Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Leaves are often chopped. Syrian. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. soups and stews. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. in a bouquet garni). While summer-seasonal. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. tomatoes and eggs. As a rule of thumb. cuttings. In some Levantine countries. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. Thyme. In French cuisine. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. and Turkish cuisines. Lebanese. Greek. or by the sprig. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Persian. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. Libyan. and of herbes de Provence.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. Dried.g. Depending on how it is used in a http://www. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. storage life is rarely more than a week. It tolerates drought well.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. the whole sprig may be used (e. assume that it means fresh. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. Albanian. Italian. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. fresh thyme is often available year-round. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. Spanish. and in those derived from them. It can be propagated by seed. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of . which is due to its content of thymol. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife.crazychefs.a little less if it is ground. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. Portuguese. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. while flavourful.

hybrid T. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed].com http://www. Because it is antiseptic. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. tisane. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. All thyme species are nectar sources. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a . Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. It also has medicinal uses. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. The dried equivalent is 1:3.[6] Thymol. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. an antiseptic. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash.[5] As with bay. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. etc.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. it was used to medicate bandages.crazychefs. salve. but is grown as a ground cover. pulegioides × T.

crazychefs. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used .Variegated lemon thyme. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.

net/ http://www. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.

B2) 0. and American cooking.crazychefs. European. B1) 0.1 mg recommendations for adults.0 μg Calcium 138.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.1 mg 6.Sugars 0. often used as spice.0 g 8% Riboflavin ( http://www. B3) 1.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. It is common in Middle Eastern.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro). Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.0 mg Vitamin K 1640. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Dietary fiber 3.1 mg Folate (Vit.9 g .3 g . B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.0 mg Phosphorus 58. although parsley has a milder flavor.0 mg Iron 6.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.8 g 3.2 mg Magnesium 50.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.

While parsley is biennial. which then tend to protect plants nearby.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. The similarity of the names is a coincidence.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. not blooming until its second year. For example. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period.crazychefs. tuberosum). many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. it attracts predatory insects. However. it is not related to real http://www. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. Like many other umbellifers. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. or flat leaf (P. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum . used in soups and stews.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. neapolitanum). Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). reducing pest attraction. Although little known in Britain and the United States. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which helps accommodate the long taproot. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine.

Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. soups. root.". or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. http://www.html. leaf. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. In addition. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup.[3] Parsley is high (1. http://www. parsley is part of bouquet garni. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). e.crazychefs. Ossobuco alla milanese. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. "Parsley on plucodes.plucodes. lamb or goose. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. steaks.drugs. References 1. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. and sauces.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. a mixture of". chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [1]) in oxalic acid. 4. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles.aspx?id=1075& http://www.. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. 2007. Goulash or Chicken paprikash).70% by mass. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. Parsley as an oil. 2. or 4900. In Southern and Central Europe. .of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. fried chicken. with fish." West Virginia University Extension Service. ^ a b c John W. Last retrieved April 26.g. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. and lemon zest. "That Devilish Parsley.

com http://www.Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .crazychefs.

com http://www.crazychefs. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare .Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

The flowers are purple. e. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. and lovage leaves. Oregano is an important culinary herb. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. as well as cultivars. Together with basil. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. which is popular in southern Italy.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. each with distinct flavours. and to add a nice. Unlike most Italian herbs. Spanish and in Italian cuisine.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. produced in erect spikes. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives.g.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). and grilled meat. capers. fried vegetables. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of . native to Europe. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. growing to 20-80 cm tall. the Mediterranean region and southern and central http://www. Greek. 3-4 mm long. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. Oregano growing in a field. of the mint family. spicy flavor. It is a perennial herb. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. O vulgare gracile. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat.

net/ . Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. differs significantly in taste. useful for relieving children's coughs. It has an aromatic. The influence of climate. it can be usually found on table. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. West Asia) have similar flavors.crazychefs.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. In the Philippines. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. Oregano growing in a pot. Asia Minor) and O.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. In Turkish Cuisine. heracleoticum (Italy. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. however. salt and pepper. especially for mutton and lambs meat. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. together with paprika. warm and slightly bitter taste. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. Balkan peninsula.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek http://www. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. It varies in intensity. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. which.[5][6] Additionally.

pinene. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. diaphoretic. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. limonene. ocimene. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. A Cretan oregano ( Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. especially in the United States. indigestion. In the Philippines. antispasmodic. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. ^ Organic Gardening 2. stomachic and mildly tonic. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in".[7] and painful menstruation. ^ http://www. fungal infections. the father of medicine. oregano. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico.[8] Hippocrates. this substitution would not work the other way round. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content.crazychefs. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. enteric parasites. also called Cuban oregano. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. carminative. expectorant. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Aqueous extracts.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). emmenagogue. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. Lippia berlandieri. Plectranthus amboinicus. and caryophyllene. cholagogue. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. stimulant. including Poliomintha http://www. capsules. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments.html.[12] References 1. but is usually stronger.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. useful for relieving children's coughs. mild fevers. Coleus aromaticus). stomach upsets. thymol.uni-graz. influenza. Used .Main constituents include carvacrol.

PMID 16218659.10. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. 11. J. 28. ^ ["http://www. ^ Epikouria Magazine. March 2009. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. University of the West of England. ^ Epikouria Magazine. et ^ Dragland.asp?item=1374&year=2008. . http://www. http://info. draft revision for "origanum".". ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". draft revision for "organum".nutrition. Food Chem. Fall/Spring 2007 5. 12. (01 May 2003). Retrieved 200811-26. J Nutr. Leonor. et al. Retrieved 2008-11-26. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata http://www. 6. (2005). 133 (5): 1286–1290. (Cav. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9.crazychefs. Fall/Winter 2007 10. Draft revision for "oregano". ^ a b Faleiro. 24 November 2008.3. Steinar. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".) and Origanum vulgare L.medicalnewstoday. 53 (21): 8162–8168.2008.1021/jf0510079. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants".com/articles/130620.dmannose. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Medical News Today.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. PMID ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. June 2008.

It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. however. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. Ferula http://www. It is a hardy. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). it was from the giant fennel. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Also. perennial.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. umbelliferous herb. In Ancient Greek. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs . John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel").[2] In Greek mythology. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae).[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. recorded in the 10th century. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods.crazychefs. it seems. meaning "hay".

032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. B2) 0.5 m. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long.047 mg Folate (Vit. but thinner.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial http://www. half as wide or less. It is erect. glaucous green. with hollow stems.20 g 1. about 0.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. and grows to heights of up to 2. bulb.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). and grooved.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . B1) 0. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long. B3) 0.crazychefs. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.01 mg 7.29 g 0.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. they are finely dissected.5 mm wide.Dietary fiber .

crazychefs. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). syn. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. in pastures.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. notably the Italian name finocchio. for its edible.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. and in other open sites in many regions. both in its native range and elsewhere. by the late 19th century. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. It propagates well by seed. F.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for http://www. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. which is also known by several other names.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. though usually not as strong. In North American supermarkets. both raw and cooked. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. it is often mislabelled as "anise". Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. It is of cultivated origin. vulgare var.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including northern Europe. the United .20 mg Manganese 0. but is more aromatic and sweeter. "bronze-leaved" fennel.

and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the http://www. pastas. both raw and cooked. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). in side dishes. fish. or eaten raw.crazychefs. anise-flavoured spice. sompu in Telugu. foliage. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It may be blanched or marinated. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. and risottos. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. though smaller. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. but also the most expensive. braised. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. Many egg. brown or green in colour when fresh. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. which are very similar in taste and appearance. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language.Fennel. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. mouri in Bengali. or cooked in risotto.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. variyali in Gujarati. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. For cooking. . Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. where bulbs and fronds are used. badesoppu in Kannada. The bulb is a crisp. stewed. green seeds are optimal. grilled. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. often tossed with chicory and avocado.

although not supported by direct evidence. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic.crazychefs. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. Eyes In the Indian http://www.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. as it is said to improve eyesight. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. sometimes with some sweetener.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. or its polymers. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. which can explain some of its medical effects: . Fennel tea. used to ease flatulence in infants. This use. also employed as a carminative. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. act as phytoestrogens.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress.[12] For adults.

crazychefs. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. badian (star anise). followed by India. fennel and coriander.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. which promote growth of breast tissue.[17] .[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely http://www.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments.

In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. cinnamon is known as kurundu.[5] In Malayalam.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. which are often called cinnamon http://www. Hindi.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] In Marathi. it is called Dalchina Chakka. it is known as "DalChini ( )". native to Sri Lanka. In Telugu. Chakka meaning bark or wood.[3] In Sri Lanka. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. and in Gujarati taj. In Bengali. Ceylon. synonym C. In Urdu.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. where it is cultivated in Java and . In Farsi (Persian). the "real' cassia. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. it is called darchin (‫. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni .crazychefs. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. in the original Sinhala.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. itself ultimately from Phoenician. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. it is called "Darchini" ( ). zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.

Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. aloe and cinnamon. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. in Proverbs. and in Song of Solomon. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of . but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. to protect their monopoly as suppliers.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo.crazychefs.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. cinnamon is native to Sri http://www. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear.

who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. However. They established a trading post in 1638. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. in a letter of about 1292. 7–18 cm (2. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. The flowers.75–7. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in http://www. took control of the factories by . 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. and used them to construct their nests. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.8–49. although in the first century. "The shores of the island are full of it". the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. tea. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 inches) long.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. a Dutch captain reported. have a greenish color. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. sugar." (Braudel 1984. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. which are arranged in panicles.crazychefs.Ages. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. p. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island.2 feet) tall. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. and coffee. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. and have a distinct odor.

[15] According to the FAO. Sumatra.crazychefs. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. verum). Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. Vietnam. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. The next . Zanzibar. Brazil. and Egypt. the outer woody portion is removed. followed by China. Only the thin (0. Madagascar. Chips are trimmings of quills. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. Bangladesh. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. Java. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. which is left to dry. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. According to the International Herald Tribune. the West Indies. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. eg. and Vietnam.5 mm) inner bark is used. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. India.

and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon.crazychefs. using only the thin inner bark. less dense. many websites. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). zeylanicum). also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. and more crumbly texture. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). as all of the layers of bark are used. and is considered to be less strong than cassia. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. is generally a medium to light reddish brown. the related species.[16] Ceylon cinnamon. However. for example. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". or "Indonesian cinnamon".[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of http://www.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. "Vietnamese cinnamon". Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. hard and woody in texture. has a finer. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon .

European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. and http://www. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. bread-based dishes. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. True cinnamon. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. and liqueurs. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). In the United States.5% to 1% of its composition.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. hot cocoa. especially in Mexico. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into .[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. used in a variety of thick soups. drinks. tea. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. but when cassia is present.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. and fruits. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder.crazychefs. when whole. The two barks. ‫. It is of a golden-yellow color. are easily distinguished. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. In the Middle East. macerating it in seawater. rather than cassia.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. a deep-blue tint is produced. and then quickly distilling the whole. especially apples. such as apple pie. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. which is the main importer of true cinnamon.

net/ .[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting.[34] Notes 1. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. beta-caryophyllene.crazychefs. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. and Myanmar (Burma).[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. few seem able to succeed.0.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. cinnamaldehyde." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. eugenol. and anethole. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. and money. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. who failed.and a very hot aromatic taste. ^ a b "Cinnamon". 2008.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. cassia. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. and methyl chavicol[citation needed].[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits).[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. luck. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. The Cinnamon Challenge. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid http://www.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. However. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). love. although it remains untested.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. In Hoodoo. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. linalool. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. cinnamyl acetate.

437. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. ^ Tennent. Encyclopedia of Spices. revised ed. p. . J.en.html. "Solid. ^ Felter.npr. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ López P. ^ http://www. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. 10. Henry. http://dsr. Van-Koiij A. doi:10. ^ The Epicentre. retrieved 200705-01 21. PMID http://www. The History of 8. p. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum retrieved 2008-07-15 _of_life/html/1.2. http://www. Torres RP (December 1998).and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains".iol. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents".com http://www.CO%3B2-N 15. p. ^ Harris. J.php?storyId=6672644. Anthea Bell. Food Chem.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. Cozzolino FF. ^ Knox. http://www. PMID German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger.1021/jf050709v. ^ "Cassia. Emily. doi:10. ^ [1] 16.htm 20. Batlle R. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. 4. retrieved 2008-07-15 11. Corke H (October 2005). Mancini DA." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. Sánchez C. ^ http://news. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. ^ http://www. ^ http://findarticles. Cinnamon. 2009. 53 (20): 7749–59. ^ Yule. ^ http://links. Sun M.crazychefs. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. http://lakdiva.html#pg598. Agric. Food 17. Harvey. 22. 437). Nerín C (August 2005).bbc.—Cinnamon. Account of the Island of Breyne) extracts". Cathay and the Way Cai YZ. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's thespicehouse. ^ Shan B. Robert. 437f. ^ [2] 18.html. p. ^ Mancini-Filho J. tr.thespicehouse. Cinnamomum.stm 3.fao. PMID 10077878.theepicentre. 23.html. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009. Agric.. retrieved 200807-15 _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. Sir James Emerson. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent 13. ^ http://www. 437 7. 53 (17): 6939–46.henriettesherbal.

"Chillies Are the Spice of Life". Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food.sciencedaily. doi:10.. Fernand (1984). Kristof et al. http://eprints.1002/ptr. PMID 14633804. Alan W. ^ Verspohl. doi:10. Agricultural Research magazine. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. ^ Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. retrieved 200705-01 32.pdf.113. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica.2217/14750708.1.3215. Akram et ground.lesliebeck. .org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/977. Khattak KN. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). Safdar M. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. retrieved 200705-01 25. Muhammad et al.2337/diacare. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. et al. July 2000. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. Retrieved 2008-05-11.2217/14750708. ^ Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ 27.26.nutrition. Retrieved 200805-11. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro".html?source=r_health. http://www. Leslie. (2005). "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". Retrieved 2007-12-17.24. Braudel. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF).com/news/health/803646/chillies_are_the_spice_of_life__pepper s_have_been/index.. ^ [3].1. 30. Retrieved 2008-05-11. ^ Beck. http://www. http://care.futuremedicine. http://www. doi:10. Eugen J. Eleventh Edition... 26. doi:10. Medicinal Seasonings. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. Ali Khan MM..1016/00219673(88)90035-0. 28. New York: Kodansha International. www. Cinnamon.php?featured_food=80. ^ Khan A.12. 33.113. http://www. Anderson RA (December 2003).luckymojo. Archer (1988).com/ingredient_index. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. Research: http://www.3. Retrieved 200808-05. ^ Vanschoonbeek.htm.whfoods..3.1643. http://www. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes". The Perspective of the World.utm. "Determination of coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". http://jn.sciencedaily. ^ George Mateljan Foundation. a publication now in the public domain. Charles (1998). Cat. Corn.crazychefs. ^ Ranjbar.

They are known by the common name "onion" but. used without qualifiers. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. frozen.Department of Export Agriculture. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They are now available in fresh. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. canned. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. it usually refers to Allium cepa. pickled.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. chopped. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food . and dehydrated forms. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium http://www. powdered.crazychefs.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. and Allium asarense R. one of the oldest vegetables. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber.M."[3] Uses Onions. which it is not. Onions can be used.

crazychefs. snakebite and hair loss. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish.[5] However. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. coughs.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. However. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. due to toxicity during digestion. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". In Bronze Age settlements. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. transported and stored. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women.chopped or sliced. cats.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. In ancient Greece. spicy. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. and also to relieve headaches. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and . Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient http://www. Depending on the variety. recent evidence has shown that dogs.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and other animals should not be given onions in any form.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. an onion can be sharp.[5] The onion is easily propagated.

net/ .046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit. 0 μg 9.crazychefs.34 g http://www.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.4 mg Vitamin E 0. B1) 0.Dietary fiber 1.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.polyunsaturated 0.Sugars 4.24 g .02 mg Vitamin K 0.042 g .saturated 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit. B3) 0.1 g 1. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B2) 0.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.7 g Fat .17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates . B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.1 g 89.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.12 mg Folate (Vit.013 g .21 mg Magnesium 0.monounsaturated 0.

When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. Northern Red. pungent yellow (New York Bold). Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. Imperial Valley Sweet.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. However. Peruvian Sweet. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. If you are allergic to onions. Western Yellow. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. anticancer. Imperial Valley Sweet. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. Empire Sweet. Imperial Valley Sweet.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. Western White. Western White. Peruvian Sweet. Empire Sweet. diabetes. Mexico. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. .[10] In many parts of the world. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]).[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. followed by Western Yellow. anticholesterol.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. In the United States. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content.crazychefs.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. osteoporosis. Empire Sweet. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. Mexico. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. For all varieties of onions. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. and other diseases. In general.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. and Vidalia. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. Northern Red. Peruvian Sweet. Texas 1015. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. and Vidalia. eleven times the amount found in Western White. Texas 1015. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. Shallots have the most phenols. Texas 1015.

crazychefs. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. garlic.include reactions to onions. limiting the amount of gas generated.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. allylpropyldisulfide. garden lilies.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. where it binds to sensory neurons. Eye irritation can. cells are broken. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. all present in garlic. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. and bananas. The volume of sulfenic acids released. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. nausea. breathing difficulties. creating a stinging sensation. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. leeks. chives. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. therefore. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. On January 31. allylmercaptan and allicin. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. 2008. mouth and throat ulcerations. and the irritation effect. diarrhea.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the . Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). it can lead to an allergic reaction. shallots. ginger. As onions are sliced or eaten. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. differs among Allium http://www.

requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. Allium fistulosum. the Welsh onion. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "short-day" onions. . and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. which are the leaves and/or immature http://www. which can be planted directly in the ground. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. from sets started from seed the previous year. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. which have been developed in more recent times. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. more commonly today. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. which is said not to produce dry bulbs.crazychefs. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds.

each of which forms a bulb. Tree onion or Egyptian onion . The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion. although these onions may refer to any green onion . Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.crazychefs.149 Spain World Total 64.346 2. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions. a hybrid of Allium cepas.764 Pakistan 1.302 1. Oregon (USA).758 Russia 1. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.637 Japan Egypt 1.500 China United States 3.750 South Korea http://www. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.Produce bulblets in the flower head. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.793 India 5. Vale.220 Turkey 1.

net/ .The Onion Futures Act.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba.crazychefs. passed in 1958. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It remains in effect as of 2009. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural http://www. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.

spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Allium sativum. known as garlic. 1793.[1] A bulb of garlic. shallot. Medical Botany. from William Woodville. Its close relatives include the onion. the most commonly used part of the plant.crazychefs. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum http://www. It has a characteristic pungent. and . leek. commonly known as garlic. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves.

most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. for consumption (raw or cooked). Garlic plants can be grown close together. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered . which grows wild in southwestern Asia.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". and for medicinal purposes. The leaves. Garlic is grown globally.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. and Allium oleraceum. They can suffer from pink root. In North America. respectively. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates.crazychefs. the so-called elephant garlic. The http://www. India (4. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. accounting for over 77% of world output. In cold climates. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth.Yunnan province of China. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). with approximately 10. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. stems (scape). softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. with Russia (1.[5] The "wild garlic". are common weeds in fields. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. "crow garlic". is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. The cloves are used as seed. according to Zohary and Hopf.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allium vineale. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring.

088. and parts of South and Central America.000 128.Alaska) in fifth place (1.686.crazychefs. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 221. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. the Middle East.400 140. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world".net/ . northern Africa. southern Europe. south Asia. semiofficial.000 645.000 325. or estimates).000 15. including eastern Asia. It is often paired with onion. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. C = calculated figure. tomato. P = official figure.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. or http://www.810 168.4%). Southeast Asia. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. California. A = aggregate (may include official.000 142. F = FAO estimate.000 254. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy.000 125.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output.

oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. or vegetables. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. breads and pasta. http://www. meat. bruschetta.crazychefs. garlic toast. In Japan and Korea. and roast them in an oven. cleaned. is sweet and syrupy. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. The leaves are cut. . Blending garlic. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They are also known as "garlic spears". oil. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. In eastern Europe. crostini and canapé. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. or "tops". called black garlic. meats. almond. and a chunky base produce skordalia. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. the resulting product. "stems". and spices. In some cuisine. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. and is now being sold in the United States. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. and then stir-fried with eggs. Immature scapes are tender and edible. oil. United Kingdom and Australia.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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When eaten in quantity.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. all present in garlic. forming allyl methyl sulfide. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. insects. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. however. such as pistou. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[51] To ward off vampires. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". making garlic much more potent than onions. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley.crazychefs. where it is excreted. The herb is. garlic could be worn. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. Humans. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. and worms from eating the plant. leeks. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. shallots. garden lilies. allylpropyldisulfide. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking.[50] In Europe. hung in windows. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. shallots. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. garlic.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. However. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). usually enjoy these sensations. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many . Since digestion takes several hours. persillade. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. However. ginger. or http://www.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. Among the members of the onion cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. and vampires. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. chives. included in many garlic recipes. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. thus mellowing its spiciness. therefore. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. allylmercaptan and allicin. werewolves. and release of AMS several hours more. and bananas.[48] Due to its strong odor. including onions. deterring animals like birds.

[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. similar to the effect of aspirin. dizziness. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. if appropriate. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. However.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. allergic reactions. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. emesis. and diarrhea.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). antiplatelets.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. antihypertensives. nausea.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. antiparasitic value of garlic.[57] Garlic may interact with . saquinavir. are largely unknown. and menstrual irregularities. In connection with the odor associated with garlic.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding.In Daoism mythology. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. and hypoglycemic drugs. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". at worst. Garlic can thin the blood. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. bleeding.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sweating. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. indigestion.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. calcium channel blockers.crazychefs. minimal risks to normal individuals. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". as well as other medications. You can help by converting this article to prose.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. if any http://www. indicated Muhammad. Editing help is available. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated.

(2004). including burns to children. http://www.jhortscib. 4.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. Notes 1. Retrieved 5 June 2009. ^ a b Lee. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. 2000).org/Vol79/79_6/8. p.html. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves.unigraz. 197 5. 2. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. A bulb of garlic. garlick)".com/warrenreporter/index. one the bulbs will grow peeled. 3. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. third edition (Oxford: University Press. ^ http://www.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". 397 http://hdl. split. G. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.html 8. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). http://www.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or .htm. Ethiopia". 112 7. ^ http://www. et 9. bigger.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such http://www. topical use of raw garlic. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. Domestication of plants in the Old World.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. Retrieved 5 June. ^ McGee p. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. (2005). et al. Retrieved 2007-08-28. In particular.natural-holistic-health. J. is discouraged.handle. ^ a b c d Tabor. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876.

PMID 15277094. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". P. doi:10. ^ Benavides GA. ^ a b Steiner M. Garlic. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . Proc. F. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. 28.346.1073/pnas. PMID 17951430. N. Med. July 1.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". 5. Biochem. 20. Lin RS (June 1998). McFerren M (February 2007). Kavutcu M.1001/archinte. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol".).. Daryn (2003). Sova P (May 2004). doi:10.A.005. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. Acad. Squadrito GL. 34. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7.1162/106361403773062678. Sartoratto. Capasso R. Better Nutrition. U. 11. ^ Gardner CD. J. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. 22. R.4.. doi:10. 167 (4): 325–6. ^ Durak I.2004. (p. Lawson LD. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". 15 (6): 373–7. "Garlic (Allium sativum L.. Güven C (2002). Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Aytaç B. Nutr.lehoux/Tropes. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. PMID 17325296. 5:109–115. 2005 ^ Groppo. 12. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". Intern. 104 (46): 17977–82. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. ^ Chan KC. Ramacciato. Maud.manchester. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. [2] ^ Hamel. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 27. and Mary U. ^ Borrelli F. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients".net/ . http://personalpages.1186/1476-511X-6-5. Arch.200700058. PMID 17328819.ama-assn. Accessed: December 18. 30. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M.4. doi:10.A 400 Year History.pdf. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). Yin MC. PMID 17918162. 16.1016/j. and Empiricism" (PDF). garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve.ama-assn. PMID 15157944. ^ Charlson M. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado.1001/archinte. Chao WJ (March 2007). PMID 2291748. http://archinte.C. Izzo AA (November 2007). J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904– Motta. Hyg. et al (February 2007). Vosoughi AR.325.10. 29. 17. Facts. ^ Durak I. Sci. et al (November 2007). Paul B.1002/mnfr. 25. ^ Mader FH (October 1990).. Sylva.1002/mnfr. Block E.jnutbio. Oztürk HS. ^ Goodbye.crazychefs.167.167. 26. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. Arch. Herald Publishing Co. 31. A Modern Herbal. A. 15. 14. Med. 54 | P a g e http://www.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman.0705710104. PMID 9641475. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. 18. Dent. 2006. Akrami M (March 2007). Olcay ^ Kojuri J. PMID 17123684. 35. doi:10. J. PMID 15218732. Intern. 24. PMID 17325291. doi:10. Ferraresi. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". doi:10. 167 (4): 346–53. "Tropes. (Mrs. doi:10. doi:10. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. et al (June 2004). Sept 1996 ^ Garlic .. Natl. 33. J. 19. Mills RW. 13. PMID 17966136. http://archinte. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007)." Int.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux.

^ Pickering. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Sumida T. ^ McNally p. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). Thomson M. Complementary Medicines Summary.elsevier. PMID 8441577. PMID 11481410. 310–311 47. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No.ukmi. Volume 7.. ^ Kodera Y. 66.".org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257. "Garlic burns". (1991-08-01). Matuura H. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. Sterling Publishing. 85 (3): 157–64. Jennifer (2002-12-13).html 54. ^ Health Canada . ^ CSU SafeFood p. Castro C. 049 . 211 51. doi:10. PMID 15616341. In Search of Dracula.January 29. 2007.Vol 9 No. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. Teel R. 39. Engl.crazychefs. Lau B. National Health Service. H. James. "Garlic burns". http://mic. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. Yoffe B.html 46. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Lemar KM. 40. http://aac. Pickering p. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6.2005.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.nhs. Toxicol. PMID 8644128. Slattery M. section "Conclusion" 48.elsevier.49.) 62. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. on mutagenesis. PMID 64. Nishino H. ^ Alnaqeeb MA..asm. Bordia T. Book 65 57. ^ http://lem. 58. http://joi.. 49 (1): 473. Ali M (June 1996). PMC: 538912. ISBN 0-395-65783-0.jst.unito. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. ^ Baruchin ^ Fareed G.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. . http://linkinghub.. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans".com/a/Garlic. ^ McGee p. Sanders N. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. 65.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65.. Summer 2005 . Retrieved December 7. Retrieved 44.pdf. (2001). David (2003). Imafuku M. http://joi. 122. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. Steckelberg JM.. Chesson C. http://linkinghub. ^ Bukhari. Ronen M (November 2001). doi:10.goldbamboo. Microbiology (Reading. ^ John S. 4 . DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. Retrieved December 7. et al (October 2005). Nishimura S. 42. Raymond T (1994). ^ a b c Yamasaki T. Aon MA. Itakura Y. Yoshida S.economicexpert. ^ Garlic . ISBN 0-30436561-0. 53. 1988. ^ http://washokufood. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".go. Houghton Mifflin. Iwai K. Scolaro M.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. NLM Gateway. Patel R (January 2005). ^ http://www. 120. (1989-01-30).1128/AAC. ^ Macpherson et al. ^ Shuford JA.1099/mic.28095-0. "Effect of allixin. 43. 211. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. Kominato Y. 2007. " http://www.473.sgmjournals. Jordan W. 38. Passa O. Sagi A. 41. ^ Oi Y. Shishido C. a stress compound from garlic. W.. garlic advisory 63. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".Garlic-in-Oil 61. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF) Retrieved 2009-01-30. Lett.". 52.blogspot. Fuwa Long UK Medicines Information. ^ a b c d Hogg.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ^ Macpherson et al. ^ a b McNally. Agents Chemother. ^ http://www.html 45. PMID 11600262. 37.

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Macpherson.crazychefs. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. "The Onion Family: Onions. SunWook Hwang. PMC: 538912. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Bernhard http://www. (1997). 31 (6): 904–8. doi:10. Samer R. Eid. Michael Bandell. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". (1998). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". et al. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. S. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Steiner M. (1999).. D.12. 49 (1): 473.49. Veena Viswanath.K.Lindsey J. Kadam. Abstract. et al... PMID 2291748. http://aac. Neil A (1994). H.. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Salunkhe. Leeks". ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. et al. Antimicrob. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111– "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Silagy C. Scribner. PMID 15616341. Patel R (January 2005). Yeh.2005. Harold (2004). Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). Cardiovasc. J. pp. Lin RS (June 1998).wkhealth. PMID 8169881. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.1128/AAC. Geierstanger. Steckelberg JM. Marcel Dekker. Shuford JA. (eds). Garlic. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Y-Y. Pharmacol. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209.asm. Agents Chemother. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin".473. Mader FH (October 1990). Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient.1. Y-Y. In: Ohigashi. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID Yeh. 310–3. . McGee.

and Sri Lanka. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. Cloves are harvested when 1. it is called đinh hương.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum.5-2 cm long. In Vietnam. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. and consist of a long calyx. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia.crazychefs. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the . Zanzibar.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. terminating in four spreading sepals. Pakistan. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal http://www. after which they develop into a bright red. Madagascar. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. syn. when they are ready for collecting.

they are used . but with the addition of other spices). it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house.[1] In north Indian cuisine. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. often in combination with cumin. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. where it is often paired together with cumin and http://www. In Vietnamese cuisine. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. During Christmas. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). but as they are extremely strong. warm and aromatic. especially for digestive problems. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. Cloves are used in cheeses.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. along with other spices. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. entering the kidney. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. it is used in almost all dishes. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia.000 tonnes). spleen and stomach meridians. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. cloves are often used to season pho broth. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. which sells Djarum Black. In south Indian cuisine. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. Cloves are used as a carminative.

The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD.[7] Nevertheless. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). were highly prized in Roman times. including cloves.P. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. mainly from the Maluku Islands. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels.[5] In West Africa. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. It is also used in severe burns. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). including Bacan. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. http://www. vomiting and diarrhea. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe.crazychefs. Makian. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. stomach qi downward. along with nutmeg and pepper. pimples .[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. In the late fifteenth century. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. and Zanzibar. Ayurvedic herbalist K. most of the West Indies. RH (AHG). Khalsa.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). including for multiple sclerosis. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. and Tidore. a kg costing around 7 g of gold.[6] History Until modern times. Moti. Subsequently.[7] Cloves. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency.

Vintage ^ Dorenburg. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. ^ . beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. Erich Stoger. pp. ^ http://oneearthherbs. crategolic acid. http://www. 94. ©2003. rhamnetin.crazychefs. ^ Balch. Alan. Avery Publishing. xv. Steven Clavey.nlm. Steven Clavey. Spice: The History of a Temptation. Third Edition by Dan Bensky.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ^ a b Turner.squarespace. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. pg. Jack (2004).[8] Notes and references 1. http://www. ^ "TibetMed . Medicine Plus. and Andrew Gamble. 5. Erich Stoger. Andrew and Page. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.. tannins. gallotannic acid. ISBN 0-375-70705-0.html National Institutes of Health. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". Karen. ©2000.. 2. due to the high price of importing them.html Tilotson. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7.htm. James. Special Diets for Illness 6. methyl salicylate (painkiller). comprising 72-90%. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". cloves were worth at least their weight in gold.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. 8. John Wiley and Sons Inc. stigmasterol and campesterol. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. and several sesquiterpenes. Phyllis and Balch. the flavonoids eugenin. and eugenitin. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. 3rd ed.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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Specification".88. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. http://www. http://www.atypon-link. ^ http://www. NPR.1542/peds. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. (2005).) -. 18 May 2009 ^ Lederer.5555/jaoi. while Lederer et al.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. Retrieved 10 November. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -.2004-0058. Retrieved 8 June 2009.Botanical nomenclature". Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. 3.2005.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 .org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.chinaios. Ines et al. doi:10. (2006).htm?csnumber =4844. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn.htm?csnumber=19183. Vaishali C. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. PMID 15492355. http://www. ^ International Organization for Standardization.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 .com/BZ-shuju/standshow. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". Retrieved 8 June 2009. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. 6. Retrieved 8 June 2009. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706.3. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS doi:10. http://www. f. f.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. et al.703. ^ International Organization for Standardization.iso. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角".Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". 5. ^ Louisa Lim.crazychefs. .1021/jf058156b.

pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum .crazychefs. native from the east Mediterranean to East India. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum.

in northwestern China.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. being oblong in shape. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. locally called "Kermun".[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. cumin is known as kimyon. in Turkey. cumin is known as zireh. parsley and dill. maduru. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. In Northern India and Nepal. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. a member of the parsley family. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds.crazychefs. longitudinally ridged. in Iran and Central Asia. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ .(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by http://www. and yellow-brown in colour. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". including kamūnu in Akkadian. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. the story goes. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. In Arabic. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Kerman.

Egypt. and Chile. Uzbekistan. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today).net/ . Turkey. and this practice continues in Morocco. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. Morocco. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. when added to hot milk and consumed. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Mexico. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. India. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. Syria. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. Tajikistan. today it is mostly grown in Iran.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Seeds. In Sri http://www. In South Asia. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold.crazychefs.

It is an herbaceous annual plant. curry powder. adobos. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). thread-like leaflets. Sri Lankan.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. Indian. It is traditionally added to chili. and bahaarat. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. Contrary to popular belief in the US. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and . Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. and is found in achiote blends. curries. Northern Mexican cuisines. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. sofrito. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tacos. Pakistani. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. and borne in umbels. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. either ground or as whole seeds. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. pinnate or bipinnate. garam masala. Cuban. and in some traditional breads from France. white or pink. Middle Eastern. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall.crazychefs. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. enchiladas. containing a single seed. The flowers are small. Today. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. but are smaller and darker in colour. Cumin's distinctive flavour and http://www. North African. and other Middle-Eastern. popular in Indian. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine.

Sugars 2.81 g 8. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 g Fat . Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).27 g 17. sown in spring. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.435 mg Folate (Vit.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. and needs fertile. Cultivation of cumin requires a long. However.Dietary fiber 10.24 g 22.crazychefs. it is drought-tolerant.saturated 1.7 mg Vitamin E 3. It is grown from .4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.33 mg Vitamin K 5.very common in Mexican cuisine.327 mg 22% Niacin ( http://www. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. hot summer of 3–4 months. well-drained soil.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B3) 4. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes. 64 μg 44.25 g . Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well. B2) 0.579 mg Vitamin B6 0.

Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. In Swedish. to . lighter in colour. a chemical found in turmeric. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin".Zinc 4. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.). For example. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. However.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron.a small cat). another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground http://www. In Polish the difference is even less significant.crazychefs.a cat and 'kotek' . Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.v. as in 'kot' . and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). Not related to curcumin. from the Swedish word "spisa". unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day.

Retrieved 2008-03-13. et al. from China".1002/ Rong.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. 206 ^ Growingtaste. Domestication of plants in the Old World.05.html Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). ^ "KMN.foodreference.ars-grin. doi:10.1021/jf0487351.030.1016/ . "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. 9. http://www.aca. ^ a b Iacobellis. ^ a b c Li. ^ http://www. (2005). ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN".arsgrin. ^ "Kamūnu. 2000." premiumwanadoo. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 .". and Carum carvi http://www. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . doi:10. 8. Essential Oils". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. third edition (Oxford: University Press.77. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. p. doi:10. Nicola S. Lu et al. (2009)." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition).1302. ^ a b 3. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. 2000). 2. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. www. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria 7.313. 4. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L.

com http://www. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.

Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. cineol. shogaols and gingerols. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. West Africa and the Caribbean. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. sedative. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). and citral) have also been identified. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β . bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. In laboratory animals. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. and galangal. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. or spice.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. cardamom.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www.

cookies. [edit] Regional use In India. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. which makes swallowing easier. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. Ginger is also made into candy. In South India. salt. and tender green chili peppers. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. Additionally. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. in Tamil Nadu. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. especially in the Tanjore belt. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. or frozen for longer term storage. and sugar.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. Ginger has a sialagogue action. crackers and cake. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. enchi in Malayalam. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. Adrak. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. and ginger beer. Inji in Tamil. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. in Gujarati. nuts. For storage. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. to which honey is often added. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. particularly gingerols and shogaols. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common.crazychefs. stimulating the production of saliva.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. ginger . ghee. Alay in Marathi.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allam ( ) in Telugu. and Aduwa in Nepali. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable http://www. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked.

The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. and making drinks such as sorrel. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. during their occupation of the islands. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. However. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. In Burma. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. Greece. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). In Arabic. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. and a variety of nuts and seeds. In China. is made. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. parkin and ginger biscuits. ginger is called gyin. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. On the island of Corfu. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. ginger snaps. In the Caribbean. In Japan. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. . ginger is ground and mixed with orange. In Vietnam. gingerbread. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku.crazychefs. In the traditional Korean kimchi. In Western http://www. In the Ivory Coast. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. a type of ginger beer. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process.

crazychefs.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. including warfarin.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. cough and cold. though it does interact with some medications. though studies been inconsistent.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. morning sickness and http://www. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. which several scientific studies support. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for .[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11].

crazychefs. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. bloating.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. In China. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use.[14] In Congo. reducing "winds" in the blood. In the United States. which is considered a panacea. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. gas.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning http://www. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. people use ginger for making tea. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. and although it's generally recognized as safe. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. In Indonesia. and heart rhythms. ginger can cause heartburn.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. and individuals who have had ulcers. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. belching and nausea. In India. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. it is considered good for a sore throat.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . clotting. in food etc. In Burma. particularly if taken in powdered form.

the root is gathered when the stalk withers. replacing China.crazychefs. which has slipped to the second position (~20. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. with over 30% of the global share. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. produces black ginger. applied generally to the older and poorer roots.7%). but this generally reduces its value. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) http://www. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. Traditionally. it is immediately scalded. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm . The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 158. or washed and scraped. now leads in global production of ginger.000 F 177. followed by Indonesia(~12. Scalding. Production trends India. Nepal(~11.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. washing and scraping gives white ginger. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming.5%) and Nigeria(~10%).5%).

arsgrin.contains ginger material References 1. the flower buds are the part eaten.ars-grin. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. Retrieved 2008-03-03.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan .000 28. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".com http://www. is used in cooking and medicine.000 34.000 8. A = Aggregate(may include F = FAO estimate. Also referred to as galangal. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . semiofficial or estimates).445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).270 is also known as "wild ginger". . 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family. but it is not related to true ginger. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai.000 42. a carcinogenic compound. Asarum canadense. Galangal is also called Thai ginger.000 57. and its root has similar aromatic properties. www. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138.crazychefs.

3. doi:10. 9. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by . Retrieved 2007-08-06. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". 10. ^ "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". MPH (1998).H..ucla.htm&pub_i d=8& Retrieved 5 November. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. Tin-Yun 12. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". doi:10. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. Retrieved 2007-08-02. ^ ^ Al-Achi.html.2006. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). PMID 9821826.oxfordjournals.crazychefs. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153.1021/jf071460f. Ali Taghizadeh et al. Retrieved 2007-0808. 13. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". doi:10. Mary.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). ^ Ernst. ^ Al-Amin. New York: Scribner pp. & Pittler. ^ Afshari. et al. "Ginger". "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. http://www. MD.1016/j.1001/archfami.). (01 Mar 2000).com 5. Retrieved 2006-09-06. doi:10. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). (2006).7. 425-426. http://timeblog. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. http://bja. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". Kathi Kemper. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). http://unitproj. Susan (2007-01-15).cfm?displayID=15. Antoine. PMID 10793599. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". Kim Farrell. 6. "Beverage of Champions". & MSt. Jaw-Chyun.library. M. 14. MD. Shih-Lu Wu. Zainab M. Li-Jiau Huang. ^ MD O' http://www. (2007).com/china_blog/2007/01/the_beverage_of_champions_1. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Chen.foodchem. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. Sheng-Chu Kuo. MD.html.cambridge.523. http://journals. E. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. David Kiefer. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006).01. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. http://www. Harold (2004). 4. 8. http://www. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. Zingiberaceae. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. and to impart color to mustard condiments. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in . In medieval Europe. for dyeing. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. Erode. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. slightly bitter. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. For these reasons. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy.

relishes. turmeric is also used fresh. but also in masak lemak. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. dairy products.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. and many more. gelatins.Yellow City. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern . ice cream. not only in curry. yellow cakes. much like ginger. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. Turmeric City. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes.crazychefs. and mustard. popcorn color. In non-South Asian recipes. Over-coloring. cake icings. or Textile City. biscuits.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. such as in pickles. rendang. sweets. sauces. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. yogurt. etc. powdered form. Although usually used in its http://www. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. custardlike yellow color. orange juice.[citation needed] Sangli. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. cereals. . turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome.In combination with annatto (E160b). and other digestive disorders. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). Within one week of using turmeric. a traditional dish in South Asia. dry mixes. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. an uncurable and debilitating disease.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. are spiced with turmeric. is also treated with turmeric powder.[4] cancer. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. Japan. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. burns and bruises. It is unknown why it works. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. yogurt. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. Indians. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. In Afghanistan and northwest http://www. salad dressings. winter butter and margarine.

The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. Bangladesh. and colorectal cancer. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous . multiple myeloma. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. and the U. improves the absorption of turmeric. found in black pepper. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . with no adverse effects. which supports nerve growth. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. research activity into curcumin is exploding.S. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. or BDNF. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. Alzheimer's. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. In 1998 researchers at St. Bangalore. and Pakistan.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine.crazychefs. Snake Bite Anti venin. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. John‘s Medical College.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th http://www.

During the south Indian festival Pongal. This happens in economically lower http://www. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. such as saris.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. as a part of the marriage ritual. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. and coconut and cooked in steam. part of the Bengali wedding. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. Also.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. and it is used for power and purification .[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. However. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. In southern India. jaggery. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire.

07. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". ^ Chan. Joy D. (2009). Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. 6. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 .6E)-1. 2. http://www. Retrieved 2008-03-04.crazychefs. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.ars-grin. http://www. The systematic chemical name is ( ^ http://news.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect.1016/ http://www. Rajendran R. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. a polyphenol. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". Majeed M. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN".uk/1/hi/health/1668932.I. ^ Shoba Judy] (June 2009). Srinivas PS. 75300.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance.172. Retrieved June 2009.stm 5.aolhealth. AOL Health. keto and enol. 64(4):353-6. or Natural Yellow doi:10. et al.090. Notes ^ [|Ketteler. 1998 Planta Med.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1. E.foodchem. www. Joseph .ars-grin.

hence its name. which allows its use as a candle (see below).net/ . is a flowering tree in the spurge family. flowers. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed.4 in) in diameter.9 in) long. simple and ovate. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9–7. with an acute apex. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. Kemiri. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. The leaves are pale green. 4–6 centimetres (1.crazychefs.) Willd. 10–20 centimetres (3. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The nut is round. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites http://www. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree.6–2.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. also known as Candleberry. Euphorbiaceae. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). Indian walnut. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics.

they are mildly toxic when raw. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. The flavor. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. swollen joints. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. In Malaya. Outside of Southeast Asia. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or http://www. and gonorrhea. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. lit one end. On the island of Java in Indonesia. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. leaves and flowers.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. giving them greater underwater visibility. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. including: leis from the . In Java. pounded seeds. This led to their use as a measure of time. however. are applied around the navel for costiveness. is quite different. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. the nuts. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. as the candlenut is much more bitter. In Sumatra. burned with charcoal. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors.crazychefs. named kukui were burned to provide light. ulcers. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. fevers. In Hawaiʻi. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. a varnish with the oil. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke.

was routinely beaten. ISBN 9780824822514. This larva is eaten by some people. still nowadays. used as soap or shampoo. Mikiala http://books. Bess Press. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil.). 2. ISBN 9781573061377. 26. 5. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants.[citation needed] References 1. tukilamulamu. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. ^ "Kukui".google. Betty. pp. despite her best efforts to please her husband. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). Retrieved 2009-03-06. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). "Chapter 4: Canoes". Beatrice H. (1993). the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. and the husband was eventually killed. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua' University of Hawaii . Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. protection and peace. ^ http://canoeplants. the god of agriculture. ^ Dunford. http://books. http://books.crazychefs. ^ Scott. Liana I. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ripe nuts. 50-51. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. Being a kind and just woman.html.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing.[5] In Tonga. University of Hawaii Press. 4. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). One of the legends told of a woman who. Susan. Craig Thomas (2000). p. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). 122. Lilinoe http://www. she was given new life. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. p. In plantations. Finally. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international

unrelated plants. dark red when fully mature. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. The terms pink peppercorns. containing a single seed. Peppercorns. . Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of http://www.crazychefs. Malayalam:kurumulaku. However. red pepper (as in bell or chile). Konkani:miriya konu. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cultivated for its fruit.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper . and very often simply pepper. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. . is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. Telugu:miriyam. known as a peppercorn when dried.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. . . Kannada:meNasu. The fruit. green pepper. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. white pepper. may be described as black pepper.

chemical or biological methods. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. and the naked seed is dried. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. wrinkled black layer. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English http://www. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with the skin of the pepper removed. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days.. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. and other similar forms. this was shortened to pep. Dutch peper. White pepper consists of the seed only.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week.[4] In the U. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. including decortication. French . the spice is called black peppercorn. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. in the early 20th century.S. often alongside table salt. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. Once dried. In the 16th century. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant.

are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. unpreserved green pepper berries. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. made from the largest. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius).[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with a bright aroma. like black. the Peruvian pepper tree. particularly Thai cuisine. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of http://www. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. is made from the unripe berries. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. Schinus molle.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry.crazychefs. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. which is mostly no longer an issue. largely unknown in the West. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. from Bangka Island.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and . and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree.Black. also green. Schinus terebinthifolius. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. Fresh. Pickled peppercorns. green. are used in some Asian cuisines.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns".[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.

and before the fruit is mature.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. . tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. Competing plants are cleared away. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. It is a spreading vine. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. and ultimately fall off and are lost. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. The leaves are alternate. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. but when full grown and still hard. The cuttings are usually cultivars. The flowers are small. if allowed to http://www. the berries lose pungency. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. well-drained and rich in organic matter. moist. poles.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or trellises. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red.crazychefs. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year.[11] Black pepper is native to India.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees.

Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. its most important source was India. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. Chile peppers. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 http://www. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly the Malabar Coast.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. In fact.[14] J.crazychefs. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. in what is now the state of Kerala.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric .

or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. Sumatra. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. Madagascar.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. By the 16th century.Until well after the Middle Ages. this trade advantage. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. Malaysia. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. changed the course of world history. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. Returning from India. Black pepper. growing in the north-western part of India. but these areas traded mainly with China. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. barged to Alexandria. pepper was also being grown in Java. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. Long pepper. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. nor how it reached the Nile from . Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Trade routes of the time were by land. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. the Middle East. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. or used the pepper locally. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south.crazychefs. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. Sunda. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and http://www. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. the ships travelled up the Red Sea.

There is no evidence to support this claim. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat.[22] In addition. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. who travelled east to India. Similarly. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. is fifteen denarii per pound. I wonder." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice.. especially Venice and Genoa. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian http://www. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. if expensive. I season delicacies. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. the banquets of kings. clad in a wrinkled cover. Once into the Mediterranean. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. affordable only to the wealthy.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". pepper was a luxury item. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. and the luxuries of the table. it is sometimes their sweetness. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. 12. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. and the prices reflected it. Apicius' De re coquinaria. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them . whereas. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. After the fall of Rome. first the Persians and then the Arabs. seeing that in other substances which we use. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper .[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. while that of white pepper is seven. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well.crazychefs. four. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. and of black. seasoning in the Roman Empire." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. Yet within I bear a burning marrow.. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes.H. Edward Gibbon wrote. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside.

his representative replied.crazychefs. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. "we seek Christians and spices.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. Pepper. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. In the 17th . Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. especially in winter. the effect is small. A depiction of Calicut. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. Pepper harvested for the European trader. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. and salt-cured meats were common fare. In 1498. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. However. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). Today. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. has some antimicrobial properties. as well as around Africa.

The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. http://www. gangrene. being stronger. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. joint pain. earache. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE.."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. hoarseness. diarrhea.[25] In the 3rd century CE. insomnia. insect bites. lung disease. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. as well as she could for sneezing. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. but both were used. Long pepper. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. indigestion. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. liver problems. including long pepper. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). but if this estimated 10. either long or black. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. .500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. was often the preferred medication.[26] By the 12th century. oral abscesses.crazychefs. each load being equal to 223 lbs. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. heart disease. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel".000 pounds (4.. Like many eastern spices. Note the cook's pepper mill. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ".

and linalool. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients.[31] As a medicine. a mildly carcinogenic compound. Some sources say that piperine.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. which give citrusy. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. vitamin B. and toothaches. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. causing the sneezing. chapter .com http://www. caryophyllene. if any. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers.crazychefs. which is stripped of the fruit layer. Few. irritates the nostrils. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. The outer fruit layer. and floral notes.sunburn. Refined piperine. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. limonene.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. a substance present in black pepper. milligram-for-milligram. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. woody. sabinene. tooth decay.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. left on black pepper.[31] Also. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit.

India (19%). India. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. but has fallen to just over 271. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. and China (6%). Brazil (13%). Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century.000 t (391. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. The price of pepper can be volatile.000 t (299. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. Thailand (4%). Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. Sri Lanka (6%). by monetary value. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders").Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. the most widely traded spice in the world.crazychefs. Malaysia (8%). so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. dispensers of pre-ground pepper.000 short tons). for example.[35] By weight. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of .[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). As of 2008.[33] Once ground. are used for http://www.

pl?28589. 83 21. and Builder. ^ Peppercorns. p. Flora of China. p. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 13. doi:10. using almost none of its production domestically. M. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. 7. Retrieved 17 October 2006.poor crop ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. http://books. . Retrieved 2008-01-29. ^ a b Jaramillo.2307/ 14. Ramses II.crazychefs. Gernot (2006). 88. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pepper.[36] Notes 1. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). http://www. 20. 12. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". from Penzey's Spices.efloras. PMID 11302858. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The riddle's answer is of course however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. ^ Translation from Turner. http://www. ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. Random House. Retrieved 12 August 2006. 10. 17. Black pepper is marica.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581.da.htm. ISBN 0375407219. 2006-1120. 1969). Retrieved 13 November 2005. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. 4. 2. 200803-27.thehindubusinessline. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). Compass Point ^ J.amjbot. ^ Katzer. p. 19. ISBN 075653836X. ^ Dalby p. Vietnam dominates the export market. The Spice Trade.arsgrin.ars-grin. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 6. Egyptian Pharaoh. 93. 11. disease and weather. p http://www. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ Ochef. 3. Innes Miller. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. Alejandra (2001). Retrieved 2008-03-02. Spice. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. 80 16. www. ^ Innes Miller. The Hindu Business line.pd f.000 short tons). Retrieved 6 November 2005. http://www. 18.000 t (99. Text online. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. Using fresh green 9. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well.

References Dalby. also Turner pp. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". 2005. ISBN 0600-60235-4. D. 29. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper 31. Retrieved November 12.1365-2672. J. ^ Dalby p. ^ Jaffee p. 25. 428. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. doi:10. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". ^ "Karvy's special Reports . The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. 12. Alan (2002).org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. Dover. ^ Dalby p. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. 160. 30. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Deans (2000).crazychefs. 108–109.worldbank. Retrieved 2008-01-29.S. ^ Dalby pp. ^ a b James A.karvycomtrade. Prosper (2001). table 2. pp. ISBN 9781580084178. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. 2008-05-15. http://books.00969. Dangerous Tastes. CRC Press. 23. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF).accesstoinsight. Duke (1993-08-16).2000.1046/j. 156. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Buddhist Monastic Code II.pdf. 395. Larousse Gastronomique. 32. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122.ch05. Andrew (2002). ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). 10. Hamlyn. TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank).. http://www. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. ^ Jaffee p. 204. http://siteresources. "Spices. p. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. ^ Turner p. 77. 33. ISBN 0849336201. 2. purchase required. G. ^ http://www." 24. Davidson. 36. Berkeley: University of California Press.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper".x. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. Karvy Comtrade . 27. "Mill". 726. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Steven (2004). ^ U. 28. s_20080515_01. http://www. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.22. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. Jaffee. 35. 74–75. ^ Montagne. ^ a b McGee p. 34. ^ Turner p. Dorman and S. Full text at Blackwell website. ISBN 0520236742. p. ISBN 0521367085.

OCLC 61213802. Harold (2004). OCLC 56590708. London: Vintage Books. Turner. "Black Pepper and Relatives". yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Jack (2004). Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Spice: The History of a Temptation. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. 427– http://www. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. ISBN . annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). pp.McGee.

34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. yellow.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.64 g 0.17 g 0.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Central America and northern South America. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80.Pepper. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. green and orange.crazychefs.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for .224 mg Folate (Vit.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.Dietary fiber 1. B2) 0.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world. including red.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. Today. Peppers are native to Mexico. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. B1) 0. B3) http://www.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 2.40 g . Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". sweet.057 mg 4.

and "Maalu" means Vegetable.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. which has its roots in the word for pepper. such as Australia. "gele paprika".g. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. " In Japan. "groene paprika". Grilled. and Pennsylvania. g. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. like pasta. meaning pepper-fruit. It is eaten with fried noodles. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. India. were a highly prized condiment. At that time peppercorns. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. Across Europe. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. In Norway. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". the word ピーマン ("pîman. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. In British English. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. Indiana. "red pepper".. In parts of Ohio. regardless of their color. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. an unrelated plant. Sweden. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of http://www. In France it is called "poivron". In Argentina it's called "Morrón". In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". or "piment. With the similar meaning. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. meaning Big pepper. respectively). "Miris" is Chilli. in Dutch. Malaysia and New Zealand. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets).net/ . with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). they are called "capsicum". the term "paprika". "green pepper"). they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. meaning Bulgarian pepper. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. When cut off.crazychefs. which are green and yellow. In the United States and Canada. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. instead of using as a spice. the fruit of Piper nigrum.

the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. rainbow. in salads. purple. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. Varieties The color can be green. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. maroon. red. more . pink. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. aqua. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is eaten as a raw snack. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green.crazychefs. white. violet. black and brown. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. yellow. blue. yellow or orange peppers. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". in various soups and stews. orange and.

is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L.crazychefs.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita. also known as M. indigenous to http://www. [1]) is a hybrid . The plant.foodreference. ^ balsamea Willd.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).

Being a hybrid.31 in) long. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. noted since 1843[8]. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with smooth http://www. 84.6–3. and 120 recorded.6 in) cm broad.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. dark green with reddish veins.24– 0. blunt spikes. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed .[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. and bare fibrous roots. Flowering is from mid to late summer.crazychefs. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. The flowers are purple.5–4 cm (0. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England.59–1. 72. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. forming thick. If placed.5 in) long and 1. spreading by its rhizomes. The chromosome number is variable. he treated it as a species.20 in) diameter. including stream sides and drainage ditches. fleshy. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. it is usually sterile. square in cross section. 6–8 mm (0. with a few exceptions. with 2n counts of 66. it can grow anywhere.

Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. chewing gum.crazychefs. ice cream. confectionery. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. particularly menthyl acetate. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. and is often used as a flavouring in tea.[10] Similarly. and toothpaste. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured . thus promoting http://www. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007.1. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. Leaves wrinkled. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. New Zealand. If you choose to grow peppermint. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. Leaves mottled green and pale . A mild. which they then call "after-dinner mints. [16]. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20].[12] Outside of its native range. hairless. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. it is advisable to plant it in a container. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'.crazychefs. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. In addition to http://www. the Galápagos Islands. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. It needs a good water supply. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. [18]. Eau De Cologne Mint). They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden.[13] and in the United States. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. as a natural insecticide. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. Leaves aromatic. Stems reddish. [21]. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Foliage lime-scented. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. and it is considered invasive in Australia.

^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3.dld. 11.02. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. (1975). Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. C. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". Retrieved 3 June 2009. ^ a b Huxley. (1992). Thomson Healthcare. A. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". Mehmet (2004).org/en/node/199. http://www. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. 6. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. & Grey-Wilson. Mentha L. C. C. ISBN 978-1563636783 (1989). . New RHS Dictionary of Gardening..a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 .Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. ^ a b Blamey.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. 7. ed. Flowers open from bottom up. ^ Harley. R.2007.1016/j. a popular confection. Retrieved 2009-02-07.glu. 4th Edition. doi:10. (1753). G. A. http://www. 2. ^ Linnaeus. 5. http://whqlibdoc. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats".. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. page 640. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". ^ Cappello. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. ^ World Health Organization. ^ a b Akdogan. 9. et al. In: Stace.006. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines..pdf. M. (2007). Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387.who.crazychefs.

sagepub. 27.htm?csnumber=32041. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. Australia".org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. (2007). Bienvenu (1999).htm. Retrieved 3 June. ^ Sharma. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .org/iso/catalogue_detail. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. Ambika et al.257. http://www. Derek R. ^ International Organization for Standardization. paraquat.1071/AP99036..crazychefs. and Mentha spicata L. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". Bienvenu (1998).org/books/629/ Retrieved 8 June 2009.E. http://tih. Retrieved 6 June 2009. Zheljazkov. ^ Akdogan.1151.122. (2004). 19. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. ^ Farley.wiley.2740311104. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats".iso.Specification".net/ . Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. http://het. http://www. F.actahort.224. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. http://www. Retrieved 6 June 2009.htm?csnumber=4844. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv.sagepub. ^ Adamovic. on kidney tissue in rats". Valerie Howland (2006). Retrieved 3 June.S. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)".iso. 20. doi:10. http://www. Frédéric et al. Retrieved 3 June. Mehmet et al. doi:10. doi:10. http://het. Plant Cell. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. Retrieved 7 June 2009.16.1002/jsfa. 21.actahort. 22. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 ..10): 119 . http://www. ^ International Organization for Standardization. 26. ^ V. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature".D. ^ a b c Jullien. J. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 .sagepub. 25.. F. Retrieved 3 June. Mehmet (2003). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 .iso. Retrieved 7 June et al. S. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint".)".org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.)".159. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -.1023/A:1006185103897.htm?csnumber=11633. 24. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 . http://www3. 18. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .219. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ Akdogan.28. D.

porrum (L. Allium ampeloprasum var. along with the onion and garlic. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Two related vegetables. is a vegetable which belongs. to the Alliaceae family. the elephant garlic and kurrat. also sometimes known as Allium porrum.) J. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or http://www. although different in their uses as food. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. porrum (L.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.Gay The .). porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. ampeloprasum var.

overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. and they have few pest or disease problems. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching).com http://www. and overwintering leeks. Once established in the garden.crazychefs. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. leeks are hardy. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. intended for harvest in the season when planted. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to be planted out as weather permits. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature . Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months.

122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In its raw http://www. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than . Lamb is the most popular. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. The tender core may be eaten.Cuisine Leeks for sale. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. The onion-like layers form around a core. due to the layered structure of the leek. as the leek ages. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. but. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. along with leek soup. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. carrots and potatoes and different meats. Raw. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup.crazychefs. although less bitter than scallion. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. which can be used in salads. Fried. which turns it soft and mild in taste. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient.

166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. B2) 0.15 g 0.4 mg Vitamin B6 0. B1) 0.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.9 g .5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit. 83 μg 14.E. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.C.3 g . as well as other recipes with leeks. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. B3) 0.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B. as well as wall carvings and drawings. onwards.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.saturated 0.004 g .crazychefs. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.E. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.monounsaturated 0.Sugars 3.C.8 g Fat .04 g . led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.polyunsaturated 0. who consumed it most often in soup. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" http://www.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.233 mg Folate (Vit.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero. In her book.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .Dietary fiber 1.

Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc http://www. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. According to one legend. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. for example.crazychefs. David‘s Day. In the play.12 mg recommendations for adults. good countryman. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. you know. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am .Vitamin E 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. representing Wales. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. Shakespeare. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field.

3.crazychefs. Knopf. third edition (Oxford: University http://www. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.p. Domestication of plants in the Old World. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. 1978.. (Penguin Books. Mireille. ^ . 2000). French Women Don't Get Fat.Notes 1. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. ^ Jane Grigson. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2.

Dietary fibre 1.Sugars 2 g 3g .6 g Fat Protein Water 0.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium .com http://www. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.crazychefs. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.2 g 0. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. Celery. dulce) or celeriac (var. with fewer than 100 individuals left. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.

these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. Celery is a staple in many soups. onions. birds. such as chicken noodle soup. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. horses. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. onions. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). Celery salt is used as a http://www. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. celery is also grown for its seeds. often used as a base for sauces and . Actually very small fruit. and in Old Bay Seasoning. Celery. and small rodents. Celery. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. 30 AD. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. as celery salt. dogs. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. on the Chicago-style hot dog.crazychefs.In temperate countries. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. squirrels. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed].[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats.

[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. have to be clearly marked as http://www. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. they note "since A. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC).[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac.crazychefs. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. M.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. at Kastanas. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. However. making avoiding such foods difficult. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. In Homer's Iliad.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides.[8] In the European Union. for people with celery allergy. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. however.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Lemnos and Thebes. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. Celery contains androstenone. father of the Cabeiri. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. foods that contain or may contain celery. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. even in trace amounts. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central . The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso.

The plants are raised from seed. but the leaves may be used in salads. seleri. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. as the Grace of the whole Board".. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. and its seeds are those sold as a spice.[14] With cultivation and blanching. 2–3 mm diameter. and a distinctive smell. from the Latin selinon. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. insect damage and rot). the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. They are ranged under two classes. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. produced in dense compound umbels. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. In the past. due to extremely uniform crop growth. The wild form of celery is known as http://www. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. Under optimal conditions. cracks. splits. apium Italicum. at our Great Mens tables. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. many of which differ little from the wild species. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). fields are harvested only once. earthy taste. In North America. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. borrowed from Greek. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. . and Praetors feasts. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. and the most crisp and tender. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. sweetish. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic.crazychefs. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. white and red..5–2 mm long and wide. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. The flowers are creamy-white.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. mainly in having stouter leaf stems.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. the whole plant having a coarse. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. straightness and thickness of petiole. shape.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

crazychefs.[16] References 1. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. ^ Pliny.. 3. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. ^ OED. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. ^ R. Post-harvest technology research and information center. (3rd ed. P. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. Scheiner O. ^ D.17:1697-1699. T. Kraft D.6 (June 1993): 610-611. 1920).. ^ William Robinson and W. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Radauer C. http://postharvest. 2003.v. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F).. 2000) p. http://www. de Medicina. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. and proper sanitation. "Celery". gentle handling. (2005). . 14. 9. West J. Natural History XIX. Heiner DC. p. et al. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". Retrieved 2009-05-03. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. Thomson. M. ^ Bublin M. Retrieved 2008-03-04. Thayer translation [1] 4. (2002-06-10). Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. 13.ucdavis. 12. Zohary and M. 8. 15. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. ^ Celestin J. C (1753). Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". http://www. ^ Teng CM. 2. Ko SN.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). M. ^ Celsus. Western Journal of Medicine 158. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. 16. 10. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. Lee LG. ^ snopes. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. Holmiae.shtml. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. Suslow. ^ Calcium sources 7. ^ a b Fragiska. Wilson IBH.L. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. (Laurentii Salvii). Domestication of Plants in the Old ^ Cantwell. s. ^ "Smallage".com: Celery and Negative Calories 6. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality".202.46.

see Sugar (disambiguation).com http://www. see sucrose.Sugars 96. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.21 g .Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates . (Discuss) For other uses.Sugars 99.98 g 0g 0g . Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars. B2) 0.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.crazychefs. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.91 g .Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. Sugar. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates . Magnification of grains of sugar. For the common table sugar.

obesity and tooth decay.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.77 g Thiamine (Vit. and in many other sources. sugar maple (in maple syrup).com http://www. and fructose.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. sorghum.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. mainly sucrose.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.026 mg Folate ( . lactose.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Water 1.crazychefs. but also appears in fruit. It forms the main ingredient in candy. honey. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. B2) 0. B1) 0. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1.

sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. zahari. "dextrose". including palm sugar and fructose. (Compare the OED. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". preservation. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. Generically known as "syrups".) will likely denote a sugar.crazychefs. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. such as glucose. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet.Popular In non-scientific use. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). the Italian word zucchero. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açú . Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. and texture) of beverages and food. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). means "pebble".[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. Scientific Scientifically. In a list of ingredients. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). Etymology In the case of http://www. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. the Spanish word azúcar. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars.[4] It came to English by way of French. "fructose". Spanish and/or Italian. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. molasses or treacle. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars").) The Greek word for "sugar". generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. In this informal sense. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. etc.

Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). A notable exception. syrups and fruit juices. important molecules in the body.crazychefs. Sugars include monosaccharides. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. and 4 or more monosaccharide units http://www. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7.Culinary sugars Grainier. Natural sugars come in fruit. making the sugars reactive. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. This includes all the sugars referred to above. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. plus sugars naturally present in honey. as its name suggests. has a "missing" oxygen atom. disaccharides. 2. deoxyribose. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cook or consumer. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). where there are carbon-oxygen double .containing 1. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. 3. raw sugar.

producing invert sugar. with less than 0. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11.made from one glucose and one fructose). Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in http://www. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. sugar will burn with a blue flame. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). lactose (milk sugar . Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . fructose. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. This resulting syrup. If combined with fine ash. After digestion and absorption.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot . sweeter than the original sucrose. or DNA. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. proteins connected to one or more sugars. In these closed-chain forms. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance.water (H2O) per bond. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture.crazychefs. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. which has the formula C6H12O6. which form part of nucleic acids. Note for example glycoproteins.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. including NADH and ATP. and galactose. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. glucose. Monosaccharides include fructose. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. which is made of glucose. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. galactose and mannose.

80 g/ml Notes . 4.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. The International Sugar Trade. 5.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0.Bulk Density Chart. James. Blackwell Publishing.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0.illovosugar. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. ISBN 1566398320. link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. Sugar Blues.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 2.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7.crazychefs." http://men. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. ^ "Engineering Resources . Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. Glyn (2004).htm 3. 1996. Temple University Press. Cambridge: Woodhead. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Joseph and Mike Carlson. History of Science and Technology in Islam." Powder and Bulk References ^ Wuebben. Michael (January 2001). ISBN 063205476X. ^ scientificpsychic. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. OCLC 51837990 84251137. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. A C Hannah. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. OCLC 44493265. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar http://www.

simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. Brown sugar contains from http://www. especially in the Netherlands.25% of the total volume).5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs.35 mm. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. Although in some areas. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. Products for industrial use (e. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses.g. sugar beet molasses is used. It is. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead.5% molasses (dark brown sugar)." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling.crazychefs. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. for light brown . with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. without mixing them separately.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. however. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses.

crazychefs. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. apart from pure carbohydrate. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. History In the late 1800s. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white http://www. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. in his studies (cited in "Pure. Nutritionally. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. much like adding molasses would do. The effort was so successful that by 1900. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white . which did not have full control over brown sugar production.[2] John Yudkin.[1] However. In other applications. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. as opposed to white sugar. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. White and Deadly" . Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry.

Harvey. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. http://www. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice.crazychefs. cane sugar.wholesomesweeteners. light brown. 7. where sugar cane was grown.htm#sugarmade. light brown. centrifuged.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. 3. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. resulting in the characteristic large. http://www. 32-33 dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar.csrwire.".fao. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made.php?id=3026. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". http://www.1.3 fao. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ an island off Africa. but most is now produced in binado_Sugar. Demerara is another unrefined. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". 2003. Muscovado. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). Some Demerara is still produced in South America. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of ^ Levenstein. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. . References 1. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 4.wildernessfamilynaturals. giving it a higher mineral content. ^ New 6. 2. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. Retrieved 2008-09-20. largecrystalled. which is then crystallized. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. or Demerara sugar. Retrieved 2008-09-20.

including humans. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. are necessary for the survival of all known living http://www. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. and iodized salt. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. Chloride and sodium ions. white. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). the two major components of .[citation needed] Conversely. refined salt (table salt). Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content.crazychefs. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). It is a crystalline solid. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. which some use to prevent caking. including high blood pressure. pale pink or light gray in color. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. but toxic to most land plants.

[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). especially for .[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure. the caravans still transported some 15.000 tons of salt.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. salt provided the best-known food preservative.crazychefs.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC. In 1960. glass. in the millennia before then. and the dye Tyrian purple. however. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. as were salted birds and salt fish. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.

" and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf http://www.Salzburg.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". salz." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. During the first millennium BC. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. a root for salt found in Celtic. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your . (Judges 9:45.) In the Sermon on the Mount. the Hallstatt Celts. water. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. began open pan salt making.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. and Egyptian.crazychefs. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. Greek. God sent down four blessings from the sky .[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork".[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. In many Pagan religions esp. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. Hallstatt. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). which was illegal under British rule. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water.[citation needed] The root hal(l). Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. taking their names from hal(l)-. Halych in Ukraine. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". though incorrectly. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. the Roman exonym for the Celts.also gave us Gaul.[1] It is widely. who had heretofore mined for salt. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife.

Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian . salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. such as in Sumo http://www.In the native Japanese religion Shinto.crazychefs. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. In Aztec mythology. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. Halite.[9] The Ancient Egyptians.

In recrystallization. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. and thus is rarely eaten. One example are bath salts. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. which is most widely used presently.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. natural sea salt harvested by hand.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. Purification usually involves recrystallization.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. Injected water dissolves the salt. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide.Different natural salts have different mineralities.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. which are kiln-dried.crazychefs. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics.5% of salt production. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic . and the making of soaps and detergents. Today. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. food uses account for 17. is mainly sodium chloride.[12] http://www. After the raw salt is obtained. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. Refined salt. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. giving each one a unique flavor. Fleur de sel. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). has a unique flavor varying from region to region. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight.

Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. fatty acid salts (acid salts).154 g/cm3. calcium silicate. sodium aluminosilicate. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . and calcium aluminosilicate. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. Table salt has a particle density of 2. condiments such as soy sauce. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. magnesium oxide. but was determined to be unnecessary. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate.[29] However.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. however. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Some people also add a desiccant.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. calcium or magnesium carbonates. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. and a bulk density (dry. Single-serving salt packets.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution.crazychefs.165 g/cm3.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. Table salt Table salt is refined http://www. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. silicon .

35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. or even an electrolyte disturbance. or sodium iodate. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. specifically endemic goiter. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. The reason for this is http://www. sodium iodide. fluorinated table salt is available. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. which can cause severe. and myxedema in adults. In the United States. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. cretinism in children. especially important for pregnant women. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. which gives the table salt a yellow color.[33] Drinking too much water. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). dizziness.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. magnesium. In France. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. potassium. even fatal. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt.[31] Today. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101.crazychefs. which can cause goitre. neurological . The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. with insufficient salt intake. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck.[32] Another additive. iodized salt is more common in the United States.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. In Canada.

such as in treatment of dysautonomia. independently of blood pressure effects.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy.[38] heartburn. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid." ([41] p3)." ([41].[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. It can exacerbate renal disease. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. forced salt intake.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women." ([41]. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. in Japan. p18) . p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." ([44].[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention).[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment.crazychefs. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. can cause hypernatremia. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. combined with an inadequate intake of water. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 http://www. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. salt consumption is higher. since salt was quite valuable). as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased.

such as the Yanomami in South America. However."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. SACN states. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate http://www.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. have been found to consume little . and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. for a typical adult. A salt mill for sea salt. Some isolated cultures. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium.crazychefs.6 g or 70 mmol sodium).[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. but achievable population goals.[50].

low in fat. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. which will increase potassium intake.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free".). Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0.300 mg of sodium (= 2. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt.6g sodium). then that is a medium level of salt. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/ .[57] In March 2007. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). When other health claims are made about a food (e.3 g sodium = 5. One manufacturer. calories.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. Those who have kidney failure. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. Amber (Medium).com http://www. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation. "low". LoSalt. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996.5g salt per 100g (or 0." In the UK.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. without recourse to salt substitutes. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it".1g sodium). maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium.'[55] Campaigns In 2004. Low is 0. etc.crazychefs. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. Australia. or Green (Low). a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.8 g salt) per day. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium.g. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures.[51] In the United States.

(Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. 2.crazychefs. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating 7. Notes Answers. such as brine wells and salt lakes. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. 8. Costs can reach staggering amounts.7). India (14. Retrieved 2008-12-14. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes.answers. ^ "Salt". New York: Robert Appleton Company. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). 4th edition". In 2002.5). and by mining rock salt. Dytac. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion.wikisource. and Hall in Austria. Catholic Encyclopedia. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. 3. Triamterene. and Canada (12. http://www.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in .prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: http://www. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. called halite. the top five producers being the United States (40. http://en. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application.9). Eplerenone and Inspra. 1913. 6. China (32. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3 million tonnes).3). 5. 4. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. Germany (

^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. ^ http://www. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. Kuemmel (1994). ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ Nauticus . ^ Iodized Salt 31.htm 19. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. ^ References on food salt & health issues. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. 12.interscience. sodium.Weather Curriculum 18. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. Retrieved 200907-08. salt manufacture. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans".co. ^ a b http://news. sodium. p. ^ HE-620 ^ David A. salt 11. Retrieved 2008-07-29. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states salt history. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". http://books. ^ Iodized Salt 32. 898 .907 37. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. Mason (2006-12-19). Fall/Winter 2006 10. salt ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. "The (Political) Science of Salt". Salt Institute.crazychefs. salt uses. 281. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. .htm. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. 10. 14 August 1998. Ask a Scientist.pdf 33. http://www. ^ Table 27. ^ What is Salt?.com/reports/salt 16. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry no. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39.afssa. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. J.9. Salt Institute. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 2008 29.9% sodium chloride http://www.dep. Transportation Research Board. Retrieved 2009-0708. http://www3. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. salt uses. Victoria) Salt 34. ^ Gary Taubes.stm 38. 28.htm 15. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. ^ B.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt).9% sodium by weight which equals 5379. ISBN Epikouria Magazine. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations.

uk/cash/. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). ^ Understanding labels 55. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. D. 62. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. ^ Susan R. Norton & Co. Sodium chloride. Further reading Kurlansky. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. and S.crazychefs. Published online 2005.06. ^ Cook NR. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. ^ U. Schindler. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. ISBN 0393320197. Feldman. 2007. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. 7. 2006. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) http://www. New York. 61. ^ Salt TV ads 59. 47-50. New York: W. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. The Mummies of Ürümchi.pub2 References Legal Medicine 2005.40. doi:10. New York: Walker & Co. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) . ^ Salt Matters 60. doi:10.legalmed. http://www.hyp.P. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study.334(7599):885. Friedrich NY: G. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. Cutler JA. Salt: A World History. http://www.2004. ISBN 0802713734.W. The Story of Salt. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. BMJ. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. Barber. Putnam's Sons. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons.1016/j. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". Mark (2002). OCLC 48426519.. (accessed13 January 2007) 49. Mark.1002/0471238961. Sodium 28 January 2008. S.. OCLC 48573453. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. Obarzanek E et al.005 48. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. Erwin Koops.

David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Arts and traditions of the table. New York: Columbia University by Dr Trevor Beard.crazychefs. Department of Health. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. The Stationery Office. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ http://www. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . Salt: Grain of . Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . 2001.Laszlo. Pierre.

It can also be found in India. such as Cambodia. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. phrik khi nu(lit. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. Malaysia. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . found commonly in http://www. the Philippines and Singapore.crazychefs. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Indonesia. Vietnam. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. mainly Kerala. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. phrik thai. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black . as well as in neighbouring countries.

and can be found with colors maturing from green to . "Big things come in small http://www." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region.000 to 100. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine." which can best be described by the English equivalent. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones.000 on the Scoville pungency scale.crazychefs.

com http://www. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian).net/ . Thai hot. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. phrik khii nuu ( . and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. creating a rainbow effect. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. Thai). and then red. and go from green to yellow. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan.wikipedia.As well as the Malay word. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. and among the group of capsicum annuum. has peppers that point upward on the plant. The more decorative. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). Ladâ. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but slightly less pungent variety. orange.

Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. furrowed.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium http://www. It is a kind of celery. Unlike other root vegetables. about the size of a large potato. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. It has a tough. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. usually mashed. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which store a large amount of starch.crazychefs.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. gratins and baked dishes. it can also be used on its own. Celeriac has a celery . The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. or used in casseroles.

Dietary fiber 1.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. There are a number of cultivars available.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates .6 g 9. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. and 'Kojak'.net/ . 'Diamant'. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. Among them are 'Prinz'.2 g . Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables.3 g 1. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000.Sugars 1. 'Ibis'. Celeriac. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.crazychefs. especially in Europe.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. Celeriac http://www. rinsed. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

(Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. As a nightshade. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum http://www. The stem is often spiny. and see text The eggplant.crazychefs. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It bears a fruit of the same name. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). aubergine. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The flowers are white to purple. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an . It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall.

from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. and contains numerous small. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. used in the United States. New Zealand. The name eggplant. which are edible.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. soft seeds. the fruit is known as a "brinjal.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. 1500 CE. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. from Arabic al-badinjan." Aubergine and brinjal. The fruit is fleshy. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. History Solanum melongena. flower The plant is native to India. which is used in British English. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. The name aubergine. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs.crazychefs. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. In Indian and South African English. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". Australia. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) http://www. In the Caribbean Trinidad. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. but much larger in cultivated forms. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 . . Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. whiteskinned. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. or white. http://www. Some cultivars have a color gradient. and Tycoon. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. A much wider range of shapes. especially purple. shape and color. in white skin Dourga. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. There are even orange varieties.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. Pingtung Long. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Black Beauty. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. Dusky. Classic. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid.crazychefs. Traditional. slightly pendulous cucumber. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Burpee Hybrid. Black Magic.

it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. In the Caucasus. tahini. complex flavor. peanuts. it is called Begun ( ). stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. and garlic. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. As a native plant. and deep-fried. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Bangladesh. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. braised (紅燒茄子). It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. allowing for very rich . The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. for example in sambhar. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. In one dish. In Iranian cuisine. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. for example. or tamarind. and http://www. or other fillings and then baked. tahini. as in the related tomato. and masala and then cooked in oil. rice. as in the French ratatouille. The thin skin is also edible. or Eggplant Parmesan. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. along with the fish Hilsa. It can be sliced. the Arabian moussaka. It is often stewed. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. chutney. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. In some parts of India. It. curries.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred.crazychefs. battered. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. so that peeling is not required. tomatoes. as they are far less bitter. The fruit flesh is smooth.

and potato. Egypt. flea beetle. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in http://www. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and may be self-pollinated or . are also troublesome to eggplants. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. and spider mites. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. the most serious of which is Verticillium.) between plants. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. containing both female and male structures. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. Flowers are complete. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%).crazychefs. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This is called Beguni ( ). showing the inside. aphids. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms.) to 60 cm (24 in. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing.) between rows. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. such as tomato. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. For this reason. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. (Adults can be removed by hand. depending on cultivar.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. pepper (capsicum).

5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.( http://www. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B1) . P = official figure.19 g 1. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.039 mg 5.7 g 0.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world. F = FAO estimate.Dietary fiber 3. New Jersey is the largest producing state. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.Sugars 2.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.crazychefs. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. semi-official or estimates).[5] In the United States.35 g . B2) 0.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.

net/ . Brazil.16 mg Manganese 0. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.084 mg Folate (Vit. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). while 1. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive http://www.[8] On average.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed].2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. However. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported.Niacin (Vit.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B3) 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.crazychefs.01 mg/100g). A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.

leucoum. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. racemosum. H.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. aethiopicum. capsicoides). Scopoli's S. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. tongdongense. variegatum. There is an actual S. mainly by Dikii. rumphii. lasiocarpum. oblongo-cylindricum. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. brownii. such as agreste. subrepandum.C. Dunal. racemiflorum. ruber. multifidum. esculentum.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. violaceum. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena http://www. luteum.Varieties Solanum melongena var. inerme and subinerme at that time. which used to include Dunal's S.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S.-Lag. violaceum and viride. that of Blanco to S. Solanum oviferum Salisb. On the other hand. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. ovigera. edule. divaricatum. album. stenoleucum. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. Solanum longum Roxb. giganteum.crazychefs. Similarly. globosi. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. and (invalidly) by Sweet. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. ovigerum and S. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. inerme. But this is not correct. sinuatorepandum. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. were occasionally considered eggplant . aethiopicum. He also recognized varieties aculeatum.F. trongum. esculentum. S. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. Names for various eggplant types. insanum.

common. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. ISBN 1574445510. and Engineering by Yiu http://www. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. CRC Press. Footnotes 1. S. D. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). Technology.crazychefs. (2001). Handbook of Food . 2. Hui (2006). ^ Doijode.

Robert (2008-11-14).fao.3.caes. Toorenenbergen AW.crazychefs. Erich Hornbach. Dieges PH. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. Arq Bras . Miyachi Y. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2008-11-11. Retrieved 2007-04-24. Domino. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. Ebury Press. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. P. http://www. ^ Westerfield. . 1993 Number 6 9. 2008 10. Harish Babu * .) reveals female predominance.Aubergine 8.50(2):101-102 11. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). ^ "FAOSTAT". ^ SN Pramod. ^ Solanum melongena var. http://faostat. pp. ^ Health24. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004.pdf. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables.uga. Bruno Caramelli. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved http://pubs. ^ Kabashima K. 2004. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. Vol. Mahesh † and Y.* YP Venkatesh. A. ^ Edward F. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. 6. 18(1): 59-62 13.133(42):2081-3 12. Andréa Thomaz. N. 7. Tsenge Demana. volume 82 (nº 3). ^ Gerth van Wijk R. 5. ^ B. 202 Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. FAO. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). Retrieved 2009-07-01. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. Volume 329:437 August 5. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14.

was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Solanum lycopersicum. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. and have a weak. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. One species. both the stem and leaves are densely . with a serrated margin. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. The tomato is native to South America.4–0.8 in) across. It is a http://www. see section Fruit or vegetable below). lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. yellow. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. odd pinnate. syn. woody stem that often vines over other plants.crazychefs. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable.

whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. a barber-surgeon. However. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the http://www. smaller vegetable . originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. However. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. earlier in 1493. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe.[4] The large.crazychefs. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. cerasiforme. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. an Italian physician and botanist. a mutation from a smoother. ancestor of L. and cultivation began in the 1540s. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. in certain areas of Italy. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. lycopersicum. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. the other by currant tomatoes. lumpy tomato. They also took it to the . now Mexico City in 1521. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed].[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. tomatl. was the first European to take back the tomato. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. likely to be the original salsa recipe. corn and salt.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. The specific name. means "wolf-peach".[6] Gerard's Herbal. golden apple. meaning plump thing with a navel. who named it pomo d‘oro. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. according to Smith. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. The exact date of domestication is not known. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. such as Florence.

Gerard's views were influential. and as a garnish. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. British consul in Aleppo c. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon.crazychefs. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. The C. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids.[6] But by the mid-1700s. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. particularly Florida and http://www. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. Paella. most famously in Worthing. Thomas . Over the past 15 years. who ate tomatoes in Paris. By the mid-18th century. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. sent some seeds back to America. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. broths.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. Rick. In Victorian times. Charles M. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. 1799 – c. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). They may have been introduced from the Caribbean.M. and before the end of that century. The University of California. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses.largely plagiarized from continental sources. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. California. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France.[6] Nonetheless. but the fruit is safe). several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. ―within the last forty years. Currently. The Spanish tomato dish. and in general. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups.

[12] According to FAOSTAT. For processing tomatoes. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they are known as plum tomatoes. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in http://www. 18 September 2009. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. but a number of cultivars with yellow. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. pink.4 in) diameter range. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. black. through cherry tomatoes. orange. about 5mm in diameter. purple. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008.0 in) diameter. production and 35% of world production. California accounts for 90% of U. or white fruit are also available.6–2. the largest producer. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated.0–2.8 in) size as the wild tomato.S. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. and have a lower water content. green.crazychefs. It may be deleted after .4–0. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. Most cultivars produce red fruit. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. followed by United States and Turkey. China.

"Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes).[18] and productivity. plum tomatoes. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. along with zucchini.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. As in most sectors of agriculture. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications .2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. and are shaped like large strawberries. but unlike commercial hybrids. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually http://www. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. as well as heirloom tomatoes. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. based mostly on shape and size. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life.crazychefs. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. The definition of an heirloom tomato is .

[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other http://www. often via mail-order. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. they are bigger then cherry . nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. including yellow. Green Zebra (top right). which usually discourages fruit set. etc. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. and purple. low acidity. Red Boar).especially heirlooms . There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. black. some tomato cultivars . While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. ivory. Burracker's Favorite. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads.produce fruit in colors other than red. or bush. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). and lack of mealiness.cherry tomatoes are small and round. including Brandywine (biggest red). brown. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. Black Krim (lower left corner). though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. A variety of specific cultivars. but are smaller than plum tomato. or home growers interested in canning. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. Lucky Cross). multiple colors (Hillbilly. As an intermediate form. Determinate. although some determinate heirlooms exist. pink. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. white. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. et cetera.crazychefs. but must be bought as seed. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. they are often good choices for container growing. orange. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". disease and pest resistance.

[22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety.crazychefs. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. N nematodes. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. original state.verticillium wilt.tobacco mosaic virus. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. whiteflies. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. T . F . aphids. red spider mite. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. The stamens were. too. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. cabbage loopers. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants.fusarium wilt strain I & http://www. and A . the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As a floral device to reduce selfing. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. tomato fruitworms.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. flea beetles. In the wild. slugs. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. but manure or compost work well. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant.fusarium wilt strain I. carried by the beet leafhopper. The most common letters are: V . tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. which interrupts the lifecycle.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. tomatoes required cross-pollination.alternaria. cutworms. FF . and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. their traditional pollinators. As the name . and remain. entirely within the closed corolla.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas.

Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. or more often today. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial . Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. However. by cultured bumblebees. This is not the same as self-pollination. depending on variety. In an outside setting. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube.crazychefs. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. In more temperate climates. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. Unripe tomatoes are firm. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. as with most species. They may be recognized by their http://www. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch.

raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. In some studies lycopene.6 g 4g . Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. a subset of fruit. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Recently.crazychefs. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". Though it is botanically a berry. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. in pieces. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean http://www. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV . Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. The tomato is acidic. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). especially in cooked tomatoes.Sugars 2. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. and other antioxidants. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. or paste. They contain lycopene. carotene. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. as tomato sauce. anthocyanin.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .

The fruit is also preserved by drying. Embracing it for this protest connotation. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. They are bred to continue . fully functional.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. generally three feet tall or shorter. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. meaning covered with fine short hairs. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. Of regular leaves. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. These hairs facilitate the vining process. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight.5 °F). Determinate types are annual in all climates. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. Known for its tomato growth and production. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. whether because of pruning or flowering. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below http://www. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. or pickled. there are variations.5 °C (54. such as rugose leaves. Spain. it will not continue to ripen. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened.[28] In October 1965.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. and grow as a series of branching stems. initially decumbent. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). annually celebrates La Tomatina. although erect bush varieties have been bred. lateral buds take over and grow into other. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases.make salsa. often by sun. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. When that tip eventually stops growing. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil.crazychefs. vines. Tomato plants are dicots. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes).

Despite http://www. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna..e. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. making the Linnaean name correct. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum).[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. As a true fruit. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Therefore. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. This is because they are native to the Americas. angora leaves. tobacco. with both names found in the literature. "wolf-peach"). according to type.deeply grooved. plus 'persicum'. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. other insects. wolf. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. Similarly. and be dried/fermented before germination. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. genetic evidence (e. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). Technically. have the anthers fused along the edges. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination.[31] Their flowers. would be more correct. (derivation.crazychefs. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. However. These vary. However. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. butterflies.g. among cultivated species. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. chili peppers. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon.) H. i. appearing on the apical meristem. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. very small cavities. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. called locular cavities. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. which frequently used it and still do). This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. peach. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. moths.Karst. variegated. its flesh comprising the pericarp . 'lyco'. Other species in that family are potatoes. while paste tomatoes have very few.[32] while others are pollinated by flies.. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. or other external forces that present in the Americas.

S. together with its seeds. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. nutritional value. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. as are vegetables.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. 304)). and organizations.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. Corporations including Heinz. The U. . rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. Oregon. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10.S. However. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. size. from a culinary standpoint. http://www. Hedden (149 U.S. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. As noted above. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. flavor. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. cucumbers. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. disease tolerance. 1883. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. a tomato is the ovary. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. North Carolina. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. shape. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. University breeding programs are active in Florida.crazychefs. Monsanto. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. pest tolerance. and numerous other traits. Livingston. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. AVRDC. New York. U. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically.S. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. Ohio. of Reynoldsburg. universities. BHNSeed. A. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. color. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. However. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. In 2006. etc. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. corporations.W. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. In 1887.

Rhode Island. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Kentucky. Tennessee. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. Speakers from the British Isles. Michigan. The fresh fruit is. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. contain the poison Solanine. Indiana. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. stems. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Maine. the http://www. Ohio. Minnesota.S. Virginia. Pennsylvania. Vermont and Wisconsin. New Hampshire."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . harmless. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. 2006. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. Georgia. Massachusetts.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). On October 30. North Carolina. however.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking .crazychefs. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). Connecticut.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. which is toxic to humans and animals.

6:1). On August 30. such as raw tomato. with a harvest of more than 32.000 kilograms (250. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow.151. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. one would arrive at an estimated . the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. Illinois (100). from April 10.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. Oklahoma in 1986. it caused at least one death.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.84 pounds (522 kg).[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. discovered the unique plant in Beijing. UK.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. http://www. As of July 2008.1 reported cases per million. Florida.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). and fresh cilantro. Lake Buena Vista. fresh jalapeño pepper. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. New Mexico (98). and Canada. in 2000. 2008.273 illnesses from this outbreak. 40. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. with 49. 2008. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.[38] As of July 8.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38.8 m (65 ft) length.7 and 16. respectively.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. the U. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985.crazychefs. China.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). French and Germans. the District of Columbia. 2007. Yong Huang. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. and Arizona (49). The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. fresh serrano pepper.S. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very .com http://www. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. Fusarium. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. Derived from Cherokee Purple. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. indeterminate.

Tomato Flower. Tomato http://www. Tomato plants in the garden. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. good for Tomatoes on a vine. Young tomato plant. Tomato .'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pickling. in Korea.

net/ .com http://www.crazychefs.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

p.ucdavis. http://www. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. 13. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Retrieved December 11 2009. October 26.. 223 Easthamptonstar. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. G.universityofcalifornia.C. ^ a b Hartz. bid/6280/Default.html". http://yourarchives. Andrew F. ISBN 0252-07009-7. Peralta. ^ The Friend. 11. (2002). 2. Smith. (2001). Retrieved December 11 Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early http://www. 6. ^ a b Smith.five tons to the acre.html". http://www. Subsection Lycopersicon).com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian Normania. & Spooner. Universityofcalifornia.html." See: Natural History Museum. 2002-05-08.nationalarchives. ^ Acquaah. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87.aspx?PageID=567 14. ^ " page 57: ".Smith. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . Retrieved 2008-10-27. Wettst. Andrew F (1994). ^ "http://www. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. F.fao." 15. Appleton and Co.smithsonianmag.easthamptonstar. 7. http://tgrc.html. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. et al.crazychefs.Food & Wine". page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. 12. The Tomato in During the three months of the local S. http://www. University of Illinois Press. Yourarchives. A.Your Archives". ^ Tomato history 4. Cyphomandra. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. D. section Lycopersicon Mill. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. and Cookery. 2009-01-26.M. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. and cookery. Footnotes 1. 1876. culture. M. 5. Retrieved 2009-04-02. ^ "C. 3. it handles more than 1. (1994). Horticulture: Principles and Practices. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 1881. Columbia. http://www.. Processing Tomato Production in California. . The tomato in America: early history. 8.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. E. p. ^ "Killer Tomatoes .com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. USA: University of South Carolina Press. ^ "UC Newsroom.smithsonianmag. 2008. (2002-0508)".uk.aspx.smithsonianmag.nationalarchives. 1994.The East Hampton Star . webpage: books-google-TTp17. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. ^ http://faostat. 519 [1] Appletons' journal Published by D. ISBN they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more.umn. Ohioline. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes".com/genpage. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home".8M" http://www. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. page 57: "The plants are still growing.ucdavis.ncsu. Faq.cornell. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. Retrieved December 11 2009. 2006.html". ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention". Retrieved 2008-10-27. http://www.smithsonianmag. Retrieved July 14. 30. "Tomato genome project gets $1. ^ "http://www.umn. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?" ^ "Selecting.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44.eurekalert. 28. ^ "http://www. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007). 32.Tomato".cornell. 21. Retrieved 200810-27. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".com/science-nature/ of which there are many: beetles and nematodes.smithsonianmag." 19. ^ http://www. ^ "Crop Profiles .edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.sinaloa.html.html. 33. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". Retrieved Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre.html.html 23.html". Retrieved 2009-04-02. http://www. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. ^ " The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once. Plb. ^ 22. Retrieved December 11 Retrieved June 30. Ncsu." 18. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. 26. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted" 20. 29. http://www. . http://faq. ^ http://www. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and News.html.gardenweb. Retrieved 2007-05-24.plants.stm. http://www.osu.smithsonianmag. Retrieved December 11 2009.php. http://ohioline.html".mx.16.gob. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'". 31. http://news. HYG-5532-93". Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-27. http://www. which are carried in the wind.html. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-27. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. United States. 35. 2004. Retrieved et al. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Vegparadise. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 36. Dennis http://www. Cdc. Foodsafetynetwork. ^ Voetsch. 39.shtml. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC".com.1086/381578. ^ a b Pittenger. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". Cbsnews. (2002).CBS News". Retrieved ^ "August 8. http://www. Tomato Nutrition. 2007-08-30. http://www. 643.html?id=585498. Retrieved 200904-02.foodsafetynetwork. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . Retrieved 2009-0721. 38. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005". Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus".html. 38:S3.cdc. 42. (2004-04-15).php?a=3&c=32&sc=419& ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. ^ "ITN. Retrieved 2008-1027. 37. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. p. California Master Gardener Handbook. Itn. Tomato Recipe".com ISBN 1879906546. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. ANR Publications. http://www.crazychefs. by state".edu/doi/full/10. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"".com. .html.nationalpost.

called selei buah pala. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. native to the Banda Islands of http://www.2 and 0. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed.6 to 0. or Spice Islands. and Bombay Nutmeg M.7 in) wide. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. including essential oils. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. or sliced finely. a state in the south part of India. extracted oleoresins.4 oz) dried. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. especially in Grenada. and nutmeg butter (see below). The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice".crazychefs.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. It also grows in Kerala. both are used as adulterants of M. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. In Indonesia. fragrans products. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. nutmeg and mace. Species About 100 species. called Jaiphal in Hindi. the fruit is also made into jam. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm ( . The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. malabarica from India. argentea from New Guinea.

In Penang cuisine. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. and string beans.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. Painkiller. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. and Barbados rum punch. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. "Lau Hau Peng". In Arabic.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. they are also used in soups. mulled wine. In the Caribbean. saffronlike hue it imparts. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat . nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine).com http://www. green. In Indian cuisine. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. and baked goods. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. sauces. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. and eggnog. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. In European cuisine. cauliflower.crazychefs. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker.

and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. medicines. and sweets. preserving agents. The oil is colourless or light yellow. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. in . and has applications as an industrial lubricant.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense.crazychefs. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. 758 – http://www. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. used as flavourings. syrups. for instance. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. although this is disputed. It is semi-solid. reddish brown in colour. which can be turned into myristic acid. beverages. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. with 4% annual growth ." However. and protein isolate. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. particularly processed foods. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. yeast extract. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. autolyzed yeast. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured http://www. sugar beets.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. it also said that. sugar cane. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. not reproducible.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. or molasses. Canned. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. based on anecdotal reports. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. Fermented products such as soy sauce.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. being an amino acid. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms.crazychefs. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. frozen. However. steak sauce.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. soy extracts. hydrolyzed yeast. About 1.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions.

and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. On Food and Cooking. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate . the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. ^ Albert Y. (2) synthesis. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. New York: Wiley. acidification. For this reason. such as hydrolyzed protein. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard http://www. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [monosodium glutamate].7% women). Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food.. Foster. pp.crazychefs. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. ^ Leung. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. concentration. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. 621. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. In 1993. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. purified. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e.".g. "Monosodium Glutamate". In the 2004 version of his book. even in large amounts. dextrose or citrate). In the hydrolysis method. 373-375. followed by either the name of the food additive. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). and mineral ions and growth factors. References 1.). and crystallization. and converted to its monosodium salt. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. flavour enhancer). Drugs.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients.2. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. and (3) microbial fermentation. age 40–59 years.celiac.html 2.. Steven (August 2003). MSG.

ncbi. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.ajinomoto. http://www. 7. Beifan.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. Dongshuang. et al.3.html. Shigeru. Daviglus.crazychefs. Armstrong. Chirality 6 (4): pp. Nutr. Yangfeng. PMID 10597625. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. doi:10. Garside.html 12. Chiaki. ^ Kawakita. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp. Zhao.cfsan. ^ Freeman http://www. Toxicol. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. ^ "Production process". "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Masahiro.1006/rtph. ^ a b Rundlett. .4. 1875–1880.nytimes.1525/gfc. 16. doi:10.1337. "A Short History of MSG" 5. the Secret Behind the Savor". (1993). "Monosodium Glutamate". 277–282. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Shizuko (2005). Dyer. PMID 8282275.2005. Van Horn.2006. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S.jstor.nih. 13. (October 2006). PMID 10736382. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. Sano. Tetsuya. Pharmacol. Beiser A. Alan R. Zhou.a16 711. PMID 18497735.nutrition. doi:10. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". "Yes. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study".1038/oby. Wu. Anjimoto Co.1002/14356007. Jordan (2005). doi:10. Ka. 31 (12): 1019– ^ a b Geha RS. Yamaguchi. Case study: monosodium glutamate". ^ http://www. 38–49. ^ http://www. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review".ajinomoto.. ^ He. Daniel W (1994).. doi:10. 8. J. 15.html 4. Ren C.274. Regul.1111/j.pdf 9. ^ Sand.F. Kimber L. ^ Moskin.1002/chir. Jeremiah (August 2008). 10. Food Chem. Kelly M.2008.1999.fda. (April 2000).celiac.530060410. MSG. Guo.5. Julia (2008-03-05).com/amino/eng/product.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Martha L. ^ Walker R (October 1999). 6. PMID 16999713. New York Times. ^ a b Tarasoff L.00160. ^ http://vm. Stamler. http://jn. Takehara. Zhu. Linguang. http://www. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. Linda. doi:10. http://www. ^ http://www.nlm. Liancheng.

豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Chinese name Traditional Chinese http://www. 醬油 2. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. 豆油 3. 酱油 2.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 荳油 3.

Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. water.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. [4] By the mid-19th century.500 years. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java.[3] In the 18th century. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. In its various forms. Soy sauce was invented in China. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted http://www. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. and salt. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK).crazychefs. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima.

Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are http://www. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. and are popular in Southeast Asia and . sojae) and other related microorganisms. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality.crazychefs. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. Although there are many types of soy sauce. such as in giant urns and under the sun. literally "delicious taste"). These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. Today.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans.

traditional Chinese: 醬油. Since it is lighter in color.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. lighter brown soy sauce. with relatively low amounts of other grains. Touchōu is sold at a premium http://www. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. Korean. but it also adds flavour. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. like extra virgin olive oil. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fragrance and saltiness. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce.3-DCP (1. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. It has a richer. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping.crazychefs. Thai. Despite their rather similar appearance. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. or 酱清 "jiàng qing".3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. consistency. since it is saltier. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. and Chinese cuisine. one of the two types. In traditional Chinese cooking. shuānghuáng (雙璜). is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. An additional classification of light soy sauce. opaque. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). slightly sweeter. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. ): A thin (nonviscous).net/ . Another type. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. pinyin: jiàngyóu. or a mixture of both.

Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. Usukuchi (淡口?. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. It contains little or no wheat. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not . "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate".[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. for example sashimi. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable.crazychefs. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. where it is known as "shōyu". It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. Technically. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. that is used in its production.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. or 醤油). Shiro (白?. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi.

crazychefs. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. Amakuchi (甘口?. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard . it is much darker and more strongly flavored. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except http://www. Consequently. 1 litre bottles. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". not pasteurized.Saishikomi (再仕込?. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce.

almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. usually implies limited quantity. It is a unique variety. in a pinch. In .Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. powder. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. Kecap manis Sweet soy http://www. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar.crazychefs. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. which has a thick. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived.

Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. thin and dark brown in color. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. Founded in 1909. is made entirely of soy and brine. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce").[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). (called Joseon ganjang. Joseon ganjang. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. WanJaShan(萬家香).com http://www. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清).net/ . Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce.4% of soy sauce purchases. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer.crazychefs. Later. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油).[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. Malaysia. 조선간장. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. O'Long(黑龍). which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. lit.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce.

Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. China. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). it is also a table condiment. and caramel. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces.[6] . having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential.3-DCP (1. salt. and can help prevent cardiovascular http://www. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts.crazychefs. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh).3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. or sometimes simply tương. nước tương. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It can also be very salty. wheat. pronounced SOO-kah). much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines.

No. 4. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea".uk/news/pressreleases/2001/jun/soysaucerecall. 2 (January 2000).org.htm. III. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001.[citation needed] In and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. http://www. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy XXVII.) In March 2008. pp. an increase over 23 to 5. . ^ 9. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). ^ http://www. Jammy Chai. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat.317 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. King Imperial. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). 7. Golden Mark. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. p.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. Pearl River Bridge.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. ^ http://www. 2. ^ Titsingh." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. Seong-Gook (2002). Norio. ^ Jung.[1] Notes 1. http://www. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. p. Retrieved 200801-07. p. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). Celiac disease. Vol.miyajimasoy. Retrieved 2008-01-07.tcoc. Sinsin. ^ Tanaka. 6. ^ http://www. Lee Kum Kee. Despite these being small in number in the UK. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. they are the dominant brands in their respective 2nd edition. Isaac.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat.000 to ^ Tanaka. Kimlan. marinades and other types of sauces. Soon Teck• and Kang. 6. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption.asp?id=7598 10. including six samples with up to 11.smartfood. (1781). Press http://www. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. OCLC 9752305 5. Individuals with a wheat allergy."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 7. Golden Swan.Kong and Taiwan.

1263/jbb.201. Edition 2. Retrieved 2008-01-07. ^ Toxic soy sauce. Stephen (2006-06-06).2323/jgam. et al. PMID 16198255. Somboon (2002-06-18). Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals.11. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 103. ^ Daniells. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". Makio (2005-04-18). New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. 14. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. ^ Kobayashi.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. Hoboken.crazychefs. ^ Shahidi. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". p. ISBN 0632059877. ^ Bamford. http://www. ^ . ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. Kentucky: CRC Press. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. 16. 186. p. Fereidoon. 18. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. ISBN 1587161389. PMID 12469319. nutraingredients. chemical veggies 13.100. Naczk. fermentation and micro-organisms. http://books. Food. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand".com http://www. doi:10. doi:10. Marian (2003).com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC scares hit Vietnam 20. Charles W (2005).144.

5–21.5–5.5 °C) 84 cP 1.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.9180 (@ 15.3% Myristic acid: < 211 | P a g e http://www.5– .crazychefs.4677–1.8% Behenic acid: <0.9150–0.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0% Arachidic acid: <0.5% Linoleic acid: 3.0–83.0% Stearic acid: 0.3–3.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.

Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world .6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1.6 (refined and pomace) 0. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. Japan and China. Koroneiki. World production in 2002 was 2. Alberquina. North Africa and the Near East. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio.000 tons of olive oil annually. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. cosmetics. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as well as in Crete.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. but especially in the Mediterranean. pharmaceuticals. Picholine. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. Australia. principally Italy. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. which receives about three-quarters of total exports.[3] Of the European production. Leccino Pendolino.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. Italy and Greece. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. In 2006. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. Hojiblanca. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic http://www. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. in Greece. which produce approximately 350. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. family Oleaceae). of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. 93% comes from Spain.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6.crazychefs. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit.6 million tonnes. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. Olive oil is used throughout the world. and Manzanilla de Jaén. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. and Moraiolo. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia.4680–1. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. in France.

This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate.800. IOOC terminology is precise. Spain. Mission.crazychefs.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. still contains a small quantity of oil. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. The US imported 47. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life).com http://www. in Croatia. called pomace. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . a private trade group. and Turkey.California.600. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. Spain. in Portugal. Oblica and Leccino. The USDA uses a different system. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules.000 US gallons (131. often in "prestige" packaging. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. In North America.000 US gallons (181. defining quality standards.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. of which 34. The California Olive Oil Council. After extraction the remnant solid substance. by its chemistry. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998.000 m3) came from Italy. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. and monitoring authenticity. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. and by its flavor. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. with 23 member states.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. Galega.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. Spain. with production increasing to meet demand.

as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. Almost 700 people died. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the . EU officials took issue with the new law. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil.crazychefs. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. but there are no guarantees." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. product as superior olive oil. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. of free oleic acid it contains. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. both in Italy and abroad. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation.[15] Under EU rules. defined as the percent. mostly hexane.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin.[14] In February 2008. but safe.[16] In April 2008.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. particularly in Italy. 25. measured by weight. it is believed. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. and by heat. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.[14] In March http://www.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. is extremely lax and corrupt. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.[12] In some cases. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). for blended oils. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. however. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.

3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. another cause of rancidity. These grades were established in 1948. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil.3 grams per 100 grams (0. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. but may not be described simply as olive oil. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. of no more than 1. This is also called its organoleptic quality. absence of defects. In order to classify it by http://www. Pure olive oil. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in . and is judged to have a superior taste. of not more than 0. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. contains no more than 0. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. and is judged to have a good taste. The US is not a member. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. It is fit for consumption. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. has an acidity less than 2%. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. expressed as oleic acid. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member.5% acidity. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level.8% acidity. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. It commonly lacks a strong flavor.S. The U. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. Used on salads. It has a free acidity. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. and are based on acidity.crazychefs. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test.the oil degrades. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides.

"cold" does not define any precise temperature.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled.4% and is "free from defects". with less flavour. (34 kJ/ml). Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed" . These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.5% and is "reasonably free from defects".S.S.S.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. First of all. Grade A or U. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label.0% and is "fairly free from defects". which may be as low as 10-15 °C. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.S.S.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. This is incorrect. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than http://www. U.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. Grade D or U. U. Grade C or U. Grade C".S.crazychefs. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.S. Grade B or U.S. U.S.

around 0.2 7 1.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil http://www. around 8 l.pressed".7 11. over 26 liters per year. Spain and Italy.62 12.7 l. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. around 14 l. so the term "first press" is meaningless.1 1. Tunisia. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.8 7. Northern Europe and North America consume far less. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. Portugal and Lebanon. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label.35 23. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] .56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 0. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.

Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms.crazychefs. which is much faster and more accurate. Green olives produce bitter oil. After grinding. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. then placed into the press. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. After grinding. 2.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. If ground with mill stones. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. 1. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil http://www. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). 3. not in the oil mills. suggesting a different taste. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% .34 1. 4. no or very little organoleptic defects). Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. This is done in specialised chemical plants. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents.

Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.7%) and sterols (about 0. and extraction process.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats.monounsaturated 73 g .5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . The composition varies by cultivar. time of fat 3. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. region.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g ( fat <1.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). altitude. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.polyunsaturated 11 g . most notably oleic acid.crazychefs.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g . Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. In the United States. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive http://www.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. To achieve this possible benefit.5 g .Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. including oleocanthal and oleuropein.

These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. For example. This could. It is theorized that. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants).[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. in the long term. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. During the second phase. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp http://www.crazychefs. 2004. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The study was conducted in two stages.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. at least in part. rather than its fatty acid profile. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol. This way.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. and oleuropein. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. antithrombotic. During the first stage. and that it exerts antiinflamatory.This decision was announced November 1. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer .

tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. cookware. In time. as available in an oil producing region. blenders.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. not for foods to be eaten cold. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. Also. For . Used cold. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. etc. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F).crazychefs. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big http://www. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. like salads. oils deteriorate and become stale. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. A very fresh oil. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. Also. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods.[citation needed].

It does have demulcent properties.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive http://www.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. It is also good for the management of pain. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. and mild laxative properties. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. acting as a stool softener. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup.crazychefs. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug . and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils.

It. from L. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. huile). Besides food.crazychefs. elaion "olive tree". 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. from Gk. olive oil" (cf. olive oil has been used for religious http://www. from O.Fr. Homer called it "liquid gold. olio). an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. 1175. olive oil. oile (12c. oleum "oil.Fr. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. as a fuel in oil lamps.N.Fr. and skin care application." In ancient Greece. medicines.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". from Anglo-Fr. olie. Mod. drawn and engraved by . soap-making. and O. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal.. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. magical. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman.

and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.crazychefs. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and http://www. Bodrum.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern .[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC).[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. olive presses became common. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. In the centuries that followed. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC.

which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. stored in special containers. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. allowing more time for more oil to be made. during the 13th century BC. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. where it is thought to have represented wealth. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem.[dubious – discuss] During this time.crazychefs. the fertile crescent. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. and Israel.over 4. wrote of abundant olive trees. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to.[citation needed].[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the http://www. According to legend. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization.[46] Until 1500 BC. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. oil containers are preferred.. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah.000 tons of olive oil per season.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. he maintained. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. "the best in the Mediterranean". These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. drained the water from the bottom. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies.000 and 3. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. According to the historian Pliny. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male . when the oil had risen to the top. Sinuhe. together with naked appearance of athletes. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. Lebanon. and area consisting of present day Palestine.

neither Eastern nor Western. light upon light. In Islam. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. Margaret Lindstrand (2005). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. Louise Ferguson. http://www. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 4. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. Joann L Coviello. ^ USDA. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. Retrieved 2007-05-25. http://www. Retrieved the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. ^ USDA.crazychefs. in the consecration of altars and churches. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. http://findarticles. at which point the rest of the cotton burns .PDF." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the". One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. originating from King David. and the Mount of Sinai. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". ^ International Olive Oil Council. Olive Production Manual. ^ Retrieved 2008-07-04. 158. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree".internationaloliveoil."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. and. ANR Publications.imitate the original Menorah. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and http://www. traditionally. Steven Sibbett.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. 2.gourmetretailer. the tourch is in a glass bulb.usda. its oil almost glows. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. 5. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). References 1. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). p. even without fire touching it. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. To douse the olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. http://www. 3. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. ^ "findarticles. "The Olive Tree. and this secure city.html. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops.

November 2.southafrica. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. http://aje. J. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar". 2004. Giammanco. ^ "www. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". http://www. Raymond & Co. Slippery Business The New Yorker. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. . 12. and Maurizio La Guardia. ^ Riding. S. 23. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". Karvonen MJ. http://www.).jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. http://news.htm. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis. 21.010.htm". United States Department of Agriculture. 124 (6): 903–15.46. PMID Tabacchi. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". US Customs Department. ^ New York Times.html".html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. ^ a b "Telegraph article". John. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. http://query. ^ "EUbusiness. ^ Durant. http://www. Menotti A. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. http://www. ^ Keys A. (December 1986).org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long& 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" Epidemiol.htm. et al.telegraph. PMID". 19 CFR http://www. 25. G. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . ^ Covas MI (March 2007).Telegraph".org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institutionini. 10. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. 55 (3): 175–86.6. Alan (1989-05-21). 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. Di News". Nutrition Research Reviews 18. Res. 7.telegraph. ^ "www. ^ "Eubusiness.1079/NRR200495 24. Retrieved 2008-11-16.html. J. The New York Times ( Giammanco. D.23/. 11. Retrieved 2008-11-16. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. Retrieved 2008-11-09. Am. M. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26.".1016/j.crazychefs. Tom.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889.2007. Tripoli.internationaloliveoil.oxfordjournals.eubusiness.23/.co. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22.xml. 2007-08-13. ^ a b McGee. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". doi:10.Scotsman. ^ 19. Dennis. 14. 13. http://www. http://www.

55 (3): 680–6. 21 (1): 45–52. s. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. Faseb J. ^ Ferrara LA. 39. s. "New Year's Resolution No. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". 19 November 2007 30. A : Wu. 34. Vol. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. ^ Mayo Clinic.videojug.Telegraph". André Bervillé. N U : Budiyanto.html. Catherine Breton.". "[10 INSERT TITLE]". "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster.1096/fj. Poulsen HE. Pagnol.xml. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms".net/ . 29.. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997).v. Suppl. Nazim U. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. M : Ahmed. Olives 41. Dello Russo A. J Agric Food Chem. An Wu. p. 1S45-50.tchain. p. p. ^ Pagnol. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea 31. A : Bito.06-6328com. M : Osawa.75. (27 March 2000). pp. Alonso MG. Masato http://www. 37. Israel". ^ [2] Ichihashi. Brenes M. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. 19. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice"." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. ssp. 2000. 1: Prevent Cancer. Ahmed. http://www. Masamitsu Ichihashi.telegraph. 44. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?.1021/jf0630217. Raimondi AS. ^ Rosenblum. d'Episcopo L. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. Osamu Nikaido. Toshinori Bito. ^ http://www. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. T : Ueda. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000).v. ". "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics".28. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". Marotta T. 35. T. doi:10. 36.1024/0300-9831.crazychefs. 45.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". 2000. http://www. but cites no source. Vol. PMID 17110467. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. doi:10. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. ^ Romero C. ^ Ehud Galili et al.html".com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. PMID 10737284. 38. Vargas J. Olea europaea L. Etienne N.ama-assn. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. et al. Nov. Medina E. 19.tchain. Use Olive Oil. ^ Turner R. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. No. et al. ^ a b Davidson. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. ^ Machowetz A. "olive" and "oil" 40. ^ "Quite Interesting . PMID 17263460. Toshihiko Osawa. (January 2005). 21. Mar.. doi:10. ^ " (January 2007). De Castro A (February 2007). Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 23. JDermatol-Sci. Carcinogenesis. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". 10.61.1. PMID 15830923. Gruendel S. Guida L.

youngmuslims. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.htm". http://www. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". 47. 2001. ^ Nigel M. Scanlon. Kennell. pp119–33 50.).htm. ^ Thomas F. 2005 49. C. Verstraete and V. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. B. Harrington Park Press.youngmuslims. Riley. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. . In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Processing methods. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe".com http://www.R. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". ed. ^ " http://www. ^

sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. ən] / [ˈsæ . for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. sativus flower bears three stigmas. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.or hay-like fragrance. each the distal end of a carpel.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.Saffron Saffron crocus C. A C. Saffron. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. http://www. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. Saffron has further medicinal applications.

as was once generally believed. broken apart. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop.[11] Upon flowering. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. in Central Asia.2 in) in length. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer http://www. In autumn. Only in October.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. must be dug up. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in . underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers.5 centimetres (1.98–1. A corm survives for one season. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. Being sterile.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. purple buds appear. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. It is a sterile triploid form.crazychefs. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. and replanted. which means "yellow.

Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. rats.035 oz) of dry saffron threads.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture.9 in) deep. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. and birds. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. where annual rainfall averages 1.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. Planting depth and corm spacing. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. maximizing sun exposure. loose. and corm rot pose other threats. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. Moroccan.. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes.000–1. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. where hot. low-density. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early .500 mm (39–59 in).e. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. in concert with climate. well-watered. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow http://www. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms.[16] Furthermore. Nematodes.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. they fare poorly in shady conditions. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable.crazychefs. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. are critical factors affecting yields. leaf rusts. Greek.8–5.

crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic.0.2 oz of dried saffron). saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin. However. including zeaxanthin.8-diapo-8.8-carotenoic acid).[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass.and β-carotenes.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes. It also has many nonvolatile active .crazychefs.[19] Meanwhile. and thus oil-soluble. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0. a product results that is itself water-soluble.[19] many of which are carotenoids. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).com http://www. and various α.11 gr) of dried saffron.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0. lycopene.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.

0 3.0 1.0 9.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 6.5 40.0–1.crazychefs.0 8.0 12.0 1.0–14.0 1.0 .0 4.0–7.0 2.0–15.0 10.5 10.0 12.0 6.0 6.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0 http://www.0 11.0–8.0–13.

It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen.3-diene-1. incidentally.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.0 Source: Goyns 1999. Santorini.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4. p. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.6.Fiber (crude) 5.6-trimethyl-2. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. the scent of which has been described as "saffron. the heat. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.4.[18] Safranal. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. dried hay like".[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. Significantly.crazychefs. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. When saffron is dried after its harvest.6.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is.6.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than http://www. a volatile oil. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of .[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. combined with enzymatic action.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2.

cartwrightianus.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. Greek legends told of sea voyages to . physicians in Gaza. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. In late Hellenistic Egypt. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. C.[28][29] Later.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. There. a sterile mutant form of C. and scabies. sativus.crazychefs. townspeople in Rhodes. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. and medical treatments. Thus.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. mascaras. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. ointments.000 http://www.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[33] potpourris. and in the mithridatium.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. cough.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. colic. Since then.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos. divine offerings. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.

[53] On the other hand. Isfahan. rice. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac.crazychefs.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. Wan Zhen. medicines. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy.[43] Thus. At such sites. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of http://www. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. and used in dyes. dating to 978–993 AD. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC.[44] From there. For example. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) . or jackfruit.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. a Chinese medical expert. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. saffron threads were woven into textiles. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. and body washes.[42] ritually offered to divinities.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. perfumes. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak.[44] During his Asian campaigns. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions.[39][40] Later. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. a less expensive dye.Asia The 17.[51] However.

" Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. indeed.crazychefs. It can be used to aromatise wine. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. imprisoned.[59][60] Only in southern France. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. tea. Italy.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. named for its new specialty crop. under which saffron adulterators were fined."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. and then the saffron is obtained.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. and Italy. did significant cultivation endure. However. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. and Spain. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American http://www.[62] By 1730. In Europe. which grew prosperous. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". It is valued for its uniform yellow colour.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. France. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate.[58] Soon after. and executed.saffron is in Kashmir. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as . coffee. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.

Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. immunomodulating.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. and Cornish cuisines.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. and in perfumery. Medicinally. Pennsylvania. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. Central Asian. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. Turkish. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. noodles. European. . Arab.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. and chicken or trout dishes. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. particularly in China and India. and antioxidantlike http://www. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa).[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). and other countries.000 threads. are the major producers of saffron. Spain.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5. Greece. France. Morocco. in decreasing order of production.550 per kilogram).com http://www. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. the United States.500/€7.[2] A pound comprises between 70.000 flowers. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad.100/€1. they are graded by government-imposed standards. and aroma. Spain's varieties. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. Annually. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.000 flowers. India. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. In Western countries.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. For example.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. slight moistness. Aside from these. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'.000 and 200. the average retail price is $1.crazychefs. are generally mellower in colour.000–75. and Italy.500 per kilogram. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.100– . and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. Switzerland. elasticity. England.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. Azerbaijan.000 per pound (US$1. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide.[5] Iran. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand.000-170. Vivid crimson colouring.200/£1. flavour.

[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). it also has very high crocin. picrocrocin. combined with an Indian export ban. is in San Gavino Monreale. and colourative effect.S.. In the U. and crop failures in Kashmir. aroma. and safranal content. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. near L'Aquila. and safranal (fragrance) . The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin http://www. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. for quality and quantity.some organically grown. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. There. contribute to its high prices.79 in). among the world's darkest. unusually pungent aroma. shape. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. picrocrocin (taste). blights. Repeated droughts. Sardinia. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality.crazychefs. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production).

pliability. with turmeric. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. in India. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0.crazychefs.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration.national standards bodies. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. many growers. and I (finest quality). Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron.[77] However. traders. aroma. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). and other powders used as diluting fillers. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance.[80] Thus. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. paprika.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. However. and thus a greater colourative intensity. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. III. pomegranate fibers. II. red-dyed silk fibers. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of . Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores.

4. 103. ^ DPIWE 2005. pp. 287. 53. ^ Willard 2001. Honshū. p. http://www. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. ^ a b Deo 2003. crocin and safranal. 24. p. p. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. Grilli Caiola .Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). ^ a b Deo 2003. p. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. ^ Deo 2003. stigma extracts and their constituents. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. 14. 17. p. www. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 3–4.cababstractsplus. 2–3.crazychefs. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. 15. ^ Dharmananda 2005. in mice. p. 13.". pp. Sterling. 423. ^ Willard 2001. p.Saffron reproductive biology 11. 1. ^ M. 6. 18. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. 22. 4. ^ Grigg 1974. Kansai. 4. . 16. 12. ^ a b c Hill 2004. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. ^ Harper 2001.asp?AcNo=20043148643. http://books. 2. 19. ^ Willard 2001. p. 1. ^ Kumar V (2006). 21. pp. p. Retrieved http://www. 9. ^ Rau 1969. 5. 422. 2. 1. ^ McGee 2004. p. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. 3. ^ a b McGee 2004. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001.cababstractsplus. 7. 8. p. 23. 3.

^ Willard 2001. ^ http://www. p. ^ Willard 2001. pp. 6. 54. 2. p. 20. ^ Willard 2001. 50. 57. 422. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ Honan 2004. 256. p. 103–104. ^ Humphries 1998. 1. 11. ^ Willard 2001. pp. Victoria (30 December 2002).crazychefs. p. Loeb Classical Library Edition. 41. p. 61. 55. ^ a b Willard 2001. ^ Celsus. ^ http://vision.pdf 71. ^ Honan ^ Willard 2001. pp. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. 68. ^ Goyns 1999. ^ http://www. ^ Fletcher 2005. ^ Willard 2001. 2. pp. ^ a b Dalby 2002. 46. p. p. 34. p. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. 132–133. ^ Willard 2001. 30 AD. p. pp. 117. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. ca. 35. 273. ^ Finlay. 72. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Rau 1969. p.pdf 70. 12. 138. 59. 58. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. ^ Hill 2004. 17–18. ^ Dalby 2003. pp. ^ Ferrence 2004. p. 2–3. ^ Willard 69. ^ a b c Willard 2001. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. ^ Willard 2001. p. 224. 56. 95. p. 1. 128. 39. 143. 44. 27. ^ Hayes 2001. 37. 48. 101. p. 51. 31. 49. transl. ^ Dalby 2002. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Chang. p. . 26. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. ^ Willard http://www. 63. 43. 138. de Medicina. p. 35. p. 32. ^ Lak 1998b. p. pp. 58. p. 1. ^ Willard 2001. 52. 36. 47. 66. 54–55. 64. ^ a b Willard 2001. p. 42. Kuo & Wang 1964.25. 55. p. 73. ^ Willard 2001. 60. 41. 29. 65. 2. p. Random House. p. 99. 40. 30. 142– 1.iovs. 70. ^ a b Willard 2001. 62. ^ Deo 2003. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. ^ McGee 2004. p. ^ Willard 2001. 133. 63. 138–139. 1. 45. p. p. p. 28. p. 34–35. p. 1935 [1] 38. 33. ^ Willard 2001. 59. 41.

Experimental Biology and Medicine 227 (1).net. ^ Hussain 2005. MJ Gregory & RC Menary (2005). <http://www. B (2003). p. ^ Willard 2001. "Growing Saffron—The World's Most Expensive Spice". ^ Tarvand 2005. Phytotherapy Research 19 (11).au/news/newsitems/200311/s982047. Retrieved on January 10 2006. ISBN 0415-23259-7. 2006[dead link].): effect on the uterus and/or estrous cycle". 75. ^ Goyns 1999.)". 78.crop. "Saffron: An Anti-Depressant Herb". Dharmananda. Retrieved on January 10. PY. <http://www. P (2002). Retrieved on January 10. Routledge (UK). 245 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Courtney. 80. 2008.74.>.htm>. Dalby. University of California Press.crazychefs. Liang. Crop & Food Research (New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research) (no.htm>.edu/biomed/spice/index. AN. http://www. <http://unitproj. Darling Biomedical Library (2002). "Effect of drying temperature and air flow on the production and retention of secondary metabolites in saffron". ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2003. 53 (15). A (2003). extract and its bioactive constituents". 274. Institute for Traditional Medicine. 102–104. Landline (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). A (2002). "Kashmiri saffron producers see red over Iranian imports". 8. Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. Retrieved on January ^ Lak 1998. <>. "Saffron". Retrieved on January 10. VP Papageorgiou & Z Sinakos (2005).nz/home/productsservices/publications/broadsheets/020saffron. <http://www. "Tasmania's Saffron Gold". 2006.ebmonline.itmonline. 201. "Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L. FI (2002). S (2005). 79. ^ Willard 2001. PMID 16028982 Deo. 2006.pdf>. <http://www. Dalby. CT Kuo & CK Wang (1964).cfm?displayID=22>. PMID 11788779 Assimopoulou. Darling Biomedical Library (UCLA). W. NW.ucla. References Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2003). 2006. Retrieved on January 10. 81. PMID 16317646 Chang.library.cri. "Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus ISBN 0-520-23674-2. 20).htm>. Australian Broadcasting .au/landline/stories/s556192. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 11. Food in the Ancient World from A to Z. ^ Hill 2004. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 76. pp. <http://www. 77. p. 2006. Retrieved on July 27. Davies. ^ a b Tarvand 2005b. "The pharmacological action of 藏红花 (zà hóng huā—Crocus sativus L.

2006. D (2001). BBC News. "Saffron". Grigg. Retrieved on January 10. "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress". Retrieved on January 10. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). JC (2002). ISBN 0-471-21423-X. 2006. "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera". Retrieved on January 10.pdf>.etymonline. Humphries. "Saffron (Crocus sativus L. J (1998). Retrieved on January 10. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution". The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global http://www. St. 2006. A (2005). "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine". D (1998). 2006[dead link]. MH (1999). "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron". Retrieved on January 10. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron". Honan. BBC>.at/~katzer/engl/Croc_sat. <http://www.stm>.org/pdf/Vitasta1998-1999.)". "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. BBC News. Lak. Ferrence. <http://news. <http://books.ikashmir. ISBN 0-312-34068-0. "Saffron".uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/212491. D (1998b).bbc.tas.leffingwell. SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005).com/index. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2). Hasegawa. The New York Times. Jessie. N (2005). Wiley. <http://www. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron". G (2001).com/download/saffron.DPIWE (2005).st m>.crazychefs.>. 2006. SC (2004). Retrieved on January 10. Hussain. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on January 10. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. Retrieved on January 10.php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>.co.nytimes. SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995). Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1). 2006. Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4). PMID 15259204 Fletcher. 2006. AW (2001). Retrieved on January 10. WH (2004). PMID 16180089 Katzer. Lak. <http://www. Goyns. The Essential Saffron Companion.stm>. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5).co. JH. S (1998–1999).html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>. <http://www. PMID 8590890 Hayes. 2006. T (2004). . DB (1974). Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. 2006. Food & Agriculture. Taylor & Francis. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved on January Ten Speed Press. <http://www. 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ saffron". ISBN 1-56032-814-2.nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>.google. Cambridge University Press. 2006. Martin's Press. <http://www. ISBN 90-5702-394-6. Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. ISBN 0-521-09843-2. <http://news.dpiwe. The Agricultural Systems of the World.pdf>. ISBN 1-58008-024-3. <http://news.

com/classification. Retrieved on January 10. Scribner.html>. Tarvand (2005b). < . Tarvand Saffron Company. <http://www. K (2003). ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005).com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>.htm>.com <http://books.newscientist. Time Life Education. H (2004). "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". Reconstructing History. <http://www. Willard. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2006[dead link]. "Saffron". 2006. USDA Phytochemical Database. <http://books. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). SR (1969). 2006. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. 2006. F (2005). "What is Saffron?". The Cooking of India. 2006. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 2006. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. 2006. New On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Tarvand Saffron Company. Nair. P (2001).reconstructinghistory. Retrieved on January 10.tarvandsaffron. Beacon Press. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). Retrieved on January 10. SC. < Cancer Letters 57 (2).htm>. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. Retrieved on January 10.tarvandsaffron. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". al_id=140>.crazychefs. Retrieved on January 10. Rau.html>. Retrieved on January>.". "Grading and Classification".000.usda. PMID 2025883 Park. JB (2005).

Dead Sea. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L.Olive Olive Tree Olea http://www. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .crazychefs.

Though. from Lebanon. are borne generally on the last year's wood. two stamens and bifid stigma. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. endives. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. ca 170 AD. The small white flowers. the olive. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. according to the 4th-century BC father of . Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. they were reverently preserved for centuries.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. referring to their wooden material. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. called xoana. Theophrastus. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock."[7] indeed.(XVII.[1] and in the Iliad.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. olives. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. Asia and parts of Africa. Its fruit. It is short and http://www. In Homer's Odyssey. by a spring. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla.crazychefs.5 cm long. the olive suckers readily from the stump. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted.[9]."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods.

Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. for which the Greeks had a separate name. The olive tree itself. power and pureness. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. it is still used in many religious ceremonies.16. spread far and wide by birds. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. Over the years. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. indeed. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. Chile and Argentina. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. in both the New and Old Testaments. the olive has been the symbol of http://www. olives were grown commercially in Crete. the pits give rise to thorny.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. play an important role in the Bible. Peru. and one of the most significant. Theophrastus.the olive leaf as a symbol of .[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. Today. glory. and then in the 18th century in California. glory and peace .The leafy branches of the olive tree . and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries.[12] After the 16th century. as well as olive oil and olives.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. wisdom. fertility. As far back as 3000 BC. but he makes clear (in 1.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and its cultivation began in Mexico. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. in On the Nature of Plants. wild-type olives. For example.crazychefs. kotinos. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. As emblems of benediction and purification. The Book of Jacob 5. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb.

and can live for very long. The age of an olive tree in Crete.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. has been determined on the basis of tree ring http://www.and .[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). has been calculated to be about 1.crazychefs. drought-. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year).[16] An olive tree in west Athens.000 years old. claimed to be over 2. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Montenegro. named "Plato's Olive Tree". although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. disease. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. which is made into top quality olive oil. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. Istria in Croatia. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus.600 years old. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. One olive tree in Bar.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. The older an olive tree is.

is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. fine wood. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. Specifically. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. olive leaf.400 years ago. see Olive (fruit). though showing a preference for the coast. Italy. A supposedly even older tree. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. All seven trees continue to produce olives. a few other millenary trees can be admired.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. According to a recent scientific survey. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. Modern experience does not always confirm this.crazychefs. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC.2. both in Galilee region. called the "Peisistratos Tree". is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies.6 km) as the . two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. In the same natural garden. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of http://www. 1600-2000 years old. and the olive fruit.

[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. laperrinei (Algeria. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. Australia. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. Chile. the Mediterranean Basin. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. Sudan.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. Niger. Olive leaves are used in medicinal . Argentina.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. northwest Africa) where winters are mild. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. Olive plantation in Andalucia. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). such as South Africa.crazychefs. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert http://www. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. Israel.

Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.

crazychefs. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.

but only a few are grown to a large extent. a large. The olive grove of Amfissa.crazychefs. stuffed (with pickled pimento. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. Rich taste and thick pulp. In recent times.Cailletier cultivar. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. often after being pitted. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. rounded-oval fruit. originating in Dos Hermanas. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. grown around the world. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. in southern Spain.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. with purple-green skin. It is used mostly for oils. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly . or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. 'Manzanilla'. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. A prolific bearer. Seville.200. which consists of 1. http://www. 'Bosana'. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. the most common olive grown on Sardinia.

flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. This small olive.[23] 'Barnea'. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. They are black and generally used for table consumption. originating from the southern Peloponese. It is green. disease-resistant. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. good for eating and for oil. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. brown olive grown in Catalonia. good for eating and for oil. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. 'Hojiblanca'.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. large. used as a table olive. Spain. another modern Israeli.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. It is mainly used for oil. though difficult to cultivate. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. originating in the south of France. The flavour is mild and nutty. . originating in Toledo. 'Empeltre'. which. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). a large. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. even on clay if well drained. and elongated. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. They grow in any light soil. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. and elongated. 'Cornicabra'.[21] 'Koroneiki'. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). Due to their highly valued flavour. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. Spain. and coastal climate conditions. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. originating in the province of Córdoba. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. The olive is medium sized. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. Greece. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. 'Souri'. named after the city of Kalamata. They are green. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' http://www. originating in the south of France (Aude département). a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. 'Arbequina'. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. Their flavour is mild and nutty. round. particularly in Australia and New Zealand.crazychefs. a small. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. It is used both for oil and for table olives. It has a strong but sweet flavour. medium size. 'Picual'. Spain. 'Kalamata'. 'Nabali'. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state.

In Italy. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. 114). Olives are propagated in various ways. Occasionally. soon vegetate. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots.poorer soil. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. More specifically. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. In southern Europe. P. up to several centuries. the oliviera. but the time varies in each country. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. it is valued by woodworkers. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. being very hard and close-grained. and can remain productive for as long. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. They tolerate drought well. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. as in Languedoc and Provence.crazychefs. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of . large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. In Greece. A. However. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. the trees are regularly pruned. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. and with the season and the cultivar. This method is used for olives used for oil. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. Another method uses an electric tool. Olives grow very slowly. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. which form small swellings on the stems. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. to facilitate germination. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. The spaces between the trees are regularly http://www. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. In some places in Italy and Greece. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. removing fruit from the tree.) Olives like hot weather. embryonic buds. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker.

which is a natural preservative. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. Olives can be used http://www. large fruit (e. which is healthy for future production. Typical yields are 1. the creation of lactic acid. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. As a result.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. The olives are soaked in water to wash. Fresh are often sold at markets. through to full purple black ripeness. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein.. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil.g. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. which is why they taste milder than green .2 kg of oil per tree per year. The method also involves sawing off branches. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution.5-2. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. then drained.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive.crazychefs. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. which can be eaten fresh. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. a bitter carbohydrate. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. the fruit is not bruised. After some weeks. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. which leads to a superior finished product. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. or green with hints of colour). This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. ripe green (a yellower shade of green.

A species of . results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. juniper berries and anchovies. spices. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. vinegar. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. Cycloconium oleaginum. induces tumour growth in the shoots. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. lemon zest. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. of which the water is changed http://www. or removing the pit and stuffing them. an unnatural method. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. causing great damage to plantations.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. Sometimes. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. salt-curing. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. wine. Pests. garlic cloves.crazychefs. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. chili. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. olive oil. lemon juice. capsicum (pimento). olives suffer occasionally from frost. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. leaving sawtooth damage. Popular flavourings are herbs. In France and north-central Italy.6 to 8. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. but can be left to cure for up to three months.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. oleae[27]. and weather A fungus. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. especially to young trees. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. diseases. feta. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. Lye-curing. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The ten largest producing countries. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. their main predators are wasps. brine-curing and fresh watercuring.

000 594.000 498. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.000 49. book 5".6 31.0 3. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.. 1 ). 4.830 2.7 27." (Diodorus Siculus. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.988 500.000 20. 81.5 63.9 6.339 300.5.400.000 1.000 8.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.000 430. 4. 3.000 250.149. 82. ^ Homer. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.000 998. and to cultivate olive-trees.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.100 3.1). Ancient Greek Agriculture.crazychefs. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. 6. most notably South Australia. 1. Bibliotheke.140. 7.000 318. 2. Odyssey.597.000 280.888 178. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard. 5. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants. 27.13.4 30. On the Causes of Plants. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 .3 8. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.800.000 1.317. ^ Pausanias. An introduction. Description of Greece 1.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.1 25. p.14. 3.5 6. to make bee-hives.. 1).which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.3 20.000 470.089 6.300.[31] References 1.. ^ "." (Herodotus.685 765. and was the first to instruct men in these http://www.064 2.160. 5.. 4.8 16.981 1. 38.500. ^ Theophrastus.000 275. 1992.

Australian Olives. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. Epikouria Magazine. Juárez.. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. ^ "FAO. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. 25. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. 32:166–169. Zatoun. Ellen. 2001.cit. 2004". "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". Epikouria Magazine. London: Collins & Brown Ltd.crazychefs.W. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Leshonenu (Hebrew). me cichorea levesque malvae.279 18. R. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 4th edition. 13. N. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. ^ Burr. M Bauza & Riley (2002). Fall/Spring (2005) 12. Y.fao. http://www. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. 28. http://www. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. & Parker." Horace.. 17. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Int. E. 23. ca 30 BC 9. Rackham. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. A. Volume 15. ^ [1] 21. John Hutton.springerlink. ^ http://www. R. ^ Balfour. The Making of the Cretan Landscape.jsp.. Madrid.aspx?PageID=151. ^ "Old Olive Tree". http://www. http://www. ^ Janse. pp 110–113.htm. 30. Brijuni National Park.brijuni. Masuelli. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading.. EspasaCalpe S. ^ a b M. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". rev. Processing methods. vol.8.. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. ^ Lumaret. ^ Muncipality Bar. 105. (September 2002). Volume 18:27-35 20. Spring/Summer 2006 26. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. Syst. Tabak & p. & Ouazzani. p. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. J. 24. J. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. ^ Riley. AGRISCIENTA. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. 27. nom. 1999. Apps3. J. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. 29 April. ^ Lewington. ^ Gooch. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. 35. (1999) Ancient Trees. Bacteriol. http://apps3. 1981. M. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. J. . ^ O. Available through Google Books 11. Retrieved 2009-05-18. Kislew. ^ Fotiadi.zatoun. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. cited in F. Cavagnaro P. ^ Belaj et al. Odes 1. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. Elena "Unusual Olives". 29. 69.fao.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. Number 4). 1996. Retrieved 2007-03-10. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. D.A. 1779.15.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". ^ a b c "Unusual Olives".

crazychefs. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. Corresponding to its species name. The leaves are lanceolate. however. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. and south to northern Mexico. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. with an entire http://www. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. seldom produces flowers. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review.31. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. with slender branched . a common term for the plant is "dragon herb." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. L. (French tarragon. western North America. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.R. glossy green.

without excessive watering. dracunculoides http://www. which is the Armenian. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. Persian and Russian word for . by extension. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. and particularly suitable for chicken. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. but cannot be grown from seed. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. Georgia and.[1] It likes a hot. Spreading plant can be divided easily. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall.[1] However. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. sunny spot. Fresh. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. fish and egg dishes. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it normally goes dormant in winter. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and . due to the presence of estragole. Russia and Ukraine.crazychefs.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen.[1] Russian tarragon (A. It is normally purchased as a plant. A perennial. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce.

tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. The Bountiful Container.Cis-Pellitorin. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. 233. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Krammer G. Wiley-VCH. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. ^ Gatfield http://www. Ley JP. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. Stuckey. Rose Marie . pp.[3] In Slovenia. Johannes Panten (2006). has been isolated from Tarragon plant. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Foerstner J. ISBN 9783527607891. References 1. Horst. 3. Workman Publishing. Maggie (2002). ^ a b c d McGee. Machinek A. Properties and Uses. 2. ^ Surburg.crazychefs.

then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. sage has a slight peppery flavor. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. grayish leaves. and some drinks. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. Britain and Flanders. In the United States. Common sage. In Western cooking. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). Garden sage. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. Purple sage.Salvia officinalis (Sage. Broadleaf sage. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. cheeses (Sage Derby). In the Balkans and the Middle http://www. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. it is used when roasting mutton. Lamiaceae. In French cuisine. and blue to purplish flowers. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces.crazychefs. It is a member of the mint family. Kitchen sage. with woody stems. Dalmatian sage. though other species. Culinary . Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe.

niacin. hypoglycemic. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. antibiotic. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. flavonoid glycosides. oleic acid. ursonic acid. chlorogenic acid. caffeic acid. salvia. astringent. fumaric http://www. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. which contains cineole. and estrogenic substances. flavones.more trichomes are visible on this side. estrogenic. ursolic acid. and tonic. antifungal.crazychefs. nicotinamide.trichomes are visible. and thujone.[1] In a double blind. antispasmodic.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. cornsole. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. means ―to heal".net/ . The underside of a sage leaf .[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cornsolic acid. The Latin name for sage.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . borneol. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic.

Khani M. and used as a diuretic. yellow and green variegated leaves. doi:10. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. http://www. a small leaved a styptic. Noroozian M. a white-flowered cultivar.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. increasing women's fertility. and tonic. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. a cultivar with white. ^ Akhondzadeh S. 'Extrakta'. Dioscorides. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. a local anesthetic for the skin. 2. and for low ground cover.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. Pliny. a cultivar with large leaves. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. ^ a b c "Sage". OBeWise Nutriceutica. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. especially in sunny dry environments. emmenagogue.1365-2710.php. snakebites. Mohammadi M. Ohadinia http://www. References 1. and . PMID 12605619. Retrieved 2008-02-04. Jamshidi AH. 'Berggarten'. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. (2003).[4] It was sometimes called S. 'Alba'. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. Applied Health. hemostatic. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". salvatrix (Sage the Savior).2003. a wild undershrub he called sphakos.appliedhealth. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic.00463. 'Lavandulaefolia'. 'Tricolor'. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. a purple-leafed cultivar.1046/j. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. and for other uses.crazychefs. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages.x. 'Icterina'. http://www. Deni Bown (New York: DK. pp. CRC Press. Sage: The Genus Salvia. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. 4. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. (2000). ISBN 9789058230058.crazychefs. ^ a b Kintzios. . 10-11. Spiridon E.

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