziness. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. Garlic can thin the blood. as well as other medications. antihypertensives. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. minimal risks to normal individuals. are largely . antiparasitic value of garlic. indigestion. Editing help is available. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. nausea. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". bleeding.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. emesis. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. if appropriate. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. and hypoglycemic drugs. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. at worst. sweating. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. if any exist.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. and menstrual irregularities. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats.crazychefs.In Daoism mythology. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. and diarrhea.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. calcium channel blockers. You can help by converting this article to prose. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. similar to the effect of aspirin. allergic http://www. saquinavir. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis.

third edition (Oxford: University Press. bigger. G. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. A bulb of garlic.jhortscib. Notes 1. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria . The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. 197 5. et Ethiopia". In particular. 112 7. ^ a b c d Tabor. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. 3. (2005).ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. http://hdl. including burns to children. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. Domestication of plants in the Old World.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. Retrieved 2007-08-28. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes.htm. ^ McGee p.natural-holistic-health. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23) http://www. ^ http://www.html 8.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection".html. 397 6. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. (2004). topical use of raw garlic.handle. Retrieved 5 June http://www. 9. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum.nj. et al.crazychefs. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. garlick)". 4. Retrieved 5 June. 2.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. ^ one the bulbs will grow peeled. ^ a b Lee. split. p. is discouraged. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. 2000).

Paul B.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". 5:109–115. ^ Benavides GA. Ramacciato. 15. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study".1001/archinte.1002/mnfr. and Empiricism" (PDF). http://archinte. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. PMID doi:10. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. doi:10. ^ Gardner CD. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". Yin MC. 21. P. doi:10. 22. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. Sci. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. PMID 15157944. doi:10. R. 12. ^ a b Steiner M. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Vosoughi AR. Acad. 104 (46): 17977–82. Facts. 2005 ^ Groppo. ^ Goodbye. http://personalpages. "Tropes. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32." Int. Maud. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". Motta. U. 17. A Modern Herbal. PMID 17951430. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store.A. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. Hyg. Güven C (2002). 19.200700072..4. 25. July 1. Lawson LD. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . Sylva. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. doi:10. 24. et al (November 2007).. Garlic. PMID 17328819.200700058. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. Chao WJ (March 2007). (Mrs. 29.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman.. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. 2006. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". 30.jnutbio. Natl. doi:10. ^ Kojuri J. J.167.1001/archinte. PMID 17325296. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado.1016/j. PMID 2291748. Daryn (2003). Lin RS (June 1998). Biochem. 11. 13.). "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic".4. PMID 17123684.ama-assn. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. and Mary U.10. Arch. Sova P (May 2004). (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci.346. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. doi:10.. ^ Mader FH (October 1990). Oztürk HS. ^ Borrelli F. J. Olcay E. 35. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". 20. Block E. Better Nutrition. Nutr. PMID 15218732. A.005. Med.1162/106361403773062678. Med. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. Sartoratto. et al (February 2007). Arch. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. Squadrito GL. F. Intern. Capasso R. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . ^ Durak I.1186/1476-511X-6-5.lehoux/Tropes. doi:10. 5. 31. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). 167 (4): 325–6. McFerren M (February 2007).uk/staff/daryn. Akrami M (March 2007). PMID 15277094.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. 32. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". Herald Publishing Co. Dent.1002/mnfr. Proc.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. 54 | P a g e http://www. 28. PMID 17918162.2004. Mills RW. Ferraresi. Izzo AA (November 2007). . Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). http://archinte. ^ Charlson M. 26. 34. (p. et al (June 2004). Kavutcu M. [2] ^ Hamel. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". Intern. ^ Durak I. ^ Chan KC. 16.pdf. 18. PMID 9641475. Aytaç B. "Garlic (Allium sativum L.ama-assn. 15 (6): 373–7.325.crazychefs. 27. 33.01.A 400 Year History. Accessed: December 18. 167 (4): 346–53. PMID 17966136.C.S. 23.

Teel R.2005. ^ McGee p.asm. 2007. Complementary Medicines Summary.ukmi. ^ a b c d Hogg. Slattery M. Imafuku M. "Garlic burns". Microbiology ( DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30".com/a/Garlic. PMID 11481410. Sanders N. 2007.1099/ AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. PMC: 538912. PMID 8441577. Nishimura S. Pickering http://www.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65.go. Chesson C. ^ Kodera Y. PMID 15616341. Antimicrob. 66. ^ Macpherson et al.". ^ Health Canada ..Garlic-in-Oil 61. (1989-01-30). W. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). Patel R (January 2005).ch. "Effect of allixin. ^ Pickering..htm 44. ^ Macpherson et al.html 45. 310–311 47. Jordan W.html 54. Iwai K. 4 . ^ Oi Y. 42.blogspot. Long D.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. 211 51.pdf. ^ Baruchin AM.Vol 9 No. http://linkinghub.1. National Health Service. Scolaro M.1128/AAC. a stress compound from garlic. ^ Fareed garlic advisory 63. Itakura Y. (1991-08-01). 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved December 7.sgmjournals. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. 120. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. "Allixin. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. 49. Retrieved December 7. 53. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. Fuwa T. ^ http://lem.". ^ a b McNally. PMID 11600262. Engl. 39. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans".49. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. et al (October 2005). Jennifer (2002-12-13). 64. Sumida T.economicexpert. ^ Garlic . Ali M (June 1996). Agents Chemother. ^ Bukhari. http://joi.unito. Steckelberg JM. 65.473. 122. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".jst. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet... Volume 7.. Yoffe B. ISBN 0-30436561-0. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. Lett. "Garlic burns".jp/JST. PMID 8644128. Retrieved 2007-0707. 37. Sagi A. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. 43.crazychefs.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60.28095-0.January 29. p. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats". Aon MA. 85 (3): 157–64. ^ John S. In Search of Yoshida S.html Houghton Mifflin. Castro C.0. p. Bordia T.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. James. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. http://mic. Raymond T (1994). Toxicol. PMID 16207909. http://linkinghub. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF).. Sterling Publishing. Thomson M.jst. http://joi. Shishido C.goldbamboo. Kominato Y. Lau B. Nishino H.go. NLM Gateway.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ^ Lemar KM. on mutagenesis. Passa ^ CSU SafeFood ^ . Summer 2005 . ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. Book 65 57. UK Medicines Information. 58.elsevier.elsevier. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6.. section "Conclusion" 48. (2001). ^ a b c Yamasaki T. http://aac. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 1988. 38. 52. doi:10. 40. ^ http://www. Matuura H. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. David (2003).. 49 (1): 473. H. ^ Shuford ^ McNally p. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea.) 62. 41. http://www. ^ http://washokufood. 049 . Ronen M (November 2001).

. Jiro Yoshida. Masanori Ayabe. Shan. Lawson. The chemistry of garlic and onions. Pharm. Vol.. L. 3rd ed.. 129: 144–151. "Garlic burns". Naoto Uda. Hamilton. (1996). 50. L. and H. Rabinowitch (2004). L.References Japanese garlic. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. (2001). Block.. A. (2004). ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. Campbell JH (July 1997). Retrieved 1 May 2005. Kamenetsky. (2000). G. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. Vargas R. PMID 8441577. Susumu Yoshida. 50. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. . Kiazand. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. Am. P. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. E.. R. C. http://circ. 'Kyolic'. Vol. D. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. 405-407 (2002). D. A.. Boudoulas H. Chatterjee. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9.-Z. (1992). Block.. M. Naoki Kashimoto.Garlic.M. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". Jain AK. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Circulation 96 (8): 2649– http://www. Andy (2004). (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Efendy JL. Block.P. L. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. Garty BZ (March 1993). H. Kozue Ogasawara. Hort. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Makoto Ichikawa. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Hile.. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Breithaupt-Grögler K. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). E. Lemar. Pharm. Yukihiro Kodera. E. Soc. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. Lloyd. Belz GG (October 1997). Campbell GR. Isao Sumioka. I. Sci. McMahon FG (June 1993). L.crazychefs. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. J. PMID 8506890.. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Kraemer. (1985). A. 94 (6): 632–5. Block.. Chem. Med. New York: Avery. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. Z. R. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts.elsevier. and Related Species (Second Edition).ahajournals. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". Wang. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. Barzilay. D. Gotzkowsky S. Am.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Selfsufficientish .. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. E. D. Balise. Bull. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. 354-363 (2002). "The effect of the aged garlic extract. Ling[青森県産]. Lawson. D. Shafir. [4] Lawson. Garlic. J. Zhang. Williams & Wilkens. J. P. M. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance Gardner. K. Koch. A. http://linkinghub. Balch. Z. H. Turner... C. Bull. PMID 9355906. H.. Simmons DL.. PMID 9247357. Zemah. R. Chem. S.

H. McGee. Y-Y. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Antimicrob. J. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". Shuford JA. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). (eds). ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. Steiner M.1.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904.1128/AAC. Neil A (1994). Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. http://meta. (1998). doi:10. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". SunWook Hwang. "The Onion Family: Onions.. In: Ohigashi. Agents Chemother.S. Yeh. D. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. PMID 8169881. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Pharmacol. Geierstanger. Marcel Dekker. Cardiovasc. (1999). Leeks". Kadam.. et al. PMID 9641475. Lin RS (June 1998). (1997). Garlic.wkhealth.K. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929– http://www. Michael Bandell. Harold (2004). Salunkhe. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Veena Viswanath. pp. Abstract. Steckelberg JM. PMC: 538912. http://aac. Mader FH (October 1990). J. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Yeh. Scribner. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . et al. Silagy C. Y-Y. Bernhard H. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45.asm.12..473. et al. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. PMID 2291748. 310–3. 31 (6): 904–8. PMID 15616341. Patel R (January 2005). Eid. Samer Macpherson. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.. 49 (1): 473.49.

5-2 cm . Madagascar. called "lavanga" ( ) in http://www. when they are ready for collecting. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. syn. Cloves are harvested when 1. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. terminating in four spreading sepals. Zanzibar. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. Pakistan. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum.crazychefs. In Vietnam. and Sri Lanka. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. and consist of a long calyx. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is called đinh hương. after which they develop into a bright red. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae.

Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. Cloves are used in cheeses. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. Cloves are used as a carminative.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas http://www. cloves are often used to season pho broth. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In south Indian cuisine. it is used in almost all dishes.000 tonnes). Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. warm and aromatic. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf.crazychefs. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese . and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. but as they are extremely strong. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. which sells Djarum Black. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon.[1] In north Indian cuisine. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. but with the addition of other spices). A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. In Vietnamese cuisine. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. along with other spices. spleen and stomach meridians. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. often in combination with cumin. especially for digestive problems. entering the kidney. During Christmas. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. they are used sparingly.

due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus).P. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain.crazychefs. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. Brazil. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. and Zanzibar. Subsequently. vomiting and diarrhea. Moti. including stomach qi downward. Ternate. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction.[6] History Until modern times.[7] Cloves. Khalsa. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. most of the West Indies.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian . Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne.[5] In West Africa. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. including Bacan. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan)." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[7] Nevertheless. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. pimples http://www. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. and Tidore. including for multiple sclerosis. Ayurvedic herbalist K. Makian. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. It is also used in severe burns. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. In the late fifteenth century. mainly from the Maluku Islands. RH (AHG). along with nutmeg and pepper. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. were highly prized in Roman times.

^ http://oneearthherbs. ^ Balch. crategolic acid. 3rd ed. and Andrew Gamble. 8. Steven Clavey. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". ^ http://www. 5.htm. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Steven Clavey. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. gallotannic acid.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". stigmasterol and campesterol. Jack (2004). Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol.html Tilotson. methyl salicylate (painkiller). pp. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. ©2003.[8] Notes and references and several sesquiterpenes. Alan. due to the high price of importing them. Avery Publishing. 94. Phyllis and http://www. the flavonoids eugenin.. xv. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. rhamnetin. Erich Stoger. ^ Dorenburg. ^ "TibetMed . Medicine Plus. kaempferol. 2.. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. tannins. comprising 72-90%. Erich Stoger. Special Diets for Illness 6. 3. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. ©2000. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. Karen. Third Edition by Dan Bensky.crazychefs. Third Edition by Dan .In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Spice: The History of a Temptation.squarespace. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol.nih. and and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. ISBN 0-375-70705-0.nlm. John Wiley and Sons Inc.html National Institutes of Health. http://www. ^ a b Turner. Vintage Books. Andrew and Page. pg. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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"ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook.) -. while Lederer et al.iso. Retrieved 10 November.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703– Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1.3.htm?csnumber=19183. Vaishali C. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice".703.Specification".chinaios. NPR.atypon-link. 3. 18 May 2009 2. PMID employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. Retrieved 8 June 2009.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. 4. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. f. et al. doi:10.Botanical nomenclature". f. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". ^ Lederer. ^ International Organization for Standardization.88. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– http://www. (2005). Ines et al. http://www.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". 5.1542/peds. ^ Louisa Lim.crazychefs. Retrieved 8 June 2009. http://www. http://www.2004-0058. 6. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 .htm?csnumber =4844.2005. (2006). http://www. Retrieved 8 June 2009.1021/ . "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -.5555/jaoi. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species.iso. ^ Joshi. ^ International Organization for Standardization.

crazychefs. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum http://www. native from the east Mediterranean to East . 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum.

maduru. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . a member of the parsley family. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from . 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. cumin is known as ziran (孜然).com http://www.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. Kerman. in Iran and Central Asia. being oblong in shape. locally called "Kermun".Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". and yellow-brown in colour. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . In Northern India and Nepal. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. including kamūnu in Akkadian. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. cumin is known as zireh. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. in northwestern China. the story goes. longitudinally ridged. in Turkey. In Arabic. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. parsley and dill. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum.crazychefs. cumin is known as kimyon.

and .[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean http://www. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). Tajikistan. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. In South Asia. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. Turkey. and this practice continues in Morocco. India. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. Morocco.crazychefs. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. In Sri Lanka. Seeds. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Syria. Egypt. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. when added to hot milk and consumed. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Uzbekistan. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. today it is mostly grown in Iran. Mexico.

cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. curries. curry powder. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Pakistani.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. Today. The leaves are 5-10 cm long.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. It is traditionally added to . Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. containing a single seed. popular in Indian. Northern Mexican cuisines. and bahaarat. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. It is an herbaceous annual plant. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. enchiladas. Middle Eastern. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. and in some traditional breads from France. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common http://www. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The flowers are small. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. but are smaller and darker in colour. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. thread-like leaflets.crazychefs. North African. garam masala. Indian. either ground or as whole seeds. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. Sri Lankan. pinnate or bipinnate. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. and other Middle-Eastern. and is found in achiote blends. white or pink. Cuban. Contrary to popular belief in the US. sofrito. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. adobos. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). and borne in umbels. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. tacos.

It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.Dietary fiber http://www.5 g Fat . and needs fertile. It is grown from seed. 64 μg 44. However.27 g 17.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.435 mg Folate (Vit.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. it is drought-tolerant. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. hot summer of 3–4 . sown in spring. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F). Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. Cultivation of cumin requires a long. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.33 mg Vitamin K 5.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. B2) 0.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.Sugars 2. B3) 4.24 g 22. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.7 mg Vitamin E 3.very common in Mexican cuisine.saturated 1. well-drained soil.25 g .81 g 8.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates .327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.crazychefs. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.

a small cat).). as in 'kot' .Zinc 4. For example. In Swedish. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. lighter in colour.v. However. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). to eat.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. a chemical found in turmeric. from the Swedish word "spisa". Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Not related to curcumin.crazychefs. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. In Polish the difference is even less significant. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with http://www.a cat and 'kotek' . while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".net/ .

Domestication of plants in the Old World. Essential Oils".1021/jf0487351. from China". third edition (Oxford: University Press. ^ "Kamūnu. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 7.html http://www. and Carum carvi L.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. doi:10. ^ a b c Li.05.1302.aca. ^ Growingtaste. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L.".313.77. ^ a b Wang.030. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. 206 5. Lu et al.ars-grin.1016/j. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004).arsgrin. Nicola S. doi:10. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. 3.foodreference. ^ http://www. et al. 2000. (2009).2009. http://www. www. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum" premiumwanadoo. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN".gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. ^ a b Iacobellis. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. Rong. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . 2." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). 2000).net/ . ^ "KMN. (2005). doi:10. 9.

Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal . Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. sedative. cineol. and galangal.crazychefs. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. shogaols and gingerols. In laboratory animals. West Africa and the Caribbean. medicine. and citral) have also been identified. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. or spice.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name http://www.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. cardamom. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have . 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. http://www. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella.crazychefs. In South India. crackers and cake. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. ghee. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. [edit] Regional use In India. which makes swallowing easier. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. Allam ( ) in Telugu. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. For storage. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. especially in the Tanjore belt. and tender green chili peppers. Alay in Marathi. in Tamil Nadu. cookies. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. in Gujarati. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. stimulating the production of saliva. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. Adrak. salt. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. or frozen for longer term storage. and Aduwa in Nepali. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. and sugar. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. enchi in Malayalam. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. Inji in Tamil. . Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. Ginger is also made into candy. Ginger has a sialagogue action. to which honey is often added. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. particularly gingerols and shogaols. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. ginger ale. and ginger beer. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste.

In Western cuisine. On the island of Corfu. is made.crazychefs. In Vietnam. In Burma. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. In the Caribbean. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. and a variety of nuts and seeds. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. gingerbread. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. In Arabic. In the traditional Korean kimchi. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. a type of ginger beer. during their occupation of the islands. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. In China. ginger snaps. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. Greece. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. In the Ivory Coast. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. ginger is called gyin. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm http://www. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. In Japan. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). parkin and ginger biscuits. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. and making drinks such as sorrel. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. France. . pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke.

[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. morning sickness and chemotherapy. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. cough and cold. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for . it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.crazychefs.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. Ginger has also been historically used to treat http://www. including warfarin. though it does interact with some medications.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. though studies been inconsistent.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. which several scientific studies support. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger.

Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. gas. ginger can cause heartburn. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. In Burma.[14] In Congo. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. in food etc. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding http://www. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. In China. which is considered a .crazychefs. In Indonesia. In India. people use ginger for making tea. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. In the United States. particularly if taken in powdered form. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. and although it's generally recognized as safe. belching and nausea. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. and heart rhythms. clotting. and individuals who have had ulcers. it is considered good for a sore throat. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. reducing "winds" in the blood. bloating.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

5%). with over 30% of the global share. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. Production trends India. Nepal(~11.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Traditionally. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. followed by Indonesia(~12. replacing . about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates.crazychefs. Scalding. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. it is immediately scalded. but this generally reduces its value. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. now leads in global production of ginger. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. washing and scraping gives white ginger. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. or washed and scraped.000 158.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285.000 F 177.7%). which has slipped to the second position (~20. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. produces black ginger.

www. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".270 1.000 ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . and its root has similar aromatic properties. Retrieved http://www. Asarum canadense. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. F = FAO estimate.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure.ars-grin.contains ginger material References 1.000 28. http://www.crazychefs. but it is not related to true ginger. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . is also known as "wild ginger". Galangal is also called Thai ginger. is used in cooking and medicine. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. galangal.000 8. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.arsgrin. the flower buds are the part eaten. a carcinogenic compound.000 42.000 34. Also referred to as galangal. A = Aggregate(may include . A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. semiofficial or estimates).Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World

et al. MPH (1998).013. Harold (2004). 10. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007).1016/j. Kathi Kemper.1001/ . ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". ^ Jakes. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. (2006). ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by Shih-Lu http://archfami. ^ Chen. "Beverage of Champions". 9. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. 3. Zainab M. ^ Afshari. PMID 10793599. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed.ucla. & MSt. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". http://journals. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). http://unitproj.. Mary. doi:10.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25).foodchem. 425-426.mayoclinic. 15.cfm?displayID=15. http://www. (01 Mar 2000).H. Retrieved 2007-08-02. New York: Scribner pp. MD.1021/jf071460f. E. & Pittler. ^ MD O' Hara. 11. PMID 9821826.html. Sheng-Chu 14. Jaw-Chyun. Li-Jiau Huang. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. MD. ^ Al-Amin. 5.uspharmacist.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. ^ "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". doi:10. Tin-Yun Ho. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".cambridge. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". Retrieved 2006-09-06. Susan (2007-01-15).amaassn. http://timeblog.6. ^ Ernst. (2007).oxfordjournals.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. 13. Retrieved 2007-08-06.01. Retrieved 5 November. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. Ali Taghizadeh et al. http://www. doi:10. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 8. 7. Kim Farrell. David Kiefer.2.crazychefs. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371.library. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. MD. "Ginger". plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". 6. Retrieved 2007-0808. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by http://www. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 2007-08-02. ^ Al-Achi. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006).523.html.). ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). http://bja.umm. http://www.

Erode. and to impart color to mustard condiments.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. In medieval Europe. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly . slightly bitter. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. For these reasons. for http://www. Zingiberaceae. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season.crazychefs.

etc. and http://www. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. powdered form. yogurt. cereals. In non-South Asian recipes. cake icings. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. such as in pickles. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. orange juice. turmeric is also used fresh. and many more. Although usually used in its dried.Yellow City. rendang. biscuits. Over-coloring. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. much like ginger. sauces. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. is sometimes used to compensate for . not only in curry. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). It is used in canned beverages and baked products. yellow cakes. Turmeric City. popcorn color. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. ice cream. gelatins. or Textile City. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes.crazychefs. custardlike yellow color. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. dairy products. but also in masak lemak. sweets. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra.[citation needed] Sangli. relishes.

Japan. a traditional dish in South Asia. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. It is unknown why it works.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne .[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[4] cancer. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). and other digestive disorders. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). are spiced with turmeric. is also treated with turmeric powder. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. dry mixes. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. Indians. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared http://www. Within one week of using turmeric. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. yogurt. burns and bruises. winter butter and margarine. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. an uncurable and debilitating disease. salad dressings.In combination with annatto (E160b).crazychefs.

or BDNF. research activity into curcumin is exploding. Bangalore. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . with no adverse effects. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. and the U. found in black pepper. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. Bangladesh. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Alzheimer's. and Pakistan. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. multiple myeloma. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from . John‘s Medical College.crazychefs. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. Snake Bite Anti http://www. improves the absorption of turmeric. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. which supports nerve growth. In 1998 researchers at St.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. and colorectal cancer. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University.

Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. and coconut and cooked in steam. as a part of the marriage ritual. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. and it is used for power and purification rites. This happens in economically lower situations. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. such as saris. turmeric is commonly used in Indian http://www. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God . a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. During the south Indian festival Pongal. Also. part of the Bengali wedding.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. However. In southern India. jaggery. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown.crazychefs. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony.

^ [|Ketteler. Rajendran R.07. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. Joy Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. 64(4):353-6. Retrieved June 2009. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. Notes 1. ^ http://www.thieme-connect. keto and enol. et al. a polyphenol. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. AOL Health. 1998 May.ars-grin. or Natural Yellow 3.1016/j. Srinivas ^ http://news. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". http://www. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. .co. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".uk/1/hi/health/1668932. doi:10. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The systematic chemical name is ( Shoba G.stm 5. Joseph T.I. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . Retrieved 2008-03-04.172. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN".de/DOI/DOI?10. Judy] (June 2009). 75300.crazychefs.090. (2009). ^ Chan. Majeed M.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. www. E. Planta Med.6E) http://www.

crazychefs. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. with an acute .9–7. simple and ovate. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil http://www. Kemiri. flowers. The nut is round. Indian walnut.) Willd. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. The leaves are pale green. 4–6 centimetres (1. 10–20 centimetres (3. also known as Candleberry. Euphorbiaceae. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed.9 in) long. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana).4 in) in diameter. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. hence its name.6–2.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). is a flowering tree in the spurge family. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. which allows its use as a candle (see below). Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans.

Outside of Southeast Asia. giving them greater underwater visibility.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. a varnish with the oil. In Hawaiʻi. In Malaya. ulcers. In Sumatra. lit one end. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. fevers. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. is quite different. burned with charcoal. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. On the island of Java in http://www. pounded seeds. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. In Java. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. as the candlenut is much more bitter. and gonorrhea. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. swollen joints. The flavor. are applied around the navel for costiveness.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. leaves and flowers. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. This led to their use as a measure of time.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. named kukui were burned to provide light. they are mildly toxic when raw. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. including: leis from the shells. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. however. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available.crazychefs. the nuts.

Plants in Hawaiian http://www. 2. Finally. http://books. Betty. and the husband was eventually killed. ^ "Kukui". ^ Scott. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. p. was routinely the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. One of the legends told of a woman who. despite her best efforts to please her husband. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824822514. she was given new life. the god of agriculture. "Chapter 4: Canoes". still nowadays. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. http://books.crazychefs. Susan. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome In plantations. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. tukilamulamu. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. Retrieved 2009-03-06. Bess Press. Beatrice H. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. 122.[citation needed] References 1.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). used as soap or shampoo. 5. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). ISBN 9781573061377. http://canoeplants.).[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. 26. University of Hawaii Press. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. pp.html. Liana I. Lilinoe Andrews. This larva is eaten by some protection and peace.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats).com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a. p. ^ Krauss. 4. Mikiala Ayau. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi.[5] In Tonga. (1993).net/ . The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. Being a kind and just woman. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui ripe nuts. Craig Thomas (2000). ^ Dunford. Honda. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. named tuitui are pounded into a paste.

dark red when fully mature. . However. containing a single seed. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. . Malayalam:kurumulaku. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. unrelated plants.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. green pepper. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. cultivated for its fruit. white pepper. The terms pink peppercorns.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family http://www. .net/ . and very often simply pepper. Kannada:meNasu.crazychefs. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit. Peppercorns. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. known as a peppercorn when dried. red pepper (as in bell or chile). and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. Konkani:miriya konu. Telugu:miriyam. . Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. may be described as black pepper.

They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. There is disagreement regarding which is generally . speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. Dutch peper. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. in the early 20th century. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed.. often alongside table salt. the spice is called black peppercorn. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. French poivre. and other similar forms.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. and the naked seed is dried. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical http://www. with the skin of the pepper removed.[4] In the U. White pepper consists of the seed only. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. including decortication. this was shortened to pep. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. Once dried. wrinkled black layer. In the 16th century. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper.S. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. chemical or biological methods.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants.

largely unknown in the West. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. Fresh. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of http://www. with a bright aroma.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". particularly Thai cuisine. made from the largest.Black.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. unpreserved green pepper berries. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. like black. Pickled peppercorns. from Bangka Island. is made from the unripe berries. also green.crazychefs. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount . pink (Schinus terebinthifolius).[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. Schinus terebinthifolius. the Peruvian pepper tree. green. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. are used in some Asian cuisines. which is mostly no longer an issue. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. Schinus molle.

five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year.[12][13] Within the genus . or trellises. the berries lose pungency. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. but when full grown and still hard. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart.crazychefs. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. It is a spreading vine. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the http://www. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. poles. The leaves are alternate. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. entire. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[11] Black pepper is native to India. if allowed to ripen.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. and ultimately fall off and are lost. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. The flowers are small. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. The cuttings are usually cultivars. moist. and before the fruit is mature. well-drained and rich in organic matter. Competing plants are cleared away.

Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. particularly the Malabar Coast. its most important source was India.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE.crazychefs. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long . In http://www. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. Chile peppers. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. in what is now the state of Kerala. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good.[14] J.

Returning from India. Malaysia. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. Long pepper. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. nor how it reached the Nile from India. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.crazychefs. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. changed the course of world history. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. Sumatra. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. barged to Alexandria. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near http://www. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. the Middle East. pepper was also being grown in Java.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. Sunda. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. this trade advantage.Until well after the Middle Ages. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. along with other spices from India and lands farther . probably made black pepper less popular at the time. Black pepper. but these areas traded mainly with China. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Trade routes of the time were by land. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. By the 16th century.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. growing in the north-western part of India. or used the pepper locally. Madagascar. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome.

pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. four.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. After the fall of Rome.crazychefs. Edward Gibbon http://www. seeing that in other substances which we use. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. Once into the Mediterranean. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. it is sometimes their sweetness. seasoning in the Roman Empire. and of black.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. I wonder. if expensive. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century"." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. There is no evidence to support this claim. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. is fifteen denarii per pound. first the Persians and then the Arabs. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery".H." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. the banquets of kings. its only desirable quality being a certain . The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. whereas. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . and the luxuries of the table. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow.[22] In addition. pepper was a luxury item. I season delicacies. while that of white pepper is seven. especially Venice and Genoa. 12. affordable only to the wealthy. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes.. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control.. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. Similarly.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. and the prices reflected it. Apicius' De re coquinaria. who travelled east to India. clad in a wrinkled cover.

compound that gives pepper its spiciness. and salt-cured meats were common fare. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. his representative replied. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. the effect is small.crazychefs. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. "we seek Christians and spices. especially in winter. Today. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese . but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. has some antimicrobial properties. Pepper harvested for the European trader.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not)." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. Pepper. as well as around Africa. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of http://www. In the 17th century. A depiction of Calicut. However.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. In 1498.

insect bites. either long or black. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and . Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. earache. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. heart disease. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. oral abscesses. Like many eastern spices. was often the preferred medication. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. as hujiao or "foreign pepper".crazychefs. but both were used. diarrhea. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. gangrene. Note the cook's pepper mill. each load being equal to 223 lbs. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. insomnia. hernia. He was told it came from the markets of Shu.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. however. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". being stronger. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel".com http://www..[25] In the 3rd century CE. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). as well as she could for sneezing."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. including long pepper. hoarseness.[26] By the 12th century. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. indigestion.. Long pepper. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. joint pain. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. lung disease. but if this estimated 10.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. liver problems.000 pounds (4.

irritates the nostrils. left on black pepper. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. woody.[31] As a medicine. causing the http://www. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. milligram-for-milligram. vitamin B.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. Refined piperine.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole.crazychefs. The outer fruit layer. a substance present in black pepper. Few. a mildly carcinogenic compound.[31] Also. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala . and floral notes. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. chapter five. which is stripped of the fruit layer.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage.sunburn. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. sabinene. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and linalool. caryophyllene. tooth decay. which give citrusy. and toothaches. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. if any. Some sources say that piperine. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. limonene.

the most widely traded spice in the world. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. Malaysia (8%). pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. Thailand (4%). Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders").[35] By weight. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. for example.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India.000 short tons). are used for this. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. by monetary value. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. Sri Lanka (6%). India (19%). Brazil (13%). producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason.000 t (299. but has fallen to just over 271. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[33] Once http://www. India. The price of pepper can be volatile.crazychefs. As of 2008. and China (6%). Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. dispensers of pre-ground pepper.000 t ( . accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002.

htm. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus".gov. p 94. ^ Innes Miller. 93. 88. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 12. 3. 7. Egyptian Pharaoh. 11. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. p. p. 4. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". ^ Katzer. Flora of China. ^ J.crazychefs. ISBN 075653836X. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. 83 21.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. Ramses Vietnam dominates the export market. Retrieved 6 November 2005. http://www. 18. American Journal of Botany 88: ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. 10. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". Random 9. 200803-27. PMID . Retrieved 6 November 2005. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 6. 20. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". disease and weather. Using fresh green peppercorns.000 short tons). ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). ^ Ochef. The Spice Trade. 13.2307/2657072. Spice.pd f. Alejandra (2001). ISBN 0375407219. Retrieved 13 November 2005. Retrieved 17 October 2006.ars-grin. Text online. ^ Dalby p. 2006-1120. 8. Pepper. from Penzey's Spices. http://books. ^ Peppercorns. using almost none of its production domestically. http://www.[36] Notes 1.amjbot.poor crop management.arsgrin.da. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 17. 19. ^ a b ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. 5. http://www. ^ Translation from Turner. Black pepper is marica. 1969).org/florataxon. www. Gernot (2006).000 t (99.thehindubusinessline. doi:10. Retrieved 2009-01-29. p. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. Retrieved 2008-03-02. Retrieved 12 August 2006. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). Compass Point Books. Warrior. Innes Miller. M. 80 2. The Hindu Business line.efloras. and 14.

Retrieved 2008-01-29. 25. 2005. 156. ISBN 0849336201. Karvy Comtrade Limited. Alan (2002). Full text at Blackwell website. http://www. Prosper (2001). ^ Montagne. http://books.2000. D. ^ Dalby pp. 26. Retrieved 2009-01-29. J. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). Deans (2000). ^ "Karvy's special Reports . ^ Turner p. Dorman and S.worldbank." 24. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". 27. References Retrieved 2008-01-29. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. G. p. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. ISBN 0521367085. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. ISBN 0600-60235-4.. 77. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale.22. ^ Dalby p. Berkeley: University of California Press. also Turner pp. 34. 31. 32. 160. 204.pdf. Dangerous Tastes.ch05. http://www. doi:10. 108–109. Steven (2004). Larousse Gastronomique.1365-2672. Duke (1993-08-16). 23. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". 2. 395. s_20080515_01. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 9781580084178.x.S. ISBN 0520236742. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). 33.html. 12. ^ 36. 726. ^ U. "Mill". ds/IndiaSpices. 171.karvycomtrade.00969. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). Dover. ^ a b McGee . 29. ^ Jaffee p. Andrew (2002). Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. 74–75. http://books. Cambridge University Press. Buddhist Monastic Code TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. http://siteresources. Jaffee. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. Vol. 10. Hamlyn. ^ Dalby p.crazychefs. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". Retrieved November 12. CRC Press. 428. table 2. "Spices. ^ a b James A. ^ Jaffee p.pdf. http://www. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. 28. purchase required. ^ Turner p.1046/j. p.

annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L.McGee. Scribner. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Spice: The History of a Temptation. ISBN . pp. OCLC 56590708. Turner. Harold (2004). London: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 427–429. OCLC 61213802. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. "Black Pepper and Relatives".crazychefs. Jack (2004).com http://www.

64 g 0. Today. B3) 0.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.crazychefs.17 g 0.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Pepper. B2) 0.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.Dietary fiber 1. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. B1) 0.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0. including red. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".224 mg Folate (Vit.057 mg 4. green and orange. http://www.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.40 g . Central America and northern South America. Peppers are native to Mexico.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.Sugars . Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world. sweet.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.

in Dutch. India. which are green and yellow. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. and . whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. which has its roots in the word for pepper. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. It is eaten with fried noodles. an unrelated plant. were a highly prized condiment. Indiana. meaning Bulgarian pepper. With the similar meaning. they are called "capsicum". rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. In parts of Ohio. instead of using as a spice. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. When cut off. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. " In Japan. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. "red pepper". 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In British English. "groene paprika". It's widely used in a variety of dishes. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". and "Maalu" means Vegetable. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. In France it is called "poivron". Malaysia and New Zealand. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits.g. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. meaning pepper-fruit. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. At that time peppercorns. "gele paprika". regardless of their color. g. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. "Miris" is Chilli. In Norway. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. like pasta. respectively). the fruit of Piper nigrum. Across Europe. "green pepper"). they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. or "piment. In Argentina it's called "Morrón".com http://www. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika".. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. Grilled. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. meaning Big pepper. In the United States and Canada. Sweden. the term "paprika". such as Australia. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". the word ピーマン ("pîman.crazychefs.

purple. more rarely. red. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. It is eaten as a raw snack. orange and. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. in various soups and stews. black and brown. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage . and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. blue. yellow. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Varieties The color can be green. http://www. in salads.crazychefs.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". violet. aqua. yellow or orange peppers. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. rainbow. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. pink. maroon. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green.

com/html/ http://www.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. also known as M. balsamea Willd. [1]) is a hybrid mint. The plant. ^ http://www.foodreference. indigenous to Europe.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2].html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). Peppermint (Mentha × . It is found wild occasionally with its parent species.

The chromosome number is variable. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.31 in) long. spreading by its rhizomes.6–3. with smooth stems. and bare fibrous roots. . The flowers are purple.5–4 cm (0. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. forming thick. fleshy. with 2n counts of 66. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. Being a hybrid. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. Flowering is from mid to late summer. it is usually sterile. and 120 recorded. including stream sides and drainage ditches. noted since 1843[8]. blunt spikes. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem.6 in) cm broad. with a few exceptions. dark green with reddish veins. http://www.24– 0.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid.5 in) long and 1. he treated it as a species. If placed.crazychefs. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. it can grow anywhere.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.59–1.20 in) diameter.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. square in cross section. 6–8 mm (0.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall.

com http://www. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. chewing gum. particularly menthyl acetate.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. thus promoting belching. ice cream. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. and toothpaste. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter.crazychefs. and is often used as a flavouring in tea.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol . compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo.1.[10] Similarly.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. confectionery.

[16]. If you choose to grow peppermint. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. In addition to that.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. as a natural insecticide.[12] Outside of its native range. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. Foliage lime-scented. [18]. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. It needs a good water supply. which they then call "after-dinner mints.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and it is considered invasive in Australia. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators.crazychefs. hairless. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. it is advisable to plant it in a container. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. Eau De Cologne Mint). The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. A mild. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint.[13] and in the United States. [21].net/ . Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. New Zealand. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. Leaves wrinkled. Stems reddish. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. Leaves http://www. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. the Galápagos Islands.

^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. http://www. 4th Edition. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. page 640. ^ a b Blamey. http://www. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats".int/publications/2002/9241545372.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. ^ World Health Organization. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial".net/ . ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. ^ a b Huxley. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. 5. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints.. (1975). 6. & Grey-Wilson. Flowers open from bottom up.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . ISBN 978-1563636783 10. C.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . et al. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs".org/en/node/199. 2. Mentha L. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. 7. (2007). M. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. 11. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2".. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. In: Stace. 9. Retrieved 3 June 2009. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4.1016/j. M. ^ Harley. ^ a b Akdogan. R. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.who. C.glu. (1753).ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1.crazychefs. A. Thomson Healthcare.006. ed.. (1992).2007.pdf. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. (1989). ed.02. doi:10. ^ Linnaeus. a popular confection. ^ Cappello. http://whqlibdoc.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . Retrieved 2009-02-07. Mehmet (2004). G. A. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. http://www.)". Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 . ^ Akdogan. Bienvenu (1998).257.interscience. 21.122. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. Australia". Retrieved 3 June. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. Retrieved 3 June. doi:10. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .1002/jsfa. 26.wiley.S. 18. Derek R. Retrieved 8 June 2009. http://www. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria.2740311104. Zheljazkov. 25.159.crazychefs. 24. ^ Sharma. http://het. 27. populations. D. doi:10. ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ Adamovic. http://www.10): 119 .1151.sagepub. http://www.htm?csnumber=11633.E. Plant Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 .org/iso/catalogue_detail. ^ Farley..htm. Retrieved 7 June 2009.. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .iso. ^ International Organization for "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. ^ International Organization for Standardization. doi:10. (2004). 17. S.219.16. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Specification". ^ a b c Jullien. 22.iso. Bienvenu (1999).htm?csnumber=32041.D. http://www. Valerie Howland (2006).1071/AP99036. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars.1023/A:1006185103897. Retrieved 3 June. http://het. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. Retrieved 3 June. Retrieved 6 June 2009. Ambika et al. Retrieved 7 June . "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature".sagepub. ^ Edwards. and Mentha spicata L. 20.iso. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 .28. ^ Akdogan. 19. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 .sagepub. et http://www3.. Retrieved 6 June 2009. (2007). V.. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint".com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213..htm. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)".com/cgi/content/abstract/23/1/21. F. 23.224.htm? Frédéric et al. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L.actahort. Mehmet (2003). on kidney tissue in rats".)". "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . J. http://www. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. F. paraquat. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". Mehmet et al.

is a vegetable which belongs. porrum (L. along with the onion and garlic.) J. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. ampeloprasum http://www. Two related vegetables. porrum (L. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. to the Alliaceae family. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. also sometimes known as Allium porrum.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. the elephant garlic and kurrat.). ampeloprasum Subspecies: A.crazychefs. Allium ampeloprasum var. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .Gay The leek. although different in their uses as food.

and they have few pest or disease problems. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna http://www. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Once established in the garden. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. to be planted out as weather permits. leeks are hardy. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. intended for harvest in the season when planted. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. and overwintering leeks.crazychefs. Growing Leek field in Houthulst.

along with leek soup. which turns it soft and mild in taste. http://www. Raw. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled.Cuisine Leeks for sale. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. but. due to the layered structure of the leek. In its raw state. as the leek ages. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. The onion-like layers form around a core. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. carrots and potatoes and different . leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. which can be used in salads. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. although less bitter than scallion. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. Lamb is the most popular. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup.crazychefs. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. The tender core may be eaten. the vegetable is crunchy and firm.

crazychefs.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.9 g .5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .saturated 0. In her . B2) 0.C.polyunsaturated 0.8 g Fat . 83 μg 14. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.3 g 1. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium http://www.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit. as well as other recipes with leeks.04 g .E.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero. B1) 0.233 mg Folate (Vit.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.E.Sugars 3.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.monounsaturated 0. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.C. onwards.15 g 0. as well as wall carvings and drawings.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.004 g .Dietary fiber 1. B3) 0. who consumed it most often in soup.

Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. good countryman. According to one legend. and is worn—or the daffodil—on http://www. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek . Shakespeare. representing Wales.12 mg recommendations for adults. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. David‘s Day. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. you know. for example. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton.crazychefs. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V.Vitamin E 0. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the play.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0.

French Women Don't Get Fat. Knopf. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.crazychefs. ^ Guiliano. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. 3. Domestication of plants in the Old World. third edition (Oxford: University Press. ^ Jane Grigson. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.. 1978.p. Mireille. 2000).net/ .com http://www. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. (Penguin Books.Notes 1.

net/ . Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. with fewer than 100 individuals left.crazychefs.Dietary fibre 1.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. dulce) or celeriac (var. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Celery.2 g 0.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Sugars 2 g 3g . 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6 g Fat Protein Water 0. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy http://www. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.

and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine.In temperate countries.crazychefs. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. and in Old Bay Seasoning. celery is also grown for its seeds. Celery. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. birds. Actually very small fruit. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. squirrels. onions. often used as a base for sauces and soups. as celery salt. Celery. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with http://www. onions. dogs. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. and small rodents. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. Celery is a staple in many soups. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). They also contain an organic compound called apiol. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. horses. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. 30 AD. such as chicken noodle . on the Chicago-style hot dog.

In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. making avoiding such foods difficult. however. chthonian divinities celebrated in . According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of http://www. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC).Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. Celery contains androstenone. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. However.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. In Homer's Iliad. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. foods that contain or may contain celery. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. have to be clearly marked as such. M.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium.crazychefs. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. for people with celery allergy. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. even in trace amounts. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. Lemnos and Thebes.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. father of the Cabeiri. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. at Kastanas.[8] In the European Union. they note "since A. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos.

it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. borrowed from Greek. In the past. at our Great Mens tables. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are.crazychefs. Under optimal conditions. and Praetors feasts. fields are harvested only once. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. In North America. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. They are ranged under two classes. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild..[14] With cultivation and blanching. shape. produced in dense compound umbels. The flowers are creamy-white. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. from the Latin selinon. but the leaves may be used in salads. 2–3 mm http://www.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. straightness and thickness of petiole. splits. apium Italicum. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. seleri. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal .[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. insect damage and rot). and a distinctive smell. as the Grace of the whole Board". sweetish. 1. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. cracks. earthy taste. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. white and red.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. the whole plant having a coarse.. many of which differ little from the wild species. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. and the most crisp and tender. The plants are raised from seed. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine).5–2 mm long and wide. due to extremely uniform crop growth.

Western Journal of Medicine 158. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Radauer C. 9. (3rd ed. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. ^ OED. (2002-06-10). Species Plantarum: Tomus I.ucdavis. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus.17:1697-1699. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. 3. ^ Cantwell. ^ Bublin M. Domestication of Plants in the Old World.6 (June 1993): 610-611.. http://postharvest. Scheiner O. 227. 10. West J. T.202. 11. gentle Celery and Negative Calories 6.nsf/pages/smallage. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". and proper sanitation. Thomson. Thayer translation [1] M. (Laurentii Salvii). de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". ^ Calcium sources 7. ^ Celsus. ^ R. ^ Celestin 16.v. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). 2003. p. s. 15. et al. ^ snopes. Kraft D. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. P. ^ William Robinson and W. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. M.shtml. Post-harvest technology research and information center. Wilson IBH. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". "Celery". Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82.. ^ "Smallage". 1920).net/ .L. Natural History XIX. Lee LG. Ko SN. (2005).[16] References 1.crazychefs. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. 12. 2000) p. ^ D. ^ Teng CM. Retrieved 2008-03-04. C (1753). Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. Holmiae. Zohary and M.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). http://www. Hopf. 13. de Medicina. Suslow. Heiner http://www. 2. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 8. ^ a b Fragiska. 14. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. ^ Pliny. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo..

Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.98 g 0g 0g 0.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. Sugar. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.Sugars 96.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.crazychefs. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.03 g Riboflavin (Vit. Magnification of grains of sugar. For the common table sugar. see Sugar (disambiguation).21 g .91 g .5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 99.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B2) 0. (Discuss) For other http://www. see .

007 mg 0% Niacin ( http://www. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes.crazychefs. honey. and in many other sources. It forms the main ingredient in candy. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption. sugar maple (in maple syrup).[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.082 mg Vitamin B6 0.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for . obesity and tooth decay. lactose. mainly sucrose.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. and fructose. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. B1) 0. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances.026 mg Folate (Vit.77 g Thiamine (Vit.Water 1. but also appears in fruit. sorghum. B2) 0.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. B3) 0.

which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. including palm sugar and fructose. and texture) of beverages and food. "dextrose". Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. In a list of ingredients. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. "fructose". they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". preservation. such as http://www.crazychefs. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. the Spanish word azúcar.) The Greek word for "sugar". 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Etymology In the case of sugar. molasses or treacle. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. the Italian word zucchero. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). In this informal sense. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. zahari. Scientific Scientifically. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions).) will likely denote a sugar. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 . Generically known as "syrups".Popular In non-scientific use. Spanish and/or Italian. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. etc. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. (Compare the OED. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. means "pebble".[4] It came to English by way of French. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars.

syrups and fruit juices. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. This includes all the sugars referred to above.Culinary sugars Grainier. cook or consumer.crazychefs. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. A notable exception. plus sugars naturally present in honey. 3. Sugars include monosaccharides.containing 1. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. deoxyribose. important molecules in the body. has a "missing" oxygen atom. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). making the sugars http://www. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . as its name suggests. raw . Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. 2. disaccharides. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. Natural sugars come in fruit.

Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. If combined with fine ash.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form.water (H2O) per bond. This resulting . Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. Monosaccharides include fructose. or DNA. After digestion and absorption. producing invert sugar. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). proteins connected to one or more sugars. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). sweeter than the original sucrose. lactose (milk sugar . with less than 0. fructose. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. glucose. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. Note for example glycoproteins. In these closed-chain forms.made from one glucose and one fructose). The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is made of glucose. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. galactose and mannose. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. including NADH and ATP. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch).crazychefs. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and http://www. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. which has the formula C6H12O6. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. sugar will burn with a blue flame. which form part of nucleic acids. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . and galactose.

net/ . ^ Wuebben.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0." Powder and Bulk References Adas. Sugarcane.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. ^ "Engineering Resources . ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. ^ link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. A C Hannah.80 g/ml Notes 1. Sugar Blues.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. Glyn (2004).Bulk Density Chart. OCLC 51837990 http://www. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. Joseph and Mike Carlson. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Michael (January 2001).06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 2. 5. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. The International Sugar Trade. 4. ISBN 063205476X. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. Temple University Press.webmd.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6." http://men.htm 3. Blackwell Publishing. Cambridge: Woodhead. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When.illovosugar. ISBN 1566398320. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. 1996.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. OCLC 44493265. James. History of Science and Technology in Islam.crazychefs.

The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. Although in some areas. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses.35 mm. Products for industrial use (e.crazychefs. especially in the Netherlands. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. sugar beet molasses is used. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed.25% of the total volume). This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. This is mainly done for inventory control and . It is. without mixing them separately.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial http://www. however. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. Brown sugar contains from 3. for light brown sugar. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses.

while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. apart from pure carbohydrate. White and Deadly" . mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types.UK title) that rats fed brown http://www.crazychefs.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel.[1] However. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. much like adding molasses would .[2] John Yudkin. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. as opposed to white sugar. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. History In the late 1800s. Nutritionally. in his studies (cited in "Pure. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. The effort was so successful that by 1900. In other applications. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar.

it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. Harvey. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. resulting in the characteristic ^ Levenstein. http://www. where sugar cane was grown.wildernessfamilynaturals. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar".php?id=3026. centrifuged.csrwire. Muscovado. but most is now produced in Mauritius. light brown.1. 7. an island off Africa. References 1. http://www.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. 32-33 5. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. 2003. Some Demerara is still produced in South America.wholesomesweeteners.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). 3.crazychefs. 2.3 fao. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is . which is then crystallized. largecrystalled. giving it a higher mineral content. Retrieved 2008-09-20. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics.". ^ New Scientist.htm#bm07.html. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. Demerara is another unrefined. There is more molasses in natural brown Retrieved 2008-09-20. http://www. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado binado_Sugar. or Demerara light http://www. 4. crystals. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. 6. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". Retrieved 2008-09-20. cane sugar.

an important preservative and a popular food seasoning.crazychefs. It is a crystalline solid. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems.[citation needed] Conversely. Chloride and sodium ions. white. including humans. including high blood pressure.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. pale pink or light gray in color. which some use to prevent caking. refined salt (table salt). Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). and iodized salt. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. the two major components of salt. but toxic to most land plants. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself.

[2]:44 Along the http://www. salt provided the best-known food preservative. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). In 1960. and the dye Tyrian purple. however. the caravans still transported some 15.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as were salted birds and salt fish. making it one of the oldest verifiable .crazychefs. in the millennia before then. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.000 tons of salt. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. especially for meat. glass.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.

Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. (Judges 9:45." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error.) In the Sermon on the Mount. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. which was illegal under British rule. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. taking their names from hal(l)-. though incorrectly. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other http://www. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". who had heretofore mined for salt. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible.Salzburg. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. In many Pagan religions esp. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. began open pan salt making. God sent down four blessings from the sky . In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. and Egyptian. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. as it avoided paying the "salt tax".[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork".[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100.crazychefs. Greek. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. a root for salt found in Celtic. During the first millennium BC.also gave us Gaul. salz.[1] It is widely. water. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26)." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. Halych in the Hallstatt Celts. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. Hallstatt.[citation needed] The root hal(l). 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Roman exonym for the . Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it.

to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian http://www. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water.[9] The Ancient Egyptians.In the native Japanese religion Shinto.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. In Aztec mythology. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. Halite. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and .crazychefs. such as in Sumo Wrestling. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt.

[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts).[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. and thus is rarely eaten.5% of salt production. food uses account for 17. which are kiln-dried. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. In recrystallization. which is most widely used presently. Fleur de sel. After the raw salt is obtained. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. is mainly sodium chloride. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. Purification usually involves recrystallization. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling . natural sea salt harvested by hand. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. Injected water dissolves the salt. Today. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in http://www. One example are bath salts.crazychefs.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. and the making of soaps and detergents. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. Refined salt. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia.Different natural salts have different mineralities. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. giving each one a unique flavor.[12] However.

Table salt Table salt is refined salt. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium .[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. magnesium oxide.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together.[29] However. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. however. and calcium aluminosilicate. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . Single-serving salt packets. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom.crazychefs. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. Some people also add a desiccant.154 g/cm3.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. condiments such as soy sauce.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.165 g/cm3. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. calcium silicate. silicon dioxide. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium http://www. and a bulk density (dry. fatty acid salts (acid salts). calcium or magnesium carbonates. but was determined to be unnecessary. sodium aluminosilicate. Table salt has a particle density of 2.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough.

while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. which can cause severe. sodium iodide.[31] Today. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. which gives the table salt a yellow color. iodized salt is more common in the United . potassium. dizziness.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures.[33] Drinking too much water. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. In Canada. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. or sodium iodate. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. even fatal. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. with insufficient salt intake. fluorinated table salt is available. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland.[32] Another additive. cretinism in children. especially important for pregnant women. specifically endemic goiter. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. magnesium. In France. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). which can cause goitre. The reason for this is unclear. and myxedema in adults. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. neurological problems. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the United States. or even an electrolyte http://www. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar.crazychefs.

com http://www. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. combined with an inadequate intake of water. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). such as in treatment of dysautonomia.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease." ([41]. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994." ([44]. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. It can exacerbate renal disease.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment.[38] heartburn. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. p18) However. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. Salt is even sometimes used as a health .person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. salt consumption is higher." ([41] p3).[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. forced salt intake. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products." ([41]. can cause hypernatremia.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.crazychefs. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. since salt was quite valuable). Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. independently of blood pressure effects. in Japan.

such as the Yanomami in South America. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand.[50].6 g or 70 mmol sodium).net/ . A salt mill for sea salt. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of http://www.crazychefs. have been found to consume little salt. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. Some isolated cultures. but achievable population goals. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. for a typical adult. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. SACN states. However.

The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". then that is a medium level of salt.g. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2.). foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). One manufacturer. When other health claims are made about a food (e.8 g salt) per day. etc. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. without recourse to salt substitutes. Australia. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a .5g salt per 100g (or 0.3 g sodium = 5. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it".com http://www. Amber (Medium). Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. which will increase potassium intake. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. or Green (Low).3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day.[51] In the United States.1g sodium).crazychefs. Low is 0. "low".'[55] Campaigns In 2004. Those who have kidney failure. LoSalt." In the UK.[57] In March 2007. calories. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996.6g sodium).[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. low in fat.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania.300 mg of sodium (= 2.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures.

8. India (14. Costs can reach staggering amounts. 6. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and Dytac. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. New York: Robert Appleton Company.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. http://www.7). In 2002.9). Answers. and by mining rock salt. 1913. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. such as brine wells and salt lakes. 5. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.5). These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. China (32.answers.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. Germany (17.3 million tonnes). http://www. Triamterene. Eplerenone and Inspra. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l).net/ . and Hall in Austria. Catholic Encyclopedia. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. 4. http://en. Notes 1. 2. and Canada ( 3.3). ^ "Salt". called Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. Retrieved 2008-12-14. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. 4th edition".wikisource.crazychefs. the top five producers being the United States (40.

^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.wiley. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. ^ David A. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. salt uses. http://www3. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.dep. Salt Institute.htm. 14. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1.interscience.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). 16.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. http://www. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. salt salt history.907 Epikouria Magazine. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. Fall/Winter 2006 10. ^ Table 27.9% sodium chloride 25.Weather Curriculum 18.anl. pp. 2008 29.saltsense. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. ^ Iodized Salt . 898 Kuemmel (1994).com http://www. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. salt manufacture.pdf 33. ISBN Transportation Research Retrieved 2008-07-29. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. Ask a Scientist. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. Mason (2006-12-19). http://books. ^ Gary Taubes. ^ Iodized Salt 31. Victoria) Salt 34. ^ Salt made the world go round ^ Nauticus . 281. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. 14 August 1998. 5379. sodium. ^ a b http://news. Science. no.afssa. "The (Political) Science of Salt". Salt Institute. J. salt history. Retrieved ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table salt manufacture. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". ^ What is Salt?. ^ References on food salt & health issues. ^ HE-620 24. p. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13.htm 15. ^ http://www. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35.9. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. Retrieved 200907-08.htm 19. 11. 28. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. sodium. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. ^ B. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans".gov/askasci/gen01/gen01420.roskill.stm 38.

uk/society/2008/jan/28/foodanddrink.2004. 62. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. Salt: A World History.40. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. ISBN 0802713734. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63.healthandwellbeing. The Story of ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. New York. ^ Salt TV ads 59. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt".com http://www. Schindler. ^ Cook NR. 2007. 28 January 2008. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. Obarzanek E et al. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt.. Inc. OCLC 48573453. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54.1016/j. ^ Susan R. BMJ.P. 61. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. http://www. Further reading Kurlansky. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases.pub2 References Kurlansky. ^ U. doi:10.06. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP).net/ . Sodium chloride. Mark (2002). Feldman. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk.legalmed. John Wiley & Sons. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. ISBN 0393320197. and S. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. (accessed13 January 2007) 49. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53.hyp. The Mummies of Ürümchi. Published online 2005.a01. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". Norton & Co. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. D. ^ Salt Matters ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) S. Putnam's Sons. Cutler JA. http://www. New York: Walker & Co. Legal Medicine 2005.crazychefs. NY: G.1002/0471238961. New York: W.1915040902051820. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Erwin Koops. 2006. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44.005 48. 7. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. OCLC 48426519. Mark.334(7599):885. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. Barber. 47-50. Sodium 52. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. Friedrich Schulz. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. ^ Understanding labels 55.

Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. Arts and traditions of the table. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section by Dr Trevor Beard. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Pierre. New York: Columbia University Press. Department of Health.crazychefs. The Stationery Office. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2001. Salt: Grain of http://www.Laszlo. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy .net/ . Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters .

Malaysia. Vietnam. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. as well as in neighbouring countries.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Indonesia. found commonly in Thailand. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: .net/ . such as Cambodia. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. the Philippines and Singapore.crazychefs. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. phrik khi nu(lit. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu).com http://www. It can also be found in India. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. phrik thai. mainly Kerala.

Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant." which can best be described by the English equivalent. Although small in size compared to other types of chili.000 to .000 on the Scoville pungency http://www.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. "Big things come in small packages.

Ladâ.org/wiki/Thai_pepper" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on . has peppers that point upward on the plant.As well as the Malay word. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). The more decorative. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). orange. phrik khii nuu ( .crazychefs. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. Thai). Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). creating a rainbow effect. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). and then red. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental.wikipedia. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. and among the group of capsicum annuum. Thai hot. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. but slightly less pungent variety. and go from green to yellow. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C.

usually mashed. It has a . and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. Unlike other root vegetables. about the size of a large potato. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. Celeriac has a celery flavour. gratins and baked dishes. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. which store a large amount of starch.crazychefs.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'.com http://www. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. furrowed. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. It is a kind of celery. it can also be used on its own. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. or used in casseroles.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A.

8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.Dietary fiber 1.3 g 1.crazychefs. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates .5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk.Sugars 1. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 'Ibis'.2 g .com http://www. and 'Kojak'. Among them are 'Prinz'. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. There are a number of cultivars available. especially in Europe.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw . raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.6 g 9. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. 'Diamant'. Celeriac. rinsed. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. Celeriac soup.

melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. It bears a fruit of the same name.crazychefs.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. and see text The eggplant. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. The stem is often spiny. aubergine. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. As a http://www. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. The flowers are white to . It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

" Aubergine and brinjal. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. Australia. New Zealand. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). from Arabic al-badinjan. used in the United States. but much larger in cultivated forms. soft seeds. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's . the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which are edible. In Indian and South African English. 1500 CE. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. The fruit is fleshy. The name eggplant. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. and contains numerous small. flower The plant is native to India.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. which is used in British http://www. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. In the Caribbean Trinidad. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. The name aubergine. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. History Solanum melongena.

A much wider range of shapes. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. in white skin Dourga. Traditional. . Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. or white. and Tycoon. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. especially purple. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. slightly pendulous cucumber. and Black Beauty. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. green. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. whiteskinned. Burpee Hybrid. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. Classic.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. Some cultivars have a color gradient. shape and color. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Dusky. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in http://www. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin.crazychefs. Pingtung Long. Black Magic. There are even orange varieties.

but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. curries. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. In one dish.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. it is called Begun ( ). battered. In the Caucasus. peanuts.crazychefs. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and achaar. along with the fish Hilsa. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. as in the related tomato. as they are far less bitter. as in the French ratatouille. tomatoes. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. and garlic. It. and masala and then cooked in oil. for example in sambhar. The thin skin is also edible. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. or other fillings and then baked. chutney. tahini. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. or tamarind. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. or Eggplant Parmesan. the Arabian moussaka. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. for example. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. In some parts of http://www. tahini. complex flavor. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka . Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. allowing for very rich dishes. so that peeling is not required. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. It can be sliced. It is often stewed. In Iranian cuisine. rice. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. As a native plant. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. In Bangladesh. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. The fruit flesh is smooth. and deep-fried. braised (紅燒茄子). it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan.

China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. such as tomato. Egypt. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. This is called Beguni ( ). the most serious of which is Verticillium. showing the inside. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. aphids. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. are also troublesome to eggplants. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after .) to 60 cm (24 in. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. and spider mites. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pepper (capsicum). For this reason. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated.crazychefs. containing both female and male structures. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. Flowers are complete. flea beetle. and potato. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates.) between plants. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. depending on cultivar. Common North American pests include the potato beetle.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used.) between rows. (Adults can be removed by hand. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).

Sugars . F = FAO estimate.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. New Jersey is the largest producing state. semi-official or estimates). Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.(2. B1) 0. B2) 0.35 g .4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.19 g 1.[5] In the United States.7 g 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .043. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data. P = official figure.crazychefs. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.039 mg 5.Dietary fiber 3.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the http://www. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.

[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.crazychefs. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.01 mg/100g). such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant.16 mg Manganese .[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. B3) 0. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. while 1. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. Brazil.Niacin (Vit. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. However. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 http://www.[8] On average.084 mg Folate (Vit.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

racemosum. But this is not correct. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. On the other hand. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. capsicoides). esculentum. ovigera. Similarly. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. Dunal. tongdongense.-Lag. inerme.Varieties Solanum melongena var. H. mainly by Dikii. and (invalidly) by Sweet. There is an actual S. violaceum. oblongo-cylindricum. stenoleucum. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. Solanum longum Roxb. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). leucoum. racemiflorum. aethiopicum. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. edule. insanum. esculentum. such as agreste. globosi. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. Names for various eggplant types. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. luteum. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. which used to include Dunal's S. sinuatorepandum.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. lasiocarpum. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. rumphii. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. divaricatum.F. ruber. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. S. inerme and subinerme at that time.C. brownii. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. that of Blanco to S. aethiopicum. ovigerum and S. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties.crazychefs. album. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. Solanum oviferum Salisb. giganteum. . variegatum. Scopoli's http://www. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. multifidum. trongum. violaceum and viride.

^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Doijode. Technology. ISBN 1574445510. common. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is . CRC Press. Handbook of Food Science. D. Hui (2006).crazychefs. and Engineering by Yiu H.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. S. (2001). Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). 2. Footnotes http://www.

202 4. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. ^ B. ^ Solanum melongena var. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. ^ "FAOSTAT".crazychefs. 7. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite.caes. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://faostat. Harish Babu * . Ebury Press.fao. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802.* YP Venkatesh. pp. Retrieved 2009-07-01. Bruno Caramelli. Tsenge Demana.133(42):2081-3 12. Domino. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004.) reveals female predominance. ^ Westerfield. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). Toorenenbergen AW.pdf. 2008-11-11. A. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". .aspx?PageID=567#ancor. Miyachi Y.50(2):101-102 . Dieges PH. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. Volume 329:437 August 5. volume 82 (nº 3).com http://www.3. ^ Health24. http://pubs. FAO. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province.Aubergine 8. 6. ^ Kabashima K. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. Retrieved 2007-04-24. P. Arq Bras Cardiol. The New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25.uga. P. ^ SN Pramod. 1993 Number 6 9. 18(1): 59-62 13. 5. 2004. N. 2008 10. Andréa Mahesh † and Y. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. ^ Edward F. Robert (2008-11-14). esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. Erich Hornbach.

see section Fruit or vegetable below).com http://www. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. syn. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. It is a perennial. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together.crazychefs. odd pinnate.4–0. with a serrated margin. The tomato is native to South America. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. One species. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red . with five pointed lobes on the corolla.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. and have a weak. yellow. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today.8 in) across. Solanum lycopersicum. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. woody stem that often vines over other plants. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America.[4] The large.[6] Gerard's Herbal. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. However. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. a mutation from a smoother. golden apple.crazychefs. now Mexico City in 1521. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. tomatl. earlier in 1493. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. The specific name. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. such as Florence.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. smaller vegetable .[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. meaning plump thing with a navel. the other by currant tomatoes. was the first European to take back the tomato. in certain areas of Italy. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. The exact date of domestication is not known. It grew easily in Mediterranean .com http://www. corn and salt. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. means "wolf-peach". according to Smith. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. ancestor of L. They also took it to the Philippines. However.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. likely to be the original salsa recipe. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. an Italian physician and botanist. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. lycopersicum. lumpy tomato. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. and cultivation began in the 1540s. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. cerasiforme. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. who named it pomo d‘oro. a barber-surgeon. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC.

Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. The University of California. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. Paella. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by .largely plagiarized from continental sources.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed].[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. 1799 – c. Rick. Currently. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. sent some seeds back to America.[6] Nonetheless. The C. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. Charles M. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. but the fruit is safe). most famously in Worthing. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses.M. California. By the mid-18th century. who ate tomatoes in Paris. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. Gerard's views were influential. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. British consul in Aleppo c. and before the end of that century. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. broths. and in general. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. particularly Florida and California.crazychefs. Over the past 15 years. The Spanish tomato dish.[6] But by the mid-1700s. and as a garnish. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Victorian times. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum).[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to http://www. ―within the last forty years. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. Thomas Jefferson. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations.

with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. orange. but a number of cultivars with yellow. followed by United States and Turkey. 18 September 2009.0–2.4–0.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. and have a lower water content. China. about 5mm in diameter. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. through cherry tomatoes. black. green. pink. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking.crazychefs. It may be deleted after Friday. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. or white fruit are also . 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.S. Most cultivars produce red fruit. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0.6–2. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. the largest producer.0 in) diameter.[12] According to FAOSTAT.8 in) size as the wild tomato. For processing tomatoes. California accounts for 90% of U. they are known as plum tomatoes.4 in) diameter range. production and 35% of world http://www. purple.

to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague.crazychefs. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. as well as heirloom tomatoes. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. plum tomatoes. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. As in most sectors of agriculture. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. and are shaped like large strawberries. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but unlike commercial hybrids. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular.[18] and productivity. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications .their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. along with zucchini. based mostly on shape and size.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of http://www.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial .

these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. some tomato cultivars . disease and pest resistance. they are often good choices for container growing. brown. and purple. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. but must be bought as seed. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. and lack of mealiness. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. Black Krim (lower left corner). Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. Determinate. Green Zebra (top right). or bush. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. Lucky Cross).[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. pink. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. which usually discourages fruit set. low acidity. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. including yellow. Red Boar).net/ . although some determinate heirlooms exist.produce fruit in colors other than http://www. black. including Brandywine (biggest red). often via mail-order.especially heirlooms . often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. et cetera. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. multiple colors (Hillbilly. As an intermediate form. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". white. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. etc. A variety of specific cultivars.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost.cherry tomatoes are small and round. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. orange. or home growers interested in canning. Burracker's Favorite. but are smaller than plum tomato. ivory. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach.

aphids. The stamens were. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. their traditional pollinators. which interrupts the lifecycle. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance.verticillium wilt. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. but manure or compost work well. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. too. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars.alternaria.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. entirely within the closed corolla.crazychefs. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. slugs. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. flea beetles. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. F . although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. and A . A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10.fusarium wilt strain I. and remain. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. The most common letters are: V . Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. As a floral device to reduce selfing. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. cutworms. red spider mite. FF .net/ . it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. T .fusarium wilt strain I & II. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. original state. N nematodes.tobacco mosaic virus. tomato hornworms and tobacco http://www. tomatoes required cross-pollination. tomato fruitworms. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. carried by the beet leafhopper. cabbage loopers. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. As the name implies. whiteflies. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. In the wild.

as with most species. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. by cultured bumblebees. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. They may be recognized by their color. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. This is not the same as self-pollination. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. depending on . or more often today. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. Unripe tomatoes are firm. However. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. In more temperate climates. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually).com http://www. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. In an outside setting. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface.

Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. carotene. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). in pieces. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich).[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. one of the most powerful natural . Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. In some studies lycopene. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim.6 g 4g . Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). a subset of fruit. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage.Recently. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. anthocyanin. and other antioxidants.crazychefs. as tomato sauce. especially in cooked tomatoes.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . or http://www. The tomato is acidic. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium).[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. They contain lycopene. Though it is botanically a berry.Sugars 2. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine".

When that tip eventually stops growing. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. Known for its tomato growth and production.make salsa. such as rugose leaves. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. Spain. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. or pickled. Of regular leaves.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. initially decumbent. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). fully functional. whether because of pruning or flowering. Tomato plants are dicots.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. although erect bush varieties have been bred. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[28] In October 1965. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. lateral buds take over and grow into other. Determinate types are annual in all climates. generally three feet tall or shorter.crazychefs. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. vines. and grow as a series of branching . Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th http://www. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature.5 °F). often by sun. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. Embracing it for this protest connotation. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. annually celebrates La Tomatina. meaning covered with fine short hairs. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. The fruit is also preserved by drying. These hairs facilitate the vining process.5 °C (54. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. They are bred to continue ripening. there are variations. it will not continue to ripen.

or other external forces that present in the Americas. called locular cavities. Other species in that family are potatoes. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. plus 'persicum'. "wolf-peach"). butterflies. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato).deeply grooved. This is because they are native to the Americas.) H. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. which frequently used it and still do). Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. Similarly. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. peach. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). wolf.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed http://www. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. 'lyco'. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. i.. chili peppers.g. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. would be more correct. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing.crazychefs. tobacco. while paste tomatoes have very few. Despite this. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. Technically. However. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus . many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing.. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. However. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. appearing on the apical meristem.[31] Their flowers. have the anthers fused along the edges.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. and be dried/fermented before germination. making the Linnaean name correct. (derivation. with both names found in the literature. variegated. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum).Karst. angora leaves. genetic evidence (e. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. moths. among cultivated species. These vary. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. other insects. very small cavities.e. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. As a true fruit. Therefore. according to type.

as are vegetables. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. However.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. Hedden (149 U. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. cucumbers. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits.S. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. A. of Reynoldsburg. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. and numerous other traits. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. together with its seeds. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. 304)). 1883. size. Ohio. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed.S. pest tolerance. As noted above. universities. Bejoseed. . These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. flavor. Corporations including Heinz. University breeding programs are active in Florida.S. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. http://www. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. The U. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it.crazychefs. from a culinary standpoint. shape. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. color. and organizations. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. Monsanto. disease tolerance. U. Oregon. However. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. In 1887. In 2006. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide.W. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. AVRDC. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Livingston. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. a tomato is the ovary. North Carolina. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. BHNSeed. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. corporations. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. nutritional value. New York.

Vermont and Wisconsin. Connecticut. Ohio. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes.S. North http://www. Tennessee. Pennsylvania. Minnesota. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . contain the poison . however. Indiana. Speakers from the British Isles. Kentucky."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Virginia.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). On October 30. New Hampshire. which is toxic to humans and animals.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries.crazychefs. stems. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Michigan.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. the U. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). Massachusetts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. 2006. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. Maine. Rhode Island.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Georgia. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The fresh fruit is. harmless.

with a harvest of more than . discovered the unique plant in Beijing.273 illnesses from this outbreak. 2007. Oklahoma in 1986. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa.S. On August 30. UK. respectively. Florida. French and Germans.crazychefs. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. fresh serrano pepper. from April 10. such as raw tomato. 2008. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19.7 and 16. and Arizona (49).000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. Yong Huang.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. Lake Buena Vista.000 kilograms (250.[38] As of July 8. Lancashire. the U. fresh jalapeño pepper. New Mexico (98).8 m (65 ft) length. one would arrive at an estimated 40. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. it caused at least one death. 2008. 40.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. China.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.1 reported cases per million. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot.151. in 2000. and Canada. and fresh cilantro. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1.6:1). As of July 2008. with http://www.84 pounds (522 kg).[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. Illinois (100)." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. the District of Columbia. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. of the cultivar 'Delicious'.

and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. indeterminate. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. Derived from Cherokee Purple. Fusarium.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to .S. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.crazychefs. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small.S. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink.

crazychefs. good for Tomatoes on a vine. in Korea. Tomato plants in the garden. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. Young tomato plant. Tomato slices.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. .com http://www. Tomato Flower. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Tomato fruit. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .crazychefs.

" See: Natural History Museum. USA: University of South Carolina Press. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. Retrieved December 11 2009. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. 8. Footnotes 1. Retrieved 2009-04-02.aspx?PageID=567 14.html". 13. http://www. 2009-01-26. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. Universityofcalifornia. Tgrc.html. webpage: books-google-TTp17. 11. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. Processing Tomato Production in California. ^ "UC Newsroom. and cookery. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. http://yourarchives.. M. Columbia.Smith.The East Hampton Star . or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.html". ^ Tomato history 4. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus . culture. Easthamptonstar. The Tomato in America. ^ Acquaah. p. G. http://www.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. Smith.aspx.smithsonianmag. Appletons' journal Published by D. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . 223 10. et al. A. Andrew F (1994).com http://www.ucdavis.M. (1994). http://www. Retrieved 2009-04-02.Food & Wine". Andrew F. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. 1994.fao. E. and Cookery. Subsection Lycopersicon). American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). University of Illinois Press. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. I. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . ^ a b Smith. (2002-0508)". section Lycopersicon Mill. Culture. ^ "http://www.html. ^ The 7. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center".edu/.edu. ISBN 1-57003000-6.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2009-04-02. http://www.. bid/6280/Default. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Wettst.five tons to the acre. ^ "http://www. (2002). Retrieved December 11 2009. ^ a b page 57: ". 3. S. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. During the three months of the local harvest. Appleton and Co. p. 519 [1] 9. 5. Normania. D. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. million pounds of tomatoes every hour.nationalarchives. & Spooner." 15.smithsonianmag. 2008.smithsonianmag.universityofcalifornia.17. (2001). ^ "C. it handles more than 1. Peralta.easthamptonstar. 6. October In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. ^ http://faostat.nationalarchives. http://tgrc. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.Your Archives"." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Yourarchives. ISBN 0252-07009-7.ucdavis. 2.. The tomato in America: early history.crazychefs. 2002-05-08. Retrieved 2008-10-27.

http://www. Retrieved 200705-24." 19.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44.ufseeds. Retrieved December 11 2009. 2006.gardenweb. 28. http://www. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.sinaloa.Tomato". and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. ^ "http://www.smithsonianmag. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. http://wwwplb. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).uk/2/hi/health/ http://www.crazychefs." 18. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. which are carried in the Retrieved June 30. Smithsonianmag.html. http://news. http://www.umn. http://www. News. http://www.stm. 2006. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre.whfoods.16.osu.plants. Ohioline. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. 25. "Tomato genome project gets $ they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties.smithsonianmag. http://ohioline. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. Retrieved December 11 2009.gob.gob. Storing and Serving Ohio Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like.html ^ http://www.html. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".com/science-nature/ http://faq. ^ "Crop Profiles .edu. Retrieved 17. 29. HYG-5532-93" fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. Retrieved 2008-10-27.smithsonianmag. Ncsu. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension.cornell. Retrieved December 11 2009. Faq. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more. Retrieved 2007-05-24. 24.html.html".edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome. ^ " ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". Retrieved 200810-27. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine". ^ "Selecting. 33. ^ http://www.html. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-27. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. page 57: "The plants are still growing.smithsonianmag.ucdavis. ^ "http://www. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and".html". Retrieved 2009-04-02.html.eurekalert. Retrieved 2008-10-27." 20. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension.8M". ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa".edu/hyg-fact/5000/ .am/wiki/Tomato#Novelty_tomatoes 22. Retrieved July 14. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention".smithsonianmag. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague.gardenweb. ^ http://www. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes".php.

^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". http://www. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". 41. 37. http://www. 38:S3. ^ Voetsch. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Tomato Nutrition.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. http://itn. p. Foodsafetynetwork. 35. 643. (2004-04-15) California Master Gardener Handbook. ANR Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce .uk/news/9a5a1671ceba4f43741dc008f237c1ea.uchicago. Tomato Recipe". ^ a b by state". http://www.crazychefs.vegparadise.html. Nationalpost. (2002). United States.cdc. ^ "August Cbsnews. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 40. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"".1086/381578.34. Vegparadise. Retrieved 2009-0721.shtml. et al. ISBN 1879906546. Clinical Infectious Diseases. http://www. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". Retrieved 200904-02. Retrieved 2008-1027. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".gov/salmonella/saintpaul/. ^ " Dennis R. 39. Retrieved 2009-0402. http://www.CBS News". 2007-08-30.journals. Itn.

In Indonesia.2 and 0. the fruit is also made into jam. both are used as adulterants of M. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed.6 to 0. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. extracted oleoresins. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees.4 oz) . called Jaiphal in Hindi. a state in the south part of India. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean.7 in) wide. nutmeg and mace. fragrans products. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets").Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. or Spice Islands. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. or sliced finely. malabarica from India. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. and Bombay Nutmeg M. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. called selei buah pala. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the http://www. argentea from New Guinea. It also grows in Kerala. and nutmeg butter (see below). especially in Grenada.crazychefs. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". including essential oils. Species About 100 species.

mulled wine. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. and Barbados rum punch. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. and baked goods. Painkiller. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. green.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. cauliflower. sauces. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. In Indian cuisine. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. In Penang . Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. "Lau Hau Peng".crazychefs. In Arabic. and string beans. In the Caribbean. In European cuisine. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. they are also used in soups. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. and eggnog.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. saffronlike hue it imparts. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate http://www.

The oil is colourless or light yellow. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. syrups. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. . used as flavourings. although this is disputed. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. which can be turned into myristic acid. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical http://www. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. reddish brown in colour. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. It is semi-solid. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. for instance. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. and sweets. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. preserving agents. 758 – ca.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. medicines. in toothpaste. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. and tastes and smells of nutmeg.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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steak . any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. hydrolyzed yeast. based on anecdotal reports. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. Fermented products such as soy sauce. Canned.crazychefs. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing." However. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. frozen. yeast extract. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. sugar beets. not reproducible. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over http://www.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. soy extracts.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. and protein isolate.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. being an amino acid.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. with 4% annual growth expected. particularly processed foods. About 1. and were not observed when MSG was given with food.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. or molasses. However. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. autolyzed yeast. sugar cane. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. it also said that. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins.

even in large amounts. dextrose or citrate). such as hydrolyzed protein. and (3) microbial fermentation. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. 373-375. Albert Y. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. flavour enhancer). The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes.celiac. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture.2.. http://www. Steven (August 2003)." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. In the 2004 version of his book. ^ http://www. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. ^ Leung. and mineral ions and growth factors. age 40–59 years. pp. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. [monosodium glutamate]. concentration.). and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. and crystallization.. (2) synthesis. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino . In the hydrolysis method. On Food and Cooking. For this reason.".4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled.html 2.7% women). In 1993. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. purified. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. acidification. Foster. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture.g. "Monosodium Glutamate". and Cosmetics (2nd ed. 621. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. MSG. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. New York: Wiley. and converted to its monosodium salt. References 1. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. followed by either the name of the food additive.crazychefs.

Armstrong. ^ "Production process". 16.1111/ doi:10.1038/oby.html.a16 711. Dongshuang. 11.. Food 15. 14. "A Short History of MSG".274.530060410. Toxicol. Shioya. ^ He. (April 2000) . Wu. "Monosodium Glutamate". PMID 8282275. Stamler. 38–49. ^ Moskin. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review".17457599. Shizuko (2005). 10. Daniel W (1994). Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp. Yangfeng. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study".2008. ^ a b Tarasoff L. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". New York Times. http://www. Chirality 6 (4): pp..1525/gfc. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6.2005. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ^ Freeman M. doi:10. Liancheng.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. PMID 10736382. PMID 10597625.00160. Yamaguchi. 277–282. 7. Sano.3. Anjimoto Co. Beifan.fda.1002/chir. Alan R. ^ http://www. ^ Kawakita.pdf 9.F.celiac. http://www.1337. Nutr.html 12. doi:10. PMID 16999713. Zhao.1002/14356007.cfsan. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. Kimber L. MSG.nytimes. Encyclopedia of Amino 5.2006. Van Horn. Toxicol. ^ http://www. J. Takehara. ^ a b Rundlett.ncbi. et al. Linda. 6. doi:10.38.html 4. doi:10. doi:10. Beiser A. ^ Sand. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Ren http://www.ajinomoto. Tetsuya. "Yes. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. doi:10. Chiaki.crazychefs. Ka. Kelly M.ajinomoto. Daniel. Inc.nlm. 8. Guo. (October 2006). ^ http://www. Regul. Dyer. Zhou. Julia (2008-03-05). 13. Jordan (2005). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Martha L.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. Masahiro. Jeremiah (August 2008).fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. ^ http://vm. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. Case study: monosodium glutamate". ^ Walker R (October 1999). PMID 18497735. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". ^ a b Geha RS. (1993).nutrition. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121.1999. 1875–1880. the Secret Behind the Savor". Shigeru. http://www.

com http://www. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 酱油 2. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 荳油 . 豆油 3. 醬油 2.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce.

In its various forms. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan.[3] In the 18th century. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. Soy sauce was invented in China.crazychefs. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. water.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. [4] By the mid-19th . Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). and salt. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods.500 years. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kō http://www.

such as in giant urns and under the sun. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. Although there are many types of soy sauce. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. literally "delicious taste"). They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the http://www. Today.crazychefs. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. and are popular in Southeast Asia and . sojae) and other related microorganisms.

The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. with relatively low amounts of other grains. It has a richer. ): A thin (nonviscous). like extra virgin olive oil. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. Korean. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. slightly sweeter. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. Thai. consistency.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. or a mixture of both.crazychefs. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. Another . or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. lighter brown soy sauce. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. one of the two types. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. An additional classification of light soy sauce.3-DCP (1. but it also adds flavour. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). Touchōu is sold at a premium http://www. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". shuānghuáng (雙璜). In traditional Chinese cooking. since it is saltier. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fragrance and saltiness. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. Despite their rather similar appearance. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. opaque. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. and Chinese cuisine. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. traditional Chinese: 醬油. pinyin: jiàngyóu. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. Since it is lighter in color.

Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. Usukuchi (淡口?. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. It contains little or no wheat. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. due to the addition of alcohol in the product.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of http://www. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. or 醤油). tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. Shiro (白?. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. . The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". its usage eventually spread all over Japan. for example sashimi. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. that is used in its production. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. where it is known as "shōyu". This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized.crazychefs.

Saishikomi (再仕込?. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Consequently. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. Amakuchi (甘口?. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol.crazychefs. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". not http://www. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. 1 litre bottles. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by . All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized.

powder.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. usually implies limited quantity.crazychefs. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. In Indonesia. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in http://www. in a pinch. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. It is a unique variety. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. which has a thick. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred .

thin and dark brown in color. O'Long(黑龍). Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. 조선간장. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장).Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. Malaysia. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. is made entirely of soy and brine. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). Later.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. lit.crazychefs. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. (called Joseon ganjang. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. WanJaShan(萬家香). and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia.4% of soy sauce purchases. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy http://www. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. Founded in 1909. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). Joseon ganjang.

wheat. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. or sometimes simply tương. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided.3-DCP (1. pronounced SOO-kah). much more similar to the Japanese shōyu.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油.net/ . Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. it is also a table condiment. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. and caramel.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces.[6] Furthermore. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime).com http://www. nước tương. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. It can also be very salty. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. China.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. salt.crazychefs. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union.

(1781). Individuals with a wheat allergy. 7. an increase over 23 to 5. p. ^ Tanaka. 6. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy Tung Chun and Wanjasham. Golden Mark. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). the leaflet does include oyster sauce. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. No. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. pp. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. Norio." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. Pearl River ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). OCLC 9752305 ."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. Seong-Gook (2002). Press III.[1] Notes 1. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. Sinsin. "Shōyu:The Flavor of 9. 3. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. Lee Kum Kee. ^ http://www. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat.[citation needed] In Vietnam. http://www. 2.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. http://www. Kimlan. King Imperial. ^ Tanaka. ^ Titsingh. XXVII. Vol. ^ Tanaka.Kong and Taiwan. ^ Jung. Jammy Chai. 6. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ http://www. Golden Swan.htm. 8.smartfood.gmp. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid Retrieved 200801-07. Isaac. Soon Teck• and Kang. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. ^ http://www. 2 (January 2000). including six samples with up to 11. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea".tw/newsdetail. Retrieved 2008-01-07. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce").tcoc. http://www. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. 2nd edition.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. marinades and other types of sauces.crazychefs. Celiac disease. 7.317 2. p.asp?id=7598 10.) In March and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits.000 to 18. Despite these being small in number in the UK.

^ Daniells. Charles W (2005). doi:10. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. Kentucky: CRC Press. 186.1263/ p. nutraingredients. Stephen (2006-06-06). Hoboken. fermentation and micro-organisms. et . Retrieved 2008-01-07. 15.2323/jgam. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. ISBN 0632059877. Edition 2.crazychefs. Naczk. ISBN 1587161389. Fereidoon. Florence. 13. chemical veggies -. Food. ^ Marian (2003). ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet.201. 14. ^ Shahidi. Makio (2005-04-18). ^ Toxic soy sauce.100. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. PMID 12469319. http://www. doi:10. 16. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". 18. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19.144. ^ Kobayashi. ^ Tanasupawat. Somboon (2002-06-18). 12. 103.nutraingredients. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce".11. PMID scares hit Vietnam 20.

700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.8% Behenic acid: <0.4677–1.5–21.3% Myristic acid: <0.0–83.5 °C) 84 cP 1.5–20.9150–0.5% Linoleic acid: 3.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.0% Stearic acid: 0.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.3–3.5–5.0% Arachidic acid: < .crazychefs.9180 (@ 211 | P a g e http://www.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

in France. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production.000 tons of olive oil annually. and Manzanilla de Jaé . When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. in Greece. Hojiblanca. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa.4680–1. but especially in the Mediterranean. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic http://www. as well as in Crete. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual.crazychefs. family Oleaceae).[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. 93% comes from Spain. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. Italy and Greece.6 million tonnes. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. North Africa and the Near East. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives.[3] Of the European production. and Moraiolo. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. Australia.6 (refined and pomace) 0. cosmetics. Koroneiki. World production in 2002 was 2. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. principally Italy. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. Alberquina. Japan and China.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. pharmaceuticals. Picholine. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. Leccino Pendolino. In 2006. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. which produce approximately 350. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. Olive oil is used throughout the world.

of which 34. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. Spain. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method).net/ . The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. Spain. Oblica and Leccino. and by its flavor. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules.California.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 US gallons (131. After extraction the remnant solid substance. with production increasing to meet demand. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. in Croatia.crazychefs.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. called pomace. Mission. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. by its chemistry. in Portugal. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced.000 US gallons (181. The California Olive Oil Council.600. The US imported 47. In North America. with 23 member states. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices.000 m3) came from Italy.800. and Turkey.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. a private trade group. defining quality standards. often in "prestige" packaging. Galega. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). Spain. IOOC terminology is precise. The USDA uses a different http://www. and monitoring authenticity. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. still contains a small quantity of oil.

both in Italy and abroad.[16] In April 2008. for blended oils. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. product as superior olive oil. 25. is extremely lax and corrupt. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. measured by weight.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. mostly hexane. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. of free oleic acid it contains. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). it is believed. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). but safe.[12] In some cases. Almost 700 people died. however.[15] Under EU rules. defined as the percent. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. and by heat. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer.[14] In March 2008. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. EU officials took issue with the new law. particularly in Italy. but there are no guarantees.crazychefs. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil.[14] In February 2008. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's http://www.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil.

The US is not a member. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic . It commonly lacks a strong flavor. has an acidity less than 2%.the oil degrades. but may not be described simply as olive oil. It is fit for consumption. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. These grades were established in 1948. and is judged to have a superior taste.3 grams per 100 grams (0. The U. It has a free acidity. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. Used on salads. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. Pure olive oil. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. This is also called its organoleptic quality. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. absence of defects. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. In order to classify it by taste.S. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5% acidity. of no more than 1. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. which measures the degree to which the oil is http://www. contains no more than 0.8% acidity.crazychefs. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. of not more than 0. another cause of rancidity. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. and are based on acidity. expressed as oleic acid. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. and is judged to have a good taste. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions.

U.S.S. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis. This is incorrect. Grade D or U. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.S.5% and is "reasonably free from defects".S. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means.S. with less flavour. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.0% and is "fairly free from defects". U. First of all.U. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. U. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used.S. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed".[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.S.4% and is "free from defects".com http://www.S. which may be as low as 10-15 °C. Grade B or U. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. Grade A or U. Grade C or U. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. Grade C".[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically .[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning.crazychefs.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. (34 kJ/ml). "cold" does not define any precise temperature.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.S.

but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.pressed". around 0.7 l.7 11. around 14 l. Spain and Italy. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.8 7.2 7 1. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.62 12. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. Portugal and .1 1.35 23. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13.crazychefs. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. Tunisia.1 0.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. so the term "first press" is http://www.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Northern Europe and North America consume far less. over 26 liters per year. around 8 l.

Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. which is much faster and more accurate. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. 2.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. 1. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. If ground with mill stones. After grinding. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil http://www.34 1. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. 4. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). This is done in specialised chemical plants. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". Green olives produce bitter oil.crazychefs. no or very little organoleptic defects). The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. After grinding. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. suggesting a different taste. 3. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been . and overripe olives produce rancid oil. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. then placed into the press.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. not in the oil mills. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened.

5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for .7%) and sterols (about 0. and extraction process.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). region. along with traces of squalene (up to 0. In the United States.polyunsaturated 11 g . (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. including oleocanthal and fat 3.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g . time of harvest. altitude. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.monounsaturated 73 g .Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. To achieve this possible http://www.5 g . The composition varies by cultivar. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat .omega-3 fat <1. most notably oleic acid.crazychefs.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.

explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" . that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. This way. It is theorized that. at least in part. For example. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). The study was conducted in two stages.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. and http://www. This could.This decision was announced November 1. During the first stage. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. and that it exerts antiinflamatory.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. 2004. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. in the long term. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. antithrombotic.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure.crazychefs. rather than its fatty acid profile. During the second phase.

In time. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. not for foods to be eaten cold. Also. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. blenders. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. cookware. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. etc. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. Also. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. For example.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant.[citation needed]. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. like salads. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. oils deteriorate and become stale.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. A very fresh oil. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated.crazychefs. Used cold. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular http://www. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the . but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. as available in an oil producing region.

especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. It does have demulcent http://www. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. and mild laxative properties. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. acting as a stool softener.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. and can be used to treat excessive . who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. It is also good for the management of pain. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients.crazychefs. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Mod. olive oil" (cf. from http://www. from Gk. magical.crazychefs. olie.N. It. and skin care application. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time.. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oile (12c. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c.Fr. olive oil. Homer called it "liquid gold. Besides food. olive oil has been used for religious rituals.Fr. from O. from L. oleum "oil. Amman in the Sixteenth Century.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". olio). drawn and engraved by J. huile). medicines. and O. as a fuel in oil lamps. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. soap-making." In ancient Greece.Fr. elaion "olive tree". . athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman.

[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the .crazychefs. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. Bodrum.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. olive presses became common. In the centuries that followed. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete.

he maintained.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. and Israel. where it is thought to have represented wealth..000 and 3.over 4. According to legend. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. the fertile crescent.[citation needed]. oil containers are preferred. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire.[dubious – discuss] During this time.crazychefs. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. during the 13th century BC. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the . the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. wrote of abundant olive trees. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated.000 tons of olive oil per season. stored in special containers. and area consisting of present day Palestine. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). Sinuhe. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. Lebanon.[46] Until 1500 BC. "the best in the Mediterranean". drained the water from the bottom. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. allowing more time for more oil to be made. According to the historian Pliny.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. which is where the expression pure olive oil http://www. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. together with naked appearance of athletes. when the oil had risen to the top. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential.

jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". In Islam. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). in the anointing of monarchs at their 2. the tourch is in a glass bulb. and the Mount of Sinai.gourmetretailer. by creating a water-oil-salt". "The Olive Tree. ^ G. ANR Publications. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. ^ USDA. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. in the consecration of altars and churches. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. ^ traditionally. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. Retrieved 2008-07-04. To douse the flame.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. even without fire touching it. originating from King A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. Retrieved . Retrieved 2007-05-25. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed.html. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. and this secure city. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). ^ International Olive Oil Council." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. Louise Ferguson. 4. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. Joann L Coviello. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. http://www. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. http://www. Olive Production Manual. http://www. p. 3.imitate the original Menorah." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. neither Eastern nor Western.crazychefs. ^ "findarticles.internationaloliveoil. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). Steven Sibbett. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. its oil almost glows. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. http://www. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. http://findarticles. References 1. light upon light. Margaret Lindstrand (2005). in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops.

124 (6): 903–15.23/.co. Giammanco. http://www. Retrieved 2008-11-16. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".html" 55 (3): 175–86. 12.Scotsman. Dennis. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".uk/news/main. PMID 17321749. Di Majo.).com/world/Forty-arrested-in-new-39fake39. Pharmacol. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . ^ "Eubusiness. 13. 19.xml. Retrieved 2008-11-16.southafrica. Tom. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. . Alan (1989-05-21). ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . November ^ a b "Telegraph article".info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. 20. http://news. http://query. http://www.2007. doi:10. 21. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27.nytimes. 19 CFR 134. Slippery Business The New ^ Riding. G. Karvonen MJ. 15. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. M.xml. ^ Covas MI (March 2007).crazychefs.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260.phrs. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E.htm. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)".". S.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. The New York Times (H. ^ Keys A.Telegraph". United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.oxfordjournals. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". 14. (December 1986).htm. http://www. Menotti A.". ^ "www. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.internationaloliveoil. http://aje. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9.1016/j. John.eubusiness. ^ Mueller. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive". "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. 23. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. Res.1079/NRR200495 24. 16. Epidemiol. 17. PMID 3776973. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. Raymond & News". 18. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. ^ "www. Am. http://www. et al. ^ New York Times.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. and Maurizio La US Customs Department. J. ^ "EUbusiness. Retrieved 2008-11-09. http://www.southafrica. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. 11. ^ Durant. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil".ams. Tabacchi.23/. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10.scotsman. ^ a b McGee. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28.usda. Giammanco.46. 25.telegraph.

34. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. JDermatol-Sci.1024/0300-9831.". A : Bito. s. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. http://www. "olive" and "oil" 40. ^ "Quite Interesting . Raimondi 36." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. M : Ahmed. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". "[10 INSERT TITLE]". ^ "www. 1S45-50. A : Wu. 21 (1): 45–52.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. "New Year's Resolution No. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. 35. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". Toshihiko Osawa. http://www. Vol. Medina E. et al.xml. p.Telegraph".com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. . Toshinori Bito. 2085-2090.videojug.tchain. ^ http://www. 37. 45. ^ Mayo Clinic. (January 2007). 44. 19.1096/fj. De Castro A (February 2007). Use Olive Oil. ^ [2] Ichihashi. No. 2000. 55 (3): 680–6. Nov. (27 March 2000).com http://www.v. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics".28. Faseb J. 21. ^ Turner R. et al. ". Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842.v. 29. d'Episcopo 31. 11. pp. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. Guida L. Vol. but cites no source. Osamu Nikaido. PMID 15830923. T : Ueda. ^ Guillaume Besnarda.. Marotta T. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary.1021/jf0630217. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. ^ Pagnol. 23. J Agric Food Chem. 2000. Carcinogenesis. Mar.61. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). Masato Ueda.html. Etienne N. N U : Budiyanto. Nazim U. Alonso MG. ^ Rosenblum. Vargas J. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. ssp. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast.crazychefs. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans"." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. Ahmed. Olives Dello Russo A. André Bervillé. ^ Machowetz A. Israel". "[19 INSERT TITLE]". Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. An Wu. 38. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". 39. p. doi:10. PMID 17263460. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. s. 19.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis".co. M : Osawa. doi:10.. Poulsen HE. 43. Brenes M. doi:10.telegraph. PMID 10737284. 10.ama-assn. 1: Prevent Cancer.1. Catherine Breton. (January 2005). ^ Ehud Galili et al. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice.06-6328com.75. Gruendel S. ^ Ferrara LA. 19 November 2007 30.html". Olea europaea L. Masamitsu Ichihashi. Pagnol. ^ Romero C. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto.tchain. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. PMID 17110467. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997).uk/portal/main. Suppl. ^ a b Davidson.

Riley. ed. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil".htm. Kennell. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. Verstraete and V.).ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. ^ Nigel M. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.46.htm".reshafim. pp119–33 50. Processing methods. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece".org. Harrington Park ^ "www. 2005 49.R. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. ^ Thomas F. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. http://www. http://www.htm. 2001. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. . http://www. B. C. ^ F. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe".

Saffron Saffron crocus http://www.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. Saffron. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent.crazychefs. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf.or hay-like fragrance. Saffron has further medicinal . for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. crocin. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ən] / [ˈsæf. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). A C. sativus flower bears three stigmas. each the distal end of a carpel.

cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. must be dug up.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. Only in October. purple buds appear. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. which means "yellow." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves.98–1. A corm survives for one season.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). and replanted. In autumn.[11] Upon flowering. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. in Central http://www. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. as was once generally believed. It is a sterile triploid form.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. broken apart.crazychefs. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrá . possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. Being sterile. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs.2 in) in length. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop.5 centimetres (1.

whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. flowers quickly wilt as the day .[16] Furthermore. Moroccan. leaf rusts.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. where hot. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested).com http://www. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere).Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. Nematodes. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. and corm rot pose other threats. are critical factors affecting yields. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable.9 in) deep. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. in concert with climate. and birds. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. they fare poorly in shady conditions. low-density. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5.500 mm (39–59 in). Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. rats. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. Planting depth and corm spacing. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. Greek. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits.8–5. maximizing sun exposure. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands.000–1. where annual rainfall averages 1. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. loose. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral.e. well-watered. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier.

However.8-carotenoic acid). When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). including zeaxanthin. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin. and thus oil-soluble. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams ( http://www.11 gr) of dried saffron. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.[19] many of which are carotenoids. It also has many nonvolatile active components.[19] Meanwhile.0.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.and β-carotenes.8-diapo-8.crazychefs. and various α. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's . crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. a product results that is itself water-soluble. lycopene.2 oz of dried saffron).

0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 4.0 1.0–1.0–8.0 6.0 12.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0–13.0 8.0 1.0 http://www.crazychefs.5 40.5 10.0 1.0 12.0 6.0–14.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0–15.0 3.0 .0 11.0 0.0–7.0 2.0 10.0 6.

It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.6-trimethyl-2. p. incidentally.6. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the heat. Significantly.6.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.6.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.crazychefs. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: .[18] Safranal.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH http://www. a volatile oil.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. the scent of which has been described as "saffron. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri.4. Santorini. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.Fiber (crude) 5.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4. combined with enzymatic action. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.3-diene-1. When saffron is dried after its harvest.0 Source: Goyns 1999. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. dried hay like".

[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. cough. colic. There. and medical treatments.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos. Thus.000 years. and in the mithridatium.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered.crazychefs. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia.[28][29] Later. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes.[33] potpourris. divine offerings. ointments. In late Hellenistic Egypt. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. and scabies. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. mascaras. sativus.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern http://www. physicians in Gaza. Since then. cartwrightianus. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron .[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. a sterile mutant form of C. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. C.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. townspeople in Rhodes.

000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. For example.[51] However. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. perfumes.[39][40] Later.[53] On the other hand. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. a Chinese medical expert.[46][47][48] Meanwhile.[42] ritually offered to divinities. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. and used in dyes.Asia The http://www. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. rice. dating to 978–993 AD.[44] From there. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. Wan Zhen. or jackfruit. a less expensive dye. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. Isfahan. At such sites. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. medicines. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac.crazychefs. and body washes. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of . saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia.[43] Thus. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance.[44] During his Asian campaigns. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. saffron threads were woven into textiles.

saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour.[62] By 1730. did significant cultivation endure. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline.saffron is in Kashmir." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. Italy. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. tea. It can be used to aromatise wine. named for its new specialty crop. imprisoned. In Europe. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania.crazychefs.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Spain.[59][60] Only in southern France. under which saffron adulterators were fined. . The Essex town of Saffron Walden.[58] Soon after. and then the saffron is obtained. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. which grew prosperous. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". especially Norfolk and Suffolk. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. coffee. and executed.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. France. and Italy. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as http://www. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. indeed.

noodles. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Pennsylvania. Central Asian. and chicken or trout dishes. and Cornish cuisines. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing).crazychefs. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). European. particularly in China and India. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. immunomodulating.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Medicinally. http://www. Turkish. and antioxidantlike properties. and in perfumery. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Arab.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius.

including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. Spain's varieties. and other countries. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.100–11. and aroma.500 per kilogram.[2] A pound comprises between 70. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.200/£1. France.000 per pound (US$1.000 threads.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.000 flowers.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. they are graded by government-imposed standards. are the major producers of saffron. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. elasticity. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. flavour.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. India. slight moistness. the United States. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. Vivid crimson colouring.crazychefs. and Italy. Azerbaijan. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. the average retail price is $1.550 per kilogram).[5] Iran. Switzerland. Morocco. In Western countries.000– . while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. For example. Aside from these.000 flowers. Greece. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110. are generally mellower in colour.500/€7.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown http://www.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram).000 and 200. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Annually.100/€1. England.000-170. Spain. in decreasing order of production.

for quality and quantity.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization.some organically . There. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain.. In the U. combined with an Indian export ban. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. blights. and safranal (fragrance) content. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. contribute to its high prices. unusually pungent http://www. is in San Gavino Monreale. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Repeated droughts. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. Sardinia.79 in). Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. picrocrocin. near L'Aquila. among the world's darkest. picrocrocin (taste). and safranal content. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. shape. it also has very high crocin. aroma. and crop failures in Kashmir. and colourative effect. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour).

paprika.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). http://www.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste.crazychefs. traders.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. in India.[77] However. and other powders used as diluting fillers. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. However. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. and thus a greater colourative intensity. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. aroma. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. with turmeric. II.national standards bodies. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). many growers. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). and consumers reject such lab test numbers. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. and I (finest quality). when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. red-dyed silk fibers. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron.[80] Thus. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. pomegranate fibers. pliability. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable . powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration.

12. pp. 287. 103. 20. p. 422. ISBN . Retrieved 2008-03-02. 4. 2. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. www. ^ Grigg 1974. p. in mice. 3. p. ^ Willard 2001. 15.crazychefs. p. p. Kansai. 4. ^ a b Deo 2003. crocin and safranal. 3–4. 21. 22. 1. http://www.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). 8. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. ^ DPIWE 2005. p. Retrieved 2007-12-01. ^ a b McGee 2004. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. p. Honshū. 2–3. ^ M. 4. p. 2. ^ Harper 2001. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001.". 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 16. http://www. 272. Grilli Caiola . 423. 17.Saffron reproductive biology 11. 5.asp?AcNo=20043148643. Sterling. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. 3. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. 13. ^ Dharmananda 2005. ^ McGee 2004. ^ Deo 2003.cababstractsplus. 7. ^ Kumar V (2006). p. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. 3. 9. 14. 19. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ a b c Hill 2004. stigma extracts and their constituents.cababstractsplus. 1. ^ Rau 1969. 1. pp. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. p. pp. 3. 53. ^ Willard 2001. 6. ^ a b Deo 2003. http://books. p. 23. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001.

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"Saffron". Retrieved on January 10.htm>. Retrieved on January>. <http://www.newscientist. P (2001). <http://www. "Grading and Classification".google. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. PMID 2025883 Park.McGann. USDA Phytochemical Database. Reconstructing History. Retrieved on January 10. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". 2006[dead link]. Cancer Letters 57 (2). Rau. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). 2006. The Cooking of India. <http://books. Tarvand Saffron Company. Retrieved on January 10. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005).usda.>.pl. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Beacon Press. F (2005). <http://www. < al_id=140>. Tarvand (2005b).com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC> On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. H (2004). 2006. 2006. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. Nair. <http://books.tarvandsaffron. 2006. Time Life Education.crazychefs. Willard.". Retrieved on January 10. McGee. JB (2005). "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". Retrieved on January 10. Pearce. 2006. Scribner. New Scientist. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). Tarvand Saffron Company.htm> . SR (1969). ISBN 0-684-80001-2.html>. "What is Saffron?". K (2003).

Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. Dead Sea. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L.crazychefs. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea .

Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods.[9]. Asia and parts of Africa. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). It is short and squat. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. the olive. ca 170 AD. olives. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. In Homer's Odyssey. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes.(XVII. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. by a spring. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. Though. the olive suckers readily from the stump.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth.[1] and in the . and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean.5 cm long. Theophrastus.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. Its http://www. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. from Lebanon. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. called xoana. two stamens and bifid stigma. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. are borne generally on the last year's wood.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. they were reverently preserved for centuries. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. which he describes as very simple: "As for me."[7] indeed. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. The small white flowers. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. endives. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. referring to their wooden material.

It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. and then in the 18th century in California. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. As emblems of benediction and purification. wild-type olives. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. and its cultivation began in Mexico.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. and one of the most significant. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. Today. as well as olive oil and olives. For example. Peru. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece.16. olives were grown commercially in Crete.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. The olive tree itself.The leafy branches of the olive tree .net/ . The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible.[12] After the 16th century. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. the olive has been the symbol of peace. play an important role in the Bible. kotinos. indeed.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. As far back as 3000 BC. power and pureness. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world http://www.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. in On the Nature of Plants. Chile and Argentina. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. wisdom. Over the years.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. in both the New and Old Testaments. Theophrastus.crazychefs. fertility.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. for which the Greeks had a separate name. spread far and wide by birds. glory and peace . but he makes clear (in 1. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. The Book of Jacob 5. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. the pits give rise to thorny. glory.

although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. which is made into top quality olive oil.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on . Montenegro.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. One olive tree in Bar. The older an olive tree is. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14].[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old.and fire-resistant. claimed to be over 2.crazychefs.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. and can live for very long. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. named "Plato's Olive Tree". Istria in Croatia. drought-. disease.600 years old. has been calculated to be about 1. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was http://www. The age of an olive tree in Crete. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 years old. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed.

named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. see Olive (fruit). there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55.2. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. olive leaf. and. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. Specifically. All seven trees continue to produce olives. Modern experience does not always confirm this.400 years ago. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. called the "Peisistratos Tree".net/ . is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. fine http://www. Italy. and the olive fruit.6 km) as the limit. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. A supposedly even older tree. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. In the same natural garden.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though showing a preference for the coast. a few other millenary trees can be admired. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. 1600-2000 years old.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. both in Galilee region. According to a recent scientific survey.crazychefs. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic.

com http://www.crazychefs. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. Niger. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. Argentina. Chile. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. northwest Africa) where winters are mild.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming . europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. Olive plantation in Andalucia. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as South Africa. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. Australia. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. Israel. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). the Mediterranean Basin. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. Sudan. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. laperrinei (Algeria.

com http://www.crazychefs.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.crazychefs.

with purple-green skin. a large. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. Seville. It is used mostly for oils.crazychefs. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary http://www. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. Rich taste and thick pulp. rounded-oval fruit. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. 'Manzanilla'.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. grown around the world. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . In recent times. 'Bosana'.net/ . but only a few are grown to a large extent. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction.200. in southern Spain. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. often after being pitted. stuffed (with pickled pimento. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. The olive grove of Amfissa. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive.Cailletier cultivar. which consists of 1. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. anchovies. originating in Dos Hermanas. A prolific bearer. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease.

'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. 'Souri'. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. It is used both for oil and for table olives. 'Arbequina'. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. Their flavour is mild and nutty. originating from the southern Peloponese. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi' http://www. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. though difficult to cultivate. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. Due to their highly valued flavour. named after the city of Kalamata. Greece. which. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. medium size. originating in Toledo. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. even on clay if well drained. used as a table olive. large.[citation needed] 'Lucques'.net/ . These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. Spain. disease-resistant. a small. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. 'Nabali'. Moreover. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. good for eating and for oil. 'Kalamata'. 'Cornicabra'. brown olive grown in Catalonia. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. They grow in any light soil. This small olive. It is mainly used for oil. originating in the province of Córdoba. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. It is green. Spain. good for eating and for oil. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. The flavour is mild and nutty. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). 'Hojiblanca'. and elongated. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. They are black and generally used for table consumption. originating in the south of France (Aude département). Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. and elongated. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. and coastal climate conditions. It has a strong but sweet flavour. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. round.[21] 'Koroneiki'. another modern Israeli. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste.[23] 'Barnea'. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. a large. Spain. originating in the south of France. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. They are green. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. The olive is medium sized. 'Empeltre'. 'Picual'. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils.

com http://www. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. This method is used for olives used for oil. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. 114). In some places in Italy and Greece. Olives grow very slowly. it is valued by woodworkers. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. In southern Europe. Olives are propagated in various ways. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year.) Olives like hot weather. as in Languedoc and Provence. Another method uses an electric tool. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. which form small swellings on the stems. They tolerate drought well. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. In Greece. up to several centuries. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. In Italy. the oliviera. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height.crazychefs. and with the season and the cultivar. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit.poorer soil. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. to facilitate germination. A. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. removing fruit from the tree. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. More specifically. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. However. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. P. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. but the time varies in each country. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. the trees are regularly pruned. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. soon vegetate. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. embryonic . Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. being very hard and close-grained. Occasionally. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. and can remain productive for as long.

a bitter carbohydrate. American black ("California") olives are not fermented.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. which is a natural preservative. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. or green with hints of colour). The method also involves sawing off branches. large fruit (e.. which is why they taste milder than green olives. which can be eaten fresh. the creation of lactic acid.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar.5-2. After some weeks. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. Fresh are often sold at markets. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. As a result. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process.crazychefs. The olives are soaked in water to wash.2 kg of oil per tree per .g. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. then drained. the fruit is not bruised. through to full purple black ripeness. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% http://www.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. which is healthy for future production. Olives can be used green. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which leads to a superior finished product. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. Typical yields are 1.

The ten largest producing countries. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. vinegar. induces tumour growth in the shoots. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. garlic cloves. lemon zest. In France and north-central Italy. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. salt-curing. lemon juice. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. leaving sawtooth damage. diseases. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. juniper berries and anchovies. Cycloconium oleaginum. oleae[27]. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. Lye-curing. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. Sometimes. Popular flavourings are herbs. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. olive oil.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the . Pests. and weather A fungus. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. of which the water is changed daily. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet.6 to 8. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. olives suffer occasionally from http://www. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. but can be left to cure for up to three months. A species of bacterium. causing great damage to plantations. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. chili. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers.crazychefs. capsicum (pimento). or removing the pit and stuffing them. their main predators are wasps. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. especially to young trees. an unnatural method. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. wine. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. feta. spices.

500.0 3.888 178. An http://www. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves. ^ Pausanias.13.000 275.4 30.000 318.981 1.100 3.000 .000 250. 7." (Diodorus Siculus.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17. 4. and to cultivate olive-trees.1 25.7 27.3 20.149. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation. 4.. 1. ^ Theophrastus.000 998.8 16.830 2.160. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.[31] References 1.140. On the Causes of Plants.5 6..800.1). Odyssey. Ancient Greek Agriculture.000 498. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. ^ ".000 1. p. 5.6 31.5 63. 82. 81. 3. 5. Description of Greece 1.685 765. 1 ). 38. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.crazychefs. 4.3 8.300.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.000 430.339 300. ^ Homer. 6.000 1. Bibliotheke.000 20.9 6.597. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.000 49. to make bee-hives." (Herodotus. 1992. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.064 2.000 594.000 280. 2.5.089 6. 1). noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard...317. 3.000 8. 27. most notably South Australia.000 550.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced. book 5". and was the first to instruct men in these matters.988 500.

Epikouria Magazine.. 32:166–169.. J. 2004".A. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina".fao. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. D.8. Processing methods. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. pp 110–113. p. Spring/Summer 2006 26. Ellen. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. (1999) Ancient Trees. 35. op. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. nom. 24. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol.htm. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. Leshonenu (Hebrew). R.fao. 1982. Pseudomonas syringae subsp.crazychefs. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. Apps3. 29. ^ Belaj et al.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". & Ouazzani. Volume 18:27-35 20. 17. 23. N..brijuni. ^ " . http://apps3. Int. ^ Balfour. Kislew. ^ Lumaret. Australian Olives. Available through Google Books 11. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. http://www.pasoroblesolivefestival. 27. http://www. ^ Gooch. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". p. 4th edition. rev. ^ Janse. ^ Lewington. 30. me cichorea levesque ^ a b M. John Hutton. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. ^ O. Madrid. & Parker. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. 28. nov. 105. Odes 1. ^ Riley. cited in F. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". EspasaCalpe S. Number 4). 1999. Riley (2002).hr/Home. Epikouria Magazine.. Retrieved 2007-03-10. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10.jsp. R. ^ "Old Olive Tree".Near the Old Bar in Tombi. (September 2002). vol.zatoun. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L." Horace. J. 69. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. 1779.cit. M. 1996. 1981. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. ca 30 BC 9.springerlink. Rackham. Retrieved 2009-05-18. J. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. http://www. http://www. J. 13. Volume 15. Masuelli. Juárez. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. Bacteriol. Simhoni. ^ Burr.15.W. ^ Muncipality Bar.. ^ [1] 21. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ http://www. Zatoun. Tabak & O. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores 25. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. M Bauza & R. ^ Fotiadi.31. 29 April. A. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Elena "Unusual Olives". Syst. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". Cavagnaro P. Y. 2001. Brijuni National Park.279 18.

L.R. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. western North America.crazychefs. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. seldom produces flowers. with slender branched .31. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. however. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. The leaves are lanceolate. and south to northern Mexico. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. with an entire margin. (French tarragon. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. glossy http://www.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. Corresponding to its species name. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901.

pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун).net/ . tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. Russia and Ukraine.[1] However. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. sunny spot. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. without excessive watering. Fresh.[1] It likes a hot. but cannot be grown from seed. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. fish and egg dishes. A perennial. it normally goes dormant in winter. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter http://www.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. which is the Armenian. Spreading plant can be divided easily. It is normally purchased as a plant. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. due to the presence of estragole. by extension. Persian and Russian word for .crazychefs. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. Georgia and. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice.[1] Russian tarragon (A. and particularly suitable for chicken. dracunculoides L. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect.

World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. Ley JP. Johannes Panten (2006). Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. 2. Properties and Uses. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. 233.Cis-Pellitorin. ^ Gatfield IL. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Horst. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. Maggie (2002).net/ . Workman Publishing. Rose Marie Nichols. 3. Wiley-VCH. Stuckey. Foerstner J. The Bountiful Container. ^ a b c d McGee. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation.[3] In http://www. References 1.crazychefs. ^ Surburg. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Machinek A. Krammer G. ISBN 9783527607891. pp.

Lamiaceae. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. In French cuisine. and blue to purplish flowers. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. and some drinks. Britain and http://www. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. It is a member of the mint family. cheeses (Sage Derby). Dalmatian sage. Purple sage. In Western cooking. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. though other species. it is used when roasting mutton.Salvia officinalis (Sage. Kitchen sage. grayish leaves. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). sage has a slight peppery flavor. In the United States. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. Garden sage. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an . sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). In the Balkans and the Middle East. Broadleaf sage. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with woody stems. Common sage.crazychefs. Culinary sage.

and tonic. The underside of a sage leaf . Sage leaf contains tannic acid. ursolic acid. The Latin name for sage. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. which contains cineole. caffeic acid. flavonoid glycosides. chlorogenic acid. . means ―to heal".more trichomes are visible on this side. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. hypoglycemic. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. cornsolic acid.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. borneol.[1] In a double blind.trichomes are visible. and http://www. antibiotic.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . cornsole. salvia. astringent. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. fumaric acid. antispasmodic. nicotinamide. ursonic acid. niacin. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. oleic acid.crazychefs. flavones. antifungal. and estrogenic substances.

Jamshidi AH. 'Berggarten'. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. Noroozian M. 2. Dioscorides. increasing women's fertility. 'Lavandulaefolia'. salvatrix (Sage the Savior).appliedhealth. and Galen all recommended sage as a .1365-2710. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. and used as a diuretic. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. PMID 12605619. a cultivar with large leaves.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars.2003. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. and tonic. emmenagogue. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. doi:10. especially in sunny dry environments. OBeWise Nutriceutica.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. a white-flowered cultivar. ^ Akhondzadeh S. and more. Mohammadi M. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. a small leaved cultivar. ^ a b c "Sage". Pliny.[4] It was sometimes called S. and for other considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. a local anesthetic for the skin. and for low ground cover. http://www.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. a purple-leafed cultivar. a cultivar with white. Khani M. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. 'Icterina'. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. References 1. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. hemostatic. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 'Alba'.1046/j. 'Extrakta'. Applied Health. Retrieved 2008-02-04. yellow and green variegated leaves. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. Ohadinia S. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. snakebites. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated http://www. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. 'Tricolor'. a styptic.php.00463. (2003).x.

pp. 4. CRC Press. ^ a b Kintzios. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. Deni Bown (New York: DK.crazychefs. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. (2000). Spiridon E. ISBN 9789058230058. 10-11. Sage: The Genus Salvia. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. .

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