Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. Spanish. While summer-seasonal. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. the whole sprig may be used (e. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As a rule of thumb. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. Libyan. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. It can be propagated by seed. or by the sprig.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. Dried. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. In some Levantine countries.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. It tolerates drought well. which is due to its content of thymol.crazychefs. while flavourful. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. soups and stews.g. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. and Turkish cuisines. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. Thyme. storage life is rarely more than a week. Persian.a little less if it is ground. assume that it means fresh. Albanian. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. Depending on how it is used in a dish. Portuguese. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. Leaves are often chopped. In French cuisine. Italian. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Lebanese. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). tomatoes and eggs. cuttings. and in those derived from them. and of herbes de Provence. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Syrian. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof).net/ . Greek. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. or the leaves removed and the stems http://www. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. fresh thyme is often available year-round. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. in a bouquet garni).

thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. Because it is antiseptic. The dried equivalent is 1:3. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. etc.[7] Before the advent of modern . thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves.crazychefs. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. pulegioides × T. but is grown as a ground cover.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. It also has medicinal uses. an antiseptic. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. http://www. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. All thyme species are nectar sources.[5] As with bay. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. it was used to medicate bandages. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa.[6] Thymol.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. tisane. hybrid T. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed].[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. . including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity.Variegated lemon http://www. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

com .Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

B1) 0. B2) 0. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Sugars .1 mg 6.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit. often used as spice.0 μg Calcium 138.3 g 0.crazychefs. B3) 1. European. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.1 mg Folate (Vit.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. It is common in Middle Eastern. although parsley has a milder flavor.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.9 g .0 mg Phosphorus http://www. and American cooking.8 g 3.Dietary fiber 3.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates . 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 mg recommendations for adults.2 mg Magnesium 50. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.0 mg Iron 6.

including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. it attracts predatory insects. parsley itself may be affected by the . allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. which helps accommodate the long taproot. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. However. While parsley is biennial. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. reducing pest attraction. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. used in soups and stews. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. For example. Like many other umbellifers. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. it is not related to real turnips.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. not blooming until its second year. neapolitanum). many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock.crazychefs. which then tend to protect plants nearby. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Although little known in Britain and the United States. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their http://www. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. tuberosum). or flat leaf (P. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. parsnip meaning "forked turnip".[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens.

Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. "That Devilish Parsley. In addition.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries.aspx?id=1075&s=4.crazychefs. and sauces. Parsley as an oil. http://www. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath.plucodes. a mixture of e. fried chicken. soups. root.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). 2007. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). ^ a b c John ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. "Parsley on plucodes.html. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French . leaf. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. lamb or http://www.drugs. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. In Southern and Central Europe. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies." West Virginia University Extension Service. References". http://www. with fish. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. steaks. Ossobuco alla milanese. parsley is part of bouquet garni. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). 4. 2. garlic.70% by mass. [1]) in oxalic". Last retrieved April 26. Jett. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. and lemon zest. or 4900. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf).g.[3] Parsley is high (1.

com http://www.Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

net/ .Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum http://www. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

e. fried vegetables. growing to 20-80 cm tall. Together with basil. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of http://www. Varieties There are a number of . O vulgare gracile. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). 3-4 mm long. Oregano is an important culinary herb. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. capers. native to Europe. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. It is a perennial herb. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Unlike most Italian herbs.g. of the mint family. and lovage leaves.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. Oregano growing in a field.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . spicy flavor. and to add a nice. each with distinct flavours. produced in erect spikes. The flowers are purple. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. It is the leaves that are used in cooking.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. as well as cultivars. which is popular in southern Italy.crazychefs. and grilled meat. Greek.

Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. especially for mutton and lambs meat. It has an aromatic. useful for relieving children's coughs. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. however. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. Balkan peninsula. salt and . Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. In the Philippines. it can be usually found on table. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. differs significantly in taste. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. West Asia) have similar flavors. which. warm and slightly bitter taste. Oregano growing in a pot.[5][6] Additionally. together with paprika. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. It varies in intensity. The influence of climate. Asia Minor) and O. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. heracleoticum (Italy.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. In Turkish Cuisine.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food http://www.

and caryophyllene. also called Cuban oregano.crazychefs. limonene. indigestion. cholagogue. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. thymol. In the Philippines. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano.Main constituents include carvacrol. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". expectorant. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. antispasmodic. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds.html. pinene. stomach upsets. ^ Organic Gardening . but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. including Poliomintha longiflora. enteric parasites. oregano. emmenagogue. Coleus aromaticus). influenza.uni-graz. especially in the United States. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. Plectranthus amboinicus. A Cretan oregano (O. Lippia berlandieri. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful carminative. ocimene. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses.[8] Hippocrates. mild fevers. capsules.[12] References 1. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. stimulant. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Used topically. useful for relieving children's coughs. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". stomachic and mildly tonic. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. but is usually stronger. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. this substitution would not work the other way round. ^ http://www. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). fungal infections.[7] and painful menstruation. the father of medicine. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. diaphoretic. Aqueous extracts. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat.

^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. Leonor. 12. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". 28. 6. PMID Agric. ^ a b Faleiro. J Nutr. PMID 16218659. draft revision for "origanum". 133 (5): 1286–1290. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/ 53 (21): 8162– (Cav. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. 7. J. March 2009. Fall/Winter 2007 10.php. doi:10.". ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". draft revision for "organum". University of the West of (2005). Food Chem. ^ Epikouria Magazine. ^ Dragland. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. 24 November 2008.10. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". Steinar. Draft revision for "oregano". ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. Fall/Spring 2007 5.) and Origanum vulgare L. June http://www. (01 May 2003). http://jn. ^ Epikouria Magazine. Retrieved 2008-11-26. ^ ["http://www. et al.1021/jf0510079.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4.dmannose. 11. Retrieved 200811-26.asp?item=1374&year=2008.crazychefs. Medical News Today. et al.

Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. meaning "hay". however. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). In Ancient Greek. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 . Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. it was from the giant fennel.[2] In Greek mythology. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). This came from the Old English fenol or finol. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. recorded in the 10th century. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. it seems. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. perennial. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now".com http://www. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. Also. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. umbelliferous herb. It is a hardy.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill.crazychefs. Ferula communis.

24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit. they are finely dissected.29 g 0. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. and grows to heights of up to 2. about 0.047 mg Folate ( http://www.[4] Cultivation and uses . glaucous green. and grooved.Dietary fiber 3.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . It is erect.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0.20 g 1.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. half as wide or less. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels.5 m. but thinner.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.01 mg 7. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill. with hollow stems.5 mm wide. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long. bulb.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B2) 0. B3) 0.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.crazychefs.

the United States.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of . Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. syn. both in its native range and elsewhere.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. notably the Italian name finocchio. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. It propagates well by seed. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. and in other open sites in many regions. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. In North American supermarkets. It is of cultivated origin. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. "bronze-leaved" fennel. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. by the late 19th century. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along http://www. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. including northern Europe.20 mg Manganese 0. though usually not as strong. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. but is more aromatic and sweeter. it is often mislabelled as "anise". both raw and cooked.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. vulgare var. F.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. which is also known by several other names. in pastures. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. for its edible. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe.

or eaten raw. The bulb is a crisp. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. sompu in Telugu. green seeds are optimal. For cooking. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. brown or green in colour when fresh. in side dishes. http://www. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. which are very similar in taste and appearance. both raw and cooked. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. though smaller. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. stewed. fish. pastas. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. It may be blanched or marinated. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads.crazychefs. salads. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. but also the most expensive. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. where bulbs and fronds are used. and risottos. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). mouri in Bengali.Fennel. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. variyali in Gujarati. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. or cooked in risotto. anise-flavoured spice. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. badesoppu in Kannada. often tossed with chicory and . foliage. grilled. Many egg.

Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. which can explain some of its medical effects: it.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. sometimes with some sweetener. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. as it is said to improve http://www. Fennel tea.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup.[12] For adults. act as phytoestrogens. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. This use. also employed as a . or its polymers. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. used to ease flatulence in infants. although not supported by direct evidence. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

which promote growth of breast tissue.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child.[17] However. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. followed by . fennel and http://www. badian (star anise). Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet.

it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. Chakka meaning bark or wood. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni .com http://www.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. In Farsi (Persian).[2] In Marathi. itself ultimately from Phoenician. In Urdu. it is called Dalchina Chakka.[3] In Sri Lanka.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. in the original Sinhala. the "real' cassia.C. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae.[5] In Malayalam. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. it is called darchin (‫. In Bengali. Hindi. In Telugu. it is known as "DalChini ( )". synonym C. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. cinnamon is known as kurundu. and in Gujarati taj. it is called "Darchini" ( ). The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them.crazychefs. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. Ceylon. native to Sri Lanka.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. which are often called cinnamon too.

Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. aloe and cinnamon. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 .crazychefs. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . and in Song of Solomon.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. in Proverbs.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248.

Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "The shores of the island are full of it"." (Braudel 1984.75–7. and used them to construct their nests. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. They established a trading post in 1638. sugar. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge . The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers.2 feet) tall. 7–18 cm (2.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. although in the first century. and coffee. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman http://www. which are arranged in panicles. The flowers. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. have a greenish color. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. However. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea.Ages. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. in a letter of about 1292. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild.crazychefs. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. p. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. and have a distinct odor. took control of the factories by 1640. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe.1 inches) long. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. a Dutch captain reported. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. tea.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world.8–49. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis.

which is left to dry. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. verum). leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. eg. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. Bangladesh. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special.crazychefs. Madagascar. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. Java. the West Indies. and Vietnam. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. the outer woody portion is removed.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing http://www. According to the International Herald Tribune. Zanzibar. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. Brazil. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. Only the thin (0. followed by China. . Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. and Egypt. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. Vietnam. These shoots are then stripped of their bark.[15] According to the FAO.5 mm) inner bark is used. Chips are trimmings of quills. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. The next year. India. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together.

"Vietnamese cinnamon". the related species. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". and thicker (2–3 mm thick).rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. or "Indonesian cinnamon". as all of the layers of bark are .crazychefs. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). is generally a medium to light reddish brown.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. and more crumbly texture. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu .[16] Ceylon cinnamon. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. However. zeylanicum). many websites. hard and woody in texture. has a finer. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). and is considered to be less strong than cassia. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. for example. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. using only the thin inner bark. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. less dense. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia.

capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. especially in Mexico.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. macerating it in seawater. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. used in a variety of thick soups. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. and then quickly distilling the whole. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. such as apple pie. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). The two http://www. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. a deep-blue tint is produced. hot cocoa. ‫. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. It is of a golden-yellow color. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. when whole. In the United States.5% to 1% of its composition. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. In the Middle East. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. and sweets. especially apples. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. tea. but when cassia is present.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. rather than cassia. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. and fruits. bread-based .)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. and liqueurs. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. drinks. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. True cinnamon. are easily distinguished.

The Cinnamon Challenge." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. In .and a very hot aromatic taste. Encyclopaedia Britannica. cinnamaldehyde. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. it darkens in color and develops resinous http://www.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. 2008.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. However. and methyl chavicol[citation needed].[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance.crazychefs.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. and anethole. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. and money.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification.0. love. eugenol. luck.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. who failed.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum).[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. ^ a b "Cinnamon". were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. linalool. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. beta-caryophyllene.[34] Notes 1. although it remains untested. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. and Myanmar (Burma). cinnamyl acetate. cassia. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). few seem able to succeed.

2. Torres RP (December 1998).org/tennent/v1_p5_c02. ^ http://links. 437 7. p. retrieved 2008-07-15 Cozzolino FF.html. Encyclopedia of Spices. Cathay and the Way Thither. 9. retrieved 200807-15 6. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Robert. 437f. Agric. http://www. doi:10. 437). ^ Tennent. Breyne) extracts" 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.htm 20. ^ http://findarticles.html#pg598. ^ Shan B. ^ _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains".com/spices/vietnamese-cassia-saigon-cinnamon-wholecracked-ground thespicehouse. Nerín C (August 2005). The History of Food. Mancini DA. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent 17. PMID 16190627. ^ http://www.thespicehouse. ^ López p. Food Chem. Emily. "Solid. Col. PMID 10077878. Cai YZ. 53 (20): 7749–59. Agric. 23. 53 (17): 6939–46. Corke H (October 2005). 2009. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. ^ [1] _of_life/html/1. http://www..1021/jf051513y. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents".net/ . p. ^ "Cassia.—Cinnamon.437. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009. Harvey. revised ed. Food Chem. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report.stm 3. Cinnamomum. 4.fao. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. retrieved 2008-07-15 12.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14.en.php?storyId=6672644. Sánchez C. Van-Koiij A.theepicentre. p. retrieved 200705-01 21.1021/jf050709v.crazychefs. p. PMID 16104824. Anthea Bell. ^ The 13. ^ Yule.npr. J. Account of the Island of Ceylon.henriettesherbal. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. 8. ^ Mancini-Filho J. http://lakdiva. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Sir James Emerson. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Henry. ^ [2] 18.ihaystack. Batlle R. ^ tr.html. ^ Knox. ^ http://www." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. ^ Harris.jstor. http://www.CO%3B2-N 15. J. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. ^ http://news. Cinnamon. Sun M.

.diabetesjournals. http://jn. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study".com http://www. ^ Verspohl. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food.1002/ptr. http://www. Eleventh Edition.futuremedicine. 29.whfoods. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. doi:10. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. 26. ground. http://www. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215– Retrieved 2007-12-17. Leslie. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Charles (1998). References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. et al.sciencedaily. Alan PMID 14633804. http://care.3. Archer (1988).sciencedaily. Braudel.1. Eugen J. doi:10.pdf. ^ George Mateljan Kristof et al.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. retrieved 200705-01 25. ^ Vanschoonbeek. (2005).com/news/health/803646/chillies_are_the_spice_of_life__pepper s_have_been/index.2217/14750708. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. Ali Khan MM. Research: Thalido.2217/14750708. www.. Retrieved 2008-05-11.lesliebeck. ^ [3] 33.3. Muhammad et al. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007).. Fernand (1984). Corn..1016/00219673(88)90035-0.113. The Perspective of the World. ^ Ranjbar. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". ^ Khan A. 34. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. retrieved 200705-01 Cinnamon. Retrieved 2008-05-11. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography".26. ^ Beck. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000).net/ .redorbit.113. Safdar M. ^ Yronwode. 30. Cat. Khattak KN.utm. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes". Retrieved 200805-11. Retrieved 200808-05. July 2000.htm.. 28. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life".2337/diacare.. http://www. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". Medicinal Seasonings.luckymojo. New York: Kodansha International. doi:10. 27. ^ Taher. Akram et al. a publication now in the public domain.html?source=r_health. Anderson RA (December 2003).com.24. Agricultural Research magazine. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. doi:10.12. http://www. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism.crazychefs.

[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. chopped. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. one of the oldest vegetables. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. They are now available in fresh. They are known by the common name "onion" but. frozen. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus . which it is not. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Fritsch & Matin from Iran.Department of Export Agriculture. Onions can be used. canned. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber.crazychefs."[3] Uses Onions. pickled. and Allium asarense R. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. and dehydrated forms. it usually refers to Allium cepa. powdered. used without qualifiers. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.

transported and stored. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. and other animals should not be given onions in any form.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. coughs. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. snakebite and hair http://www.crazychefs. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. due to toxicity during digestion. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. In ancient Greece.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia.[5] The onion is easily propagated. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. Depending on the variety. In Bronze Age settlements. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. recent evidence has shown that dogs. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. spicy. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets.[5] However. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. However. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV.chopped or . These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". an onion can be sharp. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. and also to relieve headaches. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. cats.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life.

027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B1) 0.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.1 g .crazychefs.02 mg Vitamin K 0.34 g 0.046 mg 4% Riboflavin ( http://www.Sugars 4.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit. B3) 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 g 1.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.monounsaturated 0. B2) 0.24 g . B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.042 g .4 mg Vitamin E 0.013 g .saturated 0.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.21 mg Magnesium 0. 0 μg 9.7 g Fat .Dietary fiber 1.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.polyunsaturated 0.

osteoporosis. Imperial Valley Sweet. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. The milder-tasting varieties—Western http://www. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity.[10] In many parts of the world. eleven times the amount found in Western White. Western Yellow. Northern Red. Empire Sweet. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. If you are allergic to onions. anticancer. Texas . However. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. Imperial Valley Sweet. Mexico. anticholesterol. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]).[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. pungent yellow (New York Bold). pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. Empire Sweet. diabetes. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. Texas 1015. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. Shallots have the most phenols. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells.crazychefs. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. Mexico. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. Texas 1015. Empire Sweet. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. Peruvian Sweet. and Vidalia.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. Western White. Peruvian Sweet.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. Western White. and other diseases. Northern Red. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. In the United States. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. and Vidalia. For all varieties of onions.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. In general. Imperial Valley Sweet. followed by Western Yellow. Peruvian Sweet. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. Mexico.

nausea. and the irritation effect. leeks.crazychefs. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. limiting the amount of gas generated. garden lilies. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. diarrhea. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. On January 31. Eye irritation can. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. shallots.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. allylmercaptan and allicin. breathing difficulties. mouth and throat ulcerations. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. chives. all present in garlic. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last).com http://www. ginger. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes.include reactions to onions. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. . As onions are sliced or eaten. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. differs among Allium species.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. cells are broken. creating a stinging sensation. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. The volume of sulfenic acids released. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. garlic.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. 2008. and bananas. allylpropyldisulfide.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where it binds to sensory neurons. it can lead to an allergic reaction. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation.

The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and http://www. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which have been developed in more recent times. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. "short-day" onions. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. more commonly . their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Finally. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. Allium fistulosum. from sets started from seed the previous year.crazychefs. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. which can be planted directly in the ground. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. the Welsh onion.

220 Turkey 1. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.500 China United States 3.346 2.149 Spain World Total 64.758 Russia 1. Vale.750 South Korea 1. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.764 Pakistan 1. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. each of which forms a bulb.Produce bulblets in the flower head.793 India . Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9. although these onions may refer to any green onion http://www.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.302 1.crazychefs. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots. a hybrid of Allium cepas. Tree onion or Egyptian onion . Oregon (USA). such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.637 Japan Egypt 1.

Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile . It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural http://www. It remains in effect as of 2009. passed in 1958.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba.The Onion Futures Act.crazychefs. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.

and chive.[1] A bulb of garlic. from William Woodville. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. shallot. known as garlic. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allium sativum. commonly known as garlic. Medical Botany. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called .com http://www. 1793.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. leek. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A.crazychefs. Its close relatives include the onion. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. It has a characteristic pungent. the most commonly used part of the plant.

Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) . Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". accounting for over 77% of world output. and for medicinal purposes. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. the so-called elephant garlic. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. India (4. In North America. respectively.[5] The "wild garlic". "crow garlic".[6] One of the best-known "garlics". stems (scape). Garlic plants can be grown close together. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. with approximately 10. for consumption (raw or cooked). cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. There are different types or subspecies of garlic.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. Garlic is grown globally. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. according to Zohary and Hopf.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. with Russia (1. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. The papery. The leaves. In cold climates.Yunnan province of China. are common weeds in fields. The cloves are used as seed.crazychefs."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. They can suffer from pink root. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum).com http://www. Allium vineale. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. and Allium oleraceum.

coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including eastern Asia.crazychefs.088.000 142. south Asia. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world".310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure. C = calculated figure. semiofficial. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. F = FAO estimate. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. Southeast Asia. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. northern Africa. A = aggregate (may include http://www.000 221.810 168. and parts of South and Central America. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. or ginger. It is often paired with onion.000 645. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form.000 15.4%).000 128.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output.000 325. tomato. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various . or estimates).000 125.Alaska) in fifth place (1.000 254. the Middle East.400 140. P = official figure. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. southern Europe. California.686.

Immature scapes are tender and edible. the resulting product. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature.crazychefs. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the http://www. and is now being sold in the United States. United Kingdom and Australia. and a chunky base produce skordalia. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and roast them in an oven. cleaned. In Japan and Korea. meats. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. meat. or vegetables. and then stir-fried with eggs. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. . is sweet and syrupy. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. and spices. Blending garlic. garlic toast. crostini and canapé. "stems". The leaves are cut. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. salt. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. In eastern Europe. breads and pasta. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. Garlic. almond. or "tops". oil. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. They are also known as "garlic spears". called black garlic. In some cuisine. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. oil. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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chives. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. allylpropyldisulfide.[51] To ward off vampires. When eaten in quantity.[50] In http://www. shallots. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". However. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. forming allyl methyl sulfide. garlic. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. leeks. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. persillade. garlic could be worn. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. or leeks. and bananas. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in . People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. such as pistou.crazychefs. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. Among the members of the onion family.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. all present in garlic. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. thus mellowing its spiciness. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. However. included in many garlic recipes. including onions. making garlic much more potent than onions. Since digestion takes several hours. and worms from eating the plant. Humans. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide.[48] Due to its strong odor. shallots. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. and release of AMS several hours more. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. garden lilies. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. allylmercaptan and allicin. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. deterring animals like birds. hung in windows. where it is excreted. therefore. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. werewolves. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. insects. The herb is. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. ginger.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. however. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. usually enjoy these sensations.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. and vampires.

net/ . saquinavir. antihypertensives. bleeding. as well as other medications. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. antiplatelets.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. allergic reactions.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. are largely unknown. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. similar to the effect of aspirin.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. minimal risks to normal individuals. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. indicated Muhammad. http://www.In Daoism mythology. antiparasitic value of garlic. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology.crazychefs. and diarrhea. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". if any exist. at worst. sweating.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. if appropriate. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. emesis. However. and hypoglycemic drugs. calcium channel blockers. nausea.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. and menstrual irregularities.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. You can help by converting this article to prose. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. indigestion. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. Editing help is available. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. Garlic can thin the blood.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation.

^ a b c d Tabor.handle. 3. et al. one the bulbs will grow peeled.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns.crazychefs. 2000). Retrieved 2007-08-28. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. Retrieved 5 June. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. topical use of raw garlic.natural-holistic-health. ^ McGee p. 397 6. ^ http://www. including burns to 9. Domestication of plants in the Old World. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. ^ http://www. is discouraged. J. http://hdl.htm. split. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various http://www.nj. (2005). A bulb of garlic. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. G.) cultivars at Debre (2004). Notes 1.jhortscib. 197 5. et al. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria 112 7. 2. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. Retrieved 5 June 2009. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. . In particular. Ethiopia". http://www. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). http://www.html 8.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". third edition (Oxford: University Press.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. 4. ^ a b Lee. garlick)".html.

"Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". PMID 17918162. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . 5.01. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007).1001/archinte. "Tropes. 17.1186/1476-511X-6-5. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. ^ Chan KC. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". ^ Kojuri J. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". PMID 15277094. 29. et al (June 2004). 20. ^ Charlson M. 14. Motta. (p. Garlic. Dent. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. 13. 22.).net/ . 167 (4): 325–6. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". doi:10. 28. Aytaç B. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. Facts. P. Lin RS (June 1998). ^ Goodbye.. 5:109–115. 30. et al (February 2007).A. Daryn (2003). (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. 167 (4): 346–53. Capasso R.1073/pnas. et al (November 2007). doi:10.1002/mnfr. PMID 15157944.4. 54 | P a g e http://www. A Modern Herbal. R. doi:10. 15.manchester. Arch. Akrami M (March 2007).167. Ferraresi. J. Maud. 12. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. Sylva.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. PMID 17325296. ^ Benavides GA. PMID 17951430. 15 (6): 373–7. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. Proc. doi:10.0705710104. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. ^ a b Steiner M. July 1. 31. Acad.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux.1001/archinte. ^ Borrelli Nutr. and Mary U. Izzo AA (November 2007). J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. Vosoughi AR. PMID 17325291. Intern. 11. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Better Nutrition. and Empiricism" (PDF). PMID 17328819. (Mrs. 23.lehoux/Tropes. A.pdf.200700058.2004. 2006..325.1016/j. Sova P (May 2004). Biochem. PMID 15218732. doi:10." Int. http://archinte. Olcay E. Arch. McFerren M (February 2007).10.ama-assn. Block E.1162/106361403773062678. Sartoratto.A 400 Year ^ Gardner CD. 35. Hyg. http://personalpages. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). 26. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". ^ Durak I. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. 34. Intern. 27.crazychefs. J. Güven C (2002). 25. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic".346. Med. ^ Mader FH (October 1990).C. PMID 17123684. J.4. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. http://archinte. PMID 2291748. Accessed: December 18. PMID 9641475. Lawson LD. Sci. Chao WJ (March 2007). Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". doi:10. ^ Durak I. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L.. Squadrito GL. Oztürk HS. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". Mills RW.. Paul B. doi:10. doi:10. U. Kavutcu M. [2] ^ Hamel. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . Yin MC. 104 (46): 17977–82. Med. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. Herald Publishing Co. PMID 17966136. 16. 32.jnutbio.167.S. 21. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. Natl. F..University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman.ama-assn. 24. 2005 ^ Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23.1002/mnfr. 18. 19.005. N. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. Ramacciato.

^ Garlic . National Health Service. 42. W. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. Retrieved December 7.Garlic-in-Oil 61. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150– ^ http://washokufood. Agents Chemother. ^ Macpherson et al. 2007. Thomson M. (1989-01-30). 122. (2001).. Sagi A. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. Itakura Y. Steckelberg Yoffe B. Iwai 049 . 43. http://www. Scolaro M. http://mic. Toxicol. Microbiology (Reading. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. 53. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993).Vol 9 No. Bordia T. Retrieved December 7. 37. Patel R (January 2005). Castro C.jst. Pickering p. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. http://joi. Nishino H. Shishido C. . ^ http://lem.jst. Long D.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. http://joi. 64. (1991-08-01).1099/mic.htm 44.. 65. Slattery M. 4 . Antimicrob. Passa O. ^ a b McNally. ^ Baruchin AM. Houghton http://aac. Lau B. ^ Health Canada . ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L.sgmjournals. David (2003). Ronen M (November 2001). ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. on mutagenesis. Book 65 57. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. 49 (1): http://linkinghub. PMID 8441577. 45. ^ Fareed G. James. UK Medicines Information. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. 40. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. Engl. Yoshida S. Teel R. section "Conclusion" 48. Sanders N.go.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. PMID 15616341. PMC: 538912. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. Jennifer (2002-12-13). 85 (3): 157–64. 120. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. 38. Ali M (June 1996). 39.473. garlic advisory 63. 66.. In Search of Dracula.. ^ John S. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. PMID 8644128. Kominato Y. NLM Gateway. "Allixin. ^ Lemar KM. ^ Pickering. PMID 11600262.html 46. Raymond T (1994). Volume 7.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65. Retrieved 2009-01-30. ^ Kodera "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". PMID 16207909. p. 211.unito.elsevier. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical http://www. Matuura H. ^ a b c Yamasaki T.1128/AAC. a stress compound from garlic. 58. Lett.go.". doi:10. ^ http://www. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). Fuwa T. Complementary Medicines Summary. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nishimura S. Imafuku M. Aon MA. 1988. ^ a b c d Hogg.crazychefs. Sumida T.html 54. PMID 11481410. ^ Oi Y.. p. ^ McGee p.. a phytoalexin produced by garlic.". Summer 2005 . 310–311 47. "Garlic burns".org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473.elsevier.0. ^ Bukhari. "Effect of allixin. ^ Shuford JA.. ^ http://www. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. "Garlic burns".pdf.economicexpert. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea.28095-0. ISBN 0-30436561-0. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Sterling Publishing..1. Retrieved 2007-0707.36.nhs. ^ Macpherson et al. Jordan W. 41. 211 51. et al (October 2005). doi:10.January 29. Chesson C. ^ McNally p.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".

. PMID 9247357. D.. Gardner. Zemah. R. Masanori Ayabe. D.. Lemar. R. Kraemer. Pharm. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. E. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Susumu http://www. McMahon FG (June 1993). New York: Avery. 3rd ed. Gotzkowsky S. A. Shan. Z. Bull. E. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55.. Bull... (2001). [4] Lawson. J. C. J. Lawson. (1985). Koch. "Garlic burns". H. Turner. L.. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Block. Am. Rabinowitch (2004). Vargas R. http://linkinghub. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. L. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. M. E. P. P. Vol. Vol. 354-363 (2002). L. Hort. L. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3).crazychefs. Kiazand. PMID 9355906. Andy (2004). "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. http://circ.P. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs.ahajournals. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". D. G. Block. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. The chemistry of garlic and Campbell JH (July 1997). Hile. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. Kamenetsky. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin.. D. 94 (6): 632–5. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Block. E. 405-407 (2002). A. Yukihiro Kodera. Naoto Uda. Am. 50. Barzilay. K. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Makoto Ichikawa. A.References Japanese[青森県産].. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. Garty BZ (March 1993). Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. 50. (1992). C. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity.. . and Related Species (Second Edition). (2000). Chem. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. Zhang. Lloyd. Boudoulas H. J.にんにく専門のにんにく屋.elsevier. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. Simmons DL. Sci. Balise. 'Kyolic'.. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Jiro Yoshida. Lawson. Wang. H. Med. Pharm.. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. PMID 8506890. Breithaupt-Grögler K. (2004). The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. Shafir. I. Efendy JL. Campbell GR. Williams & Wilkens. Retrieved 1 May 2005. Ling M. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". (1996). Isao Sumioka. H. D. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. Block.. Jain AK. A. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. Naoki Kashimoto. S. Garlic. and H. Selfsufficientish . L. Kozue Ogasawara.-Z. Chem. D. Balch.M. Belz GG (October 1997). Soc.. R. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. PMID 8441577. Chatterjee. 129: 144–151. Hamilton. Prescription for Nutritional Healing.

Abstract.wkhealth. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin".. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder J. D.S. Shuford http://www. (1997). "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Y-Y. et al. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition).1128/AAC.473. Bernhard H. http://meta. pp. Mader FH (October 1990). ISBN 0-8247-0105-4.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. Michael Bandell. Pharmacol. In: Ohigashi. PMID 15616341. (1999). Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. PMID 2291748. PMC: 538912. Harold (2004). (eds). Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID .K. 31 (6): 904–8. Silagy C. Samer R. "The Onion Family: Onions. Yeh. http://aac. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient.asm. 49 (1): 473. PMID 8169881. (1998).. Eid.12. Veena Viswanath. Marcel Dekker. Yeh. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929– Leeks". H. 310–3. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.49.2005. S.crazychefs.1. doi:10. et al. J. Cardiovasc. Neil A (1994). et al. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Patel R (January 2005).. Kadam. Steiner M. Y-Y. Lin RS (June 1998). Agents Chemother. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". McGee. SunWook Hwang. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Macpherson. Antimicrob. Geierstanger. Salunkhe.. Garlic. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". Steckelberg JM. Scribner. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209.

it is called đinh hương. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. and Sri Lanka. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. In Vietnam. when they are ready for collecting. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the . syn. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. Cloves are harvested when 1. Pakistan. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. and consist of a long calyx. Madagascar. terminating in four spreading sepals. after which they develop into a bright red.5-2 cm long.crazychefs. Zanzibar.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. Cloves are harvested primarily in http://www. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae.

warm and aromatic. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. entering the kidney. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. spleen and stomach meridians. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic.[1] In north Indian cuisine.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. cloves are often used to season pho broth. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the http://www. often in combination with cumin. but with the addition of other spices). In Vietnamese cuisine. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. In south Indian cuisine. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. During Christmas. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form.crazychefs. Cloves are used as a carminative. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. they are used sparingly. it is used in almost all dishes. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. especially for digestive problems. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110.000 tonnes).net/ . which sells Djarum Black. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. Cloves are used in cheeses. along with other spices. but as they are extremely strong.

direct stomach qi downward. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases.[5] In West Africa. Moti. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. pimples http://www. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach .[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. Subsequently. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin.[7] Cloves. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain.[7] Nevertheless.P. Makian. were highly prized in Roman times. It is also used in severe burns. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). vomiting and diarrhea. along with nutmeg and pepper. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. Ayurvedic herbalist K. including Bacan. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. In the late fifteenth century. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. most of the West Indies.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. and Zanzibar. including for multiple sclerosis.[6] History Until modern times. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. including cloves. Brazil. mainly from the Maluku Islands. and Tidore. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. RH (AHG). Ternate. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. Khalsa. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli.

stigmasterol and Spice: The History of a Temptation. Andrew and Page. 3rd ed. Prescription for Nutritional Healing.htm. tannins. and Andrew Gamble. ^ a b Turner. Karen.. 2. . Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. methyl salicylate (painkiller). "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World".crazychefs. pp. Avery Publishing. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol.nih. Erich Stoger. Erich Stoger. ^ "TibetMed . Third Edition by Dan Bensky. Alan. 94. 8.[8] Notes and references 1. Steven Clavey. ^ Balch. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. kaempferol.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". ISBN 0-375-70705-0.html National Institutes of Health. http://www. ©2003. ^ http://www. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin.tibetmed. ^ Dorenburg. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. rhamnetin. Medicine Plus. and several sesquiterpenes. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. John Wiley and Sons Inc. crategolic acid. James. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4.html ^ http://oneearthherbs. due to the high price of importing them. Vintage Books. the flavonoids eugenin. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. 5. gallotannic acid. 3.nlm. and eugenitin. Special Diets for Illness http://www. ©2000. Steven Clavey. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. xv.squarespace.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. comprising 72-90%.. Jack (2004). Phyllis and Balch.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. et al. (2005).a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1.1542/ "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook.Botanical nomenclature". ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. http://www. 18 May 2009 2. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. ^ Louisa Lim. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. doi:10. 3. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". Retrieved 8 June 2009.5555/jaoi.2005. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -.htm?csnumber=19183. while Lederer et al. ^ International Organization for Standardization.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . 4.703. Retrieved 8 June 2009. ^ Lederer.Specification". have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species.iso.htm?csnumber =4844.88. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography".Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. NPR. doi:10. f. PMID 15492355. Ines et al. Vaishali C. http://www.2004-0058. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. http://www. (2006).atypon-link. Retrieved 8 June 2009. Retrieved 10 November. ^ International Organization for .[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 .1021/jf058156b.iso. f. ^ Joshi. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角".com http://www. 5.) -.

72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. native from the east Mediterranean to East India. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.[1] Cumin (Cuminum .com http://www.crazychefs.

In Arabic. in Turkey.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as http://www. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. and yellow-brown in colour. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological . being oblong in shape. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . cumin is known as ziran (孜然). cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. cumin is known as kimyon. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). cumin is known as zireh. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. parsley and dill. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. Kerman. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced.crazychefs. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. including kamūnu in Akkadian.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. the story goes. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. maduru. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . longitudinally ridged. In Northern India and Nepal. a member of the parsley family. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. in Iran and Central Asia. in northwestern China. locally called "Kermun". Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages.

today it is mostly grown in Iran. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. In Sri Lanka. and Chile. Syria. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. have been dated to the second millennium . Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. Turkey. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. Uzbekistan.crazychefs. In South Asia. Egypt. Tajikistan. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. Mexico. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. when added to hot milk and consumed. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Seeds. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. Morocco. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. and this practice continues in http://www. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). India.

Today. Northern Mexican cuisines. pinnate or bipinnate.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. adobos. Indian. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. and borne in umbels. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. It is traditionally added to chili. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. curry powder. white or pink. but are smaller and darker in colour. and bahaarat. thread-like leaflets.crazychefs. tacos. North African. Cuban. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. Middle Eastern. and other Middle-Eastern. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. . The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. garam masala. curries. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. http://www. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. Sri Lankan. Pakistani. It is an herbaceous annual plant. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. and is found in achiote blends. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. popular in Indian. Contrary to popular belief in the US. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). either ground or as whole seeds. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. containing a single seed. and in some traditional breads from France.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. sofrito. enchiladas. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The flowers are small. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese.

327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B3) 4.33 mg Vitamin K 5. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. sown in spring.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. Cultivation of cumin requires a long.24 g 22.Dietary fiber 10.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.81 g 8. However. B2) 0.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.25 g .5 g Fat . and needs fertile. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.7 mg Vitamin E http://www. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates.saturated 1.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.27 g 17. 64 μg 44.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).very common in Mexican cuisine. well-drained soil. it is drought-tolerant.Sugars 2. hot summer of 3–4 . the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.435 mg Folate (Vit. It is grown from seed.crazychefs. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine.

[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q.).a small cat).com http://www. However.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. to eat. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron.v. as in 'kot' . The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). lighter in colour. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Not related to curcumin.a cat and 'kotek' .8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. In Polish the difference is even less significant. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix.Zinc 4. For example.crazychefs. a chemical found in turmeric. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". from the Swedish word "spisa". Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the . In Swedish. doi:10. et al. (2005). ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN".gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. 2000).com/html/fcumin. Lu et al.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. Domestication of plants in the Old World. 4." premiumwanadoo.1302.arsgrin. 206 5. ^ http://www. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1.313. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. and Carum carvi L. doi:10." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition).pl?12617. ^ a b Iacobellis.". Essential Oils".html 6. Nicola S. ^ a b Wang. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. ^ " .1002/ffj. Rong. ^ "Kamūnu. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L.030. http://www. ^ Growingtaste. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004).1016/ http://www. ^ a b c Li.05.ars-grin. 2000.1021/jf0487351. (2009).com.2009. doi:10. third edition (Oxford: University Press. 3. Retrieved 2008-03-13. www. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. 9. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. 8. from China".com 7.crazychefs. 2.aca. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.

Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. cineol. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. and galangal. West Africa and the Caribbean. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. shogaols and gingerols.crazychefs. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. or spice. and citral) have also been identified. In laboratory animals. cardamom. medicine. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are . antipyretic and antibacterial http://www. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae).[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. sedative. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale.

ginger is called Aada in Bengali. nuts.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. which makes swallowing easier. [edit] Regional use In India. ghee. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. crackers and cake. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger http://www.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. or frozen for longer term storage. salt. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. especially in the Tanjore belt. Alay in Marathi. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. and sugar.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. Additionally. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. and Aduwa in Nepali. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in . although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Inji in Tamil. ginger ale. in Tamil Nadu. cookies. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. and ginger beer. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. stimulating the production of saliva. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. particularly gingerols and shogaols. For storage. Ginger has a sialagogue action. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. Adrak. to which honey is often added. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. enchi in Malayalam. in Gujarati. In South India. Ginger is also made into candy. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. Allam ( ) in Telugu. and tender green chili peppers.

ginger is called gyin. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. On the island of Corfu. In the Ivory Coast. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. In Western cuisine. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. parkin and ginger http://www. In Burma. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. . pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. and a variety of nuts and seeds. In Japan. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. In Arabic. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). and making drinks such as sorrel. is made. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. during their occupation of the islands. France. a type of ginger beer. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. In China. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. In the traditional Korean kimchi. In the Caribbean.crazychefs. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ginger snaps. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. In Vietnam. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. However. Greece. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes.

including warfarin.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11].[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. though it does interact with some medications. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. though studies been inconsistent. which several scientific studies support.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing . cough and cold. morning sickness and chemotherapy.crazychefs. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.

In Burma. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. In China. clotting. ginger can cause heartburn.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bloating. and individuals who have had ulcers. In the United States. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. In . ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. which is considered a panacea. and heart rhythms. particularly if taken in powdered form. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. in food etc. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. reducing "winds" in the blood. and although it's generally recognized as safe. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use.crazychefs. gas. In India.[14] In http://www.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. people use ginger for making tea. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. it is considered good for a sore throat.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. belching and nausea.

the root is gathered when the stalk withers. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) .crazychefs.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285.5%) and Nigeria(~10%).com http://www. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. Scalding. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting.000 F 177. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. with over 30% of the global share. replacing China.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. it is immediately scalded.5%). produces black ginger. but this generally reduces its value. Production trends India. Traditionally.7%).000 158. washing and scraping gives white ginger. Nepal(~11. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. now leads in global production of ginger. or washed and scraped. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. which has slipped to the second position (~20. followed by Indonesia(~12.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ . A = Aggregate(may include official. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai.crazychefs. a carcinogenic compound.000 42. semiofficial or estimates). is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family. Asarum canadense. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.270 1. http://www.000 http://www. The plant also contains aristolochic acid.000 28.387. www.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . Galangal is also called Thai ginger. Also referred to as the flower buds are the part eaten. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". Retrieved 2008-03-03. is used in cooking and medicine. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine.000 34. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . galangal.contains ginger material References 1.000 57.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official but it is not related to true ginger. is also known as "wild ginger".arsgrin. and its root has similar aromatic properties. F = FAO estimate.

Susan (2007-01-15). (2007). MPH (1998). British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). New York: Scribner 7. ^ McGee. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). doi:10. MD.523. "Beverage of Champions". Retrieved 2007-08-02.1016/j. Kim . 10. 4. "Ginger".crazychefs. (2006).org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats".asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. ^ Afshari. 12. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger".com http://www.7. PMID 10793599. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 8. http://journals. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. Tin-Yun Ho. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006).edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch. 9. "A Current Look at Ginger Use".013.2006. ^ Chen.2. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". MD. http://bja. http://unitproj. doi:10. ^ Al-Amin.library.uspharmacist. MD. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.umm. Sheng-Chu Kuo. Harold (2004).1001/archfami.1021/jf071460f. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". Li-Jiau Huang.cfm?displayID=15. 3. Mary. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. Retrieved 2007-08-02.). Retrieved 2007-0808. & MSt. ^ Jakes. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. Kathi Kemper. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Zainab M. doi:10.cambridge. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). ^ Ernst.oxfordjournals.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25).html. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 425-426. "The effect of ginger on diabetic British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. Retrieved 2006-09-06. M. David Kiefer.ucla. http://archfami.html. http://www. Retrieved 5 November. Antoine. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. http://timeblog. Retrieved 2007-08-06. Ali Taghizadeh et al. 11. ^ Al-Achi.. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". (01 Mar 2000). "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".01. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. Shih-Lu Wu. ^ MD O' Hara. 6. & Pittler. et al. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. Jaw-Chyun. 14. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. PMID 9821826.

a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. Erode. and to impart color to mustard condiments.crazychefs.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. . Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. slightly bitter. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. For these reasons. Plants are gathered annually for their http://www.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. In medieval Europe. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. for dyeing. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.

[citation needed] Sangli. orange juice. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. such as in pickles. rendang. ice cream. http://www. dairy products.Yellow City. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. yellow cakes. cake icings. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. Turmeric City. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. not only in curry. Over-coloring. gelatins. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Although usually used in its dried. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. and mustard. sweets. sauces. much like ginger. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from . The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. custardlike yellow color. or Textile City. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric).[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. powdered form. popcorn color. and many more. relishes. turmeric is also used fresh. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. yogurt.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. cereals. but also in masak lemak. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. biscuits. In non-South Asian recipes.

burns and bruises. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. Indians.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. are spiced with turmeric. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. and other digestive disorders. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. an uncurable and debilitating disease. is also treated with turmeric powder. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for http://www. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt . It is unknown why it works. Within one week of using turmeric. winter butter and margarine. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. turmeric has been used to color cheeses.crazychefs. yogurt. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards.In combination with annatto (E160b). which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. salad dressings. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. a traditional dish in South Asia. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. Japan. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. dry mixes.[4] cancer.

Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. or BDNF. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. Bangladesh. with no adverse effects. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. found in black . making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston http://www. John‘s Medical College. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world .Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century.S. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. and the U. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. and Pakistan. multiple myeloma. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. Alzheimer's. and colorectal cancer. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. Snake Bite Anti venin.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine.crazychefs. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. In 1998 researchers at St. improves the absorption of turmeric. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. research activity into curcumin is exploding. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. Bangalore. which supports nerve growth.

net/ . In southern India. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. Also. This happens in economically lower situations. During the south Indian festival Pongal. jaggery. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. and coconut and cooked in steam.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure).com http://www. and it is used for power and purification rites. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. part of the Bengali wedding.crazychefs. such as saris. as a part of the marriage ritual. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape.

aolhealth. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4.2008. Rajendran R. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Shoba G. Planta Med. 2.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. Retrieved June 2009.foodchem. a Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. Joy D. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN".uk/1/hi/health/1668932. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. or Natural Yellow 3.172. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. Joseph T. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".stm 5. ^ [|Ketteler. E. et al. www. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution.ars-grin.ars-grin.1016/ Majeed M. Srinivas PS. doi:10. Notes 1. keto and enol. http://www. ^ Chan. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". Judy] (June 2009). ^ . ^ http://news. The systematic chemical name is (1E.07. AOL Health. 75300. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.5-dione. 1998 May. http://www.thieme-connect.090.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1.6E)-1. Retrieved 2008-03-04. (2009). 64(4):353-6.6-heptadiene3.W. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a http://www.9–7. Euphorbiaceae. The nut is round. 10–20 centimetres (3. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. also known as Candleberry. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content.6–2. 4–6 centimetres (1. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage.4 in) in diameter. simple and ovate. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. Indian walnut. which allows its use as a candle (see below). hence its name. with an acute apex. Kemiri. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. The leaves are pale green.crazychefs.) .9 in) long. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

On the island of Java in Indonesia. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. In Hawaiʻi. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. burned with charcoal. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. however. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the . named kukui were burned to provide light. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. including: leis from the shells. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. pounded seeds. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. leaves and flowers. The flavor. swollen joints. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. This led to their use as a measure of http://www. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. they are mildly toxic when raw. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. Outside of Southeast Asia. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. are applied around the navel for costiveness. lit one end. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. giving them greater underwater visibility. is quite different. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. fevers. In Sumatra. In Malaya. a varnish with the oil. as the candlenut is much more bitter. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. the nuts.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. In Java. and gonorrhea.crazychefs.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. ulcers.

[citation needed] References 1. pp. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. (1993). ripe nuts. the god of agriculture. Bess Press. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. ^ Scott. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. despite her best efforts to please her husband. http://canoeplants. Susan. ^ Krauss. 50-51. Retrieved 2009-03-06. p. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. Liana I.).crazychefs. Betty.[5] In Tonga. 26. Mikiala Ayau.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. Beatrice H. ISBN . still nowadays. http://books. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. http://books. Lilinoe Andrews. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). Being a kind and just woman. This larva is eaten by some people. University of Hawaii Press. "Chapter 4: Canoes".google. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the One of the legends told of a woman Finally. In plantations. Honda. ISBN 9780824822514. tukilamulamu. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. p. http://books. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed.html. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. was routinely beaten. ^ "Kukui".[3] The nohona waʻa (seats).com/books?id=WOdrGIP3zksC&client=firefox-a. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. she was given new life. and the husband was eventually killed. Julie Stewart Williams (2002).com/kukui. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. protection and peace. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. 2. 4. ^ http://www. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. Craig Thomas (2000). University of Hawaii Press.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. used as soap or shampoo. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree.

com http://www. . 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. green pepper. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. unrelated . cultivated for its fruit. However. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. The terms pink peppercorns. Peppercorns. . Telugu:miriyam. known as a peppercorn when dried. may be described as black pepper. . The fruit. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. dark red when fully mature. white pepper. and very often simply pepper. Malayalam:kurumulaku. red pepper (as in bell or chile). which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. Kannada:meNasu.crazychefs. containing a single seed. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. Konkani:miriya konu. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. .

The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. in the early 20th century.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying.S. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. the spice is called black peppercorn. with the skin of the pepper removed. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. and other similar . They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world.crazychefs. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. Once dried. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. wrinkled black layer. this was shortened to pep.[4] In the U. often alongside table salt. This is usually accomplished by process known as http://www. White pepper consists of the seed only. and the naked seed is dried. chemical or biological methods. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. In the 16th century. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including decortication. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants.. French poivre. Dutch peper.

with a bright aroma. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper.Black. green. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. unpreserved green pepper berries. particularly Thai cuisine. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. and its relative the Brazilian pepper . Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. is made from the unripe berries. Fresh. like black. from Bangka http://www. are used in some Asian cuisines. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. which is mostly no longer an issue.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. made from the largest. the Peruvian pepper tree.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. largely unknown in the West. Schinus molle.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius).[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. Pickled peppercorns.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns.crazychefs. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. also green. Schinus terebinthifolius.

Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years.crazychefs.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting http://www. The flowers are small. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. moist. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. the berries lose pungency. or trellises. The cuttings are usually cultivars. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year.[11] Black pepper is native to India. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. The leaves are alternate.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. and before the fruit is . it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. Competing plants are cleared away. but when full grown and still hard. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. poles. It is a spreading vine. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. entire. if allowed to ripen. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. well-drained and rich in organic matter. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. and ultimately fall off and are lost. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily.

it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. particularly the Malabar Coast. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long http://www. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. the dried fruit of closely related Piper . were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. in what is now the state of Kerala.[14] J. In fact. its most important source was India. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. Chile peppers.crazychefs.

especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. Madagascar. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Sumatra. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. Long pepper. but these areas traded mainly with China.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean.crazychefs. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. Malaysia. growing in the north-western part of India. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. Returning from India. this trade http://www. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. the Middle East. Trade routes of the time were by land. changed the course of world history. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. barged to Alexandria. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. By the 16th century. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. or used the pepper . pepper was also being grown in Java. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.Until well after the Middle Ages. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. nor how it reached the Nile from India. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. Sunda. Black pepper. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford.

Apicius' De re coquinaria. clad in a wrinkled cover. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. if expensive.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. pepper was a luxury item. is fifteen denarii per pound. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes.. and of black. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. seasoning in the Roman Empire. After the fall of Rome. 12. first the Persians and then the Arabs. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. four.. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . seeing that in other substances which we use. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. Similarly. Once into the Mediterranean.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. I season http://www. whereas. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat.[22] In addition. Edward Gibbon wrote. while that of white pepper is seven. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. who travelled east to India. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. affordable only to the wealthy. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE.crazychefs. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. the banquets of kings. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. and the prices reflected . There is no evidence to support this claim. I wonder. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". and the luxuries of the table. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery".H. especially Venice and Genoa. it is sometimes their sweetness." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper.

Today. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. his representative replied. especially in winter." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. has some antimicrobial properties.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative.compound that gives pepper its spiciness.crazychefs. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. Pepper. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. In the 17th century. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. A depiction of Calicut. as well as around Africa. the effect is small. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a . In 1498. Pepper harvested for the European trader. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. However. "we seek Christians and spices. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. and salt-cured meats were common http://www. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

indigestion. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. Siddha and Unani medicine in . pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time.. lung disease. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. hoarseness. Like many eastern spices.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. including long pepper. liver problems. earache. but both were used. diarrhea. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. oral abscesses. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. being stronger. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. but if this estimated 10. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". — Alice in Wonderland (1865). joint pain. either long or black. however. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. insomnia. insect bites. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". hernia. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[26] By the 12th century. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are http://www. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. Long pepper. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. Note the cook's pepper mill. gangrene.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. was often the preferred medication. each load being equal to 223 lbs. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant).. heart disease.000 pounds (4. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper.crazychefs.[25] In the 3rd century CE. as well as she could for sneezing. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper.

Few. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question.crazychefs. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of . a substance present in black pepper. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. which give citrusy. limonene. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. and linalool. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. woody. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. and floral notes. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. if any. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. and toothaches. Some sources say that piperine. causing the sneezing. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. left on black pepper. vitamin B.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging.[31] As a medicine. caryophyllene. a mildly carcinogenic compound. sabinene. Refined piperine. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. tooth decay. chapter five.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. http://www.[31] Also. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound.sunburn. which is stripped of the fruit layer. The outer fruit layer. irritates the nostrils.

Other major producers include Indonesia (9%).Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless http://www.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are used for this. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light.crazychefs.000 t (299. the most widely traded spice in the world. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. As of 2008.000 short tons). Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. Malaysia (8%).[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are.[33] Once ground. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. Thailand (4%). Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. Sri Lanka (6%). which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. and China (6%). Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. but has fallen to just over 271. The price of pepper can be .[35] By weight. India (19%). slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. by monetary value.000 t (391. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. Brazil (13%). India. for example.

Text online. ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. Retrieved 6 November 2005.ars-grin.[36] Notes 14. The Hindu Business line. 10. 13.000 short tons).da. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. ^ a b Jaramillo. http://www. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF).000 t (99. 2006-1120. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. ^ Translation from Turner. http://www. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Pepper. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". Spice. http://books. ISBN 075653836X. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep.arsgrin. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". Egyptian Pharaoh.amjbot. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. Using fresh green peppercorns. Innes Miller.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Warrior. Retrieved 12 August 2006. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). http://www. p. 88. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Retrieved 17 October 2006.M1. Vietnam dominates the export market.crazychefs. Alejandra (2001). 93. 20. using almost none of its production domestically. ^ J. ^ Peppercorns. p 94.pd f. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. 3. ^ Ochef. ^ Dalby p. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. 12. Flora of China. PMID 11302858. Retrieved 6 November 2005. from Penzey's 9. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. Ramses II. 7. Black pepper is marica. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. The Spice Trade. 80 16. p. 83 21. ^ Innes Miller. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. Gernot (2006).com/2008/03/27/stories/ http://www.efloras. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long . 8. 1969). ISBN 0375407219. Retrieved 13 November 2005.2307/2657072. 17. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". 200803-27. Random House. 2. disease and weather. Retrieved 6 November 2005. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. www. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 4. 6. 5.poor crop management. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. 18. Compass Point Books. http://www.thehindubusinessline. ^ Katzer. and Builder. . "Mill". Deans (2000). ^ Dalby p. 171. Buddhist Monastic Code II. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han.. 33. http://www. ^ Dalby p. Retrieved 2008-01-29. ^ a b James A. ^ a b McGee p. doi:10. Prosper (2001).00969. Jaffee.pdf. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". p. 108–109. Dover.html. J. 30.accesstoinsight.worldbank. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. 27. http://siteresources. 35. Cambridge University Press. http://www. ^ Dalby pp. ISBN 0600-60235-4. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". table http://www. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. Retrieved 2009-01-29. pp." 24. Andrew (2002). Why does pepper make you sneeze?. Retrieved November 12. Vol. Berkeley: University of California Press. 726. G. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. D. 156. Larousse Gastronomique. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. 25. ^ U. 2.crazychefs. Alan (2002). Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: ds/IndiaSpices. 74–75.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". Hamlyn. 2005. References Dalby. Karvy Comtrade Limited. 29. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. ISBN 0520236742.22. ISBN 0849336201. 204. ^ Jaffee p. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. 26. Dorman and S. 428. 23. CRC Press. Dangerous Tastes. Full text at Blackwell website. 395. Duke (1993-08-16). 36. ISBN 0521367085.pdf.x. 34. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). "Spices. http://books. ISBN 9781580084178. http://books. also Turner pp. Davidson. 12. Steven (2004). 32.1365-2672. ^ Montagne. 10. ^ H. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF).karvycomtrade.2000. 2008-05-15. ^ Turner p. Retrieved TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result.1046/j. ^ Turner p. 77. ^ "Karvy's special Reports .S. ^ Jaffee p. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. purchase required.

Harold (2004). London: Vintage Books. Scribner.McGee. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Turner. OCLC 56590708. ISBN 0375707050. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Spice: The History of a Temptation. OCLC http://www. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. "Black Pepper and Relatives". Jack (2004).net/ . 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pp. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 427–429.crazychefs.

net/ . B1) 0. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. yellow.17 g 0.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B3) 0.057 mg 4. B2) 0.Dietary fiber http://www.Pepper. including red. Peppers are native to Mexico.crazychefs. Today. green and orange.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".64 g 0. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. sweet.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.40 g .480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Central America and northern South America.Sugars 2.224 mg Folate (Vit. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries.

India. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. In the United States and Canada.g. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. "gele paprika". It is eaten with fried noodles. meaning pepper-fruit. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). "red pepper". "green pepper"). The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. When cut off. in Dutch. In parts of Ohio. meaning Bulgarian pepper. respectively). " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. an unrelated plant. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. the word ピーマン ("pî http://www. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. Malaysia and New Zealand. Sweden. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). or "piment. g. Indiana. which has its roots in the word for pepper. "groene paprika". Across Europe. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. Grilled. the hotter variety which is used as a hot .Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. In British English. such as Australia. instead of using as a spice. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. "Miris" is Chilli. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. In France it is called "poivron". the fruit of Piper nigrum. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. which are green and yellow. At that time peppercorns. " In Japan. and Pennsylvania. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries.crazychefs. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. the term "paprika". with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). meaning Big pepper. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". they are called "capsicum". In Argentina it's called "Morrón". Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Norway. With the similar meaning. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. regardless of their color. like pasta. were a highly prized condiment..

white. pink. Varieties The color can be green. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. rainbow. orange and. in salads. yellow. http://www. red. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. more rarely. blue. maroon. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. It is eaten as a raw snack. black and .In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". purple. aqua. in various soups and stews. yellow or orange peppers.crazychefs.

com http://www. ^ http://www. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. also known as M.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint .[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [1]) is a hybrid mint. balsamea . Peppermint (Mentha × piperita.crazychefs. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. The plant. indigenous to Europe. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species.foodreference.

24– 0. Being a hybrid. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. The chromosome number is variable. If placed. blunt spikes. 72.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a http://www. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. he treated it as a species. 6–8 mm (0. Flowering is from mid to late summer. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively.5 in) long and 1. and 120 recorded. spreading by its rhizomes. 84.31 in) long.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall.6– . noted since 1843[8]. dark green with reddish veins. fleshy. square in cross section. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and bare fibrous roots.59–1.crazychefs. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. it is usually sterile. including stream sides and drainage ditches. with 2n counts of 66.5–4 cm (0. forming thick. with smooth stems. The flowers are purple. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. with a few exceptions.20 in) diameter.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. it can grow anywhere.6 in) cm broad.

particularly menthyl acetate. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. ice cream. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. thus promoting belching.1.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. confectionery. and toothpaste. and is often used as a flavouring in tea. chewing gum.crazychefs. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago.[10] Similarly. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured . The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the http://www.

but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. Eau De Cologne Mint). It needs a good water supply. Leaves aromatic. and it is considered invasive in Australia. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas.[13] and in the United States. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. the Galápagos Islands. [16]. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. If you choose to grow peppermint. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. as a natural insecticide. In addition to that. Foliage lime-scented. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [21]. hairless.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. Leaves . Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. which they then call "after-dinner mints. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. A mild. it is advisable to plant it in a container. New Zealand. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully http://www. [18]. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants.crazychefs. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15].[12] Outside of its native range.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. Stems reddish.

ISBN 978-1563636783 10. ^ Cappello. Retrieved 2009-02-07. (1753). A.pdf. Mentha L. G.crazychefs. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. http://www.glu. (2007). ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. 11. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". Flora of Britain and Northern Europe.02. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. (1975). http://whqlibdoc. ^ a b Blamey.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 .. C. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. Mehmet (2004). reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. ^ Linnaeus. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. Flowers open from bottom up.. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2. 6. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". M.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". ed.1016/j. 9. 7. 5. Thomson Healthcare. et al. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. ^ a b ed. In: Stace. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". a popular confection. ^ World Health Organization.2007. Retrieved 3 June 2009. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13..006.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil .who. 4th Edition. & Grey-Wilson. doi:10. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. A. R. C. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. C. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page http://www. (1989).ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. (1992).contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . . page ^ a b Huxley. ^ Harley.

com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213.1023/A:1006185103897. Ambika et al.sagepub.htm? Retrieved 8 June 2009.actahort. S. 27. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.iso. Zheljazkov. http://tih. http://www. 21.257.htm? http://www. Retrieved 7 June 2009. paraquat. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)".224.wiley. 19. ^ Akdogan.E. Plant Cell.1071/AP99036. 22. and Mentha spicata L. Frédéric et al. 23. Bienvenu (1999).. 18. http://www.)". Valerie Howland (2006). to control peppermint rust in north-east populations.sagepub. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". Derek R. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide.E. doi:10. ^ International Organization for Standardization.10): 119 .actahort. Retrieved 7 June 2009.Specification". http://www. ^ Farley.159. 24. 20. ^ ^ International Organization for Standardization. Bienvenu (1998).com/journal/118500486/abstract.iso. (2007). http://www. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . Retrieved 6 June 2009. V. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". Retrieved 3 June.S. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 . F. ^ Sharma. Mehmet (2003). Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . Australia". "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats".219. Retrieved 3 June.122.D. http://www3.crazychefs.1002/jsfa. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . http://www. 26.2740311104. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 .1151. 17. Retrieved 3 F.iso. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. http://het..htm.. J.)". ^ Akdogan. Mehmet et al. doi:10. doi:10. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. (2004). "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint".org/iso/catalogue_detail.sagepub.htm?csnumber=4844. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". Retrieved 3 June. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 . ^ a b c Jullien.16. et al. 25. ^ International Organization for Standardization.htm. D. ^ Adamovic.interscience.. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. on kidney tissue in rats". Retrieved 6 June 2009. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 .org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. http://het. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital .

although different in their uses as food. porrum (L.crazychefs. ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. porrum (L. to the Alliaceae family. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.).Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. along with the onion and garlic. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. Two related vegetables. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. Allium ampeloprasum var. the elephant garlic and . also sometimes known as Allium http://www. is a vegetable which belongs.Gay The leek.) J.

Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. intended for harvest in the season when planted.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Once established in the garden. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored.crazychefs. and overwintering leeks. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. to be planted out as weather permits. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna . and they have few pest or disease problems. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. leeks are hardy. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or http://www.

carrots and potatoes and different meats. which turns it soft and mild in taste. although less bitter than scallion. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. Raw. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so.crazychefs. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. The tender core may be eaten. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. In its raw state. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. but. Lamb is the most popular. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm http://www. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Cuisine Leeks for sale. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. The onion-like layers form around a core. which can be used in salads. Fried. due to the layered structure of the leek. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. along with leek . as the leek ages.

com http://www.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B. B3) 0.crazychefs.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.polyunsaturated . B1) 0.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.004 g .[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero. 83 μg 14. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.monounsaturated 0. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.saturated 0. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.Dietary fiber 1. as well as wall carvings and drawings.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. who consumed it most often in soup.233 mg Folate (Vit.E.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .04 g .9 g .03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B2) 0.Sugars 3.3 g 1. onwards.E.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit. In her book. as well as other recipes with leeks. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.15 g 0.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.8 g Fat . [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.C.C.

In the play.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St.Vitamin E 0. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. representing http://www. for example. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. good countryman. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.12 mg recommendations for adults.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. Shakespeare. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. David‘s Day. you know. According to one legend.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek . This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton.crazychefs. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods.

3. 2000).Notes http://www.. 1978. ^ Guiliano.crazychefs. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. French Women Don't Get Fat. Knopf. Mireille. third edition (Oxford: University . ^ Jane Grigson. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. (Penguin Books.p. Domestication of plants in the Old World. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.

(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a http://www.crazychefs.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.6 g Fat Protein Water 0. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.2 g 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g ( . Celery. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.Dietary fibre 1. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.Sugars 2 g 3g . dulce) or celeriac (var. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates . Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753. with fewer than 100 individuals left.

and in Old Bay Seasoning.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in . dogs. Actually very small fruit.crazychefs. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. such as chicken noodle soup. onions. Celery. often used as a base for sauces and soups. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. celery is also grown for its seeds. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). 30 AD. birds. Celery is a staple in many soups. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. squirrels. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. as celery salt. Celery. horses. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. Celery salt is used as a http://www. onions. on the Chicago-style hot dog.In temperate countries. and small rodents. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice.

and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. have to be clearly marked as such. M. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. they note "since A. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace.crazychefs. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. Lemnos and Thebes.[8] In the European Union. Celery contains androstenone. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. In Homer's Iliad.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. making avoiding such foods difficult. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. even in trace . History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). however.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss http://www. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. for people with celery allergy. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. father of the Cabeiri.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. foods that contain or may contain celery. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. However.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. at Kastanas. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated.

apium Italicum. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. seleri.. produced in dense compound umbels. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. Under optimal http://www. splits.crazychefs. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. as the Grace of the whole Board". as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. In North America. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. but the leaves may be used in salads. 2–3 mm diameter. white and red.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. and the most crisp and tender. straightness and thickness of petiole. at our Great Mens tables. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. the whole plant having a coarse. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. insect damage and rot). and its seeds are those sold as a spice. They are ranged under two classes. The flowers are creamy-white. borrowed from Greek. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. and Praetors feasts. from the Latin selinon. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the . many of which differ little from the wild species. due to extremely uniform crop growth. earthy taste. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. 1. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. and a distinctive smell. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. In the past. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. shape.[14] With cultivation and blanching.. sweetish.5–2 mm long and wide. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. cracks. The plants are raised from seed. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. fields are harvested only once. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching.

com: Celery and Negative Calories 6. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". ^ a b Fragiska. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. 1920). (Laurentii Salvii). P. p. Hopf. Zohary and M. Species Plantarum: Tomus I.. 8. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. Wilson IBH.202.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). ^ William Robinson and and proper sanitation. ^ R. ^ Bublin M. 13. ^ D. Holmiae. C (1753). ^ Celestin J. ^ Celsus. 9. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. (2005). Radauer C. Retrieved 2008-03-04. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). ^ Teng CM. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". 2.practicallyedible.6 (June 1993): 610-611. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. Kraft D. ^ snopes.nsf/pages/smallage. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed.crazychefs. Western Journal of Medicine 158. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. "Celery". 2000) p. Suslow. M. gentle handling. 3. ^ OED. T. ^ Calcium sources 7. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. Post-harvest technology research and information center. http://www. http://postharvest. Lee LG. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. Scheiner . West J. 15.. 12. s.[16] References 1.. 227. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 16. ^ Pliny. de Medicina. (2002-06-10). Natural History XIX. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. ^ Cantwell. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. Thayer translation [1] 4.shtml. (3rd ed. 11. 14. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during Thomson.46. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5.17:1697-1699. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens".ucdavis. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2003.L. M. et al. Ko http://www. Heiner DC. 10. ^ "Smallage".

33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.21 g .net/ . Sugar.98 g 0g 0g 0. see Sugar (disambiguation).5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars. see sucrose. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97. For the common table sugar.91 g . brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B2) 0.Sugars 99. Magnification of grains of http://www.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99.Sugars 96. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose. (Discuss) For other uses.crazychefs.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.

Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. obesity and tooth decay.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. mainly sucrose. sorghum.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. sugar maple (in maple syrup). Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. B3) 0. and .18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. It forms the main ingredient in candy.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. lactose. B1) 0. and in many other sources.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. B2) 0.77 g Thiamine (Vit. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.Water 1.026 mg Folate (Vit.crazychefs. honey. but also appears in fruit.

Generically known as "syrups". Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. such as glucose. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose".com http://www. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). "fructose". A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. Scientific Scientifically. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. In this informal sense. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness.) will likely denote a sugar.[4] It came to English by way of French. Etymology In the case of sugar. the Spanish word azúcar.) The Greek word for "sugar".[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. molasses or treacle. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. and texture) of beverages and food. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. "dextrose". the Italian word zucchero. In a list of ingredients. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. etc. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. (Compare the OED. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". .Popular In non-scientific use. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. Spanish and/or Italian. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. preservation. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). means "pebble". the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide.crazychefs. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). including palm sugar and fructose. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet.

grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. important molecules in the body. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. 2. Natural sugars come in fruit. plus sugars naturally present in honey. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. has a "missing" oxygen atom. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. as its name suggests. raw sugar. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . cook or consumer. http://www. This includes all the sugars referred to above. 3.crazychefs.containing 1. A notable exception. making the sugars reactive. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). Sugars include monosaccharides. deoxyribose.Culinary sugars Grainier. syrups and fruit .

including NADH and ATP. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.made from one glucose and one fructose). so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. with less than 0.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. fructose. Note for example glycoproteins. and galactose.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. proteins connected to one or more http://www. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. which has the formula C6H12O6. This resulting syrup. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP.water (H2O) per bond. galactose and mannose. If combined with fine ash. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. In these closed-chain forms. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. sugar will burn with a blue flame. lactose (milk sugar . or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar).crazychefs. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. which is made of glucose. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). glucose. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as . chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. or DNA. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. After digestion and absorption. sweeter than the original sucrose. producing invert sugar. which form part of nucleic acids.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. Monosaccharides include fructose. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance.

" http://men. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. History of Science and Technology in Joseph and Mike Carlson. Temple University Press. Glyn (2004). "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. ISBN . ISBN 185573-069-3 William http://www. 5. Cambridge: Woodhead. OCLC 51837990 84251137. Blackwell Publishing. ^ Wuebben. 2. Sugarcane.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. The International Sugar Trade. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. A C Hannah.htm 3. ^ scientificpsychic.80 g/ml Notes 1. 1996.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." Powder and Bulk References Adas.webmd. ISBN 063205476X. Sugar Blues. James. Michael (January 2001).Bulk Density Chart.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. OCLC 44493265. ^ International sugar statistics http://www.illovosugar.crazychefs. ^ "Engineering Resources .06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6.

because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar . for light brown sugar. Although in some areas. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. however.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane.25% of the total volume).5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar.g.35 mm." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. especially in the Netherlands. sugar beet molasses is used. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft.crazychefs. Brown sugar contains from 3. without mixing them separately. Products for industrial use (e. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if http://www. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. It is. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead.

Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water.crazychefs. Nutritionally. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar.[2] John Yudkin. White and Deadly" . One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. In other applications. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. much like adding molasses would do. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. as opposed to white sugar. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. in his studies (cited in "Pure. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. The effort was so successful that by . reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar.[1] http://www. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. History In the late 1800s.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. apart from pure carbohydrate.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes).

damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. light brown. ^ New Scientist. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice.1. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. resulting in the characteristic large. which is then crystallized.fao. centrifuged. References 1. light brown. Retrieved 2008-09-20. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. 7. Retrieved 2008-09-20. or Demerara sugar. 32-33 5.html. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. where sugar cane was grown.".[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. http://www. an island off Africa. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ binado_Sugar. 3. 2003. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice.php?id=3026. Muscovado. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. 4. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes.csrwire. giving it a higher mineral 2. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". Retrieved .A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). http://www. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. largecrystalled. http://www. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics.crazychefs. cane sugar.wholesomesweeteners. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www.3 fao. but most is now produced in Mauritius. which is heated and evaporated to a thick ^ Levenstein. crystals. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. Harvey. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". Demerara is another unrefined. 6.wildernessfamilynaturals.

including high blood pressure. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself.[citation needed] Conversely. including humans. refined salt (table salt). Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). white. but toxic to most land plants. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chloride and sodium ions. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the http://www. It is a crystalline . This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. which some use to prevent caking. the two major components of salt. pale pink or light gray in color.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). and iodized salt.crazychefs.

making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). especially for http://www. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure. salt provided the best-known food preservative.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. however. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.000 tons of salt.crazychefs. as were salted birds and salt fish. glass. in the millennia before then.[2]:44 Along the .History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. and the dye Tyrian purple.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. the caravans still transported some 15. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. In 1960.

[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. Halych in Ukraine. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. In many Pagan religions esp. the Hallstatt Celts. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha".also gave us Gaul. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). in which protesters made their own salt from the sea.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf.) In the Sermon on the Mount. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork".[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100.Salzburg. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. During the first millennium BC. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. began open pan salt making. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. God sent down four blessings from the sky . Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". though incorrectly." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. the Roman exonym for the Celts. which was illegal under British rule. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. a root for salt found in http://www. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common . In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. Greek. salz. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. water. and Egyptian. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it.[citation needed] The root hal(l).crazychefs. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. (Judges 9:45. who had heretofore mined for salt.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. taking their names from hal(l)-. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. as it avoided paying the "salt tax".[1] It is widely. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria.

Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea . Halite. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Aztec mythology.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and http://www.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. such as in Sumo Wrestling. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water.crazychefs.

A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper.5% of salt production. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. Today.Different natural salts have different mineralities. Fleur de sel.[12] However.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride http://www. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. Injected water dissolves the salt.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. which is most widely used presently. Purification usually involves recrystallization.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. which are kiln-dried. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. natural sea salt harvested by hand. and the making of soaps and detergents. After the raw salt is obtained. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. and thus is rarely eaten. food uses account for 17. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things.crazychefs.[15] The majority is sold for industrial . a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts).[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. One example are bath salts. giving each one a unique flavor. Refined salt. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. In recrystallization.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. is mainly sodium chloride.

but was determined to be unnecessary. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. sodium aluminosilicate. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. calcium silicate. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. however. condiments such as soy sauce. Single-serving salt packets. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. Table salt has a particle density of 2. and a bulk density (dry. keeping the salt crystals from sticking http://www. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride.[29] However.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. Some people also add a desiccant.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. fatty acid salts (acid salts).[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian . magnesium oxide. calcium or magnesium carbonates. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as a few grains of uncooked rice.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. silicon dioxide. and calcium aluminosilicate.165 g/cm3. Table salt Table salt is refined salt.154 g/cm3.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom.crazychefs. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough.

and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. which can cause severe. or even an electrolyte disturbance. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. and myxedema in adults. which gives the table salt a yellow color. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. dizziness. fluorinated table salt is available. neurological problems. which can cause goitre.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. In France. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country.[33] Drinking too much water. potassium. iodized salt is more common in the United States.[31] Today. In the United States. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. specifically endemic goiter. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide.[32] Another additive. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. especially important for pregnant women. or sodium iodate. cretinism in children. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is http://www. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. The reason for this is unclear. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. In Canada. with insufficient salt intake. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. even fatal. magnesium. sodium iodide. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). Australia and New Zealand than in the United .

forced salt intake. p18) However. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. in Japan.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention).[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia).[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. can cause hypernatremia. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real. since salt was quite valuable).[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. such as in treatment of dysautonomia. It can exacerbate renal disease. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%.crazychefs. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. combined with an inadequate intake of water. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal." ([41] p3). Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. salt consumption is higher.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular . p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium." ([41].[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994." ([44]. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. independently of blood pressure effects. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food." ([41].[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.[38] heartburn.

In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that.[50]. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as the Yanomami in South .6 g or 70 mmol sodium). A salt mill for sea salt."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets. However.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium.crazychefs. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. but achievable population goals. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. Some isolated cultures. SACN states. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. for a typical adult.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. have been found to consume little salt. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day ( http://www.

Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. LoSalt.3 g sodium = 5.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication.crazychefs. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. etc.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. calories. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per http://www.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. When other health claims are made about a food (e." In the UK. "low". These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). or "reduced/less" in respect of . The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.g. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. Those who have kidney failure.300 mg of sodium (= 2.'[55] Campaigns In 2004. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. low in fat. Low is 0. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia.[57] In March 2007.).5g salt per 100g (or 0. One manufacturer. then that is a medium level of salt.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. which will increase potassium intake. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". or Green (Low).[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).6g sodium). thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia.8 g salt) per day. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet.[51] In the United States. Australia. without recourse to salt substitutes. Amber (Medium).1g sodium). the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.

Triamterene. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). Dytac.7).com/salary. 4th edition". 7. and Canada ([63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. 1913. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. Answers. 6. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction.3).net/ . http://en.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: http://www. 5. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. Retrieved 2008-12-14. 8. China (32. called halite. 4. 2. their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. the top five producers being the United States (40. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. and Hall in Austria. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). Catholic Encyclopedia. Costs can reach staggering amounts. Notes 1.crazychefs. Germany (17. Eplerenone and Inspra. such as brine wells and salt lakes. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other.3 million tonnes). 3. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. ^ "Salt". In 2002. India (14.answers.5).wikisource. New York: Robert Appleton Company. and by mining rock salt. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion.

com/reports/salt 16. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.roskill. sodium. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page Ask a Scientist. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). "The (Political) Science of Salt". Mason (2006-12-19). Retrieved 200907-08.htm 19. 281. 28. Science. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. ^ http://www.wiley. 11. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. p. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. Retrieved 2008-07-29.9% sodium chloride ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. Epikouria Magazine. 12. ^ What is Salt?. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. ^ B. ^ a b http://news. salt uses. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. salt http://books.interscience. Kuemmel (1994). salt history.htm 15. salt uses. http://www3. Fall/Winter 2006 10. pp. . ^ Nauticus . ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. 5379. 2008 Retrieved 2009-0708. salt manufacture.pdf 33. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". J. Transportation Research Board.htm. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. Salt Institute.newton.9.907 37. ^ Iodized Salt Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20.stm 38. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". salt history.afssa. http://www. sodium. 10. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt".com/index3. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. 898 .gov/askasci/gen01/gen01420. Victoria) Salt 34. ^ Table 27. ^ David A. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. ISBN http://www. Vol. Salt Institute. ^ Gary Taubes.anl. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. ^ References on food salt & health 14 August Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. ^ Iodized Salt 32.Weather Curriculum 18. ^ HE-620 24.

http://www. OCLC 48426519.1915040902051820. Legal Medicine 2005.pub2 References Kurlansky. doi:10. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. ^ Salt Matters 60. 28 January 2008. ^ Salt TV ads 59. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. BMJ.legalmed.06. 2006. Further reading Kurlansky. Sodium 52. Norton & Co. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. and S. Mark. New York: Walker & Co. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. 2007. Published online 2005. Obarzanek E et al.005 48. Cutler JA.W.40. New York. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) ^ U. New York: W. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. (accessed13 January 2007) 49.hyp. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. Erwin Feldman. ISBN 0802713734. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. Schindler. ISBN PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. 62. Barber. Friedrich Schulz..healthandwellbeing. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. Elizabeth Wayland (1999).net/ . ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. ^ Cook NR. D. ^ Susan 7.crazychefs. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. ^ Understanding labels 55. 61. Salt: A World ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54.a01. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. The Mummies of Ürümchi.. S.1002/0471238961. 47-50. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP).P. OCLC 48573453. John Wiley & Sons. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. Putnam's Sons. Sodium chloride. Inc. NY: G.2004.1016/j. doi:10. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel ( http://www. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. The Story of Salt. http://www. Mark (2002). 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. by Dr Trevor Beard. Salt: Grain of Life. Arts and traditions of the table. Pierre. New York: Columbia University Press. Department of Health. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . The Stationery http://www. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters .Laszlo. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round.

mainly . such as Cambodia. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Malaysia. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. Indonesia. as well as in neighbouring countries. phrik khi nu(lit. phrik thai. found commonly in Thailand. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: .com http://www. Vietnam. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers.crazychefs. It can also be found in India. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. the Philippines and Singapore. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes.

crazychefs. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red." which can best be described by the English equivalent.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. "Big things come in small packages. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant.000 to 100. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian .com http://www. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia.

and go from green to http://www. and then . Ladâ. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). orange.wikipedia. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. The more decorative.crazychefs. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. creating a rainbow effect. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. and among the group of capsicum annuum. Thai hot. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam.As well as the Malay word. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). has peppers that point upward on the plant. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. Thai). but slightly less pungent variety. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). phrik khii nuu ( . Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. about the size of a large potato. It is a kind of celery. it can also be used on its own. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. It has a http://www.crazychefs. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. gratins and baked dishes. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. usually . Unlike other root vegetables. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. furrowed. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. or used in casseroles.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. Celeriac has a celery flavour. which store a large amount of starch.

There are a number of cultivars available.3 g 1.Dietary fiber 1. rinsed. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. 'Diamant'. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in . Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 'Ibis'.crazychefs. Celeriac soup.Sugars 1. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. and 'Kojak'.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates .8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.6 g http://www. especially in Europe. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Among them are 'Prinz'. Celeriac.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths.2 g .

aubergine. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. and see text The eggplant. It bears a fruit of the same name. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum . It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an http://www. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. The flowers are white to purple. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The stem is often spiny. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad.crazychefs. As a nightshade. or brinjal (Solanum melongena).

along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. which is used in British English. which are edible. The name eggplant. The name aubergine. but much larger in cultivated forms.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it." Aubergine and brinjal. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. used in the United States. New Zealand.crazychefs.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow http://www. flower The plant is native to India. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. In the Caribbean Trinidad. and contains numerous small. Australia. from Arabic al-badinjan. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. 1500 . the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. History Solanum melongena. In Indian and South African English. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. The fruit is fleshy. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". soft seeds. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants.

Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. green. Black Magic. Traditional. shape and color. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. Pingtung Long. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. and Black http://www. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated . Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. slightly pendulous cucumber. Burpee Hybrid. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. in white skin Dourga. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. and Tycoon. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. especially purple. whiteskinned. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. There are even orange varieties. Dusky. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. Classic. Some cultivars have a color gradient. or white. Ichiban. A much wider range of shapes.crazychefs.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred.

A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. as in the related tomato. for example in . it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. In some parts of India. tahini. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. as in the French ratatouille. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. curries. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. As a native plant. The thin skin is also edible. peanuts. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. In Iranian cuisine. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. braised (紅燒茄子). or other fillings and then baked. along with the fish Hilsa. or tamarind. or Eggplant Parmesan. It can be sliced.crazychefs. for example. it is called Begun ( ). tahini. the Arabian moussaka. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. In Bangladesh. rice. and achaar. tomatoes. and deep-fried. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. It is often stewed. In one dish. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. battered. and masala and then cooked in oil. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. Melanzane alla Parmigiana.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. complex flavor. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. it can be blended with whey as kashk http://www. so that peeling is not required. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. It. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. as they are far less bitter. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. chutney. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. The fruit flesh is smooth. In the Caucasus. allowing for very rich dishes. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. and garlic. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. it is widely used in Indian cuisine.

showing the inside. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. aphids. pepper (capsicum).) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. and potato. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. the most serious of which is Verticillium.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. flea beetle.) between plants. are also troublesome to eggplants. Egypt. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. such as tomato. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. containing both female and male structures. This is called Beguni ( ). Flowers are complete. For this reason. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit.crazychefs.) between http://www. depending on cultivar. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems.) to 60 cm (24 in. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. and spider mites. (Adults can be removed by hand. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous .

C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.039 mg 5. F = FAO estimate.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B2) 0. New Jersey is the largest producing state.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.043.7 g 0. semi-official or estimates).Sugars 2.35 g .Dietary fiber 3.crazychefs.[5] In the United States.19 g 1. P = official figure.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates . Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror .com http://www. B1) 0.(2.

16 mg Manganese 0.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.crazychefs. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. However. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed].com http://www.084 mg Folate (Vit. while 1.01 mg/100g). 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals.[8] On average. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) .4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours.Niacin (Vit. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. B3) 0.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0. Brazil.

rumphii. racemiflorum. violaceum and viride. and (invalidly) by Sweet. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. S. globosi. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). But this is not correct. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. giganteum.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. ruber. ovigerum and S. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. Solanum longum Roxb. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S.Varieties Solanum melongena var. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. violaceum. Names for various eggplant types. insanum. esculentum. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata . stenoleucum. brownii. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. aethiopicum. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. Scopoli's S. On the other hand. that of Blanco to S.crazychefs.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. album. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. sinuatorepandum. which used to include Dunal's S.C. variegatum. luteum. tongdongense. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. oblongo-cylindricum. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. such as agreste. Solanum oviferum Salisb. capsicoides). inerme. There is an actual S. lasiocarpum.-Lag. H. mainly by Dikii. aethiopicum. http://www. edule. ovigera. inerme and subinerme at that time. subrepandum. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. esculentum. trongum. divaricatum. leucoum. racemosum. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. multifidum. Dunal. an unrelated plant described by Ortega.

Footnotes 1. and Engineering by Yiu H. ISBN . CRC Press. Technology. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). ^ Doijode. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology".crazychefs. 2.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. (2001). S. Hui (2006).com http://www. Handbook of Food Science. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. common. D.

Ebury Press. Miyachi Y. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. Domino. P. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels".uga. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. Arq Bras . FAO. 6. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). 2004.133(42):2081-3 12. Dieges PH. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. ^ Edward F. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802.Aubergine 8.* YP Venkatesh. Toorenenbergen AW. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. Volume 329:437 August 5. volume 82 (nº 3). Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Robert (2008-11-14). ^ Gerth van Wijk . ^ "FAOSTAT". A. ^ B.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. Erich Hornbach. 2008-11-11. 273-6. 2008 10. ^ SN Pramod. ^ Solanum melongena var. Tsenge Demana. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. Andréa Thomaz. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. Harish Babu * . Retrieved 2009-07-01. The New England Journal of Medicine. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. P. pp. Mahesh † and Y. http://pubs. Bruno Caramelli. N. ^ Kabashima K. 1993 Number 6 http://www. http://faostat. 7. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). 202 4. 18(1): 59-62 13.fao. ^ Westerfield.50(2):101-102 11.3. 5. Retrieved 2007-04-24. ^ Health24.pdf.) reveals female ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça.

The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. odd pinnate. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. and have a weak. woody stem that often vines over other plants. The tomato is native to South America. It is a perennial. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. syn. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. yellow. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption.8 in) across. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. with a serrated margin. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. see section Fruit or vegetable below).com http://www. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. both the stem and leaves are densely . the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color.4–0. Solanum lycopersicum. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. One species.

Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America.crazychefs. meaning plump thing with a navel. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . in certain areas of Italy. corn and salt. was the first European to take back the tomato. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. lycopersicum. likely to be the original salsa recipe. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. a barber-surgeon. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent.[6] Gerard's Herbal. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. The specific http://www. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. ancestor of L. cerasiforme. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. tomatl. such as Florence. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. and cultivation began in the 1540s. lumpy tomato. according to Smith. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. However. earlier in 1493. golden apple. smaller vegetable . one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. who named it pomo d‘oro. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. an Italian physician and botanist. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. the other by currant tomatoes. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. now Mexico City in 1521. They also took it to the Philippines. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. However. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. means "wolf-peach". Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. The exact date of domestication is not known.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. a mutation from a smoother. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]).[4] The large.

and in general.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. Thomas Jefferson. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The C. In Victorian times. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant).‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed].[6] Nonetheless. and before the end of that century. but the fruit is safe). particularly Florida and California. British consul in Aleppo c. and as a garnish. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato.crazychefs.[6] But by the mid-1700s. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton.largely plagiarized from continental http://www. who ate tomatoes in Paris. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. Over the past 15 years. By the mid-18th century. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food.M. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. most famously in Worthing. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. Charles M. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. California. ―within the last forty years. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. sent some seeds back to America. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in . Currently. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. 1799 – c. Gerard's views were influential. The Spanish tomato dish. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. Paella. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. broths. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. Rick. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. The University of California. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr.

Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. China. about 5mm in diameter.S. black. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. Most cultivars produce red fruit. It may be deleted after Friday. followed by United States and Turkey. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. orange. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. California accounts for 90% of http://www. pink. they are known as plum tomatoes. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries.0–2.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008.6– . through cherry tomatoes. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. purple. the largest producer.4–0. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated.4 in) diameter range. but a number of cultivars with yellow. and have a lower water content.crazychefs. production and 35% of world production. green.[12] According to FAOSTAT. 18 September 2009. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. For processing tomatoes. or white fruit are also available. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. accounted for about one quarter of the global output.8 in) size as the wild tomato. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.0 in) diameter.

globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes).[18] and productivity.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to . since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. plum tomatoes. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. but unlike commercial hybrids.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom http://www. based mostly on shape and size. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. along with zucchini. as well as heirloom tomatoes. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. and are shaped like large strawberries. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers.crazychefs. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. As in most sectors of agriculture.

cherry tomatoes are small and round. disease and pest resistance. multiple colors (Hillbilly. Lucky Cross). while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. pink. Green Zebra (top right). though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. et cetera. which usually discourages fruit set. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. Red Boar).[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate.especially heirlooms . but are smaller than plum tomato. As an intermediate http://www. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. orange. white. A variety of specific cultivars. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. including yellow.produce fruit in colors other than red. some tomato cultivars . Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. but must be bought as seed. and purple. ivory. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. Determinate. low acidity. Burracker's Favorite. Black Krim (lower left corner). including Brandywine (biggest red). although some determinate heirlooms exist. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. or bush. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. or home growers interested in canning. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. and lack of mealiness.crazychefs. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. black. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener . there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. brown.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. etc. often via mail-order. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. they are often good choices for container growing.

FF . F . cutworms. which interrupts the lifecycle. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. As the name http://www. As a floral device to reduce selfing. T . Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. red spider mite. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. The most common letters are: V . too.verticillium wilt.fusarium wilt strain I & II.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. and A . tomatoes required cross-pollination. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. original state.alternaria. carried by the beet . and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. their traditional pollinators.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions.crazychefs. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. and remain.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. entirely within the closed corolla. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. In the wild. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. but manure or compost work well.fusarium wilt strain I.tobacco mosaic virus. The stamens were. whiteflies. N nematodes. aphids. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. tomato fruitworms. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. cabbage loopers. flea beetles. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. slugs.

The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow . the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. However. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside http://www. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. In an outside setting. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. In more temperate climates.crazychefs. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. as with most species. Unripe tomatoes are firm. This is not the same as self-pollination. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or more often today. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. depending on variety.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. by cultured bumblebees. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. They may be recognized by their color.

high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.crazychefs.Sugars 2. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical .Recently. and other antioxidants. The tomato is acidic. a subset of fruit. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". one of the most powerful natural antioxidants.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. They contain lycopene.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). carotene. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. Though it is botanically a berry. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. in pieces. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below).[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. In some studies lycopene. anthocyanin. or paste. as tomato sauce.6 g 4g . especially in cooked tomatoes. raw Nutritional value per 100 g ( http://www.

Embracing it for this protest connotation. it will not continue to ripen. They are bred to continue ripening. or pickled. initially decumbent. whether because of pruning or flowering.5 °F). turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. and grow as a series of branching stems. often by sun. Most tomato plants have compound http://www. there are variations. Of regular leaves. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature.[28] In October 1965.make salsa. generally three feet tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. The fruit is also preserved by drying. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. Spain. although erect bush varieties have been bred. lateral buds take over and grow into other. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. Tomato plants are dicots. Determinate types are annual in all . meaning covered with fine short hairs. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). When that tip eventually stops growing.5 °C (54. These hairs facilitate the vining process. such as rugose leaves.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. annually celebrates La Tomatina. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. Known for its tomato growth and production. vines. fully functional.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Once fully ripe.crazychefs. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported.

beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. and be dried/fermented before germination. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and . in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus.. However. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. 'lyco'. peach. "wolf-peach"). variegated.e. As a true fruit. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). according to type. These vary. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. Similarly.deeply grooved. i. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. butterflies. while paste tomatoes have very few. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). genetic evidence (e.Karst. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. have the anthers fused along the edges. However. Technically. other insects. Despite this. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. or other external forces that present in the Americas.. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. with both names found in the literature. called locular cavities. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. This is because they are native to the Americas. Other species in that family are potatoes. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. tobacco. Therefore. chili peppers. wolf.) H. would be more correct. ( http://www. angora leaves. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. appearing on the apical meristem.crazychefs. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. plus 'persicum'. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style.[31] Their flowers. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. among cultivated species. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. which frequently used it and still do). Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). moths.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. making the Linnaean name correct. very small cavities. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum.

In 2006. cucumbers. A. However. Bejoseed.crazychefs. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. The U. Ohio. nutritional value. as are vegetables. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. In 1887. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Corporations including Heinz.W. This argument has had legal implications in the United States.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project.S. U. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. from a culinary standpoint. As noted . While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. size. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. and organizations. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide.S.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. North Carolina. shape. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. corporations. of Reynoldsburg. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. Livingston. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. New York. universities. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. 304)). disease tolerance. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. together with its seeds. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. color. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. U. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. flavor. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. http://www. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. 1883. University breeding programs are active in Florida. etc. AVRDC. Oregon. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. BHNSeed. a tomato is the ovary.S. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. and numerous other traits. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. Monsanto. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. Hedden (149 U. pest tolerance. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production.

2006. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. Indiana. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. Tennessee. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant.S. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . which is toxic to humans and animals. the U. stems. . Virginia.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. The fresh fruit is. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. Pennsylvania. Minnesota. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. Kentucky. New Hampshire. Michigan. Rhode Island. Connecticut. harmless.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Speakers from the British http://www. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. Vermont and Wisconsin."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. however. North Carolina. Ohio.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. On October 30. contain the poison Solanine. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. Maine. Massachusetts.crazychefs.

Illinois (100).[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. Oklahoma in .crazychefs. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. with a harvest of more than 32. As of July 2008. and Canada. 2007.7 and 16. Yong Huang. Florida. such as raw tomato. Epcot's manager of agricultural science.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. the U.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. China. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). discovered the unique plant in Beijing.S. fresh jalapeño pepper.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported.8 m (65 ft) length. with 49. New Mexico (98). respectively. French and Germans.000 kilograms (250. Lake Buena Vista. and Arizona (49). On August 30.273 illnesses from this outbreak. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States.1 reported cases per million. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada.151.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115. http://www.6:1).[38] As of July 8. from April 10. one would arrive at an estimated 40.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. and fresh cilantro. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. 2008. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. fresh serrano pepper. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. UK. the District of Columbia. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. it caused at least one death. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death.84 pounds (522 kg). in 2000.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz).[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. Lancashire. 2008.

similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U.S. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. Fusarium.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to http://www. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large .[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small.S. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. indeterminate.crazychefs. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. Derived from Cherokee Purple. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.

Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato plants in the garden. in Korea.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak.crazychefs. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Tomato . Young tomato plant. good for Tomatoes on a vine. Tomato fruit. pickling. Tomato http://www.

net/ .com http://www.crazychefs.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

http://yourarchives. Andrew F (1994). (2001). American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online).html". (2002-0508)".html". 1881. 6. Retrieved December 11 2009.. Andrew" 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1994. I. October 26. Retrieved 2009-04-02. and Cookery.smithsonianmag.aspx?PageID=567 14. Appleton and Co. G. (2002). bid/6280/Default.aspx. Processing Tomato Production in California. Retrieved December 11 2009. During the three months of the local harvest. p. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". ^ "http://www. 519 [1] 9.html.nationalarchives. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . ^ Tomato history 4.smithsonianmag. culture. ^ "UC Newsroom. 7. Retrieved 2009-04-02. A. S. ^ "C. page 57: ". 12. M. Peralta. Subsection Lycopersicon). Footnotes 1. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . Smith. http://www. 223 10.nationalarchives. Yourarchives.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. http://tgrc.M. et al. T. & University of Illinois Press. p.17. 1876. http://www. Appletons' journal Published by D.five tons to the http://www. (1994). ^ "http://www. ^ The . ^ a b Smith. The tomato in America: early history. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ a b Hartz. ISBN 1-57003000-6. 13.. ISBN 11. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. F.Smith. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. it handles more than 5. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. and cookery. webpage: books-google-TTp17. 8. 2002-05-08.Food & Wine".Your Archives". p." See: Natural History Museum. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. Horticulture: Principles and Practices.universityofcalifornia. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. ^ ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. Tgrc. USA: University of South Carolina Press. 2. Retrieved 2009-04-02.ucdavis. 3. ^ Acquaah." 15. 2008. Normania. D. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. Retrieved 2008-10-27.. http://www. 2009-01-26. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.The East Hampton Star .com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Cyphomandra. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. Culture. section Lycopersicon Mill. The Tomato in America.

am/wiki/Tomato#Novelty_tomatoes ^ "Crop Profiles . "Tomato genome project gets $1. http://www.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 200705-24. http://news.html".co. 28.16.smithsonianmag. which are carried in the ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian Retrieved http://www.html. ^ http://www. Retrieved 2007-05-24.html. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007). ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension.smithsonianmag. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted 26.gob.Tomato". ^ "Selecting. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. Faq.html.html.8M". In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. http://wwwplb. Retrieved June 30. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. http://www.html. ^ 21. Ncsu.html. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.cornell.cornell. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".uk/2/hi/health/7370759. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.umn. page 57: "The plants are still 23. ^ "http://www.umn. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". http://faq. http://www. Retrieved December 11 Sinaloa.html".net/ . but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or 27. Retrieved December 11 Ohioline.html. 32.osu. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips.plants. Retrieved July 14. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. 2006. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. 33.gardenweb." 18. Smithsonianmag.php.gob. News. 24." 19. 31. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties." 20.plants.html".crazychefs. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Retrieved ^ Retrieved Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved http://www. Retrieved December 11 http://www. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. 17. 30. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. http://www. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". ^ "http://www. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention".osu. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine". ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. HYG-5532-93". http://www. ^ "

Dennis R. ^ " Retrieved 2008-1027. 37. http://www. ANR Publications.shtml. 2004. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato http://itn. by state".edu/doi/full/10. http://www. Cdc. http://www. Retrieved 200904-02. United States. Retrieved News".ca/en/article-details. p. 39. 35. 41. Retrieved 2008-10-27. et ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. ISBN Retrieved 2009-0721. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 36. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. http://www. 42. ^ "August 40.34. .uk. ^ a b Pittenger. California Master Gardener Handbook. http://www. http://www.journals.1086/381578. Foodsafetynetwork. Tomato Nutrition. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . Tomato Recipe". ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".vegparadise.cbsnews.nationalpost. http://www. 2007-08-30. Clinical Infectious Diseases. http://www.html?id=585498. (2004-04-15). ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus".uchicago. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"".cdc. ^ Voetsch.crazychefs. Vegparadise. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". (2002).

extracted oleoresins. In Indonesia. or Spice Islands. malabarica from India. and weighing between 5 and 10 g ( http://www. or sliced finely. Species About 100 species. called selei buah pala. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. fragrans products.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean.2 and 0. argentea from New Guinea. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia.4 oz) . roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.7 in) wide. both are used as adulterants of M. including essential oils. and nutmeg butter (see below). called Jaiphal in Hindi. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. and Bombay Nutmeg M. especially in Grenada. a state in the south part of India. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". It also grows in Kerala.crazychefs. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). the fruit is also made into jam.6 to 0. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. nutmeg and mace.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov.

nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. and baked goods. they are also used in soups. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. In Arabic. Painkiller. sauces. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. mulled wine. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. and eggnog. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products.crazychefs. saffronlike hue it imparts. and string beans. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. In European cuisine. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. In the Caribbean. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang . It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in http://www. green. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. In Indian cuisine. In Penang cuisine. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. and Barbados rum punch. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. cauliflower. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. "Lau Hau Peng".

used as http://www. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods.crazychefs. 758 – ca. in . for instance. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. reddish brown in colour. The oil is colourless or light yellow. that were at the time highly valued in European markets.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. which can be turned into myristic acid. preserving agents. medicines. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. It is semi-solid. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. although this is disputed. and sweets. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. beverages. syrups. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. Canned.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to .6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. and protein http://www.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. yeast extract.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. soy extracts. based on anecdotal reports. frozen. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. However.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch.crazychefs. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99. with 4% annual growth expected. not reproducible." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sugar cane. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. sugar beets.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. steak sauce. hydrolyzed yeast. or molasses. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. particularly processed foods. it also said that.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. autolyzed yeast." However. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. being an amino acid. Fermented products such as soy sauce. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. About 1.

such as hydrolyzed protein. In the 2004 version of his New York: Wiley. MSG. acidification. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. [monosodium glutamate]. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index).g. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation.. dextrose or citrate). On Food and Cooking. and converted to its monosodium salt. For this reason.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. 373-375. In the hydrolysis method.7% women).com http://www. ^ http://www. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. even in large amounts. (2) synthesis. "Monosodium Glutamate".). The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. pp. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes.g. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. followed by either the name of the food additive. and crystallization. The label must bear the food additive class name (e.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1.crazychefs. and (3) microbial fermentation. 621. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. flavour enhancer). Albert Y. Foster. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. purified.html 2. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. Drugs." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48.".2. age 40–59 years. ^ . Steven (August 2003). the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. concentration. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. and mineral ions and growth factors. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]..inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. In 1993. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.celiac. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. References 1.

doi:10. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". "Yes. 10.ncbi. (October 2006).nutrition.1038/oby. Garside.F. Yamaguchi.1002/chir. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119– 9. Linguang. Dyer.x. 8. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Alan R.00160. Martha Jordan (2005). New York . Shigeru. MSG.nlm.1999.2005.. Masahiro. Guo. 5. Takehara. (April 2000).3. J. Shioya. PMID 8282275. Yangfeng. doi:10. Armstrong.274. Food Chem. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Jeremiah (August 2008). Sano. Van ^ a b Rundlett. Chirality 6 (4): pp. 16. ^ Moskin. 11. PMID 18497735. ^ Kawakita. Zhou. ^ Freeman M. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review".gov/entrez/query.jstor. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". ^ http://www. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. Ka.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. PMID 10736382. http://www. Ren C. ^ He. 15. Dongshuang. doi:10. Kimber L. doi:10.5. doi:10. (1993). Shizuko (2005). http://jn.fda. Beifan. Julia (2008-03-05). Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. ^ http://vm. ^ a b Geha RS. Wu.a16 711.1002/14356007. Inc. Linda.crazychefs. et al. ^ Walker R (October 1999). ^ "Production process". Liancheng. Regul.. Zhu. 7. Daniel.2008.1525/gfc. 6. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Case study: monosodium glutamate".com http://www. PMID 16999713.17457599.1337. 277–282. Pharmacol. http://www. Chiaki.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. 14. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. ^ http://www. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". doi:10.2006. Toxicol. the Secret Behind the Savor".530060410.38.html 4. ^ Sand.nytimes.ajinomoto.1111/j. Zhao. Tetsuya.celiac. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ^ http://www. Anjimoto Co. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Stamler.html. Nutr. Toxicol. 1875–1880. 13. "Monosodium Glutamate". "A Short History of MSG". 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S.4. PMID 10597625. 38–49. Kelly M. ^ a b Tarasoff L. Beiser A. Daniel W (1994). doi:10.html 12.

醬油 2. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. 酱油 . 豆油 3. 豉油 Simplified Chinese http://www.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 荳油 3.

In its various forms. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese http://www. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the . it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods.500 years. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. Soy sauce was invented in China.[3] In the 18th century. [4] By the mid-19th century. water. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. and salt.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK).crazychefs. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version.

but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. such as in giant urns and under the sun. Although there are many types of soy sauce. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. Today.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). literally "delicious taste"). which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. sojae) and other related microorganisms. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University.crazychefs. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal . These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel http://www.

lighter brown soy sauce.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. but it also adds flavour. It has a richer. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. slightly http://www. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". traditional Chinese: 頭抽). ): A thin (nonviscous). or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. Despite their rather similar appearance. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. Korean. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy .3-DCP (1. with relatively low amounts of other grains. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese.crazychefs. shuānghuáng (雙璜). Since it is lighter in color. consistency. since it is saltier. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. one of the two types. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. traditional Chinese: 醬油. and Chinese cuisine. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. opaque. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. or a mixture of both. pinyin: jiàngyóu. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. An additional classification of light soy sauce. Another type. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. Thai. like extra virgin olive oil. fragrance and saltiness. In traditional Chinese cooking.

It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. Shiro (白?. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. Japan is the leading producer of http://www.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り).crazychefs. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. where it is known as "shōyu". This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. or 醤油). It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. It contains little or no wheat. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. Usukuchi (淡口?. due to the addition of alcohol in the product.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Not all soy sauces are . referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. for example sashimi. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. that is used in its production. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. Technically. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce.

"sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. 1 litre bottles. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. Amakuchi (甘口?.Saishikomi (再仕込?. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy . it is much darker and more strongly flavored.crazychefs. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented http://www. Consequently. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. not pasteurized.

It is a unique variety. usually implies limited quantity.crazychefs. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger . Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. In Indonesia. http://www. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in a pinch. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. which has a thick.

in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste).[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. thin and dark brown in color. lit. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. Later. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. 조선간장. Malaysia.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. Founded in 1909. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油).Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. O'Long(黑龍).net/ . Joseon ganjang.crazychefs. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장).com http://www. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. WanJaShan(萬家香). (called Joseon ganjang.4% of soy sauce purchases. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. is made entirely of soy and brine. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant.

nước tương. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. pronounced SOO-kah). it is also a table condiment. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. salt. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its http://www. or sometimes simply tương. China. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. wheat.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. and caramel. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu.3-DCP (1. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the . The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand.[6] Furthermore. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. It can also be very salty. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food.crazychefs.

com.[1] Notes 1. 7. Golden Mark. Pearl River Bridge. XXVII.htm. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). including six samples with up to No. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. Soon Teck• and Kang. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. Norio. Isaac. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". ^ http://www. Retrieved 200801-07. Lee Kum Kee. marinades and other types of sauces. p. Seong-Gook (2002).[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat.Kong and Taiwan. Individuals with a wheat allergy. ^ http://www. http://www. Retrieved has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. ^ Tanaka. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. . 2. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. 6.crazychefs. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho.000 to 18.smartfood. OCLC 9752305 5.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. Vol. 7.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). Press release.miyajimasoy. Despite these being small in number in the UK. Golden http://www. p. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. ^ Tanaka. 2nd edition. 3. Kimlan. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. (1781). 4.[citation needed] In the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. p. pp.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted.317 2. ^ Titsingh. 8. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. King Imperial."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food ^ Tanaka. http://www. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20) 9. ^ ^ the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. an increase over 23 to 5. the leaflet does include oyster sauce.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. 2 (January 2000). Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce.) In March 2008.asp?id=7598 10. Jammy Chai. III. Celiac disease.

144. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. 18. Stephen (2006-06-06). New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. http://www. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. doi:10. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. ^ Shahidi. ^ Tanasupawat. scares hit Vietnam 20. Kentucky: CRC Press. fermentation and micro-organisms. Fereidoon.201. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. chemical veggies ISBN 0632059877. Somboon (2002-06-18). 186. 14. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice Florence.100. Food. 103.2323/jgam. Naczk.11. doi:10. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". . Charles W (2005). http://books. et al. PMID 12469319. 12. 13.48. Retrieved 2008-01-07. PMID 15. p. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. Makio (2005-04-18).nutraingredients. ISBN 1587161389. ^ Daniells. ^ Bamford. ^ Edition 2. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. ^ Toxic soy sauce. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". p. Marian (2003). 16. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.3% Myristic acid: <0.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.9150–0.5% Linoleic acid: 3.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.0–83.5–20.8% Behenic acid: <0.0% Stearic acid: 0.3– 211 | P a g e http://www.0% Arachidic acid: <0.9180 (@ 15.5 °C) 84 cP 1.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.5–21.4677–1.5– .crazychefs.

Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing.4680–1. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. Hojiblanca. Olive oil is used throughout the . Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio.6 million tonnes.crazychefs. Italy and Greece. Alberquina. Japan and China. as well as in Crete. North Africa and the Near East. pharmaceuticals. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. Australia. and Manzanilla de Jaén. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which produce approximately 350. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production.000 tons of olive oil annually. oil from olives that are slightly unripe.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. principally Italy. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. and Moraiolo.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. in Greece. family Oleaceae). but especially in the Mediterranean. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms).[1] It is commonly used in cooking. in France. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone.[3] Of the European production. Leccino Pendolino. 93% comes from Spain. cosmetics. Picholine. Koroneiki. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. World production in 2002 was 2. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki.6 (refined and pomace) 0. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the http://www. In 2006. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region.

Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. Galega.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. often in "prestige" packaging. Olive oil is classified by how it was http://www. and monitoring authenticity.California. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. in Croatia. with 23 member states.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid.000 US gallons (131. and by its flavor. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. Spain. The US imported 47. IOOC terminology is precise. Spain. a private trade group.000 m3) came from Italy. and Turkey. Mission. of which 34.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998.000 US gallons (181. The California Olive Oil Council. After extraction the remnant solid substance. Oblica and Leccino. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). with production increasing to meet demand. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). defining quality standards. in Portugal. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production.crazychefs. by its chemistry. In North America.800. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. called pomace. Spain. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The USDA uses a different system.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive . still contains a small quantity of oil.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC.600.

Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification.[15] Under EU rules.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. 25. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. particularly in Italy.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment.crazychefs. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. both in Italy and abroad. defined as the percent. of free oleic acid it contains. it is http://www.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.[14] In March 2008. This practice makes it difficult for high quality.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. An article by Tom Mueller in the August . mostly hexane. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. is extremely lax and corrupt. product as superior olive oil. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label.[16] In April 2008. measured by weight. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. but safe. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. and by heat. EU officials took issue with the new law. Almost 700 people died. however.[14] In February 2008.[12] In some cases. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. for blended oils. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. but there are no guarantees. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported.

which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. The US is not a member. It is fit for consumption. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade.the oil degrades. but may not be described simply as olive oil.3 grams per 100 grams (0.S. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. and is judged to have a good taste. of not more than 0. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. It has a free acidity. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production http://www. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. In order to classify it by taste. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. Pure olive oil. contains no more than 0. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil.5% acidity. another cause of rancidity.crazychefs. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. These grades were established in 1948. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. has an acidity less than 2%. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.8% acidity. absence of . Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. This is also called its organoleptic quality. and are based on acidity. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. and is judged to have a superior taste. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. The U. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Used on salads. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. expressed as oleic acid. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. of no more than 1. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining.

S. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed".S. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.S.0% and is "fairly free from defects". First of all. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled.4% and is "free from defects". Grade A or U. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp. with less flavour. U. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. Grade C or U.S. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.S. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in http://www. (34 kJ/ml).[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. This is incorrect. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3.crazychefs.S. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2.S. Grade B or U.S. which may be as low as 10-15 °C. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis. U. Grade C".[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.5% and is "reasonably free from defects".[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.U. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the . "cold" does not define any precise temperature. Grade D or U.S. U.

1 0. over 26 liters per year. around 8 l.7 http://www.8 7.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil .7 11. Portugal and Lebanon.pressed". The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. Tunisia. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. so the term "first press" is meaningless. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country.1 1.2 7 1. around 0. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. Spain and Italy.35 23. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.62 12.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Northern Europe and North America consume far less. around 14 l.crazychefs.

34 1. then placed into the press. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method).net/ . The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. 4. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. suggesting a different taste. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil".18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. 2. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. 1. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described http://www. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. After grinding. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. 3. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. Green olives produce bitter oil. After grinding. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. This is done in specialised chemical plants. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). If ground with mill stones. not in the oil mills. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. no or very little organoleptic defects). which is much faster and more accurate. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil.

7%) and sterols (about 0.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.crazychefs. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated . and extraction process. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .omega-3 fat <1. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . altitude.5 g .com http://www. time of harvest.polyunsaturated 11 g . including oleocanthal and fat 3. In the United States. most notably oleic acid. region.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). The composition varies by cultivar.monounsaturated 73 g . To achieve this possible benefit.

For example.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The study was conducted in two stages. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp http://www. at least in part.This decision was announced November 1. antithrombotic. This could. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. and that it exerts antiinflamatory.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. During the first stage. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. rather than its fatty acid profile.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. During the second phase.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats.crazychefs.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. and oleuropein. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. This way. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. in the long term. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. 2004. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants).net/ . a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. It is theorized that. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats.

oils deteriorate and become stale. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and http://www. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. not for foods to be eaten cold. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. For example. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). It is also used for sauteing ingredients. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. Also. etc. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. as available in an oil producing region. Used cold. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil.crazychefs. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking.[citation needed]. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. blenders. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. In time. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. A very fresh oil. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cookware. Also. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. like . tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere.

topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her http://www. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[36][37] Jeanne .[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients.crazychefs. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). It does have demulcent properties. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. It is also good for the management of pain. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. and mild laxative properties.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. acting as a stool softener.

olive oil has been used for religious rituals. oile (12c. soap-making. magical. oleum " http://www. elaion "olive tree". probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. and skin care application. from L. olive oil" ( . from O. 1175. Besides food.Fr. huile). Homer called it "liquid gold. from Anglo-Fr. olio).Fr. drawn and engraved by J. olie. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. olive oil.crazychefs. as a fuel in oil lamps.Fr." In ancient Greece. Mod. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. from Gk.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior".Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. and O. medicines. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. It.N. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman.

net/ . These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from http://www.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. olive presses became common. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. Bodrum.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. In the centuries that followed. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times).crazychefs. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.

From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. during the 13th century BC.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea.over 4. allowing more time for more oil to be made. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. wrote of abundant olive trees.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. the fertile crescent.[46] Until 1500 BC. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. he maintained. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. Sinuhe. when the oil had risen to the top. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). together with naked appearance of athletes. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. Lebanon. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah.[dubious – discuss] During this time. oil containers are preferred. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. stored in special . where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil.[citation needed]. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. drained the water from the http://www. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine.000 tons of olive oil per season. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies.crazychefs. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). "the best in the Mediterranean". These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. and area consisting of present day Palestine. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. and Israel. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. where it is thought to have represented wealth. According to legend. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. According to the historian Pliny.000 and 3..

by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. Olive Production Manual. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries.crazychefs. 5. the float is carefully pressed down into the 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "The Olive Tree. originating from King David. Retrieved 2007-05-25. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. Retrieved 2007-05-25. ^ International Olive Oil Council.gourmetretailer. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is .com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. http://www. light upon"." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. http://www. p. in the consecration of altars and churches. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. http://www. Steven Sibbett. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). References 1. In Islam. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. and this secure city. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. the tourch is in a glass bulb. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries.usda.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. and the Mount of Sinai.html. "Agricultural Statistics 2005".com http://www. its oil almost glows. Margaret Lindstrand (2005).imitate the original Menorah. Louise Ferguson. ANR Publications. traditionally. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). Joann L Coviello.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. 2. even without fire touching it. and. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". ^ "findarticles. 158."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive.internationaloliveoil. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 4. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. To douse the flame. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. neither Eastern nor Western.PDF. ^ G. ^ USDA. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. ^ USDA.

Giammanco.xml. 12.). 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.htm". biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. PMID . The New York Times ( John.crazychefs. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. et al. 19.Telegraph". ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8.2007. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". 13. http://www.23/. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. Raymond & Co.1079/NRR200495 24. 2007-08-13. M.eubusiness. G. US Customs Department. Pharmacol. Retrieved 2008-11-16. November 2. Dennis. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis. Di Majo. ^ Durant.1016/j. 19 CFR 134. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" ^ "www.html". 14. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam .telegraph.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud .southafrica. ^ "www. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system" and Maurizio La Guardia. Retrieved 2008-11-09. Slippery Business The New 21. 11. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar". Nutrition Research Reviews 18. 124 (6): 903–15. doi:10. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. Tripoli. 15. 17.html. 20. 2004. 18. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". ^ New York ^ Riding. (December 1986).4005000. Giammanco.ams. http://www.htm. 16. News".0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. 23. ^ Keys A.oxfordjournals. http://www. 55 (3): 175–86.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. 7.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/ ―imported by‖ language http://www. J. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". Res. United States Department of Agriculture.23/.com http://www. Epidemiol. http://news. 10.Scotsman. Tom. ^ "Eubusiness. Alan (1989-05-21)".org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. 25. ^ a b "Telegraph article". http://www. http://www. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). http://oliveoilonly. PMID 17321749.southafrica. Am. ^".internationaloliveoil. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. Tabacchi. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site J. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26.eubusiness. ^ a b McGee. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. Menotti D. ^ "EUbusiness. http://query. Karvonen MJ. Retrieved 2008-11-16.

^ Rosenblum. Pagnol. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. ^ Turner 36. PMID 17110467. T : Ueda. ^ "Quite Interesting . No.tchain. but cites no source. ^ Romero C. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. 1S45-50. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. "olive" and "oil" 40. p. Alonso MG. 2000. Osamu Nikaido. Toshihiko Osawa. 44. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". Medina E.crazychefs.tchain. 37.ama-assn. . Faseb J." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. Vol.. 34. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. Catherine Breton. 2000.1021/jf0630217. ^ http://www. PMID and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". ^ [2] Ichihashi. An Wu.html. 19. ^ Mayo Clinic. 35.v. Nazim U. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". M : Vargas J. 55 (3): 680– PMID 15830923.28. 1: Prevent Cancer. Olives 41. s.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. 38. Brenes M. pp. p. ^ Machowetz A. et al.html". Masato Ueda. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. Use Olive Oil. (January 2005).co. http://www. 2085-2090. N U : Budiyanto.1024/0300-9831. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics".1. J Agric Food Chem. Ahmed. André Bervillé. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). Olea europaea L. 45. 23. 21. ssp. 39.06-6328com. doi:10. 11. JDermatol-Sci. 31. 29. ". Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". http://www. ^ Ehud Galili et al. Carcinogenesis. Poulsen HE. 10. Etienne N. ^ Pagnol. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". http://www. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. PMID 10737284. Masamitsu Ichihashi. "New Year's Resolution No. ^ Ferrara LA." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. Toshinori Bito. A : Wu. Israel". d'Episcopo L. Marotta T.61. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications.75. ^ "www. et al. De Castro A (February 2007). "[19 INSERT TITLE]". M : Osawa. s. 43.telegraph. 19 November 2007 30." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. 19. A : Bito.Telegraph". Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. doi:10.1096/fj. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. Nov. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. Dello Russo A. Guida L.v.videojug. Raimondi AS. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. p. ^ Mayo Clinic 32.. Gruendel S. (27 March 2000).". Vol. (January 2007). ^ a b Davidson. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. 21 (1): 45–52. doi:10.

46. ed. http://www. C. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece".ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. 47. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional ^ Nigel Provencal. 2005 49.htm". In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. ^ "www. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". Scanlon. Kennell. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the Processing methods.R.htm. Harrington Park Press. ^ http://www. ^ Thomas . ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". http://www. pp119–33 50. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. B. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48.crazychefs. Riley.). v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Verstraete and V. 2001.reshafim.

[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. . Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. ən] / [ˈsæf.[4][5] A carotenoid dye.or hay-like fragrance.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. sativus flower bears three stigmas. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. Saffron has further medicinal applications.Saffron Saffron crocus http://www. A C.crazychefs. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Saffron. each the distal end of a carpel. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles.

crazychefs. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. must be dug up. Only in October.98–1. In autumn. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. broken apart.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). It is a sterile triploid form. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild.[11] Upon flowering. and replanted. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus ( . cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. as was once generally believed.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. A corm survives for one season. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. in Central http://www." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). purple buds appear.2 in) in length.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. which means "yellow.5 centimetres (1. Being sterile. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height.

Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. loose. and corm rot pose other threats. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. Moroccan. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. rats. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. Nematodes. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. in concert with climate.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight.8–5. well-watered. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two http://www.[16] Furthermore. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates.crazychefs. are critical factors affecting yields.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. where annual rainfall averages 1. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. they fare poorly in shady conditions. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. where hot. leaf rusts. Greek. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. maximizing sun exposure.500 mm (39–59 in). Saffron crocuses grow best in friable.000–1. and birds.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands..[15] After a period of dormancy through the .[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir.e.9 in) deep. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. low-density. Planting depth and corm spacing.

com http://www.8-carotenoic acid). It also has many nonvolatile active components. and various α.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However.and β-carotenes. a product results that is itself water-soluble.11 gr) of dried saffron. lycopene. and thus oil-soluble. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.2 oz of dried saffron).[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of .[19] many of which are carotenoids. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).0. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.[19] Meanwhile. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic.8-diapo-8. including zeaxanthin.crazychefs.

0–15.0–7.0–14.0–13.0 4.0 9.0–1.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 12.5 10.0–8.0 6.0 8.0 3.0 1.0 0.0 6.0 11.0 12.0 6.0 10.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.crazychefs.0 1.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.5 40.0 2.0 .0 6.

Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal.[18] Safranal.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. the heat.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. Santorini. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. When saffron is dried after its harvest.0 Source: Goyns 1999. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.crazychefs. dried hay like". and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron.Fiber (crude) 5.4.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building.6-trimethyl-2.6. incidentally.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. combined with enzymatic . Significantly. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. a volatile oil.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1.6. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.6. p. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is.3-diene-1. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.

[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. C.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. and in the mithridatium.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. a sterile mutant form of C.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. mascaras. and scabies.[28][29] Later. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.[33] potpourris. There. divine .The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. colic. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. In late Hellenistic Egypt. cough.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. Since then.000 years.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. physicians in Gaza. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. and medical http://www.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes.crazychefs. sativus. townspeople in Rhodes. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos. cartwrightianus. Thus. ointments. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus.

net/ . For example. Isfahan. perfumes. and body washes. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. a Chinese medical expert. a less expensive dye. and used in dyes. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. and baths as a curative for battle wounds.[53] On the other hand. rice. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong.[44] From there. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50.[46][47][48] Meanwhile.[39][40] Later. or jackfruit.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara.Asia The 17. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. medicines. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. Wan Zhen. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. saffron threads were woven into textiles.[51] However. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".[43] Thus. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. At such sites. dating to 978–993 AD. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric.[42] ritually offered to divinities. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various http://www.crazychefs.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.[44] During his Asian campaigns.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq.

under which saffron adulterators were fined. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. and then the saffron is obtained.[59][60] Only in southern France.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It can be used to aromatise http://www. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. did significant cultivation endure. and executed.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. In Europe. and Spain.[62] By 1730."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. However. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. Italy.[58] Soon after.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". tea.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. imprisoned. indeed. which grew prosperous. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of . France. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall.crazychefs. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. and Italy. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. named for its new specialty crop. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron.saffron is in Kashmir." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. coffee. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline.

Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). particularly in China and India. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. Pennsylvania. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. Arab. and chicken or trout dishes. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing).[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing).[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Turkish.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella . Indian.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. and Cornish cuisines. immunomodulating. European.crazychefs. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian).[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis http://www. and antioxidantlike properties. Central Asian. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. and in perfumery. Medicinally.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. noodles.

and Italy.crazychefs.000–75.[5] Iran. are generally mellower in colour. Aside from these.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.000 threads.200/£1. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.000 and 200. Annually. and aroma.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. flavour. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. Greece. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110. In Western countries.100– . in decreasing order of production. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. India. Switzerland. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. France. they are graded by government-imposed standards.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram).000 flowers.000 flowers. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. the average retail price is $1. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad.000-170.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. Spain's varieties.500/€7. Morocco. elasticity. are the major producers of http://www.500 per kilogram. Spain.100/€1.550 per kilogram).[2] A pound comprises between 70. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. the United States. Vivid crimson colouring. For example. and other countries. Azerbaijan. England. slight moistness.000 per pound (US$1.

picrocrocin. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. is in San Gavino Monreale. In the U.crazychefs. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. unusually pungent aroma. There. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue.S. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and colourative effect. and crop failures in Kashmir. contribute to its high prices. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. combined with an Indian export http://www. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). picrocrocin (taste). Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. and safranal (fragrance) content.. shape. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). Sardinia. and safranal content. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. aroma. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. near L'Aquila.some organically . it also has very high crocin. blights.79 in). for quality and quantity. among the world's darkest.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Repeated droughts. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation.

Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle . and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. pliability. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. pomegranate fibers. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. red-dyed silk fibers. and thus a greater colourative intensity.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0).crazychefs.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. and I (finest quality). powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports.[80] Thus. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content.national standards http://www. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. However. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. and other powders used as diluting fillers. II. traders.[77] However. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. aroma. in India. III. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. many growers. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. with turmeric. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. paprika.

www. 14. pp. 4. 24. ^ Deo 2003. 20. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. 6. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 287. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. . p. 3.". ^ McGee 2004. 3. ^ Kumar V (2006). ^ M. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ISBN 4. p. p. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. p. p. p. ^ a b McGee 2004. 422. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2–3. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. p. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. ^ a b Deo 2003. 53. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. ^ Harper 2001. 3. 272. Sterling. 2. 19. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ Willard 2001. p. 103. ^ Grigg 1974. ^ Dharmananda 2005. p. 4. 17. 3. 423. 21. 3–4. 8. pp. ^ a b c Hill 2004. 13. p. 1.cababstractsplus. Honshū. crocin and safranal. p. pp. in mice. Kansai.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). ^ a b Leffingwell 18.Saffron reproductive biology 11. 22.crazychefs. Grilli Caiola . 7. 5.asp?AcNo=20043148643. ^ Rau 1969. 16. stigma extracts and their constituents. ^ Willard 2001. 9. http://www. 1. ^ DPIWE 2005. 2. http://books. 1. 23. p. ^ a b Deo 2003.

com http://www. 57. 2. 60. 64. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Willard 2001. 41. 43. Random House. 103– 133. 2. 30 AD. 44. 49. ca. ^ Rau 1969. p. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. p. ^ Finlay. 1935 [1] 38. p. ^ http://vision. 1. ^ a b c Willard 2001. 132–133. ^ Lak 1998b. ^ Humphries 1998. 39. pp. 41.iovs. 55. 42. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. ^ Honan 2004. p. p. 35. 68.crazychefs. 36. p. ^ Willard 2001. 66. p. p. p. ^ Willard 2001. 143. 33. 72. 1. 35. 45. ^ Willard 2001. p. p. 34–35. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Loeb Classical Library Edition. pp. 2. pp. 138. ^ Willard 2001. 101. 1. 99. ^ Willard 2001. 28. p. ^ Willard 2001. 37. ^ Honan 2004. 1. 2–3. 40. p. 29. p. 54. ^ Chang. 63. 46. ^ a b Willard 2001. 117. Victoria (30 December 2002). ^ Willard 2001.25. 63. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ http://www. 95. ^ Willard 2001.pdf 71. 65. de Medicina. 17–18. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ Willard 2001. 52. ^ McGee 2004. p. 1. 138. 138–139. 26. p. 58. 11. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Hill 2004. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999.pdf 70. 70. ^ Deo 2003. . 69. ^ Hayes 2001. 58. pp. p. p. pp. p. 224. 31. pp. 27. p. 47. 422. p. 34. 12. ^ Willard 2001. 50. p. 30. ^ Fletcher 2005. ^ a b Dalby 2002. 48. ^ Willard 2001. 56. 55. 256. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 67. ^ a b Willard 2001. ^ http://www. p. p. ^ Willard 2001. 142–146. p. 54–55. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. 59. 73. ^ Willard 2001. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. 128. ^ Dalby 2002. 61. ^ Ferrence 2004. ^ Willard 2001. 62. p. pp. Kuo & Wang 1964. ^ Celsus. ^ Goyns 1999. transl. ^ Dalby 2003. p. ^ Willard 2001. 273. 6. p. 59. 41.

<http://www. PMID 11788779 Assimopoulou. pp. Davies. ^ Willard>. Retrieved on July 27. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 53 (15).crop. Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. Landline (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). B (2003). Retrieved on January 10.crazychefs. A (2003). Experimental Biology and Medicine 227 (1). 82. 2006[dead link]. PMID 16317646 "Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. A (2002). ^ Lak 1998.htm>. University of California Press. 245 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b Tarvand 2005b. PY. 2008. p. ^ Hill 2004. W. 76. "Saffron: An Anti-Depressant Herb".ebmonline. ^ Goyns effect on the uterus and/or estrous cycle". p. Dharmananda. ^ Willard 2001. 201.cfm?displayID=22>. "Saffron". 8. CT Kuo & CK Wang (1964). ^ Tarvand 2005. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao http://www. "The pharmacological action of 藏红花 (zà hóng huā—Crocus sativus L. S (2005). Institute for Traditional Darling Biomedical Library (2002). <http://www. "Growing Saffron—The World's Most Expensive Spice" "Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)". 2006.ucla. MJ Gregory & RC Menary (2005). 2006. Routledge (UK). 2006. Crop & Food Research (New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research) (no. <http://www. P (2002). 2006. extract and its bioactive constituents". NW. <http://www. ISBN 0415-23259-7. 20). Liang. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2003. Retrieved on January 10. p. 80. Retrieved on January 10. 81. VP Papageorgiou & Z Sinakos (2005). FI (2002).nz/home/productsservices/publications/broadsheets/020saffron. ^ Hussain 2005. Abdullaev. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Retrieved on January 10. References Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2003).pdf>. "Effect of drying temperature and air flow on the production and retention of secondary metabolites in saffron".htm>. "Kashmiri saffron producers see red over Iranian imports". 79. Dalby. <http://books. Retrieved on January 10. Food in the Ancient World from A to Z. Retrieved on January 10 2006. PMID 16028982 Deo. 78. "Tasmania's Saffron Gold".com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=7IHcZ21dyjwC>.itmonline. Phytotherapy Research 19 (11).htm>.edu/biomed/spice/index. <http://www. AN. Darling Biomedical Library (UCLA). 274. ISBN . 102–104. <http://unitproj.

St. "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron". A (2005).uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/212491. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron".stm>.crazychefs. "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10.html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>.dpiwe. saffron".bbc.ikashmir. J (1998). <http://www. D (2001). "Saffron". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). ISBN 0-471-21423-X. Martin's . 2006. PMID 8590890 Hayes. Cambridge University Press. PMID 16180089 Katzer. Humphries. Retrieved on January 10. JC (2002). Retrieved on January 10.pdf>. <http://www. Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4). 2006. PMID 15259204 Fletcher. <http://news. Leffingwell. <http://books. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. JH. <http://www. ISBN 0-312-34068-0. The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen.nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>. S (1998–1999).)".st m>.tas. SC (2004).php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>.etymonline. Retrieved on January 10. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2).co.uni-graz. 2006[dead link]. Ten Speed Press. Lak. Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1). WH (2004). <http://www. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution". "Saffron (Crocus sativus L. 2006. Lak. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine".com/download/saffron.stm>. ISBN 1-58008-024-3. DB (1974). The Agricultural Systems of the World. "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". AW (2001).DPIWE (2005). Retrieved on January Retrieved on January 10. BBC Leffingwell Reports 2 (5). 2006. Retrieved on January 10. N (2005).com http://www. D (1998).html> 2006. ISBN 90-5702-394-6. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Saffron. 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2006. Online Etymology Dictionary. <http://news. SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995). Grigg. BBC News. Honan. ISBN 1-56032-814-2. T (2004). "Saffron". Taylor & Francis. < Goyns.leffingwell. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron".com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=l-QJaUp31T4C>. Harper. Food & Agriculture. Ferrence. The Essential Saffron Companion. <http://www. Taylor & Wiley. Retrieved on January Fotedar. Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. The New York Times.pdf>. ISBN 2006. SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005).gov. Hill. "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress". BBC News. 2006. MH (1999). "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera". <http://news. D (1998b). G (2001).

Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10.barc. McGee. 2006. JB (2005). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). Tarvand Saffron Company. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron".000. Retrieved on January 10. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/>. P (2001).newscientist. <http://www. Time Life Education. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. "Grading and Classification". <http://books. <http://books.usda.McGann. 2006.html>. Willard. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10.tarvandsaffron. Reconstructing History. Scribner. Tarvand Saffron Company.cfm?chemic al_id=140>. 2006. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). SR (1969).com/channel/earth/mg18524831. H (2004). Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. "What is Saffron?". Rau. 2006. < ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005)>. Beacon Press. Pearce. New Scientist. F (2005).net/ . <http://www. Nair.tarvandsaffron. PMID 2025883 Park. The Cooking of India.htm>.".com/saffron.htm>. Cancer Letters 57 (2). SC. 2006[dead link].google. "Saffron". ISBN 0-684-80001-2. USDA Phytochemical Database. Tarvand (2005b).com http://www.reconstructinghistory. K (2003).html>. <http://www. Retrieved on January

net/ .com http://www. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dead Sea.crazychefs. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.

along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. The small white flowers. endives. two stamens and bifid stigma. Though. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. Its fruit.[9]. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. called xoana. and smooth mallows provide sustenance."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. which in Greece invariably means up mountain http://www. Theophrastus.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens.[1] and in the Iliad. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves."[7] indeed. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. Asia and parts of Africa. olives. the olive.5 cm long. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. by a spring.(XVII. referring to their wooden material. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. which he describes as very simple: "As for me.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult . is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. In Homer's Odyssey.crazychefs.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. ca 170 AD. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. from Lebanon. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. they were reverently preserved for centuries. are borne generally on the last year's wood. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. It is short and squat. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. the olive suckers readily from the stump.

it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. and then in the 18th century in California. and its cultivation began in Mexico. glory and peace . they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. Chile and Argentina. Theophrastus. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. glory.[12] After the 16th century.16. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. spread far and wide by birds. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health.The leafy branches of the olive tree . Peru. but he makes clear (in 1. fertility. kotinos. for which the Greeks had a separate name.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. Olive oil has long been considered sacred.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. play an important role in the Bible. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. in both the New and Old Testaments.the olive leaf as a symbol of . Today. As emblems of benediction and purification. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. For example. The olive tree itself. wild-type olives. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. and one of the most significant. in On the Nature of Plants. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. olives were grown commercially in Crete. the pits give rise to thorny. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. power and pureness. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. indeed. The Book of Jacob 5. Over the years.crazychefs. wisdom. as well as olive oil and olives.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody http://www. the olive has been the symbol of peace. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. As far back as 3000 BC.

Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. One olive tree in Bar. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. has been calculated to be about 1. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Montenegro. The older an olive tree is.and fire-resistant. and can live for very long. http://www. Istria in Croatia. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14].Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. The age of an olive tree in Crete. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. which is made into top quality olive oil. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. drought-. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. claimed to be over 2.600 years old.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni) .[16] An olive tree in west Athens. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. named "Plato's Olive Tree". Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus.000 years old.

fine wood. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. see Olive (fruit). in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. and.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in http://www. In the same natural garden. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. and the olive fruit. According to a recent scientific survey. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. A supposedly even older tree. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different . though showing a preference for the coast. Modern experience does not always confirm this.6 km) as the limit. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna.[17] from even before the rise of Islam.crazychefs.400 years ago. All seven trees continue to produce olives. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. both in Galilee region. 1600-2000 years old. a few other millenary trees can be admired. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. Specifically. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. Italy. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. olive leaf. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. called the "Peisistratos Tree". Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens.

under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. Olive plantation in .[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. Niger. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. Sudan. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. Australia. Chile.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. Argentina.crazychefs. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of http://www. Israel.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. laperrinei (Algeria. northwest Africa) where winters are mild. the Mediterranean Basin. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. such as South Africa. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. .Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ http://www.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural http://www. with purple-green skin. The olive grove of Amfissa. which consists of 1. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. It is used mostly for oils. Rich taste and thick pulp. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. stuffed (with pickled pimento. often after being pitted. but only a few are grown to a large extent. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.200. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. A prolific bearer. 'Manzanilla'. grown around the world. anchovies. rounded-oval fruit. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region .net/ . 'Bosana'. Seville. originating in Dos Hermanas. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops.Cailletier cultivar. In recent times. in southern Spain. the most common olive grown on Sardinia.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa.crazychefs. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. a large. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten.

and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. They are green. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. 'Hojiblanca'. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. The olive is medium sized. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. They are black and generally used for table consumption. large. 'Kalamata'. This small olive. originating in the south of France (Aude département). Spain. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. another modern Israeli. 'Picual'. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. originating in Toledo. 'Souri'. Spain. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. http://www. a small. 'Arbequina'. originating in the south of France. 'Cornicabra'. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. named after the city of Kalamata. It is mainly used for oil. medium size. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. used as a table olive. brown olive grown in Catalonia.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. 'Empeltre'. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. comprises about 12% of Spain's production.[23] 'Barnea'. even on clay if well drained. 'Nabali'. a large. and elongated. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. which.[21] 'Koroneiki'. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. Greece. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. disease-resistant. The flavour is mild and nutty. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. Their flavour is mild and nutty. Spain. round. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. It has a strong but sweet flavour. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. good for eating and for oil. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. It is used both for oil and for table olives. and elongated. It is .'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. and coastal climate conditions. good for eating and for oil.crazychefs. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. They grow in any light soil. though difficult to cultivate. originating from the southern Peloponese. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Due to their highly valued flavour. originating in the province of Córdoba. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén).

while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. which form small swellings on the stems. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. but the time varies in each country. In southern Europe. up to several centuries. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. the trees are regularly pruned. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. the oliviera.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. 114). Where the olive is carefully cultivated. P. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. This method is used for olives used for . Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and.crazychefs. and with the season and the cultivar. In some places in Italy and Greece. Olives are propagated in various ways. In Italy. More specifically. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. A. Olives grow very slowly. as in Languedoc and Provence. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. removing fruit from the tree. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed.) Olives like hot weather. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. being very hard and close-grained. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. Another method uses an electric tool. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. Occasionally. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. to facilitate germination. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.poorer soil. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. They tolerate drought well. soon vegetate. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. it is valued by woodworkers. In Greece. However. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. and can remain productive for as long. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. embryonic buds. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. that has large tongs that spin around quickly.

a bitter carbohydrate. which is a natural preservative. the fruit is not bruised.g. the creation of lactic acid. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. large fruit (e. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. The olives are soaked in water to wash. or green with hints of colour). Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. Fresh are often sold at markets. Olives can be used green. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. As a result. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. which can be eaten fresh. through to full purple black ripeness.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. The method also involves sawing off branches. then drained. which is why they taste milder than green olives. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil..crazychefs.2 kg of oil per tree per year. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water.5-2. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. which leads to a superior finished product. Typical yields are 1. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider . 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. which is healthy for future production. After some weeks. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines.) There are many ways of processing olives for http://www.

their main predators are wasps. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. leaving sawtooth damage. wine. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. vinegar. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. Lye-curing. lemon juice. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. In France and north-central Italy. Pseudomonas savastanoi . Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. The ten largest producing countries. A species of bacterium.crazychefs. oleae[27]. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. spices. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. and weather A fungus. salt-curing. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. lemon zest. but can be left to cure for up to three months. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. juniper berries and anchovies. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. olives suffer occasionally from frost. olive oil. capsicum (pimento). Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. garlic cloves. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. Sometimes. Cycloconium oleaginum. especially to young trees. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape.6 to 8. http://www. or removing the pit and stuffing them. chili. causing great damage to plantations. of which the water is changed daily. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. an unnatural method. induces tumour growth in the shoots. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. diseases. Popular flavourings are herbs. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. feta. can infect the trees for several successive seasons.

300.000 1.000 550. 4.000 275.4 30.000 318.317.149.400.000 8.5 63.100 3. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.830 2.6 31. Bibliotheke. and to cultivate olive-trees. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.064 2.089 6. 1 ).. http://www. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.crazychefs.8 16.000 998. ^ Theophrastus. 2.800.000 280..339 300.988 500. 81.981 1.1).Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17. 4.5 6.597.000 20.5.685 765.3 .140.[31] References 1." (Diodorus Siculus.. Ancient Greek Agriculture. 1992.7 27. On the Causes of Plants. 5.500. 82. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.000 594. 1).000 498. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus. 5.888 178.000 250.1 25.9 6. p.. 3.3 8.000 430. ^ Pausanias. ^ Homer." (Herodotus.000 1.13. book 5". ^ ". An introduction. most notably South Australia.000 470. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.14. 1. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. 6. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. Description of Greece 1.000 49. 27. Odyssey. 38.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.0 3. 3. 4. to make bee-hives.

reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA".brijuni. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. Australian Olives. A. Rackham. Processing methods. 27. Bacteriol.fao. Odes 1. 24. D.zatoun. Available through Google Books 11. The Making of the Cretan Kislew. John Hutton. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. 1996.. ^ [1] 21. p. cited in F. M Bauza & R. ^ Riley. op. Tabak & O. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. E. & Parker. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". 1779. 4th edition. Volume 15. J. Moody. Brijuni National Park. AGRISCIENTA. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". 1999. http://www. ^ http://www. 23.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. Elena "Unusual Olives". EspasaCalpe S. ^ 25. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. Juárez. 28. 69. R. vol.cit. Riley (2002).org/wiews/olive/intro. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. http://apps3. 30. Simhoni.htm. nov. Retrieved 2007-08-31. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. ^ Muncipality Bar. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". ^ "FAO. Retrieved 2007-03-10." Horace. Zatoun. Masuelli. . Pseudomonas syringae subsp. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.fao. 13. & Ouazzani. (September 2002). ^ Fotiadi. ^ Belaj et al. p. ^ O.8. Cavagnaro P. R. Leshonenu (Hebrew). ^ a b M... Retrieved 2007-08-31. Ellen. ^ Janse.crazychefs. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. rev. ^ "Old Olive Tree". ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests.springerlink. http://www. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. me cichorea levesque malvae. Int. J. 2001. Apps3. N.pasoroblesolivefestival. pp 110–113. Y. 35. Volume 18:27-35 20. Epikouria Magazine.279 18. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. ^ Gooch. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. Retrieved 2009-05-18. ^ Lewington. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. 29. 1982. Epikouria Magazine. 1981.jsp.15.A. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. (1999) Ancient Trees. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L.aspx?PageID=151.. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. Madrid. J. ^ Balfour. http://www.W. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. ^ Lumaret. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. 2004".. 17. 29 April. Spring/Summer 2006 26. ca 30 BC 9. Syst. Number 4). 32:166–169.

^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. glossy green. however. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. (French tarragon. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. with slender branched stems.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. seldom produces flowers.31. with an entire margin." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L.crazychefs. L. The leaves are lanceolate. Corresponding to its species name. western North http://www. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. and south to northern Mexico. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm .R. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb.

but cannot be grown from seed. due to the presence of estragole. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute.[1] However. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). it normally goes dormant in winter. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. which is the Armenian. Georgia and. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce.[1] It likes a hot. Russia and Ukraine. dracunculoides L. Persian and Russian word for . A perennial. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. fish and egg http://www. Spreading plant can be divided easily. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. It is normally purchased as a plant.[1] Russian tarragon (A.crazychefs. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. sunny spot. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. Fresh. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. and particularly suitable for chicken. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. without excessive watering. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked . by extension. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ . Properties and Uses. Workman Publishing. References 1. ^ Surburg. Rose Marie Nichols.[3] In Slovenia.Cis-Pellitorin. pp. Horst. Stuckey. Johannes Panten (2006). World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. The Bountiful Container. ISBN 9783527607891. Maggie (2002). ^ Gatfield IL. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. 3. 233. ^ a b c d McGee. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Foerstner J.crazychefs. Ley http://www. Machinek A. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. Wiley-VCH. Krammer G.

Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. Kitchen sage. though other species. sage has a slight peppery flavor. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in http://www. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire . The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. it is used when roasting mutton. It is a member of the mint family. In Western cooking.Salvia officinalis (Sage. cheeses (Sage Derby). such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. Purple sage. Broadleaf sage. In French cuisine. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with woody stems. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). Garden sage. Culinary sage. and some drinks. grayish leaves. In the United States.crazychefs. Lamiaceae. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Common sage. Dalmatian sage. In the Balkans and the Middle East. Britain and Flanders. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. and blue to purplish flowers.

ursolic acid.[1] In a double blind. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. ursonic acid. fumaric acid. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. cornsolic acid. flavones. which contains cineole. nicotinamide.crazychefs. and tonic. cornsole. antifungal. hypoglycemic.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. means ―to heal". and estrogenic substances. antispasmodic. astringent.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential . chlorogenic acid. The underside of a sage leaf . Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic.trichomes are visible. niacin. caffeic http://www. flavonoid glycosides. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. and thujone. salvia. borneol.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Latin name for sage. estrogenic.more trichomes are visible on this side. antibiotic. oleic acid.

[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. 'Lavandulaefolia'.2003. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". and used as a diuretic. a purple-leafed cultivar. snakebites. and more. OBeWise Nutriceutica. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. .php.crazychefs. PMID 12605619. (2003). Mohammadi M. a cultivar with large leaves. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. Ohadinia S. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. ^ a b c "Sage". a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. http://www. a cultivar with white. and for low ground cover. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans.1046/j.1365-2710. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. emmenagogue. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties.00463. a small leaved cultivar. Applied Health. http://www. 'Icterina'. Khani M. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. a styptic. ^ Akhondzadeh S. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. 'Tricolor'. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. and for other uses. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. References 1. 2. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague.[4] It was sometimes called S. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. a local anesthetic for the skin. increasing women's fertility.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. hemostatic. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a white-flowered cultivar. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. 'Alba'. has leaves with higher oil concentrations.x. Jamshidi AH. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. 'Extrakta'. Noroozian M. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). and tonic. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages.appliedhealth. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. yellow and green variegated leaves. 'Berggarten'. Retrieved 2008-02-04. especially in sunny dry environments.

10-11. (2000). 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. ISBN http://www. . Spiridon E. Deni Bown (New York: DK. CRC Press. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pp. Sage: The Genus Salvia. ^ a b Kintzios. 4.

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