Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


Cooking Ingredients/

Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


Cooking Ingredients/

Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
Cooking Ingredients/

Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


Cooking Ingredients/


Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


Cooking Ingredients/

As a rule of http://www. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). Libyan. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. cuttings. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. Portuguese. It tolerates drought well. in a bouquet garni). Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. Leaves are often chopped. Spanish. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. While summer-seasonal. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. while flavourful. and of herbes de Provence. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . when it specifies spoons it means the leaves.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. Greek. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). fresh thyme is often available year-round. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial.g.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. storage life is rarely more than a . Persian. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. Thyme. the whole sprig may be used (e.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. and in those derived from them. Albanian. Dried. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. soups and stews. In French cuisine. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. Depending on how it is used in a dish. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. Syrian. and Turkish cuisines. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Italian. tomatoes and eggs. Lebanese.crazychefs. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. or by the sprig. which is due to its content of thymol. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. It can be propagated by seed.a little less if it is ground.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. assume that it means fresh. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. In some Levantine countries. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking.

thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. but is grown as a ground cover. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. hybrid T. an antiseptic. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa.[6] Thymol.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. Because it is . Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. it was used to medicate bandages.[5] As with bay. tisane. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. http://www.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. All thyme species are nectar sources. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. The dried equivalent is 1:3. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. salve. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. pulegioides × T.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled.crazychefs. It also has medicinal uses.

There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity.crazychefs. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used http://www. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.Variegated lemon thyme. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually .

Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum .com http://www.crazychefs. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

8 g 3.crazychefs. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133. and American cooking.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit. European. although parsley has a milder flavor.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.1 mg recommendations for adults.9 g .3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.Dietary fiber 3. often used as spice.Sugars 0. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro). B1) .com http://www.0 μg Calcium 138.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1. B3) 1.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.0 mg Phosphorus 58.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit. It is common in Middle Eastern. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.1 mg 6.0 mg Iron 6.1 mg Folate (Vit.3 g 0.2 mg Magnesium 50.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates . B2) 0.

or flat leaf (P. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. Although little known in Britain and the United States. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day.crazychefs. which helps accommodate the long taproot. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). like flat leaf parsley or chervil. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. While parsley is biennial. it attracts predatory insects. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants.[1] Parsley grows well in deep . they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. which then tend to protect plants nearby. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. used in soups and stews. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other http://www. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. tuberosum). neapolitanum). not blooming until its second year. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. For example. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. However. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. Like many other umbellifers. reducing pest attraction. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. it is not related to real turnips. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve.

e. Jett. with fish. garlic. Parsley as an oil. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French . Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads.aspx?id=1075&s=4. a mixture of". Ossobuco alla milanese. root. leaf. Last retrieved April 26. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. [1]) in oxalic acid. http://www. ^ a b c John W.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. In Southern and Central Europe. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. fried chicken. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâté soups.g. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. 2007. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. "Parsley on plucodes.crazychefs. parsley is part of bouquet garni. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). or 4900. lamb or goose.plucodes.html. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french 4. and sauces. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins.70% by mass. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. "That Devilish Parsley.[3] Parsley is high (1. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. 2. and lemon zest.drugs. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). In addition. References 1. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). http://www." West Virginia University Extension Service. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/". Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used http://www. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. steaks. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies.

net/ .Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare http://www.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum .

as well as cultivars. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. O vulgare gracile. and to add a nice. e. growing to 20-80 cm tall. 3-4 mm long. Together with basil. which is popular in southern Italy. native to Europe. and lovage leaves.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . It is particularly widely used in Turkish. produced in erect spikes. Unlike most Italian herbs. Oregano is an important culinary herb. The flowers are purple.crazychefs. Greek. of the mint family. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. capers. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat.g. Oregano growing in a field. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian . It is the leaves that are used in cooking. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. and grilled meat. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato http://www. spicy flavor. It is a perennial herb.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. each with distinct flavours. fried vegetables.

net/ . season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. It has an http://www. West Asia) have similar flavors. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. The influence of climate. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. differs significantly in taste. In the Philippines. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. Oregano growing in a pot. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. especially for mutton and lambs meat. In Turkish Cuisine. It varies in intensity.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. warm and slightly bitter taste. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids.[5][6] Additionally. Asia Minor) and O. which. together with paprika. useful for relieving children's coughs. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram.crazychefs.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. it can be usually found on table. however. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. heracleoticum (Italy. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. Balkan peninsula. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. salt and pepper. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue.

^ http://www. enteric parasites. this substitution would not work the other way round. Used topically. especially in the United States. Lippia berlandieri. expectorant.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). which simply referred to "an acrid herb". Aqueous extracts. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". stomachic and mildly tonic. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to . Coleus aromaticus). dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds.html. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. ^ Organic Gardening 2.uni-graz. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. stomach upsets. capsules. indigestion. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. diaphoretic. antispasmodic. emmenagogue. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. but is usually stronger. In the Philippines.[12] References 1.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. the father of medicine. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico.crazychefs. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. and caryophyllene. fungal infections. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. Plectranthus amboinicus. A Cretan oregano (O. limonene. carminative. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. ocimene. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. also called Cuban oregano. including Poliomintha longiflora. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. cholagogue. stimulant.Main constituents include carvacrol. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. mild fevers. thymol. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. oregano. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. useful for relieving children's coughs.[8] Hippocrates.[7] and painful menstruation. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. http://www. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena.

) and Origanum vulgare L. PMID 16218659. doi:10. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 7. March 2009. 6.crazychefs. (01 May 2003).com http://www.asp?item=1374&year=2008. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". ^ ["http://www. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/ J Nutr.1021/jf0510079. http://jn.2008. . Fall/Winter 2007 10. et ^ Epikouria Magazine. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. Agric. June 2008. University of the West of England. 53 (21): 8162–8168. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". ^ Dragland. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. Steinar. et al. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. Food 28. ^ Epikouria Magazine. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. 24 November 2008. PMID 12730411. 11. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants".uwe.3. (Cav. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. (2005).dmannose. Draft revision for "oregano". Fall/Spring 2007 5.nutrition.php. draft revision for "origanum".". draft revision for "organum". 133 (5): 1286–1290. ^ a b Faleiro. Medical News Today. J.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. Retrieved 200811-26. Leonor.

Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". with yellow flowers and feathery leaves.[2] In Greek mythology. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists).crazychefs. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. it seems. recorded in the 10th http://www. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. Ferula communis. Also. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. It is a hardy. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. however. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. umbelliferous herb. perennial.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. meaning "hay". especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on . In Ancient Greek. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. it was from the giant fennel. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). This came from the Old English fenol or finol. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC.

The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. they are finely dissected.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit. about 0.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.29 g 0. B1) 0.5 mm wide. B3) 0.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.5 m. B2) 0.Dietary fiber http://www.047 mg Folate (Vit. bulb.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. with hollow stems. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. glaucous green. and . (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.crazychefs.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb.01 mg 7. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike).232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . and grows to heights of up to 2. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long. It is erect. but thinner. half as wide or less.20 g 1.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.

azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. vulgare var.20 mg Manganese 0. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. In North American supermarkets. It propagates well by seed. including northern Europe. and in other open sites in many . Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. notably the Italian name finocchio. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. in pastures.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. the United States. but is more aromatic and sweeter. syn. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). F.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. which is also known by several other names. both in its native range and http://www. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. by the late 19th century. for its edible. both raw and cooked. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia.crazychefs.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. it is often mislabelled as "anise". though usually not as strong. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. It is of cultivated origin.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. "bronze-leaved" fennel. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant.

Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. fish. sompu in Telugu. stewed. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). foliage. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. pastas. Many egg. though smaller. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. both raw and cooked. green seeds are optimal. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. and risottos. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. brown or green in colour when fresh. often tossed with chicory and avocado. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. or cooked in risotto.crazychefs. badesoppu in Kannada. For cooking. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. or eaten raw. It may be blanched or marinated. but also the most expensive. salads. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. grilled. which are very similar in taste and appearance. variyali in Gujarati. in side dishes. mouri in Bengali.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. braised. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath . anise-flavoured http://www. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The bulb is a crisp. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. where bulbs and fronds are used.

these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[12] For adults.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. used to ease flatulence in infants. or its polymers. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic.crazychefs.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. Fennel tea. also employed as a . act as http://www. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. as it is said to improve eyesight.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. This use. sometimes with some sweetener. although not supported by direct evidence. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche.

normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn http://www. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. badian (star anise). Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum . It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas.crazychefs. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. fennel and coriander. followed by India. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens.[17] However. which promote growth of breast tissue.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

itself ultimately from Phoenician.C.[5] In Malayalam. native to Sri Lanka.[3] In Sri . it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is called "Darchini" ( ). it is known as "DalChini ( )". In Telugu. which are often called cinnamon too.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. cinnamon is known as http://www. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. In Bengali. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. In Urdu. In Farsi (Persian).(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. Chakka meaning bark or wood. the "real' cassia. and in Gujarati taj. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon.crazychefs.[2] In Marathi. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . synonym C. it is called Dalchina Chakka. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. Ceylon. it is called darchin (‫. Hindi. in the original Sinhala.

[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. in Proverbs.crazychefs. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 http://www.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. and in Song of Solomon. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. aloe and cinnamon. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. to protect their monopoly as suppliers.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at . cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

However. which are arranged in panicles. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. and coffee. and have a distinct odor. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more.crazychefs. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score.75–7. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. 7–18 cm (2. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. a Dutch captain reported. . The flowers. took control of the factories by 1640.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis.2 feet) http://www. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. and used them to construct their nests.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. have a greenish color.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. p.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon.Ages. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. They established a trading post in 1638. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. tea. "The shores of the island are full of it". and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. although in the first century.1 inches) long. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32.8–49. in a letter of about 1292." (Braudel 1984.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa.

in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. The next year. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. India. Sumatra. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. Only the thin (0. eg. Madagascar. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs.crazychefs. the outer woody portion is removed. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. According to the International Herald Tribune. Bangladesh. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. verum). followed by China. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. which is left to dry. Vietnam.[15] According to the FAO. the West Indies.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing http://www. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. Zanzibar. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. and Egypt. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for . Brazil. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. and Vietnam. Chips are trimmings of quills. Java. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma.5 mm) inner bark is used.

[16] Ceylon cinnamon.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. less dense. or "Indonesian cinnamon". Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. "Vietnamese cinnamon". many websites. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum).crazychefs. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. hard and woody in texture.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. the related . for example. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . and is considered to be less strong than cassia. is generally a medium to light reddish brown. However.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and more crumbly texture. as all of the layers of bark are used. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. has a finer. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). zeylanicum). using only the thin inner bark.

Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice http://www. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. such as apple pie. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. True cinnamon. and sweets.crazychefs. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is more suitable for use in sweet . When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). macerating it in seawater. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. when whole.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. used in a variety of thick soups. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. hot cocoa. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. especially in Mexico. and then quickly distilling the whole. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. but when cassia is present.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). bread-based dishes. In the United States. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. and liqueurs. and fruits.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. a deep-blue tint is produced. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer.5% to 1% of its composition. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. The two barks. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. are easily distinguished. rather than cassia. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. It is of a golden-yellow color. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. tea. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. drinks. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. In the Middle East. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. ‫. especially apples. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills.

[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. 2008. cinnamyl acetate.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). Encyclopaedia Britannica. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for . and Myanmar (Burma). The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. love. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves).com http://www. cassia. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.and a very hot aromatic taste. cinnamaldehyde. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. luck. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. and money.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. few seem able to succeed. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. The Cinnamon Challenge. ^ a b "Cinnamon". who failed.[34] Notes 1.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans.crazychefs. Sri Lanka (Ceylon).[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. although it remains untested. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion.0. In Hoodoo. linalool. However. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. eugenol.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. beta-caryophyllene. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. and anethole.

net/ .theepicentre. Corke H (October 2005).co. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. revised ed.htm.henriettesherbal. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. Sánchez C. 437). http://www. ^ Tennent.en. 437 tr. J. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Food Chem. 2009.stm 3. Sir James Emerson.html. ^ "Cassia. Anthea Bell.jstor. p. ^ thespicehouse. p. ^ 17. Henry. retrieved 200807-15 6. Van-Koiij A. ^ http://www. ^ http://www.437. 23. Cathay and the Way Thither. Cinnamomum. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443– ^ López P. Food Chem. ^ Toussaint-Samat also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour. 4. retrieved 2008-07-15 11. ^ http://findarticles. Cozzolino ^ Yule. ^ [2] 18. ^ Felter. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. Agric. http://dsr. Mancini DA. 8.crazychefs. 9. Torres RP (December 1998).html#pg598. Account of the Island of Ceylon.1021/ 13. PMID 16104824.html. Col. Sun M. ^ http://www.htm 20.php?storyId=6672644. Nerín C (August 2005).iol. ^ Mancini-Filho J. Batlle _of_life/html/1. Emily.0. Agric. PMID 16190627. ^ http://news. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". ^ Shan B. 53 (17): 6939–46. ^ Knox. Encyclopedia of Spices. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. ^ [1] 16. retrieved 200705-01 21. http://www. Harvey. p. "Solid. 437f. Breyne) extracts" _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. doi:10. retrieved 2007-05-01 19.fao. Cai YZ.CO%3B2-N 15.2.thespicehouse.—Cinnamon. http://www.nii. Robert. Cinnamon. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. The History of Food. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health http://www.1021/jf050709v. 53 (20): 7749–59.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". PMID 10077878. p. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ The Epicentre. http://lakdiva.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14.

113. ^ Yronwode. (2005). July 2000. http://www. http://www. Safdar M.crazychefs.1643. http://www.pdf.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. 29. ^ Beck. Eleventh Edition. Retrieved 2008-05-11..3.26.php? http://care. Cinnamon. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes". ^ Ranjbar..futuremedicine. et al. http://www. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". doi:10. Muhammad et al. ^ Khan A. ground. Ali Khan MM. www. http://www. "Determination of Khattak KN. New York: Kodansha International. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. Braudel. doi:10. PMID 14633804. Retrieved 200808-05. Alan W. Kristof et http://jn. a publication now in the public domain.. ^ George Mateljan Foundation.sciencedaily.12.. 27.lesliebeck. ^ ^ [3]. . Agricultural Research Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276.sciencedaily. Archer (1988).3. Akram et al. ^ Vanschoonbeek.1. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). Anderson RA (December 2003). Research: s_have_been/index. Medicinal Seasonings. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Eugen J. doi:10. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". 28. http://eprints. Fernand (1984). 33.. Retrieved 2007-12-17.113. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life".html?source=r_health. 34. 30. Retrieved 2008-05-11. ^ References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr.1016/00219673(88)90035-0. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".2217/14750708. Leslie. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. retrieved 200705-01 25.htm.. The Perspective of the World. Charles (1998). coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). retrieved 200705-01 32.redorbit. doi:10. http://www.2337/diacare. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). retrieved 2007-12-12 31. Retrieved

Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. canned. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. frozen."[3] Uses Onions. pickled. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. one of the oldest vegetables. which it is not. Fritsch & Matin from Iran.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. They are now available in fresh. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. and dehydrated forms.Department of Export Agriculture. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. powdered. used without qualifiers. Onions can be used. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. chopped. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's http://www. and Allium asarense R. They are known by the common name "onion" .crazychefs. it usually refers to Allium cepa.

They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. transported and stored. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5] The onion is easily propagated. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. However.crazychefs. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC.[5] However. In ancient Greece. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. In Bronze Age settlements.chopped or sliced. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. spicy. coughs. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of . in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. recent evidence has shown that dogs. an onion can be sharp. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions".[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. and also to relieve headaches. cats. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. Depending on the variety. snakebite and hair loss. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local http://www. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. due to toxicity during digestion.

12 mg Folate (Vit.1 g 89.7 g Fat .042 g .Dietary fiber 1.polyunsaturated 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B3) 0. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .1 g 1.24 g .21 mg Magnesium 0.02 mg Vitamin K 0.34 g 0.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit. B1) 0. 0 μg 9.013 g .4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.saturated .027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.4 mg Vitamin E 0.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Sugars 4.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit. B2) 0.crazychefs.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.monounsaturated http://www.

it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. followed by Western Yellow. If you are allergic to onions. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. Imperial Valley Sweet. Texas 1015. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. eleven times the amount found in Western White. Imperial Valley Sweet. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). Texas 1015. Western White. Texas 1015. Northern Red. Peruvian Sweet. and Vidalia. Empire Sweet. Peruvian Sweet. However. the variety with the lowest phenolic content.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. Mexico. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. The milder-tasting varieties—Western . When tested against liver and colon cancer cells.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. onions are used to heal blisters and boils.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. pungent yellow (New York Bold). Northern Red.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. Empire Sweet. For all varieties of onions. anticholesterol. diabetes. Western Yellow. and Vidalia. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). Imperial Valley Sweet. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. Mexico. In the United States. osteoporosis.crazychefs. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. Shallots have the most phenols. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. Empire Sweet.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. Peruvian Sweet. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. Western White. Mexico. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. anticancer. and other diseases. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion.[10] In many parts of the world. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. In general.

as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. leeks. ginger. nausea. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. Even if garlic is present in a very small . or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). breathing http://www. mouth and throat ulcerations. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. all present in garlic. cells are broken. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. it can lead to an allergic reaction. allylpropyldisulfide. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. Eye irritation can. 2008. and the irritation effect. chives. therefore. On January 31.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. diarrhea.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. The volume of sulfenic acids released. differs among Allium species. limiting the amount of gas generated. shallots. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. garlic. creating a stinging sensation. and bananas.include reactions to onions. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. where it binds to sensory neurons. allylmercaptan and allicin. garden lilies. As onions are sliced or eaten. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water.

Finally. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. which are the leaves and/or immature plants.crazychefs. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allium http://www. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. more commonly today. "short-day" onions. which can be planted directly in the ground. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. which have been developed in more recent times. from sets started from seed the previous year. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following . are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. the Welsh onion.

Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.220 Turkey 1. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.750 South Korea .302 1. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.500 China United States 3. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.758 Russia 1.Produce bulblets in the flower head.793 India 5. Oregon (USA).346 2. Tree onion or Egyptian onion . Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.637 Japan Egypt 1.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. each of which forms a bulb.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). a hybrid of Allium http://www. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk. Vale.764 Pakistan 1. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.149 Spain World Total 64.crazychefs. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.

It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural . bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases. It remains in effect as of 2009.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile http://www.The Onion Futures Act.crazychefs. passed in 1958.

1793. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. It has a characteristic pungent. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A.[1] A bulb of garlic.crazychefs. and chive. known as garlic. Allium sativum.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. commonly known as garlic. Medical Botany. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. from William Woodville. shallot. the most commonly used part of the plant. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Its close relatives include the onion. .com http://www. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae.

leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. and Allium oleraceum. stems (scape). with Russia (1. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. India (4.[6] One of the best-known "garlics".net/ . protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive.[5] The "wild garlic". Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. with approximately 10. and for medicinal purposes. for consumption (raw or cooked). Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. In cold climates.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". In North America. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. are common weeds in fields. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). Garlic plants can be grown close together."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. The cloves are used as seed. Allium vineale. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. Garlic is grown globally. the so-called elephant garlic. They can suffer from pink root. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. according to Zohary and Hopf. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. accounting for over 77% of world output. The leaves. The papery. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. respectively.Yunnan province of China. "crow garlic".crazychefs. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005.

000 254. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form.000 221. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. C = calculated figure. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy.000 125. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.000 128.810 168.000 645.000 15. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. and parts of South and Central America.000 325. California.088.000 142. southern Europe.Alaska) in fifth place (1. semiofficial. P = official figure. F = FAO estimate. the Middle East. or ginger. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. northern Africa. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. tomato. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods.crazychefs. including eastern Asia. or estimates). A = aggregate (may include .400 140. It is often paired with onion. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world".4%).[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. Southeast http://www. south Asia.

oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. the resulting product. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. and then stir-fried with eggs. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oil. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. garlic toast. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. In Japan and Korea. crostini and canapé. and is now being sold in the United States. Blending garlic. The leaves are cut. http://www. breads and pasta. They are also known as "garlic spears". almond. and roast them in an oven. salt. Garlic. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. and a chunky base produce skordalia. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. "stems". called black garlic. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. and spices. In some cuisine. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. meats. or individually by squeezing one end of the . heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. United Kingdom and Australia. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. In eastern Europe. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. or "tops". meat. bruschetta. is sweet and syrupy.crazychefs. Immature scapes are tender and edible. oil. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. or vegetables. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

46 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/

In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

47 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/

Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
48 | P a g e
Cooking Ingredients/

possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

49 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/

infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
50 | P a g e
Cooking Ingredients/

However. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. Among the members of the onion family. ginger. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. all present in garlic. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where it is excreted. however. therefore. persillade. shallots.crazychefs. and bananas. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. allylmercaptan and allicin.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. insects. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to . thus mellowing its spiciness. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products.[48] Due to its strong odor. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. garlic. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. including onions. garlic could be worn. hung in windows. and vampires. allylpropyldisulfide.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. leeks. and worms from eating the plant. such as pistou. werewolves.[50] In Europe. usually enjoy these sensations. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day.[51] To ward off vampires. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. Since digestion takes several hours. making garlic much more potent than onions. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of http://www. chives. cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. The herb is. shallots. When eaten in quantity. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. garden lilies. and release of AMS several hours more. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. included in many garlic recipes. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. Humans. or leeks. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. forming allyl methyl sulfide. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. deterring animals like birds.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic.

It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. if any exist. antiplatelets. Garlic can thin the blood. and hypoglycemic http://www. and menstrual irregularities. antihypertensives.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath).In Daoism mythology. You can help by converting this article to prose. allergic reactions. if appropriate. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. antiparasitic value of garlic. calcium channel blockers. minimal risks to normal individuals. emesis. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness . at worst.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. sweating. and diarrhea. similar to the effect of aspirin. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated.crazychefs. are largely unknown. indicated Muhammad. as well as other medications. However. saquinavir. Editing help is available. nausea. dizziness. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. indigestion. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bleeding.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque".[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi".[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects.

html. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. Notes 1. et al. ^ McGee p. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. one the bulbs will grow peeled. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.nj. http://www. 112 7. ^ a b Lee. garlick)".natural-holistic-health. 397 6. is discouraged. topical use of raw garlic. split. 2000). http://www.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. third edition (Oxford: University Press. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. http://hdl. ^ a b c d Tabor. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. et al. ^ http://www. Domestication of plants in the Old World.unigraz. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body . ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23).ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came.handle. In particular.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". J. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable.html 8. ^ http://www. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. 3. including burns to[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 5 June. Retrieved 2007-08-28. (2005). so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic.jhortscib. including naturopathic uses and acne 9. p.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. 197 5. A bulb of garlic. Retrieved 5 June G. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. 4. Ethiopia".crazychefs.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. (2004). "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum.

20. et al (June 2004). et al (November 2007). PMID 2291748. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. 22. and Empiricism" (PDF). Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. PMID 17325296. McFerren M (February 2007). 104 (46): 17977–82. http://archinte.167. (p. U." Int. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic .1002/ Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. Accessed: December 18. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007) 5. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32.1073/pnas. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". Motta. 30. PMID 17966136. doi:10. 25. J. Ramacciato. ^ Durak I. et al (February 2007).10. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store.325. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. Facts.200700058. 2006. Vosoughi AR. http://personalpages.1186/1476-511X-6-5. Med.lehoux/Tropes. 26.ama-assn. Oztürk HS. 16. 35. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health .C. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. Mills RW. 34. F. Acad. Olcay E. 12. ^ Durak I. 11. PMID 17328819.167.01. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. PMID 17123684. Paul B. 15 (6): 373–7. 19. 31. Med. July 1. doi:10.S.1016/j. Daryn (2003). Chao WJ (March 2007). Aytaç B. Akrami M (March 2007). "Garlic (Allium sativum L. Natl. P. 167 (4): 346–53. PMID 15277094. Nutr. ^ Kojuri J. Ferraresi.ama-assn. PMID 15157944. Maud.. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -.005. Herald Publishing Co.. 29. ^ Gardner CD. Arch. Block E. 14. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". 2005 ^ Groppo. Kavutcu M. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. J. Sova P (May 2004). "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits".1001/archinte. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. doi:10. . Lawson LD. Better Nutrition. doi:10.). Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). Lin RS (June 1998). 167 (4): 325–6.200700072. ( 54 | P a g e http://www. Sylva. R.crazychefs. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. 32. [2] ^ Hamel. 28. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats".jnutbio. Güven C (2002).346.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. Intern. 33. ^ Chan KC.4. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. ^ Benavides GA. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". 24. 13. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. Garlic. PMID 15218732. PMID 9641475. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Izzo AA (November 2007). doi:10. Yin MC.1097/00005344-199806000-00014.2004. ^ Goodbye. 5:109–115. Arch. J. PMID 17918162. 17. Dent. Sci. PMID 17951430. 15.1001/archinte. ^ Charlson M. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. Sartoratto..A 400 Year History. PMID 17325291. doi:10.manchester.1002/mnfr. Hyg. Intern. Proc. "Tropes. http://archinte. and Mary U. Capasso R. Squadrito GL. A Modern Herbal. Biochem. doi:10. ^ a b Steiner M. 18.pdf. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial".uk/staff/daryn.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans"..4. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol".1162/106361403773062678. doi:10. 23.. 21. 27. A. ^ Mader FH (October 1990).A. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. ^ Borrelli F. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. N.

jlc.unito. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. section "Conclusion" 48. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. PMID 16207909. 49 (1): 473. Book 65 57. on mutagenesis. (1989-01-30).1099/mic. http://joi. 2007. Itakura Y. National Health Service. ^ Kodera Y. Toxicol. ^ Pickering. UK Medicines Information. ^ John S.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60.htm 44.asm. ^ a b c d Hogg.. 53. (2001). ^ Fareed G. ^ McNally p. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Aon MA. p. 43. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). ^ Alnaqeeb MA. Nishimura S. Iwai K. 40. Nishino H.January 29. 42. http://www. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. Microbiology (Reading. ^ Macpherson et al. 38. ^ http://www.ukmi. 122.Vol 9 No.49.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. " Passa O.html 45.pdf. Matuura H.36. In Search of Dracula. Sagi A. NLM Gateway. Yoshida S. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. ^ Baruchin AM. ^ Shuford JA. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. Kominato Y. 120. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. Bordia T. H. James.html 54.elsevier. http://linkinghub.473. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. 66. ^ http://washokufood. http://aac. ^ Lemar KM. 85 (3): 157–64. ISBN 0-30436561-0. http://joi. doi:10. Complementary Medicines Summary.jst.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. PMID Sterling Publishing.2005. ^ http://www.". David (2003). Thomson M. Sumida T. garlic advisory 310–311 PMID PMID 8441577. Slattery M. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats". Ali M (June 1996).elsevier. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) 62. 37. Summer 2005 . Retrieved December 7. ^ a b McNally. Sanders N. Agents Chemother. ^ Garlic . a stress compound from garlic.crazychefs. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Chesson C. "Garlic burns".net/ . Antimicrob.html 46. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. http://mic.economicexpert. PMID 11600262. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). Patel R (January 2005). Shishido C. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56.. Ronen M (November 2001). 41. 4 . Retrieved December 7.0. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical http://www. doi:10.sgmjournals.".JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list& Retrieved 2007-0707.go. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6.jst. 58. ^ McGee p. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans".. "Garlic burns". Raymond T (1994). 049 . (1991-08-01). Lau B. Steckelberg JM. Scolaro M. 211. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. p. ^ a b c Yamasaki ^ http://lem. Teel R. Jordan W.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65. ^ Oi Y. Houghton Mifflin. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". Castro C.1. 39. Jennifer (2002-12-13). Engl.. Lett. Imafuku M. 49. ^ Bukhari. et al (October 2005). Fuwa T.. Volume 7. 1988. PMC: 538912. ^ Health Canada . Long 65. 64. Pickering p. PMID 15616341.1128/AAC..Garlic-in-Oil 61. Yoffe B. ^ Macpherson et al. "Effect of Retrieved 2009-01-30. 211 51.

Belz GG (October 1997). Koch.. P. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Breithaupt-Grögler K. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. A. 50. G. A. Lemar. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. "Garlic burns". Block. [4] Lawson.-Z.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. 94 (6): 632–5. Jain AK. Lloyd.. (2000). Sci.. Masanori Ayabe. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. Bull. D. 'Kyolic'. Chatterjee..elsevier.ahajournals. Boudoulas H. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. ..References Japanese garlic. L. and H. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. PMID 8506890. J. C. PMID 9247357. (1996). Soc. Retrieved 1 May 2005. Gardner. Chem. Zhang. Turner. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). Lawson. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. http://linkinghub.. Med. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. Pharm. Campbell GR. New York: Avery. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Vargas R. McMahon FG (June 1993). Block. Yukihiro Kodera. and Related Species (Second Edition). Am. Kiazand. D. Williams & Wilkens. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur Hort. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. Balise. Gotzkowsky S. Garty BZ (March 1993).. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Z. I. Lawson. R. Simmons DL. D. Efendy JL. Hile. Kozue Ogasawara. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L.. Shan. H. K. M. R. Susumu Yoshida. Vol. Block. Wang. 405-407 (2002)... a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. PMID 8441577. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". Naoki Kashimoto. The chemistry of garlic and onions. S. 3rd ed. Jiro Yoshida. Ling[青森県産]. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 354-363 (2002). J.. J.. Bull.. (1985). Shafir. L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. (2001). A. D. Barzilay. Naoto Uda. Kraemer. Garlic. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. D. L. PMID 9355906. 129: 144–151. C. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". Hamilton.M. L. Zemah. Andy (2004). Pharm. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. Balch.Garlic. H. (1992). Block. http://circ. H. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. Z. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. P. http://www. 50. L. Vol. Selfsufficientish . R. M. (2004). A. Rabinowitch (2004). E. Chem. Campbell JH (July 1997). Makoto Ichikawa. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. E. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". E. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. Am. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs.crazychefs.P.. Isao Sumioka. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖.

310–3. Lin RS (June 1998)..wkhealth. . "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". In: Ohigashi. (eds). Marcel Dekker. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Geierstanger.asm.crazychefs. Kadam. PMC: 538912. Garlic. Yeh. Cardiovasc.. (1998). SunWook Hwang. Scribner. Antimicrob. Harold (2004). Yeh. Michael Bandell. Eid. (1997).S.Lindsey J. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. 49 (1): 473. http://meta.K. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. (1999). Salunkhe.49.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". Silagy Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". doi:10. Bernhard H.2005. PMID 8169881. Neil A (1994). et al.473. Pharmacol. D. Samer R. PMID 15616341. McGee. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms" http://www.1. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209.. Macpherson. pp. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. et al. PMID 9641475. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. Shuford JA. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Leeks". Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Mader FH (October 1990). PMID 2291748. http://aac. J. Veena Y-Y. "The Onion Family: Onions. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Steckelberg JM. 31 (6): 904–8. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). H. Steiner M. et al. Patel R (January 2005). Abstract. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Agents Chemother. Y-Y. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets.1128/AAC.

) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. terminating in four spreading sepals. Pakistan. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Zanzibar. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. In Vietnam. http://www. when they are ready for collecting. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green.5-2 cm long. Madagascar. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. and Sri Lanka. and consist of a long calyx. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. after which they develop into a bright red. Cloves are harvested when 1. it is called đinh hương.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters.

Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve . often in combination with cumin. cloves are often used to season pho broth. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas.000 tonnes). which sells Djarum Black. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. spleen and stomach meridians. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. it is used in almost all dishes.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. especially for digestive problems. Cloves are used in cheeses. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. In south Indian cuisine. warm and aromatic. but with the addition of other spices). In Vietnamese cuisine. they are used sparingly. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cloves are used as a carminative. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground http://www. along with other spices.[1] In north Indian cuisine. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. entering the kidney. but as they are extremely strong.crazychefs. During Christmas. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract.

Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus).The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. and Zanzibar. It is also used in severe burns. including cloves. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. including Bacan. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. Makian. In the late fifteenth century. RH (AHG). and to a lesser extent for fever http://www.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 . vomiting and diarrhea. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade.crazychefs. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. pimples etc. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin.[6] History Until modern times.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson.[7] Nevertheless. Moti.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. Subsequently.P. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. were highly prized in Roman times. Brazil. Khalsa. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. stomach qi downward. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces.[5] In West Africa. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). their cultivation was introduced into Guiana.[7] Cloves. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. most of the West Indies. and Tidore. Ayurvedic herbalist K. including for multiple sclerosis. mainly from the Maluku Islands. along with nutmeg and pepper. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency.

comprising . Erich Stoger. and Andrew Gamble.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. and several sesquiterpenes. John Wiley and Sons Inc.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". Medicine Plus. ©2000. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Jack (2004).gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-clove.tibetmed. xv.htm. http://www.html Tilotson. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. ^ "TibetMed .. pp. Steven Clavey.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of http://www. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. kaempferol. rhamnetin. Andrew and Page. gallotannic acid. Avery Publishing. Steven ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. ^ Dorenburg. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. ^ Balch.html National Institutes of Health. pg. and eugenitin. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. 8. ^ a b Turner. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. stigmasterol and campesterol. Alan. the flavonoids eugenin. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. James.. Phyllis and Balch. Third Edition by Dan Bensky.squarespace.crazychefs. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. crategolic acid. 3rd ed. 3. 5. ©2003. Vintage Books. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. due to the high price of importing them. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. Spice: The History of a Temptation. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. Special Diets for Illness 6. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. ^ http://oneearthherbs. Erich Stoger.nih. tannins. 2. methyl salicylate (painkiller). ^ http://www.nlm.[8] Notes and references 1. Karen.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
62 | P a g e
Cooking Ingredients/

flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
63 | P a g e
Cooking Ingredients/

The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

64 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/


True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

65 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/

Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

66 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/

masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
67 | P a g e
Cooking Ingredients/

recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

68 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/

Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

69 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/

Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

70 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/

"Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. Ines et al. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. while Lederer et al. f. doi:10. (2005). doi:10. 6. http://www. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn.5555/jaoi. http://www. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice".org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/ with other species Joshi et al. 5.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. et al. ^ Louisa "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.iso. Retrieved 10 November. ^ International Organization for Standardization. 4.703. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook.Botanical nomenclature". 18 May 2009 2.3.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 .) -. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. (2006).crazychefs. Vaishali C. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. ^ Lederer. Retrieved 8 June 2009. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. 3. ^ http://www.atypon-link. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS.htm?csnumber =4844.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . Retrieved 8 June 2009.2005. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703– "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods.htm?csnumber=19183. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise".Specification".chinaios. Retrieved 8 June 2009.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. .iso. http://www.2004-0058. NPR. PMID 15492355.1542/peds. f.1021/jf058156b.

and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.crazychefs. native from the east Mediterranean to East India. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.

cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum http://www. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. locally called "Kermun". The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). being oblong in shape. longitudinally ridged. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. parsley and dill. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including kamūnu in Akkadian. cumin is known as kimyon. maduru.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. cumin is known as zireh. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . in Iran and Central Asia. the story goes. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον.net/ . in northwestern China. and yellow-brown in colour.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin".(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". a member of the parsley family. Kerman. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. In Northern India and Nepal.crazychefs. In Arabic. in Turkey.

They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. In Sri Lanka. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. Uzbekistan. and Chile.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. Mexico. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). Seeds. and this practice continues in Morocco. when added to hot milk and consumed.crazychefs. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. today it is mostly grown in Iran. Tajikistan. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. Turkey. http://www. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. have been dated to the second millennium BC. India. Syria.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. It was also known in ancient Greece and . In South Asia. Egypt.

and is found in achiote blends. Today. and borne in umbels. pinnate or bipinnate. and in some traditional breads from France. Contrary to popular belief in the US. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. Cuban. It is traditionally added to chili. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. Cumin's distinctive flavour and . Sri Lankan. thread-like leaflets.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. Indian. white or pink. adobos. curry powder. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. garam masala. Middle Eastern. warm aroma is due to its essential oil http://www. curries. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. sofrito. It is an herbaceous annual plant. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. tacos. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. The flowers are small. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). and bahaarat. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. Pakistani. either ground or as whole seeds. containing a single seed. but are smaller and darker in colour. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. popular in Indian. enchiladas. North African.crazychefs. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. and other Middle-Eastern. Northern Mexican cuisines.

It is grown from seed.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.Sugars 2.27 g 17. Cultivation of cumin requires a long.Dietary fiber 10. However. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates.7 mg Vitamin E 3.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.5 g Fat .very common in Mexican cuisine. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. 64 μg 44.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. hot summer of 3–4 months. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. B2) 0. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. Italian and Middle Eastern .36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.579 mg Vitamin B6 0.435 mg Folate (Vit. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well. and needs fertile. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . B3) 4. well-drained soil.saturated 1. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex http://www.81 g 8.24 g 22.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit.33 mg Vitamin K 5.25 g . it is drought-tolerant. sown in spring.

Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin.Zinc 4.a small cat). However.crazychefs.).com http://www. In Polish the difference is even less significant. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. Not related to . a chemical found in turmeric. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. as in 'kot' . Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). In Swedish. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. lighter in colour. to eat. from the Swedish word "spisa". while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'.a cat and 'kotek' . cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron.v. For example. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron.

2. p. Nicola S. (2009). doi:10. (2005).".05. from China".com. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN".Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin . 8.313.1302. ^ a b c Li. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. www. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. ^ "KMN. doi:10. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . 206 5. Domestication of plants in the Old "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "Kamūnu. ^ a b Iacobellis.aca. ^ a b Wang. 3." premiumwanadoo.030. 2000). ^ http://www. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . Retrieved 2008-03-13.1021/jf0487351. 2000. third edition (Oxford: University Press. 7.1016/ ^ Growingtaste. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). http://www. Essential Oils". "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum Lu et al.ars-grin. 9. 4. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. doi:10.crazychefs.arsgrin.html 6. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. et al. and Carum carvi L.1002/ffj.

Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

cardamom. cineol. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . West Africa and the Caribbean.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. medicine. and galangal. antipyretic and antibacterial properties.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. shogaols and gingerols. In laboratory animals. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. and citral) have also been identified. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber http://www. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. or spice. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. sedative.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells.

They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. Allam ( ) in Telugu. Ginger is also made into candy. in Gujarati. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. In South India. cookies. nuts. in Tamil Nadu. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. For storage. Alay in Marathi. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. salt. especially in the Tanjore belt. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. [edit] Regional use In India. Inji in Tamil. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. ginger is called Aada in . Additionally. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. and tender green chili peppers.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. and Aduwa in Nepali. and sugar. crackers and cake. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. to which honey is often added. which makes swallowing easier.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. Ginger has a sialagogue action. ginger ale.crazychefs. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this http://www. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. and ginger beer. particularly gingerols and shogaols. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Adrak. stimulating the production of saliva. or frozen for longer term storage. enchi in Malayalam. ghee. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. Greece. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. gingerbread. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom.crazychefs.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in http://www. In the Ivory Coast. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. In the Caribbean. In China. In Vietnam. In Burma. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). Indonesians also use ground ginger root. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. France. during their occupation of the islands. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. and making drinks such as sorrel. In Arabic. a type of ginger beer. ginger is ground and mixed with . It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. parkin and ginger biscuits. On the island of Corfu. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. ginger snaps. ginger is called gyin. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. In Western cuisine. is made. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. However. and a variety of nuts and seeds. In the traditional Korean kimchi. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. In Japan.

though studies been inconsistent. cough and cold. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. which several scientific studies support. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. morning sickness and chemotherapy. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating http://www.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. though it does interact with some medications.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. including warfarin. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made.crazychefs. and used frequently for dyspepsia and .

bloating. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. in food etc.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. and although it's generally recognized as safe. reducing "winds" in the blood. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. In Burma. and individuals who have had ulcers. which is considered a panacea.crazychefs.[14] In . A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. clotting. ginger can cause heartburn. and heart rhythms. belching and nausea. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. it is considered good for a sore throat. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. gas.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. In the United States.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. In India. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh http://www. In Indonesia. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. In China. people use ginger for making tea. particularly if taken in powdered form.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

crazychefs. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. Traditionally. it is immediately scalded. produces black ginger. replacing China.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420.7%). or washed and scraped. washing and scraping gives white ginger.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers.5%).net/ . The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. Production trends India. Scalding. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. with over 30% of the global share. Nepal(~11.000 158.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy http://www. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). but this generally reduces its value. now leads in global production of ginger. followed by Indonesia(~12.000 F 177. which has slipped to the second position (~20.

semiofficial or estimates). a carcinogenic compound. http://www. Asarum canadense. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan .pl?42254. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. and its root has similar aromatic properties. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". galangal. the flower buds are the part eaten. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family.ars-grin. http://www. F = FAO estimate.000 57.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine.000 34. Also referred to as galangal.crazychefs. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). but it is not related to true ginger. is also known as "wild ginger".387.contains ginger material References 1. Retrieved 2008-03-03.270 1.000 28.000 or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. is used in cooking and medicine. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai .gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. A = Aggregate(may include official. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. Galangal is also called Thai ginger.arsgrin.000 8.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan .

"Beverage of Champions". Zainab M. doi:10.foodchem. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". 425-426. 4. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger".edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch. MPH (1998). ^ . Sheng-Chu Kuo. MD. Retrieved 5 November. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF).edu/biomed/spice/ Retrieved British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. http://bja. Retrieved 2007-08-02.).com http://www.1016/j.html. 13.html. Tin-Yun Ho.013.crazychefs. Kathi Kemper. ^ MD O' Hara. Shih-Lu Wu. MD.2. Retrieved 2007-0808.cambridge. Li-Jiau Huang. Mary.umm. http://www. (2007). ^ Al-Achi.7. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". Jaw-Chyun.1001/archfami. Susan (2007-01-15).523. 8. PMID 10793599. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.H. ^ Al-Amin.1021/jf071460f. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. (01 Mar 2000).6.amaassn. 3.2006. David Kiefer. Retrieved 2006-09-06. (2006).com 12. http://timeblog. "A Current Look at Ginger Use".asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2.mayoclinic. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. ^ McGee. E. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). http://unitproj. doi:10. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Afshari.uspharmacist. 10. Retrieved 2007-08-06. New York: Scribner pp. ^ Jakes. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Antoine. Retrieved 2007-08-02. "Ginger". Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice".1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). doi:10. 15. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats".com/health/ginger/NS_patient-ginger. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. 9. Harold (2004). http://archfami. Kim Farrell. 11. ^ Chen. http://www. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). 7.cfm?displayID=15. & MSt. 5. Ali Taghizadeh et al. MD. M.ucla.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. & Pittler..library. PMID 9821826. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. et al.

Zingiberaceae. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in . For these reasons. and to impart color to mustard condiments. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. slightly bitter. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. for dyeing. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. Erode. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. In medieval http://www. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed].crazychefs.

It has numerous uses in Far Eastern http://www. gelatins. dairy products. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. and many more. but also in masak lemak. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). or Textile City. In non-South Asian recipes. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. custardlike yellow color. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. ice cream. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. biscuits. powdered form. . turmeric is also used fresh. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. much like ginger. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. and mustard. Turmeric City. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. such as in pickles. orange juice. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. Although usually used in its dried. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. yellow cakes. etc. not only in curry. cereals. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. sweets.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. rendang. cake icings.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. relishes. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. Over-coloring. popcorn color.Yellow City.[citation needed] Sangli. yogurt. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

Indians. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. yogurt. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. winter butter and margarine. dry mixes. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day.In combination with annatto (E160b).[4] cancer. Within one week of using turmeric. . turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent.crazychefs. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple http://www. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. a traditional dish in South Asia. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. and other digestive disorders. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). an uncurable and debilitating disease.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. burns and bruises. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). salad dressings. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. are spiced with turmeric. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. is also treated with turmeric powder. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. It is unknown why it works.

Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. Bangalore. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. or BDNF. which supports nerve growth. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. Alzheimer's. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. research activity into curcumin is exploding. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. improves the absorption of turmeric. and the U. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric.crazychefs. Bangladesh. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . In 1998 researchers at St. John‘s Medical College. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . Snake Bite Anti venin. with no adverse effects. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. and Pakistan. found in black pepper. and colorectal cancer. multiple myeloma.

jaggery. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. as a part of the marriage ritual. and it is used for power and purification rites. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. In southern India. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. During the south Indian festival .[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter http://www. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. However. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. part of the Bengali wedding.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. Also. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. This happens in economically lower situations. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. and coconut and cooked in steam. such as saris.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. Srinivas http://www.ars-grin. or Natural Yellow Retrieved .C. Joseph T. http://www.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1. Rajendran See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C. Joy D. ^ http://news. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4.ars-grin.2008.6E)-1.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.I.aolhealth. (2009). www. 2. Planta Med. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". ^ [|Ketteler. 6. a ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". 1998 AOL Health. The systematic chemical name is ( Shoba http://www. Judy] (June 2009). Retrieved June 2009. 64(4):353-6. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. keto and enol.foodchem. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". ^ Chan. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. 75300. et al.stm 5.6-heptadiene3. Majeed M. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. E. Notes 1.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. ^ http://www.

9 in) long. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. also known as . Kemiri. 10–20 centimetres (3. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed.crazychefs. which allows its use as a candle (see below). simple and ovate. Indian http://www. The nut is round. The leaves are pale green.) Willd. Euphorbiaceae. hence its name. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L.6–2. 4–6 centimetres (1. flowers.4 in) in diameter. with an acute apex. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9–7.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage.

ink for tattoos from charred nuts. The flavor. In Java. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. is quite different. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. lit one end. In Hawaiʻi. leaves and flowers. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when http://www. are applied around the navel for costiveness. giving them greater underwater visibility. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. swollen . ulcers. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. however. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. the nuts.crazychefs. they are mildly toxic when raw. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. a varnish with the oil. This led to their use as a measure of time. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. burned with charcoal. Outside of Southeast Asia. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. and gonorrhea. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. In Malaya. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as the candlenut is much more bitter. In Sumatra. On the island of Java in Indonesia. named kukui were burned to provide light. including: leis from the shells. pounded seeds. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. fevers.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice.

net/ . University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824822514. and the husband was eventually killed. This larva is eaten by some people. pp. Susan. Craig Thomas (2000). One of the legends told of a woman who. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. Bess and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in 50-51. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. Lilinoe Andrews. "Chapter 4: Canoes". Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment.html. Being a kind and just ^ "Kukui". 2. University of Hawaii Press. Plants in Hawaiian http://www. p. tukilamulamu. http://canoeplants.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). used as soap or shampoo. http://books. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. p. despite her best efforts to please her husband. ^ Krauss. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). ISBN 9781573061377. Honda. ^ Dunford.[citation needed] References 1. 122. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. the god of agriculture.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats).[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. protection and peace. was routinely http://books. Beatrice H. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. 5. 4. (1993). ^ Scott. she was given new life. Mikiala Ayau. Betty. still nowadays. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. http://books. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii.[5] In Tonga. named tuitui are pounded into a paste.). the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Finally. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. Retrieved In plantations. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. ripe nuts. Liana I. 26.

and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. .net/ . Kannada:meNasu. white pepper. The terms pink peppercorns. The fruit. . Konkani:miriya konu. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. . unrelated plants. cultivated for its fruit. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. . Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. dark red when fully mature. Peppercorns.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. containing a single seed. may be described as black pepper. Telugu:miriyam. Malayalam:kurumulaku. red pepper (as in bell or chile).crazychefs. and very often simply pepper. However. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. green pepper. known as a peppercorn when dried.

They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. the spice is called black peppercorn.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. often alongside table salt. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. in the early 20th century. and the naked seed is dried. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week.[4] In the U. including decortication. White pepper consists of the seed only.crazychefs. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. chemical or biological methods. and other similar forms. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. Once dried. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant.. French poivre. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical . the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. this was shortened to pep. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. Dutch peper.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. In the 16th century. with the skin of the pepper removed. wrinkled black layer.S.

[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Fresh. unpreserved green pepper berries. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. largely unknown in the West. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. is made from the unripe berries. the Peruvian pepper tree. made from the largest. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). like black. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". Pickled peppercorns. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. Schinus molle.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. with a bright aroma. are used in some Asian cuisines. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. particularly Thai cuisine. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.Black. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. Tellicherry is a higher-grade http://www. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. from Bangka Island. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper.crazychefs. which is mostly no longer an issue. green. Schinus terebinthifolius. also green.

[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres . and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. It is a spreading vine. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. Competing plants are cleared away.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground.crazychefs. well-drained and rich in organic matter. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. the berries lose pungency. moist. The leaves are alternate. http://www. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. The cuttings are usually cultivars. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. if allowed to ripen. entire. or trellises. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. and ultimately fall off and are lost. The flowers are small.[11] Black pepper is native to India. and before the fruit is mature. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. but when full grown and still hard.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes.

History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. its most important source was India. in what is now the state of Kerala. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 .[14] J. particularly the Malabar Coast. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade http://www. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. In fact. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. Chile peppers. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia.

was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. the ships travelled up the Red Sea.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. Sunda. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. growing in the north-western part of http://www. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. By the 16th century. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. Madagascar. plus long pepper's greater spiciness.Until well after the Middle Ages. nor how it reached the Nile from India. barged to Alexandria. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman . Sumatra. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Trade routes of the time were by land.crazychefs. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pepper was also being grown in Java. but these areas traded mainly with China. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. the Middle East. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. or used the pepper locally. Black pepper. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. Malaysia. Returning from India. Long pepper. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. this trade advantage. changed the course of world history. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas.

pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. four. Apicius' De re coquinaria. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century".. There is no evidence to support this claim. and of black. and the luxuries of the table. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. I season delicacies. I wonder. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper .With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". 12. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. pepper was a luxury item. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. is fifteen denarii per pound. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. seasoning in the Roman Empire. it is sometimes their sweetness.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. who travelled east to India. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. Once into the Mediterranean. whereas.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages.. the banquets of kings. After the fall of Rome. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. if expensive. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. seeing that in other substances which we . while that of white pepper is seven. affordable only to the http://www. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. and the prices reflected it. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. first the Persians and then the Arabs. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper.crazychefs. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. clad in a wrinkled cover.H. especially Venice and Genoa. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. Edward Gibbon wrote. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency.[22] In addition. Similarly.

com http://www. In 1498. the effect is small. Pepper. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. However. Today. as well as around Africa. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. "we seek Christians and spices. Pepper harvested for the European trader. his representative replied. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated.crazychefs. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not).compound that gives pepper its spiciness. and salt-cured meats were common fare. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. In the 17th century. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. has some antimicrobial properties.[23] Salt is a much more effective . A depiction of Calicut. especially in winter.

if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. insect http://www. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. diarrhea. Note the cook's pepper mill. but if this estimated 10. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. hoarseness. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China.[25] In the 3rd century CE. but both were used. joint pain. as well as she could for sneezing. heart disease. Like many eastern spices. however. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. either long or black.. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. liver problems. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. being stronger. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). Long pepper. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. indigestion. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ".crazychefs. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel".net/ . was often the preferred medication. gangrene. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. insomnia. hernia. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts.. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. lung disease.000 pounds (4. including long pepper."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. each load being equal to 223 lbs. oral abscesses. earache.[26] By the 12th century. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant).

a substance present in black pepper. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed.sunburn.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole.crazychefs.[31] As a medicine. caryophyllene. Some sources say that piperine. if any. limonene. tooth decay. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.[31] Also. and floral notes. which give citrusy. and linalool. sabinene.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. chapter five. vitamin B.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. woody. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. a mildly carcinogenic compound. and . The outer fruit layer. causing the sneezing. milligram-for-milligram. Refined piperine. left on black pepper. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. which is stripped of the fruit layer. irritates the nostrils. Few.

and China (6%). Malaysia (8%). The price of pepper can be volatile. by monetary value. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to http://www.000 short tons). the most widely traded spice in the world. Sri Lanka (6%). accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002.[33] Once ground. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. but has fallen to just over 271. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. are used for this. for example. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%).000 t (299. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. Brazil (13%). India. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation.crazychefs.[35] By weight. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. Thailand (4%).net/ .[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns.000 t (391. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. As of 2008. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. India (19%). Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders").000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

^ Translation from Turner. from Penzey's Spices. 4. Retrieved 17 October 2006. ISBN 075653836X. Retrieved 12 August 2006. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". 80 16. ^ Innes Miller. Egyptian Pharaoh. http://books. ^ The Spice Trade. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Retrieved 6 November 2005. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 12. ^ Katzer. using almost none of its production ISBN 0375407219. http://www. www. Text online. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. 18. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). http://www.amjbot.crazychefs. and Builder. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about Using fresh green peppercorns. ^ Ochef. M. 88. Random House. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. Innes Miller.000 t (99.efloras. Vietnam dominates the export market. Pepper. Retrieved crop management. 2006-1120. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Retrieved 13 November 2005. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). Retrieved 2009-01-29. 200803-27. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. ^ Peppercorns. PMID 11302858. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either.2307/2657072. Warrior. p.ars-grin. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. http://www. The Hindu Business line. 3. Black pepper is marica.pd f. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.M1. Flora of China. doi:10. http://www. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 17. Retrieved 6 November 2005. ^ Dalby 9. 19. . ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). 1969).org/cgi/content/full/88/4/706 14. ^ a b Jaramillo. 10. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. 11. 13.arsgrin. p 94. 83 21. http://www.htm. Gernot (2006). ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. disease and weather.000 short tons).gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. Ramses II. Compass Point Books.[36] Notes 1. 7. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". Alejandra (2001). 5. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. p. 6. 93. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". Spice. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. p. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus".

Duke (1993-08-16). Why does pepper make you sneeze?.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/ TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3& . http://books.2000. 160.. ^ Jaffee p. J. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. 428. purchase required.pdf. Dorman and S. ISBN 0600-60235-4. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Davidson. http://www. Karvy Comtrade Limited. ^ Turner p. Retrieved 2009-01-29. "Spices. 12. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). Larousse Gastronomique. Hamlyn. 36. 395. ISBN 9781580084178. Vol. http://siteresources. Buddhist Monastic Code II. 77. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. Deans (2000). ^ Turner p. 156. G. CRC Press. Prosper (2001). ^ a b McGee p. Full text at Blackwell website. 2. 32. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF).1365-2672. 30. 204. ^ Montagne.karvycomtrade. table 2. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops.pdf." 24. doi:10. Dangerous Tastes. ^ Jaffee p. ^ a b James 29. Jaffee. 31.worldbank. Cambridge University Press. 2005. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Dover. Alan (2002). also Turner pp.x. ^ Dalby p. 108–109.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". References Dalby. ^ Dalby p. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". p. 171. 2008-05-15. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum.1046/j. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. Berkeley: University of California Press. 35. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to pp. 34. 28. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 726. ISBN 0849336201. http://books. ^ Dalby pp.html. Retrieved November 12.00969. 26. ISBN 0521367085. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. s_20080515_01. Andrew (2002).accesstoinsight. 74–75. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. "Mill". 27. Steven (2004). ISBN 0-486-27587-6.crazychefs. ^ H. 23. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). ^ "Karvy's special Reports .com http://www. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0520236742. ^ U. D. 25. 33.

yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Turner. "Black Pepper and Relatives". pp. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red.McGee. Jack (2004). Scribner. ISBN 0375707050. Harold (2004). London: Vintage Books. Spice: The History of a Temptation. 427– http://www. OCLC 61213802. OCLC 56590708. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . ISBN 0-684-80001-2.crazychefs.

com http://www.17 g 0.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.Sugars .Dietary fiber 1. B2) 0. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. B1) 0. yellow.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0. Today. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. B3) 0.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0. Peppers are native to Mexico. green and orange. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". sweet.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.Pepper.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Central America and northern South America. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. including red.224 mg Folate (Vit.057 mg 4.crazychefs.64 g 0.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.40 g .

"green pepper"). they are called "capsicum". meaning Big pepper. Indiana. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. an unrelated plant. It is eaten with fried noodles. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. which are green and yellow. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations http://www. like pasta.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled').net/ . such as Australia. "Miris" is Chilli. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. In British English. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the United States and Canada. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. India. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper"." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). and "Maalu" means Vegetable. or "piment. the fruit of Piper nigrum. meaning Bulgarian pepper. the term "paprika". the word ピーマン ("pîman. regardless of their color. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. meaning pepper-fruit. Grilled. In parts of Ohio. instead of using as a spice.crazychefs.. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. When cut off. in Dutch. and Pennsylvania. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). "gele paprika". Malaysia and New Zealand. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. which has its roots in the word for pepper. "red pepper". "groene paprika". the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. g. In Norway. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. With the similar meaning. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. At that time peppercorns. respectively). green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable.g. In France it is called "poivron". Sweden. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. Across Europe. " In Japan. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. were a highly prized condiment.

red. black and brown. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling.crazychefs. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". purple. It is eaten as a raw snack. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. orange and. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. blue. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. more http://www. Varieties The color can be green. maroon. in salads. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. white. yellow or orange peppers. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. violet. pink. rainbow. in various soups and . aqua. yellow.

balsamea Willd. The plant. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). ^ http://www. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2].net/ . indigenous to Europe.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . [1]) is a hybrid[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Peppermint (Mentha × http://www.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1.crazychefs. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. also known as M.

net/ . fleshy.crazychefs.5–4 cm (0. Flowering is from mid to late summer. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0.20 in) diameter. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. including stream sides and drainage ditches. square in cross section.5 in) long and 1. noted since 1843[8]. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.24– 0.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. blunt spikes.31 in) long.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. 84.6 in) cm broad. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. and 120 recorded. with a few exceptions. Being a hybrid. with smooth stems.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. If placed. it is usually sterile. it can grow anywhere. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem.59–1. 72. dark green with reddish veins. and bare fibrous roots. he treated it as a species. with 2n counts of 66. The chromosome number is variable. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.6–3. spreading by its rhizomes. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. forming thick.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. The flowers are http://www. 6–8 mm (0.

1. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the . http://www. thus promoting belching. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. particularly menthyl acetate. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is often used as a flavouring in tea.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin.[10] Similarly.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. and toothpaste. ice cream.crazychefs. chewing gum. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3.

in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. Leaves aromatic. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. Leaves wrinkled. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. If you choose to grow peppermint. [18]. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. it is advisable to plant it in a . with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. and it is considered invasive in Australia. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. Stems reddish. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. hairless. [21]. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. New Zealand. In addition to that. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. Foliage lime-scented. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. which they then call "after-dinner mints. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. the Galápagos Islands. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators.[13] and in the United States." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19].taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient.[12] Outside of its native range. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. Eau De Cologne Mint). It needs a good water supply. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. A mild. [16].com http://www. as a natural insecticide. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant.crazychefs. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

.org/en/node/199. (1753). ^ World Health Organization.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil .net/ .. page 640. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b Akdogan. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. ed. G.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . et al.crazychefs. M.dld. ^ Harley. ed. ^ a b Huxley. Thomson Healthcare. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". In: Stace. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. A. C.glu. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2".ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. 5. 6.. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". C. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. 2. A. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. C.who. 4th Edition. Mehmet (2004).com http://www. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. (1992). Retrieved 2009-02-07. 11. http://www. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. Mentha L. Flowers open from bottom up. doi:10.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 .02.2007. M. a popular confection. ^ http://whqlibdoc.006. R.pdf. ^ Cappello. (1975). ^ a b Blamey. 9. 7.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. (1989).1016/j. Retrieved 3 June 2009. (2007). Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. & Grey-Wilson. ISBN 978-1563636783 10.

org/books/629/ Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". Retrieved 8 June 2009. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 .com http://www. http://het. ^ a b c Jullien. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". doi:10. Plant Cell.S.sagepub. et ^ International Organization for Standardization.crazychefs. http://www.257. populations.Specification".. doi:10.sagepub.sagepub. 25.iso. Frédéric et al. 24. ^ Akdogan.16. 26. http://tih. on kidney tissue in rats"..actahort.htm?csnumber=4844. (2004). V. F. http://www.iso. Retrieved 7 June Bienvenu (1998). Retrieved 3 June. Ambika et al. Zheljazkov. (2007).10): 119 Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". ^ Sharma.htm?csnumber=32041.iso.wiley. Mehmet (2003).1023/A:1006185103897. 22. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 . 20.1151.28. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". ^ ^ Adamovic. paraquat.htm. http://www.159. 19. D. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 . Retrieved 3 June. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 .122. ^ International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 3 June. 18. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Akdogan. Retrieved 6 June . Bienvenu (1999). S. J. Derek R. F. ^ International Organization for Standardization.1071/AP99036. doi:10.2740311104. Mehmet et http://www3. Australia". and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". Retrieved 3 June.D. 23. 27.interscience. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". Retrieved 7 June 2009.)". and Mentha spicata L. Valerie Howland (2006). http://www.)". "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.E.htm. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. http://het.actahort.. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) 17. ^ Farley. 21. Retrieved 6 June 2009.

The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk.crazychefs. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .) J. to the Alliaceae http://www. although different in their uses as food. porrum (L.). Allium ampeloprasum var.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. Two related vegetables. is a vegetable which belongs. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. ampeloprasum var. along with the onion and garlic. also sometimes known as Allium porrum. porrum (L. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. the elephant garlic and kurrat.Gay The leek.

meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways.crazychefs. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature http://www. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. leeks are hardy. Once established in the garden.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. and overwintering leeks. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. and they have few pest or disease problems. intended for harvest in the season when planted. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. to be planted out as weather permits. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna . the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest.

In its raw state. Leek has a mild onion-like taste.Cuisine Leeks for sale. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. due to the layered structure of the leek. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). but. carrots and potatoes and different meats. along with leek soup. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. which turns it soft and mild in taste. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. The tender core may be eaten.crazychefs. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. Lamb is the most popular. Fried. The slices have a tendency to fall . leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. although less bitter than scallion. as the leek ages. Raw. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. which can be used in salads. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. The onion-like layers form around a core. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and http://www. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. the vegetable is crunchy and firm.

com http://www.polyunsaturated 0.saturated 0.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates . B1) 0.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. B3) 0.C.crazychefs. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine ( . B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.233 mg Folate (Vit. Cultural significance Raw Leeks. In her book.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.Sugars 3. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.3 g 1.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.E.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.9 g . [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. 83 μg 14. onwards.monounsaturated 0.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit. as well as other recipes with leeks. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.004 g . led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.C.04 g .E.15 g 0.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero. as well as wall carvings and drawings. who consumed it most often in soup.8 g Fat .Dietary fiber 1. B2) 0.

In the play.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. David‘s Day. you know. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. representing Wales. According to one legend. good countryman. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed . but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time.crazychefs.Vitamin E 0. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards.12 mg recommendations for http://www. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. for example. Shakespeare. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton.

third edition (Oxford: University Press.Notes 1. ^ Jane Grigson.crazychefs. ^ Guiliano.. http://www. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. 3. Knopf.p. (Penguin Books. Domestication of plants in the Old World. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. . 2000). 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. French Women Don't Get Fat.

7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.2 g 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.Sugars 2 g 3g .6 g Fat Protein Water 0.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. with fewer than 100 individuals left. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753. Celery. dulce) or celeriac (var.crazychefs. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .net/ .Dietary fibre 1.

Celery is a staple in many soups. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). onions. often used as a base for sauces and soups. birds. such as chicken noodle soup. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. and in Old Bay Seasoning.crazychefs. on the Chicago-style hot dog. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. onions.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. Celery. 30 AD. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. and small rodents. horses. Celery. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. as celery salt.In temperate countries. Actually very small fruit. squirrels. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery http://www. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. . Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. celery is also grown for its seeds. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice.

and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest.crazychefs. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted.[8] In the European Union. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. at Kastanas. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). they note "since A. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. Celery contains androstenone. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central http://www.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. In Homer's Iliad. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. have to be clearly marked as such. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. father of the . the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. even in trace amounts. However. making avoiding such foods difficult.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. Lemnos and Thebes.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. M. for people with celery allergy. foods that contain or may contain celery.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. however.

borrowed from Greek. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. at our Great Mens tables.[14] With cultivation and blanching. Under optimal conditions. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. and the most crisp and tender. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves.5–2 mm long and wide. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. but the leaves may be used in salads. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. earthy taste.. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. straightness and thickness of petiole. In the past. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. fields are harvested only once. In North . seleri. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. and its seeds are those sold as a spice.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. and a distinctive smell. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. white and http://www. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. apium Italicum. splits. as the Grace of the whole Board". the whole plant having a coarse. The plants are raised from seed. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. and Praetors feasts. many of which differ little from the wild species. 2–3 mm diameter. due to extremely uniform crop growth. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). insect damage and rot). produced in dense compound umbels. cracks. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. sweetish. They are ranged under two classes. from the Latin selinon. The flowers are creamy-white.. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. shape. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. The wild form of celery is known as smallage.crazychefs.

Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F).ucdavis. 9. Thayer translation [1] Celery and Negative Calories 6. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. ^ Teng CM. ^ Celestin J.. Zohary and M. Radauer . "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". ^ a b Fragiska. Retrieved 2009-05-03. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". West J.202. 14. T.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F).[16] References 1. ^ Celsus. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. Natural History XIX. 3. ^ snopes. ^ "Smallage". 16.. Retrieved 2008-03-04. gentle handling. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. M. 8. 227. ^ Pliny.46. ^ Calcium sources 7. http://www. ^ D. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. (2002-06-10). 10. ^ OED. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to Domestication of Plants in the Old World. Lee 2.17:1697-1699. (3rd ed. ^ R. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. P. Kraft D. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. 15. 1920). 12. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. p. Hopf. and proper sanitation. Post-harvest technology research and information center. 11. Suslow. ^ Cantwell. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. Heiner DC.nsf/pages/smallage. (Laurentii Salvii). ^ William Robinson and W. 2003. "Celery". C (1753). Species Plantarum: Tomus I. Ko SN. ^ Bublin M.. Wilson IBH. et al. Western Journal of Medicine 158. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. de Medicina. Scheiner O.practicallyedible. 13. Thomson. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis".crazychefs.6 (June 1993): 610-611. 2000) p. http://postharvest. M. Holmiae. (2005). s.v.

showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.91 g .5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .21 g . brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3. see Sugar (disambiguation).Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97. Sugar.Sugars 99. Magnification of grains of sugar.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% http://www. (Discuss) For other uses. B2) 0.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. see sucrose.98 g 0g 0g 0.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 96. For the common table . granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.crazychefs.

net/ . honey.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. B2) 0. B3) 0.Water 1. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption. sugar maple (in maple syrup).008 mg 1% Riboflavin ( http://www.026 mg Folate (Vit.77 g Thiamine (Vit. sorghum. and in many other sources.crazychefs. mainly sucrose. obesity and tooth decay. B1) 0. It forms the main ingredient in candy. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. lactose.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. and fructose.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. but also appears in fruit.

Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". "fructose". Spanish and/or Italian. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. the etymology reflects the spread of the . and texture) of beverages and food. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. Culinary/nutritional In culinary http://www. molasses or treacle. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar.) The Greek word for "sugar".[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. Etymology In the case of sugar. zahari.) will likely denote a sugar. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide.Popular In non-scientific use. Generically known as "syrups". Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). Scientific Scientifically. In this informal sense. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. means "pebble". Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. etc. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars.[4] It came to English by way of French. such as glucose. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). (Compare the OED. the Italian word zucchero. In a list of ingredients. "dextrose". they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". including palm sugar and fructose. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. the Spanish word azúcar.crazychefs. preservation. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs.

Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). This includes all the sugars referred to above. syrups and fruit juices. 2. as its name suggests. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). cook or consumer. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form.containing 1. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. where there are carbon-oxygen double . Natural sugars come in fruit. A notable exception. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. deoxyribose. making the sugars reactive. important molecules in the body. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. disaccharides. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. plus sugars naturally present in honey. raw sugar. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7.Culinary sugars Grainier. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. http://www. Sugars include monosaccharides. has a "missing" oxygen atom. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption.

including NADH and ATP. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at http://www. or DNA. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. In these closed-chain forms. After digestion and absorption. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. fructose. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). sweeter than the original sucrose. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. Note for example glycoproteins. Monosaccharides include fructose.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. producing invert sugar. which has the formula C6H12O6. which is made of glucose.crazychefs. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. and galactose. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). proteins connected to one or more sugars. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. which form part of nucleic acids. galactose and mannose. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. This resulting syrup. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.made from one glucose and one fructose).made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). lactose (milk sugar . with less than 0.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch.water (H2O) per bond. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. glucose. If combined with fine ash. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. sugar will burn with a blue flame. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in .

88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Joseph and Mike Carlson. A C Hannah.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. Cambridge: Woodhead.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. Temple University Press. 1996. ISBN 1566398320.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. 5." Powder and Bulk References g/ml Notes 1. ^ "Engineering Resources .Bulk Density Chart.illovosugar.webmd. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. 4.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. ISBN 063205476X. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. ^ Wuebben. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. Glyn (2004). OCLC 51837990 84251137.htm 3. ^ scientificpsychic.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6." http://men. OCLC 44493265. James.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6.crazychefs. Blackwell . Sugar Blues. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. History of Science and Technology in 2. The International Sugar http://www. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. Michael (January 2001). Sugarcane. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

however. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. for light brown sugar. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. without mixing them separately. It is. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. especially in the Netherlands. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar.35 mm. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed.g. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Brown sugar contains from 3. Although in some http://www. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience.25% of the total volume).crazychefs. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. Products for industrial use (e.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. sugar beet molasses is . Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft.

net/ . apart from pure carbohydrate. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The effort was so successful that by 1900. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. in his studies (cited in " http://www. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. White and Deadly" . the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. much like adding molasses would do. Nutritionally. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. which did not have full control over brown sugar production.[2] John Yudkin. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. History In the late 1800s.crazychefs.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes).When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. In other applications. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases.[1] However. as opposed to white sugar. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar.

com/PressRelease. Demerara is another unrefined. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. or Demerara sugar. 32-33 5. Retrieved 2008-09-20. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made.wildernessfamilynaturals.". light ^ Levenstein. Retrieved 2008-09-20. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. http://www. resulting in the characteristic large. Muscovado. but most is now produced in Mauritius.csrwire. binado_Sugar. crystals. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. 6. 2003. References 1.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. 3.php?id=3026. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice.crazychefs. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.htm#sugarmade. where sugar cane was grown. which is then crystallized. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an . light brown.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. an island off Africa. http://www. http://www.htm#bm07. centrifuged.1. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". 2. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. cane sugar.fao. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. Retrieved 2008-09-20. ^ New Scientist. largecrystalled. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left) it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. giving it a higher mineral content. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". http://www.3 fao.

overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. refined salt (table salt). Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. pale pink or light gray in color. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. including humans. It is a crystalline http://www. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. the two major components of salt. white. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. Chloride and sodium ions. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl).crazychefs. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including high blood . This salt shaker also contains grains of rice.[citation needed] Conversely. which some use to prevent caking. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. and iodized salt. but toxic to most land plants.

salt provided the best-known food preservative. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. in the millennia before then.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. as were salted birds and salt fish.000 tons of salt.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the dye Tyrian purple. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this http://www. glass. however. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. especially for meat.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. In 1960. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). the caravans still transported some 15.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in .[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC.crazychefs.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.

Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. the Roman exonym for the Celts.Salzburg. God sent down four blessings from the sky . Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city"." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. salz. who had heretofore mined for salt.also gave us Gaul. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. taking their names from hal(l)-. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.) In the Sermon on the Mount. though incorrectly. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. Greek.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. and Egyptian. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. the Hallstatt . Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your a root for salt found in Celtic. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. began open pan salt making.[citation needed] The root hal(l). This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible.crazychefs.[1] It is widely. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. water. (Judges 9:45. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. In many Pagan religions esp. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". Halych in Ukraine. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". Hallstatt. During the first millennium http://www.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. which was illegal under British rule.

Halite.In the native Japanese religion Shinto.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. In Aztec http://www.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea . This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. such as in Sumo Wrestling. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water.

144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Today. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. Fleur de sel. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. food uses account for 17.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. and thus is rarely eaten. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. and the making of soaps and detergents. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight.Different natural salts have different mineralities. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals.[12] However.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. which is most widely used presently. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects.crazychefs. natural sea salt harvested by http://www. One example are bath salts.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. Refined salt.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. which are kiln-dried.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. In recrystallization. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. giving each one a unique flavor. After the raw salt is obtained. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. Injected water dissolves the salt. is mainly sodium chloride. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts).net/ .5% of salt production. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. Purification usually involves recrystallization.

for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National . magnesium oxide.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. but was determined to be unnecessary.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. and a bulk density (dry.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. silicon http://www. Table salt has a particle density of 2.[29] However. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] .[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. calcium silicate. Some people also add a desiccant. calcium or magnesium carbonates. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate.crazychefs. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. Table salt Table salt is refined salt.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. and calcium aluminosilicate. Single-serving salt packets. however.154 g/cm3. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. fatty acid salts (acid salts). this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. condiments such as soy sauce. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sodium aluminosilicate.165 g/cm3.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom.

which gives the table salt a yellow color.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). cretinism in children. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. especially important for pregnant women.[32] Another additive. In Canada. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily . Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt.[31] Today. which can cause goitre. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans.[33] Drinking too much water. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. fluorinated table salt is available. with insufficient salt intake. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. potassium. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. dizziness. which can cause severe. even fatal. neurological problems. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or even an electrolyte disturbance. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. and myxedema in adults. or sodium iodate. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. specifically endemic goiter. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the http://www. sodium iodide. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm.crazychefs.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. magnesium. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. In the United States. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. iodized salt is more common in the United States. The reason for this is unclear. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. In France. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101.

It can exacerbate renal disease. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994.[38] heartburn. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease." ([41].[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. independently of blood pressure effects.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma." ([41] p3)." ([44]. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. combined with an inadequate intake of .[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal." ([41]. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. p18) However. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.crazychefs. salt consumption is higher. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. forced salt intake. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. such as in treatment of dysautonomia. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention)." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. can cause hypernatremia.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. in Japan. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. since salt was quite valuable).[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy.

148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and http://www. but achievable population goals. such as the Yanomami in South America. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. Some isolated cultures."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.[50].[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. .6 g or 70 mmol sodium). SACN states. have been found to consume little salt. A salt mill for sea salt. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. for a typical adult. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors.

"low".[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of . low in fat. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free".The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). Australia.[57] In March 2007.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. When other health claims are made about a food (e. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2.300 mg of sodium (= 2. then that is a medium level of salt.8 g salt) per day. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. Amber (Medium). or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. without recourse to salt substitutes.).g. which will increase potassium intake. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. or Green (Low).crazychefs. calories.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. One manufacturer.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1.'[55] Campaigns In 2004. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. LoSalt.[51] In the United States.5g salt per 100g (or 0." In the UK. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. Excess potassium intake can cause http://www. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. Those who have kidney failure. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). etc.1g sodium). Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it".6g sodium).[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia.3 g sodium = 5. Low is 0.

net/ . 4th edition". 1913. 5. and Hall in Austria. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating India (14.5). (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "Salt".[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. Eplerenone and Inspra. New York: Robert Appleton Company.9). 3. http://www. Retrieved 2008-12-14. Costs can reach staggering amounts. 8.answers. 2. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. Catholic Encyclopedia.7). Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). such as brine wells and salt lakes. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. 4. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). Answers.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride.3 million tonnes). Triamterene. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. 7.3). Dytac. In 2002. called halite. and by mining rock their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. China ( 6. Notes 1. http://en. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. and Canada (12. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. the top five producers being the United States (40. Germany ( Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion.wikisource. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes.

Mason (2006-12-19). Retrieved 2009-0708. ^ David ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1.htm 19. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20.afssa. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.dep.saltsense. Retrieved 2008-07-29. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. salt history. ^ http://www.wiley. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". ^ Nauticus . Fall/Winter 2006 10. Epikouria Magazine. p.907 37. 898 . Ask a Scientist. 2008 29.interscience. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. salt http://www. no. 12. salt history. ^ Gary Taubes. ^ a b http://news.9% sodium chloride 25. Kuemmel (1994).com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effe ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result& . ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. salt manufacture.roskill. Salt Institute. Science. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21.crazychefs. Vol.stm 38. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. 10. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page salt http://books. ^ Iodized Salt 16. salt manufacture. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. ^ Table 27. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. 11. Retrieved 200907-08. J. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. "The (Political) Science of Salt". ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ References on food salt & health issues. 5379. sodium. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39.anl. Salt Institute. ISBN 9780309056663. ^ What is Salt?.pdf 33. 281. ^ HE-620 24. Transportation Research Board. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. ^ B.htm sodium by weight which equals sodium. 14. pp. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36.Weather Curriculum serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). ^ Iodized Salt 31.9. http://www3. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. Victoria) Salt 34. 14 August 1998. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans".fr/Ftp/Afssa/

Obarzanek E et al. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. ^ Salt TV ads (accessed13 January 2007) 49.crazychefs. ISBN 0393320197. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. Salt: A World History. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43.W. The Mummies of Ürümchi. Erwin Koops. Mark (2002). Friedrich Schulz. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. NY: G. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.P. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 61. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. Sodium 52.005 48. Mark. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos.pub2 References Legal Medicine 2005.hyp.40. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. http://www. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. Published online 2005. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. ^ U. 2006. Sodium chloride. S. 28 January 2008.1002/0471238961. Norton & Co. ^ Cook NR. New York: Walker & Co. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45.06. 47-50. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. New York. Feldman. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. 7.2004. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. doi:10. ISBN http://www. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". OCLC 48573453. Schindler. http://www.334(7599):885.healthandwellbeing. doi:10. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). ^ Understanding labels 55.1915040902051820. ^ Susan R.. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57.. 2007.1016/j. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56.a01. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. Putnam's Sons. ^ Salt Matters 60. and S. New York: W. 62. Further reading Kurlansky. John Wiley & Sons. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient . BMJ. OCLC 48426519. Cutler JA. The Story of Salt.legalmed.

Laszlo. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section by Dr Trevor Beard. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . . Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch.crazychefs. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Department of http://www. New York: Columbia University Press. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . Arts and traditions of the table. Salt: Grain of Life. The Stationery Office. Pierre.

found commonly in Thailand. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . phrik khi nu(lit. Indonesia. It can also be found in India. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili http://www. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. such as Cambodia. the Philippines and Singapore. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. phrik thai.crazychefs.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. as well as in neighbouring countries. mainly Kerala. Vietnam. .

the chili padi is relatively strong at 50.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. and can be found with colors maturing from green to http://www. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones.crazychefs. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 to 100." which can best be described by the English equivalent. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. "Big things come in small packages. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye .

Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). orange. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. and among the group of capsicum annuum. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. but slightly less pungent variety. Thai).com . phrik khii nuu ( . It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. Thai hot.As well as the Malay word. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C.wikipedia. and go from green to yellow. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). and then red. has peppers that point upward on the plant. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. sometimes known as Thai" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ladâ. The more decorative.crazychefs. creating a rainbow effect.

It has a tough. It is a kind of celery. or used in casseroles. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. Unlike other root . it can also be used on its own.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. furrowed. which store a large amount of starch. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and http://www. usually mashed. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. gratins and baked dishes.crazychefs. about the size of a large potato. Celeriac has a celery flavour.

especially in Europe. 'Ibis'. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk.Dietary fiber 1. Celeriac.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.Sugars 1.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Celeriac soup. http://www.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail.crazychefs.3 g 1. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. and 'Kojak'. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000.6 g . 'Diamant'.2 g . Among them are 'Prinz'. There are a number of cultivars available.

or brinjal (Solanum melongena). aubergine.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. It bears a fruit of the same name. The flowers are white to purple. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. and see text The eggplant. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As a nightshade. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) http://www. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to . Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. The stem is often spiny. Pakistan and Sri Lanka.crazychefs. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking.

along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. flower The plant is native to India.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. which is used in British English. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). and contains numerous small. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. The fruit is fleshy. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. In the Caribbean Trinidad. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely . it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". New Zealand. 1500 CE. The name eggplant. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. History Solanum melongena. In Indian and South African English.crazychefs.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. used in the United States. The name aubergine. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. which are edible. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. from Arabic al-badinjan. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. derive from Persian and Sanskrit.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. soft seeds. The fruit is botanically classified as a http://www. Australia." Aubergine and brinjal. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but much larger in cultivated forms. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco.

and Tycoon. Ichiban. http://www. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. whiteskinned. or white. Pingtung Long. and Black Beauty. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. shape and color. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. Burpee Hybrid.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. especially purple. Some cultivars have a color gradient. Black Magic. green. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America.crazychefs. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. slightly pendulous cucumber. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) . Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Traditional. in white skin Dourga. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. There are even orange varieties. A much wider range of shapes. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. Classic. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin.

The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. or Eggplant Parmesan. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or . It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. so that peeling is not required. The thin skin is also edible. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. In Iranian cuisine. tahini. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. and deep-fried. tahini. peanuts. In some parts of India. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. battered. and masala and then cooked in oil. it is called Begun ( ). as in the French ratatouille. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. It is often stewed. In the Caucasus. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. or other fillings and then baked. braised (紅燒茄子). In one dish. along with the fish Hilsa. allowing for very rich dishes. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). curries. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. as in the related tomato. and achaar. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. It can be sliced. tomatoes. It. rice. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. or tamarind. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. as they are far less bitter.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. the Arabian moussaka. chutney. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. The fruit flesh is smooth. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed].com http://www. for example. and garlic. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. for example in sambhar.crazychefs. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. As a native plant. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. complex flavor. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. In Bangladesh.

More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. depending on cultivar.) between rows. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in.crazychefs. Four years should separate successive crops of . though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close http://www.) between plants. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. For this reason. and potato. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. pepper (capsicum). Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. (Adults can be removed by hand. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. Egypt. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. and spider mites. showing the inside. containing both female and male structures. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. This is called Beguni ( ). Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. are also troublesome to eggplants. flea beetle. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). Flowers are complete.) to 60 cm (24 in. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. aphids. the most serious of which is Verticillium. such as tomato. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden.

[5] In the United http://www.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates . * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.(2.039 mg 5. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.7 g 0.crazychefs.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B1) 0. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Sugars 2.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.19 g 1. New Jersey is the largest producing state.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.Dietary fiber 3.043. P = official figure. semi-official or estimates).35 g . Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties . F = FAO estimate. B2) 0.

084 mg Folate (Vit. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. B3) 0. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.crazychefs.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. However. while 1. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium.Niacin (Vit. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed].net/ . Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking http://www.16 mg Manganese 0.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.01 mg/100g).4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0.[8] On average.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines. Brazil.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.

esculentum. But this is not correct. and (invalidly) by Sweet. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry ( http://www.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Varieties Solanum melongena var. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. S. racemiflorum. insanum. such as agreste. racemosum. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. There is an actual S. ruber. . Scopoli's S. oblongo-cylindricum. sinuatorepandum. capsicoides). an unrelated plant described by Ortega. Similarly. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. which used to include Dunal's S. mainly by Dikii.F. lasiocarpum. inerme and subinerme at that time. stenoleucum. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. rumphii. edule. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant.crazychefs. trongum. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). variegatum. multifidum. On the other hand. aethiopicum. that of Blanco to S. inerme. ovigera. aethiopicum. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. giganteum. leucoum. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. luteum. violaceum. Dunal.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. subrepandum. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. album.-Lag. divaricatum. ovigerum and S. tongdongense. globosi. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. Solanum longum Roxb.C. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. violaceum and viride. Names for various eggplant types. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. Solanum oviferum Salisb. H. esculentum.

(2001).net/ . Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). CRC Press. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Footnotes 1. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. 2. Technology. ISBN 1574445510. D. common. and Engineering by Yiu H. Hui (2006).com http://www.crazychefs. Handbook of Food Science.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. S. ^ Doijode. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology".

Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. Miyachi Y.fao.* YP Venkatesh. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. ^ Health24. ^ B.pdf. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. Toorenenbergen AW.crazychefs. 2008 10. ^ Kabashima K. ^ Westerfield.uga. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite.caes. 18(1): 59-62 13. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf).Aubergine . Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. P. Andréa Thomaz. 2004. Dieges PH. Ebury Press. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables.3. Vol. The New England Journal of Medicine. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. ^ "FAOSTAT". ^ SN Pramod.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. ^ Solanum melongena var. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. Bruno Caramelli. 273-6. FAO. 202 http://www. 2008-11-11. Domino. 6. ^ Edward F. 1993 Number 6 9. N. Harish Babu * .edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/C934. Mahesh † and Y. Retrieved 2007-04-24. http://pubs. Retrieved 2009-07-01. Erich Hornbach. volume 82 (nº 3).133(42):2081-3 12. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. http://faostat. Arq Bras Cardiol. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels".com . ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). 7. pp. Robert (2008-11-14).) reveals female predominance. Volume 329:437 August 5. 5. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. ^ Gerth van Wijk R.50(2):101-102 11. P. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. Tsenge Demana.

com http://www.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. with a serrated margin. One species. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. Solanum lycopersicum. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together.8 in) across.4–0. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. and have a weak. syn. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. woody stem that often vines over other plants. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. see section Fruit or vegetable below). Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. It is a perennial. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The tomato is native to South America. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. odd pinnate. yellow.crazychefs. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized .

who named it pomo d‘oro.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. http://www.crazychefs. such as Florence. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. in certain areas of Italy. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. an Italian physician and botanist. according to Smith. cerasiforme. a mutation from a . smaller vegetable . The exact date of domestication is not known. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. was the first European to take back the tomato. now Mexico City in 1521. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. corn and salt.[6] Gerard's Herbal. means "wolf-peach". lycopersicum. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. However. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. a barber-surgeon.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. golden apple. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. the other by currant tomatoes. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. likely to be the original salsa recipe. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced.[4] The large. and cultivation began in the 1540s. ancestor of L.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. meaning plump thing with a navel. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. They also took it to the Philippines. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. earlier in 1493. However. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. lumpy tomato. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. The specific name. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed].

North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. who ate tomatoes in Paris. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers.crazychefs. The University of California. By the mid-18th century. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. Over the past 15 years. but the fruit is safe). and in general. In Victorian times. California.largely plagiarized from continental sources. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. and as a garnish. The C. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. most famously in Worthing. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. Thomas Jefferson. 1799 – c.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses.[6] But by the mid-1700s. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. Rick. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. Gerard's views were influential. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. sent some seeds back to America. The Spanish tomato .[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. and before the end of that century. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. Paella.[6] Nonetheless. broths. ―within the last forty years. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. Currently. particularly Florida and California. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to http://www. British consul in Aleppo c. Charles M. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean.M.

For processing tomatoes. purple.6–2. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. about 5mm in diameter.4 in) diameter range.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. production and 35% of world production. the largest producer.0 in) diameter. or white fruit are also available. orange. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pink. China. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. 18 September 2009. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. black. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions.crazychefs. they are known as plum tomatoes. http://www. California accounts for 90% of U. and have a lower water content.4–0. but a number of cultivars with . accounted for about one quarter of the global output. through cherry tomatoes.S. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. followed by United States and Turkey. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. Most cultivars produce red fruit.8 in) size as the wild tomato. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.[12] According to FAOSTAT.0–2. It may be deleted after Friday.

there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). and are shaped like large strawberries.[18] and productivity.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. plum tomatoes. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. based mostly on shape and http://www. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications .[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. but unlike commercial hybrids. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. along with zucchini. As in most sectors of agriculture. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually .crazychefs. as well as heirloom tomatoes. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

black. they are often good choices for container http://www.especially heirlooms .produce fruit in colors other than red. Green Zebra (top right). 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including Brandywine (biggest red).crazychefs. Black Krim (lower left corner). orange.cherry tomatoes are small and round. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. which usually discourages fruit set. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. or home growers interested in canning. multiple colors (Hillbilly. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. or bush. but must be bought as seed.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. Burracker's Favorite. white. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. some tomato cultivars . Lucky Cross).net/ . home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. disease and pest resistance. et cetera. but are smaller than plum tomato. often via mail-order. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. Determinate. ivory. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). including yellow. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. although some determinate heirlooms exist. low acidity. pink. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. Red Boar). As an intermediate form.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. A variety of specific cultivars. brown. etc. and purple. and lack of mealiness. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads.

As a floral device to reduce selfing. original state.tobacco mosaic virus. their traditional pollinators. aphids. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. In the wild. slugs. carried by the beet leafhopper. The stamens were.verticillium wilt. FF . Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. and A .and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping.[24] and Colorado potato http://www. cutworms. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. T . red spider mite.fusarium wilt strain I & II. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. but manure or compost work well. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. As the name implies. tomato fruitworms. The most common letters are: V . cabbage loopers. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. N nematodes. and remain. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. F . entirely within the closed corolla. which interrupts the lifecycle.alternaria.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. too. flea . tomatoes required cross-pollination.fusarium wilt strain I. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. whiteflies. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top.crazychefs. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them.

The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. This is not the same as self-pollination. They may be recognized by their color. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. as with most species. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. . which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. In more temperate climates. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. depending on variety. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. by cultured bumblebees. or more often today.crazychefs. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually).com http://www. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. Unripe tomatoes are firm. In an outside setting.

crazychefs. In some studies lycopene. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. or paste. as tomato sauce.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water http://www. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. Though it is botanically a berry.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable . one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich).Recently. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term.6 g 4g . especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The tomato is acidic. anthocyanin. a subset of fruit. They contain lycopene. in pieces. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium).5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below).[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. and other antioxidants. carotene.Sugars 2. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). especially in cooked tomatoes.

But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin.crazychefs. whether because of pruning or flowering. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. Spain. Embracing it for this protest connotation. there are variations.[28] In October 1965. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. Tomato plants are dicots. although erect bush varieties have been bred. They are bred to continue ripening.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. it will not continue to ripen. Of regular leaves. fully functional. Known for its tomato growth and production.make salsa.5 °F). Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. generally three feet tall or shorter. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. such as rugose leaves. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. annually celebrates La . and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. and grow as a series of branching stems. or pickled. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). lateral buds take over and grow into other. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. When that tip eventually stops growing. initially decumbent. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. The fruit is also preserved by drying. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. meaning covered with fine short hairs.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). vines. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass http://www. Determinate types are annual in all climates. These hairs facilitate the vining process.5 °C (54. often by sun.

appearing on the apical meristem.g. other insects. and be dried/fermented before . the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. "wolf-peach"). As a true fruit. Other species in that family are potatoes. very small cavities. peach. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum).[32] while others are pollinated by flies. Despite this. However. wolf. among cultivated species. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). However.deeply grooved. angora leaves. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. while paste tomatoes have very few. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. http://www. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus.. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. Similarly.[31] Their flowers. These vary. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). according to type. moths. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. called locular cavities. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. (derivation..) H. variegated. which frequently used it and still do). would be more correct.Karst. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. making the Linnaean name correct. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. butterflies.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. i. have the anthers fused along the edges. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or other external forces that present in the Americas. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit.crazychefs. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. tobacco. 'lyco'. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs.e. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. Therefore. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. plus 'persicum'. This is because they are native to the Americas. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. with both names found in the literature. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. chili peppers. genetic evidence (e. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera.

Bejoseed. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. Monsanto. U. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. However. North Carolina. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it.S. shape. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. flavor. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. in April 2009 a new form of the bill http://www. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. together with its seeds. pest tolerance.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. as are vegetables.S.S. Hedden (149 U. A. University breeding programs are active in Florida.S. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. and numerous other traits. The U. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. AVRDC. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. In 2006. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. corporations. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. 1883. However. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. and organizations. of Reynoldsburg.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. a tomato is the ovary. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. universities. New York. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. As noted above. nutritional value. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. color. cucumbers.W. Corporations including Heinz. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. 304)). size. etc. Livingston. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. from a culinary standpoint. disease tolerance. Oregon. In 1887. Ohio. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits.crazychefs. . The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. U.

Minnesota. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. Vermont and Wisconsin. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . Tennessee. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. Kentucky. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. Virginia. The fresh fruit is. Connecticut. Maine. Rhode Island. the U. harmless.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Pennsylvania. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). which is toxic to humans and . North Carolina.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. contain the poison Solanine. Michigan.[36] The affected states included Arkansas.crazychefs. Speakers from the British Isles. stems. Ohio.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. On October 30. http://www. New Hampshire. Georgia. however.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. Indiana. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. 2006.

with a harvest of more than 32. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. 40. and Arizona (49). The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases).S. On August 30. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. and Canada. the U.84 pounds (522 kg).com http://www.273 illnesses from this outbreak. respectively. French and Germans. Epcot's manager of agricultural science.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19.8 m (65 ft) length. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. 2008. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. one would arrive at an estimated 40. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World .A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. fresh serrano pepper.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). in 2000.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. Lake Buena Vista.000 kilograms (250. with 49.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. the District of Columbia. and fresh cilantro. New Mexico (98). The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. it caused at least one death. UK.6:1). China. Florida.7 and 16. 2008. As of July 2008.[38] As of July 8. such as raw tomato.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 reported cases per million. from April 10. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. Yong Huang. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. fresh jalapeño pepper. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. Lancashire.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.151." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. Oklahoma in 1986. 2007. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond.crazychefs. Illinois (100).

and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. indeterminate.S. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. Derived from Cherokee Purple. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a . indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W.S. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a http://www. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. Fusarium.

Tomato fruit. in Korea. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Young tomato plant. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Tomato slices. good for Tomatoes on a vine. . Tomato Flower. Tomato plants in the garden. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red http://www.

Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.

Universityofcalifornia. Tgrc. Retrieved 2009-04-02. and Cookery. ISBN 0252-07009-7. (1994). 1876. ISBN 1-57003000-6. Wettst. ^ Acquaah.smithsonianmag. p. Retrieved 2008-10-27.fao.smithsonianmag. et al. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . 2. Processing Tomato Production in California.Smith.ucdavis. Cyphomandra.. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. Andrew F.universityofcalifornia.html".com. USA: University of South Carolina Press. 8. page 57: ". ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. 5. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . October 26. Smith.M. bid/6280/Default. E. The Tomato in America. 13. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. ^ http://faostat." See: Natural History Museum. I. http://tgrc. 223 10. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans..17. Appleton and Co. ^ " ^ "http://www. 519 [1] 9. A. (2002). and cookery. Columbia. D." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 7.easthamptonstar. The tomato in America: early history. p. http://www. 3. section Lycopersicon Mill.html. http://yourarchives. Andrew F (1994). During the three months of the local harvest. http://www.aspx. and Triguera are nested within .smithsonianmag. it handles more than 1. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. 2008. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Retrieved December 11 2009. http://www." 15.The East Hampton Star .html"..Food & Wine". 1881.smithsonianmag.aspx?PageID=567 University of Illinois Press. Footnotes 1. T. M. Retrieved 2009-04-02.Your Archives". http://www. webpage: books-google-TTp17.five tons to the acre. (2001). ^ "C. Normania. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ The culture. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum F. Subsection Lycopersicon). Retrieved December 11 2009. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. 12. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). (2002-0508)". G. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. Retrieved 2009-04-02.ucdavis. 6. ^ a b Smith. ^ Tomato history 4. & po. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. p. Peralta. Appletons' journal Published by D. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". S. ^ "UC Newsroom. ^ a b Hartz.html. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.

html.html".edu/stories/Jan07/ Retrieved 2008-10-27. http://www. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home" Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?".eurekalert. http://news. Retrieved 22. Retrieved 200810-27." which are carried in the wind." 19.php?tname=foodspice& Smithsonianmag. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 26. page 57: "The plants are still growing. 30.html". 24.ufseeds. Retrieved December 11 2009. 2006. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. http://www. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre.smithsonianmag.osu. Ohioline. 29. ^ http://www. Retrieved December 11 or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one ^ "http://www.plants.gardenweb. ^ " HYG-5532-93". Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes.umn. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. Retrieved July 14. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. "Tomato genome project gets $1.gob. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".cornell.html. Faq.stm. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension.Tomato".php. http://www. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 200705-24. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention" Retrieved ^ "Crop Profiles . http://faq. ^ http://www.8M". 27.crazychefs. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once. News. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. Retrieved December 11 2009. http://www. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".com. http://www. ^ http://www.cornell. ^ "http://www.whfoods. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. 31. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". Retrieved June 30. 17. http://www.sinaloa. 32." 20.ucdavis.16. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. http://www.smithsonianmag.html".com/genpage. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007). ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". Sinaloa.html.smithsonianmag. http://www. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. Retrieved 2007-05-24. ^ "Selecting. 2006.

Retrieved 200904-02. http://www. ^ Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . 35.html.34. ^ "August 8.crazychefs. 37. http://www. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC".com http://www. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Foodsafetynetwork.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419& ^ "ITN. (2004-04-15). 2007-08-30.cbsnews. Retrieved 2009-0402. United States.nationalpost. Tomato . 38. California Master Gardener Handbook. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005". Retrieved 2008-10-27. ANR Publications. (2002).uk/news/ 643. http://www.vegparadise. Vegparadise. 36. p. by state".uk. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". http://www.foodsafetynetwork.journals. http://www. Clinical Infectious Diseases.1086/381578. 2004. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. Itn. Dennis R. Cdc. http://www. Tomato Recipe" 39.html. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States".edu/doi/full/ ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. Retrieved et al. 38:S3.cdc. ISBN 1879906546.CBS News".ca. http://www. 41. ^ a b Pittenger. 9781879906549. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 40. 42. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus".

extracted oleoresins.crazychefs. including essential http://www. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. a state in the south part of India. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or sliced finely.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. called selei buah pala. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source.7 in) wide.6 to 0. In Indonesia. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. both are used as adulterants of M. argentea from New Guinea. nutmeg and mace. the fruit is also made into .8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. It also grows in Kerala. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. Species About 100 species. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily.2 and 0. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. or Spice Islands. especially in Grenada.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree.4 oz) dried. called Jaiphal in Hindi. fragrans products. and nutmeg butter (see below). and Bombay Nutmeg M. malabarica from India. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans.

Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). sauces. and baked goods. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. and Barbados rum punch. In European cuisine. In Indian cuisine. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. Painkiller. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). saffronlike hue it imparts. and eggnog. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. cauliflower. and string beans. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled . Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. "Lau Hau Peng". In Penang cuisine. In Arabic. mulled wine. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh.crazychefs. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. it is added to vegetables like Brussels http://www.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. green. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. In the Caribbean. they are also used in soups. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien.

medicines. syrups. in toothpaste. beverages. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. for instance. used as flavourings. preserving agents. that were at the time highly valued in European http://www. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter.crazychefs. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. reddish brown in colour. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. The oil is colourless or light yellow. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. and sweets. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. 758 – ca. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. although this is disputed. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the . and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. It is semi-solid. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. which can be turned into myristic acid.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

192 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/

World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

193 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/

Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
194 | P a g e
Cooking Ingredients/

Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

195 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/

Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

196 | P a g e

Cooking Ingredients/

even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. sugar beets. being an amino acid. based on anecdotal reports. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. it also said that. About 1. sugar cane. Canned. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. with 4% annual growth expected.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. hydrolyzed yeast. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. steak sauce. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. frozen.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. yeast extract. or molasses. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary http://www.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad . particularly processed foods. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. and protein isolate.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods.crazychefs.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. not reproducible. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99. However. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. soy extracts." However. autolyzed yeast. Fermented products such as soy sauce.

Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. flavour enhancer). dextrose or citrate).com http://www. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. pp.html 2.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food.". Steven (August 2003). and (3) microbial fermentation.g. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. ^ purified. 373-375. In 1993. acidification. MSG. For this reason. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. Albert Y. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. On Food and Cooking. References 1. such as hydrolyzed protein. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. "Monosodium Glutamate". "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. age 40–59 years.7% women). ^ Leung. In the hydrolysis method. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product.2. and .celiac.. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index).g. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. and mineral ions and growth factors. and Cosmetics (2nd ed." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. [monosodium glutamate].inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. Foster. Drugs.). or its International Numbering System (INS) number.. New York: Wiley. followed by either the name of the food additive. concentration. In the 2004 version of his book. 621.crazychefs. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. and converted to its monosodium salt. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. (2) synthesis. even in large amounts.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1.

2006. 10. doi:10.ncbi. Martha L. Toxicol.274. Zhao. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 8. Shigeru. (1993). Sano. J. Julia (2008-03-05). ^ http://www. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Zhu. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S.x. ^ a b Rundlett. doi:10. 16.5. Chirality 6 (4): pp. Anjimoto Co. Wu. Daniel. doi:10. http://www. Inc.ajinomoto. MSG. Takehara.1111/j. PMID 8282275. Toxicol.2005.530060410. (October 2006). 5. PMID 10597625. Dongshuang.ajinomoto. http://www. Regul.1002/14356007.1999. 6. Stamler.nutrition. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". ^ a b Geha RS. Daniel W (1994). Shioya. Kimber L. 15. Van Horn. 7. ^ a b Tarasoff L. Garside. ^ He.1525/gfc.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. Kelly ^ Sand. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. "Monosodium Glutamate". doi:10. Linda. http://www. PMID 38–49. Zhou. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Chiaki. Ren C.1006/rtph. 14.html?_r=1& Dyer.fda. " Alan R. ^ Kawakita. Beifan. ^ http://vm. Beiser A. Tetsuya.17457599. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Masahiro. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121.nlm. PMID 16999713.38. Pharmacol. ^ "Production process".pdf ^ Moskin. ^ http://www. Daviglus. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Armstrong.html 4. Yangfeng. doi:10.2008. Jordan (2005). http://jn.4.jstor. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6.cfsan. Linguang. Shizuko (2005).nih. the Secret Behind the Savor". doi:10. 11.00160. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods".1038/oby. 13. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Ka. PMID 10736382. 277–282.html 12.html. "A Short History of MSG".net/ .celiac. Guo. 1875–1880.nytimes. http://www. ^ http://www.1002/ Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp. Case study: monosodium glutamate". (April 2000). ^ Freeman M. et al.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. Food "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review".a16 711. Jeremiah (August 2008).1337. doi:10.crazychefs. New York Times. ^ Walker R (October 1999).

豉油 Simplified Chinese 1.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy . 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. 酱油 2. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 荳油 3. 豆油 3. 醬油 http://www.

soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands.[3] In the 18th century. [4] By the mid-19th century. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. and salt.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK).com http://www. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In its various forms. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in . Soy sauce was invented in China. water. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia.500 years. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima.crazychefs.

Although there are many types of soy sauce.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. literally "delicious taste"). These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and . Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. such as in giant urns and under the sun. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are http://www.crazychefs. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. Today. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. sojae) and other related microorganisms.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed].

thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). opaque. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. Korean. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. but it also adds flavour. and Chinese cuisine. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. pinyin: jiàngyóu. Since it is lighter in color. Another type. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6].net/ . is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. or a mixture of both. In traditional Chinese cooking. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. ): A thin (nonviscous). or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. It has a richer.crazychefs. with relatively low amounts of other grains. consistency. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in http://www. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Thai. shuānghuáng (雙璜). one of the two types. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. like extra virgin olive oil.3-DCP (1. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. slightly sweeter. Despite their rather similar appearance. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. An additional classification of light soy sauce. since it is saltier. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. fragrance and saltiness. traditional Chinese: 醬油. lighter brown soy sauce.

com . that is used in its production. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. Technically. It contains little or no wheat. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. for example sashimi. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. where it is known as "shōyu". Shiro (白?. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate".crazychefs. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. or 醤油). lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. Usukuchi (淡口?.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat.

All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except http://www. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. 1 litre bottles. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. Consequently. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce.crazychefs. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu".net/ .Saishikomi (再仕込?. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. not pasteurized. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. Amakuchi (甘口?. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman.

net/ . in a pinch. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. usually implies limited http://www.crazychefs. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. powder. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. It is a unique variety. In Indonesia. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. which has a thick. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring.

A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce.4% of soy sauce purchases. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. (called Joseon ganjang. O'Long(黑龍). WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. Later.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. 조선간장. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. Founded in 1909. Joseon ganjang. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. is made entirely of soy and brine. lit. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). WanJaShan(萬家香). which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than http://www. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in . Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. thin and dark brown in color. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장).Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. Malaysia.crazychefs.

but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided.[6] Furthermore. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. China.3-DCP (1. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. and caramel. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). It can also be very salty. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh).com http://www. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. . Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. it is also a table condiment. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. pronounced SOO-kah). It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet.crazychefs. nước tương. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. wheat. or sometimes simply tương. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases.

" The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. 7.317 2. marinades and other types of sauces. Jammy Chai. Vol. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). http://www. Norio. Celiac disease. 2nd edition. XXVII. ^ http://www.Kong and Taiwan. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. Despite these being small in number in the UK. http://www. ^ Tanaka. 7.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. III. Press .com. (1781). p. http://www.asp?id=7598 10. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan.[citation needed] In Vietnam. pp. including six samples with up to 11.000 to 18. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least Retrieved 2008-01-07. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". 9. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. King Imperial.crazychefs. p. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". 2. Retrieved 200801-07. 8. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20).org. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. 6.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Tanaka. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). 2 (January 2000). Individuals with a wheat allergy. ^ http://www. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. Tung Chun and Wanjasham."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. Golden Mark.gmp. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. Golden Swan. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. ^ Titsingh. ^ Jung. 6. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits.) In March 2008. ^ http://www. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. Lee Kum Kee. OCLC 9752305 5.[1] Notes 1. Soon Teck• and Kang. Pearl River Bridge. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho.miyajimasoy. Sinsin.htm. ^ the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. Seong-Gook (2002). Kimlan.tcoc. an increase over 23 to 5. they are the dominant brands in their respective

Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. Food. http://books. 186. ^ Shahidi. doi:10. ^ Kobayashi. p. ^ Tanasupawat. ^ Daniells. 103. Makio (2005-04-18). Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". Charles W (2005).asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. PMID 12469319.48. Kentucky: CRC Press. Stephen (2006-06-06). Somboon (2002-06-18). 14. Marian (2003). ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17.1263/jbb. scares hit Vietnam 20. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. Florence. 13. 18.11. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.144. fermentation and micro-organisms. Edition 2. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". doi:10. Retrieved 2008-01-07. http://www.nutraingredients. http://www. et al. PMID 16198255. ^ Toxic soy Fereidoon. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. chemical veggies -. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. .com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15. 16. ISBN 1587161389.100. ^ Bamford.201. ISBN 0632059877. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce".

0% Stearic acid: 0.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.0% Arachidic acid: <0.8% Behenic acid: <0.crazychefs.9150–0.5 °C) 84 cP 211 | P a g e http://www.5% Linoleic acid: 3.5–20.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.4677–1.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.5–5.3% Myristic acid: <0.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.9180 (@ 15.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.5–21.3–3.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.0– .

[3] Of the European production.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. World production in 2002 was 2.000 tons of olive oil annually. and Moraiolo. which produce approximately 350. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. in Greece. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. and Manzanilla de Jaén. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. family Oleaceae). a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. as well as in Crete. Italy and Greece. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. In 2006. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. in France. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea.6 million tonnes. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. 93% comes from Spain. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. Olives are grown for oil in Greece.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries.crazychefs. pharmaceuticals.4680–1. Australia. North Africa and the Near East. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. cosmetics. Picholine. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. Koroneiki. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide.6 (refined and pomace) 0. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Japan and China. Alberquina.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. but especially in the Mediterranean. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production.[1] It is commonly used in http://www. Leccino Pendolino. Hojiblanca. principally Italy. Olive oil is used throughout the world. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coö . The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki.

crazychefs. IOOC terminology is precise. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life).000 US gallons (131. Mission. Galega. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. The US imported 47. called pomace.000 US gallons (181. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. of which 34. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. Spain. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. In North America. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). by its chemistry. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. and monitoring authenticity. and Turkey. The California Olive Oil Council. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). often in "prestige" packaging.California.[7] The United States is not a member of the http://www.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. Oblica and Leccino. still contains a small quantity of oil. After extraction the remnant solid substance. defining quality standards.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. with production increasing to meet demand.800. and by its flavor. . in Croatia. a private trade group.000 m3) came from Italy.600. The USDA uses a different system. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. in Portugal. with 23 member states. Spain.

[15] Under EU . This practice makes it difficult for high quality. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.crazychefs. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. of free oleic acid it contains.[14] In February 2008. is extremely lax and corrupt.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. both in Italy and abroad. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation.[12] In some cases. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. product as superior olive oil. for blended oils. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. but safe. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. it is believed.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. mostly hexane. http://www. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. particularly in Italy. defined as the percent. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). measured by weight.[14] In March 2008. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. however.[16] In April 2008.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. and by heat. Almost 700 people died.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. but there are no guarantees. EU officials took issue with the new law.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported.

Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. It is fit for consumption. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. and are based on acidity.crazychefs. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only.8% acidity. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country.the oil degrades. The U. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. Pure olive oil. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. has an acidity less than 2%. The US is not a member. expressed as oleic acid. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. and is judged to have a superior taste. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. absence of defects. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. contains no more than 0. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants.S. Used on salads. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. another cause of rancidity. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive . Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. of no more than 1.3 grams per 100 grams (0. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. but may not be described simply as olive oil.5% acidity. It has a free acidity. and is judged to have a good taste. of not more than 0. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. In order to classify it by taste. This is also called its organoleptic quality. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. These grades were established in 1948.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this http://www.

since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.S.S. U.0% and is "fairly free from defects".S.4% and is "free from defects". "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.S.S. Grade A or U. This is .crazychefs. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. Grade C". "cold" does not define any precise http://www. U. Grade D or U. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.U. (34 kJ/ml). Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated.S.5% and is "reasonably free from defects".[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.S. with less flavour. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. Grade C or U. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. U. Grade B or U.S.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.S. which may be as low as 10-15 °C.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. First of all. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. .56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide.7 l. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.8 7. over 26 liters per year. Spain and Italy.crazychefs. Portugal and Lebanon.7 11. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.62 12. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. so the term "first press" is meaningless.35 23. around 0.1 0.1 1. around 14 l.pressed". This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced http://www. around 8 l.2 7 1.

The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. 1. 3. which is much faster and more accurate.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. then placed into the press. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). not in the oil mills. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. After grinding. suggesting a different taste. which are stacked on top of each other in a column.crazychefs. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. Green olives produce bitter oil. If ground with mill stones. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. . This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been http://www. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. After grinding. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". 2. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. no or very little organoleptic defects). the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). This is done in specialised chemical plants. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste.34 1.

com http://www.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g ( fat 3.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats.7%) and sterols (about 0. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 . along with traces of squalene (up to 0. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. most notably oleic acid. The composition varies by cultivar. fat <1. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. including oleocanthal and oleuropein. To achieve this possible benefit.2% phytosterol and tocosterols).5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . In the United States.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and extraction process.crazychefs. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.monounsaturated 73 g . time of harvest.polyunsaturated 11 g . altitude.5 g .

while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 . rather than its fatty acid profile. and oleuropein. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. It is theorized that. During the first stage. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. For example. During the second phase. The study was conducted in two stages. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. in the long term. This way. 2004. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. This could.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants).com http://www. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits.This decision was announced November 1.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. antithrombotic. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil.crazychefs. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. at least in part. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity.

not for foods to be eaten cold. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. In time. blenders. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming.[citation needed]. For example. Also. Used cold. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. Also. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive http://www. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference.crazychefs. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by . Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. like salads. as available in an oil producing region.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. A very fresh oil. oils deteriorate and become stale. cookware. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. etc.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

and mild laxative properties. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil.[36][37] Jeanne http://www. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is also good for the management of pain. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products.crazychefs.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM).[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. It does have demulcent properties. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. acting as a stool .Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil.

Amman in the Sixteenth Century. from O. olie. from Gk. olive oil" (cf. Besides food.N.crazychefs. olive oil. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. 1175. elaion "olive tree". drawn and engraved by J. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c..Turkey The Manufacture of http://www.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. Homer called it "liquid gold.Fr. as a fuel in oil lamps. It.Fr. huile). olio). athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. soap-making. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. from L. Mod.Fr. and O. medicines. and skin care application. . from Anglo-Fr. oleum "oil. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. oile (12c. olive oil has been used for religious rituals." In ancient Greece.

[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. Bodrum.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.crazychefs. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of http://www. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. olive presses became common. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. In the centuries that followed.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times).net/ .

the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. stored in special . These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. drained the water from the bottom. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage.crazychefs. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). Lebanon. According to legend. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. According to the historian Pliny. allowing more time for more oil to be made. together with naked appearance of athletes. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. when the oil had risen to the top. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. Sinuhe. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire.[citation needed].over 4. and area consisting of present day Palestine. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. oil containers are preferred. and Israel. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. wrote of abundant olive trees. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential.[46] Until 1500 BC. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. "the best in the Mediterranean". where it is thought to have represented wealth. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD.[dubious – discuss] During this time. the fertile http://www.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem.000 tons of olive oil per season. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization.000 and 3. he maintained. during the 13th century BC.

neither Eastern nor Western. 3.imitate the original Menorah. http://www. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. Joann L Coviello. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel.gourmetretailer.crazychefs.usda. 2." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. http://www. http://www. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and". and this secure city. even without fire touching it. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". light upon light. ^ "findarticles. To douse the Margaret Lindstrand (2005). p. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). http://www. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a . ^ International Olive Oil Council. originating from King David. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. ^"[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. in the consecration of altars and churches. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. traditionally. 4. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. "Agricultural Statistics 2005".html. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table.internationaloliveoil. http://findarticles. Retrieved 2007-05-25. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. the tourch is in a glass bulb. Steven Sibbett. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. References 1. ^ USDA. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). home prayer corners and in the ANR Publications." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. In Islam. Retrieved 2008-07-04. Olive Production Manual. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). and. Retrieved 2007-05-25. ^ G. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. and the Mount of Sinai. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. "The Olive Tree. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. its oil almost glows.PDF. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Louise Ferguson.

55 (3): 175–86. News". ^ "Eubusiness. http://news. 17.htm".uk/news/main. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". D. Giammanco. 14. ^ Keys A. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis. M. ^ Durant. http://www. 23. 19. 12. 20.telegraph.html. Raymond & Co. and Maurizio La Guardia. ^ a b McGee. 21. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive 18. ^ a b "Telegraph article".jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. Tabacchi.010. ^ New York Times.nytimes. Karvonen MJ. et 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 11.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. 16. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. http://oliveoilonly.4005000. Nutrition Research Reviews 18.1016/j. Am.xml. Tom. http://www. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . 124 (6): 903–15. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". The New York Times (H. PMID 17321749. ^ "www. US Customs ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council".23/. Alan (1989-05-21). Retrieved 2008-11-16. 7. ^ "www.oxfordjournals. (December 1986). http://www. John.telegraph.2007. 25. United States Department of Agriculture.crazychefs. ^ Covas MI (March 2007).usda. ^ "EUbusiness. ^ Mueller. http://query. Res.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07.23/. Di Majo.Telegraph".southafrica.htm. Slippery Business The New Yorker. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". ^ http://www. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. http://www.internationaloliveoil.htm. doi:10. . ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. Retrieved "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)".org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. 19 CFR 134.Scotsman. 15. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . PMID 3776973. November 2.". Dennis. 10. Giammanco. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10.". G.ams.46. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. Retrieved ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 2007-08-13. Menotti A. http://www. S. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".com/news-eu/1204304521. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E.1079/NRR200495 24. http://www.

ssp.tchain.06-6328com. PMID 10737284. Masato Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). Olea europaea L. 19. 38. M : Osawa. Raimondi AS. p. Toshihiko Osawa.v.1024/0300-9831. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997).html". Masamitsu Ichihashi. Use Olive Oil. . europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". 55 (3): 680–6. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary.1096/fj. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. T : Ueda. 37. Gruendel 21 (1): 45– 31. ^ 36. (January 2005). "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease.. No. Mar. ^ Mayo Clinic.1021/jf0630217. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. p. Brenes M. Pagnol. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. ^ "Quite Interesting . "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori"." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. 45. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. ^ Ferrara LA. Vol. ^ Romero C. Olives 41. ". Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. p. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. s. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". ^ [2] Ichihashi. doi:10. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. et al. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". N U : Budiyanto. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis".". 1S45-50. Toshinori Bito.html. 21.. Osamu Nikaido. ^ Turner R. doi:10.ama-assn. doi:10. PMID 17263460. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". Israel". Guida L.Telegraph". s. Nov. A : Bito. "New Year's Resolution No. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. d'Episcopo L. ^ a b Davidson.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. Carcinogenesis. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. ^ "www. 10. 2000.28. 23. De Castro A (February 2007). says the 6th millennium in Jericho. PMID 17110467. Dello Russo A. Catherine Breton. 35." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. J Agric Food Chem. (January 2007). Alonso MG. 2000. pp. Nazim U. http://www. Vargas J. ^ "olive" and "oil" 40. ^ Ehud Galili et al. 39. http://www. http://www. M : Etienne N. A : Wu. 29. Vol.videojug. André Bervillé. JDermatol-Sci. Suppl. An Wu. 44.xml. 1: Prevent Cancer. 2085-2090. 43. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. 19 November 2007 30. ^ Machowetz A. Medina E.75. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". ^ Pagnol. (27 March 2000). "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". T. 19. Marotta T. et al. but cites no source. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. 11.telegraph. Faseb J. PMID 15830923. Poulsen HE.crazychefs. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42.

Verstraete and V. ed. http://www. 2001. ^ F.R. Processing .com http://www.). Scanlon. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe".org. Provencal. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland.youngmuslims. 47. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West.youngmuslims. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.htm. B. pp119–33 50. ^ "www. Harrington Park Press. Riley. ^ Nigel M.htm". Kennell.reshafim. 2005 49. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. ^ Thomas F.46. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal ( "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece".

[4][5] A carotenoid dye.Saffron Saffron crocus C. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. crocin. sativus flower bears three stigmas. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæ http://www. each the distal end of a carpel. Saffron has further medicinal applications. ən] / [ˈsæf.or hay-like fragrance.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. Saffron.crazychefs. A C.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a species of crocus in the family . allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles.

each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. and . do its brilliantly hued flowers develop.98–1.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. as was once generally believed. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. Being http://www.2 in) in length. must be dug up.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild.5 centimetres (1. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. broken apart. in Central Asia.crazychefs. purple buds appear. A corm survives for one season. It is a sterile triploid form.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). In autumn. Only in October.[11] Upon flowering. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. which means "yellow.

flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn.crazychefs. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields.8–5.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. Planting depth and corm spacing. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). and birds. loose.9 in) deep. low-density. rats.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. and corm rot pose other threats. well-watered. they fare poorly in shady . and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. where hot..[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. where annual rainfall averages 1. Greek. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. maximizing sun exposure. Only in mid-autumn do they flower.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. are critical factors affecting yields. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at http://www. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production.000–1. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. leaf rusts. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted.500 mm (39–59 in). 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage.[16] Furthermore. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. Nematodes. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. in concert with climate. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. Moroccan.

com http://www. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.crazychefs.[19] many of which are carotenoids. a product results that is itself water-soluble.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin. It also has many nonvolatile active components.11 gr) of dried saffron.2 oz of dried saffron).8-carotenoic acid).8-diapo-8. and various α.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams ( . crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic.0. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).and β-carotenes. lycopene.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. However. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.[19] Meanwhile. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. and thus oil-soluble. including zeaxanthin.

0 4.0 1.0–15.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % .0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.5 40.0 12.0–1.0 12.0 6.0 8.0 http://www.0–13.0 2.0–7.0 11.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 3.0 1.crazychefs.0 6.0 6.0–8.0 10.0 9.5 10.0–14.0 6.0 1.

p. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri.Fiber (crude) http://www. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.5-cyclohexadien-1-one.6. the heat.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.0 Source: Goyns 1999. two active ingredients are crocin and . It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels.crazychefs.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.[18] Safranal. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7.6.4. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Santorini. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. combined with enzymatic action. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. dried hay like". and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. a volatile oil. When saffron is dried after its harvest. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is.6.3-diene-1. Significantly.6-trimethyl-2. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. incidentally.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.

[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. mascaras.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. ointments. and in the mithridatium. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. physicians in Gaza. a sterile mutant form of C. In late Hellenistic Egypt. and medical treatments.[28][29] Later.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. cartwrightianus. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. http://www. C.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cough. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. and scabies.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. townspeople in Rhodes. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron.crazychefs.[33] potpourris.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from . Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.000 years. There. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. Thus. divine offerings. Since then.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. sativus.

historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC.[43] Thus. Isfahan. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. and body washes.[46][47][48] Meanwhile.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara.[51] However.Asia The 17. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. and baths as a curative for battle .[44] During his Asian campaigns.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. a Chinese medical expert.[44] From there.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. and used in dyes. or jackfruit.[53] On the other hand. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. At such sites. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Wan Zhen. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions.[42] ritually offered to divinities. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. perfumes.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today http://www.crazychefs. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. rice. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. For example.[39][40] Later. a less expensive dye. saffron threads were woven into textiles. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. medicines. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. dating to 978–993 AD. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac.

com http://www. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg.saffron is in Kashmir."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. France. Italy. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. coffee. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. and Italy.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel.[59][60] Only in southern France. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. and then the saffron is obtained. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". In . Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. tea. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days.[62] By 1730. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. indeed. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. and Spain. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. and executed. named for its new specialty crop. which grew prosperous. imprisoned. did significant cultivation endure.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. under which saffron adulterators were fined. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. However.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812.[58] Soon after. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. It can be used to aromatise wine. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall.

Central Asian. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa).com http://www. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. Turkish.crazychefs. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. Medicinally.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. and antioxidantlike properties. and Cornish cuisines.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Arab. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). particularly in China and India. immunomodulating.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus . European. Indian. and in perfumery.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. noodles.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. Pennsylvania. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). and chicken or trout dishes.

240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Annually.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.200/£1. France. flavour.000 and http://www.crazychefs. and other countries. Aside from these. Greece.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5. Switzerland. are generally mellower in colour.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. elasticity. A pound of dry saffron requires 50.[5] Iran. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.550 per kilogram). and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. Azerbaijan.500/€7.100/€1. Vivid crimson colouring. in decreasing order of production.100–11. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. are the major producers of saffron. India. . around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. Spain. Morocco. the average retail price is $1.000 flowers. and aroma. In Western countries. slight moistness.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. and Italy. Spain's varieties. the United States. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150.000 threads.[2] A pound comprises between 70. they are graded by government-imposed standards.500 per kilogram.000 flowers.000 per pound (US$1.000–75. For example. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.000-170.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.

saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era http://www. Sardinia. blights. and colourative effect. picrocrocin (taste). There. contribute to its high prices. combined with an Indian export ban. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization.crazychefs. is in San Gavino Monreale. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. it also has very high crocin. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation.79 in). In the U. among the world's darkest. and safranal (fragrance) content. and crop failures in Kashmir.S. unusually pungent aroma. aroma. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. near L'Aquila. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). and safranal content. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. shape. picrocrocin.some organically grown. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple . Repeated droughts. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour).. for quality and quantity.

[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pomegranate http://www.national standards bodies.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. and other powders used as diluting fillers. and I (finest quality). absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. However. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide.[80] Thus. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. aroma.crazychefs. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. pliability. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. II. traders. in India. III. paprika. red-dyed silk . and thus a greater colourative intensity. many growers. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I).[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. with turmeric.[77] However. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil.

^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. 3. 12. p. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 23.Saffron reproductive biology 11. crocin and safranal. www. 14. 53. 4. 13. p. ^ a b Deo 2003. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). 17. pp. p. p. 3. ^ a b c Hill 2004. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. http://books. 4. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2. 20. Sterling. 2. 3. in mice. ^ a b McGee 2004. ^ Willard 2001. 3. ^ Grigg 1974. 422. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. 3–4. 272.cababstractsplus. 1. p. 22. Retrieved 2007-12-01. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 287. 103. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 16. pp. 4. Honshū. .com http://www. p. ^ Willard 2001. 19. p. 1. ^ Rau 1969. p. ^ Deo 2003. Kansai.". 8. 24. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. p. 2–3. ^ Kumar V (2006). 18. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. stigma extracts and their constituents. ^ a b Deo 2003.crazychefs. pp. ^ M. p. http://www. p. 15. 6. 9. p. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. 1.cababstractsplus. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. ^ DPIWE 2005. Grilli Caiola ^ Harper 2001. ^ McGee 2004.asp?AcNo=20043148643. 423. p. ^ Dharmananda 2005.

ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. ^ http://vision. p. 29. 2–3. pp. p. p. ^ a b Willard 2001. 95. ^ Willard 2001. p. 1. ^ a b Willard 2001. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. 57. Loeb Classical Library 69. ^ Honan 2004. 101. 60. ^ Willard 2001. 2. ^ Hayes 2001. 50. pp. 52. 31. p. 62. 138. ^ Willard 2001. 1935 [1] 38. ^ Celsus. p. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. ^ Finlay. ^ Hill 2004. 59. p. p. p. 2. pp. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. 33. 67. 39. 128. 72. 27. de Medicina. ^ Fletcher 2005. Victoria (30 December 2002). ^ Willard 2001. 43. 28. p. 58. ^ Rau 1969. 35. pp. pp. pp. pp.iovs. 30 AD. p. 34–35. 70. 99. . 103–104. 256. 41. ^ Willard 2001. 34. 56. 55. p. 42. 65. ^ a b c Willard 2001. ^ McGee 2004. p. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. ^ Lak 1998b. ^ Dalby 2003. 32. 2. ^ http://www. p. p. ^ Honan 2004. ^ Ferrence 2004. p. ^ Willard 2001. 41. 46. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. p. 12.crazychefs. 45. ^ http://www. 68. ^ Willard 2001. Kuo & Wang 1964. p. ^ Willard 2001. 117. 55.pdf 70. 1. 63. 40. p. 138. 47. p. 142–146. 66. transl. 11. p. 59. ^ Willard 2001. p. p. ^ Goyns 1999. 37. 64. 133. 63. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Chang. 17–18. 73. 48. 54–55. p. ^ Willard 2001. 58. p. 51. p. 54. p. 273. 138–139. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Willard 2001. 61. 132– Random House. 422. ^ Humphries 1998. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Willard 2001. 1. ^ a b Dalby 2002. p. 1. 41.pdf 71. ^ Dalby 2002. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 20. ^ Willard 2001. 6. p. 26. ^ Deo 2003. 49. 143. p. 36. ca. ^ Willard 2001. 224. p. 35.

PMID 16317646 Chang. ^ Willard 2001. Routledge (UK). CT Kuo & CK Wang (1964). Landline (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. "Kashmiri saffron producers see red over Iranian imports".org/arts/saffron. References Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2003). 2006. PMID 16028982 Deo. Phytotherapy Research 19 (11). B (2003). FI (2002).abc. "Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L. MJ Gregory & RC Menary (2005). pp. Dalby. A (2003). A (2002).pdf>. ISBN 0-520-23674-2.htm>.74. "Effect of drying temperature and air flow on the production and retention of secondary metabolites in saffron". S (2005). Retrieved on July 27. Institute for Traditional Medicine. AN.>. PY. 75. Food in the Ancient World from A to Z. 76. 8. <http://www. "Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. <http://www. Dharmananda. "Growing Saffron—The World's Most Expensive Spice". extract and its bioactive constituents". ^ Hussain 2005.cri. 245 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 81. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.ebmonline.): effect on the uterus and/or estrous cycle". NW.ucla. "Tasmania's Saffron Gold". 77. <http://www. Experimental Biology and Medicine 227 (1). "Saffron". PMID 11788779 Assimopoulou. 80. 53 (15). p. <http://www. Courtney. Retrieved on January 10. P (2002). University of California Press. W.htm>.abc.crazychefs. Retrieved on January 10. 2008. ^ Goyns 1999. Retrieved on January 10 Liang. 2006. Retrieved on January VP Papageorgiou & Z Sinakos (2005). p. ISBN 0415-23259-7. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 11. 274. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2003. Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. 102– http://www. Retrieved on January 10. Darling Biomedical Library (2002).net/ . < <http://books.)".au/landline/stories/s556192.itmonline. 201.crop. Dalby. <http://www. Darling Biomedical Library (UCLA). ^ a b Tarvand 2005b. 2006.htm>.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=7IHcZ21dyjwC>. p. Davies.cfm?displayID=22>. 78. "The pharmacological action of 藏红花 (zà hóng huā—Crocus sativus L. ^ Tarvand 2005. Abdullaev. ^ Hill 2004. Crop & Food Research (New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research) (no. "Saffron: An Anti-Depressant Herb". ^ Willard 2001. 2006[dead link].edu/biomed/spice/index. 20). ^ Lak 1998. Retrieved on January 10.

leffingwell. Online Etymology Dictionary.html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>. AW (2001).etymonline.pdf>.crazychefs. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-312-34068-0. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron". < http://www. <http://news. 2006. Retrieved on January "Saffron". "Saffron".gov.html>. PMID 16180089 Katzer.DPIWE (2005). "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress". PMID 8590890 Hayes. BBC News. Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4). 2006. Ten Speed Press. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution". "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron". Retrieved on January 10.pdf>.bbc.tas. Retrieved on January 10. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). S (1998–1999). Retrieved on January 10. saffron". T (2004). ISBN 0-471-21423-X. 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. BBC News. St. <>. 2006. D (1998). <http://www. D (2001). G (2001). Hill. ISBN 1-58008-024-3. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. 2006. 2006. Retrieved on January 10. ISBN 1-56032-814-2. Grigg. Honan. Retrieved on January 10. 2006. J (1998). "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. D (1998b). SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995). 2006. Humphries. The New York Times. ISBN 0-521-09843-2. Hussain. Taylor & Hasegawa. The Agricultural Systems of the World. 2006.php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>.co. SC (2004).nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>. Wiley. Retrieved on January 10. WH (2004).org/pdf/Vitasta1998-1999. Retrieved on January 10. N (2005). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2). MH (1999). "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". Food & Agriculture.ikashmir. Retrieved on January 10. Martin's Press. <http://www. "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera". JC (2002).com/index.dpiwe. Lak.)".com/download/saffron. Taylor & Francis. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5).stm>. 2006[dead link]. Fotedar. Gernot Katzer's Spice Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1). Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. < m>. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron". The Essential Saffron Saffron. Retrieved on January 10. DB (1974). "Saffron (Crocus sativus L. <http://news. JH. 2006. A (2005). PMID 15259204 Fletcher. SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005). <http://www.stm>. <http://www. Lak. Jessie. ISBN 90-5702-394-6. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine". <http://news. BBC News. The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen.

gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b. USDA Phytochemical Database. SR (1969). Retrieved on January 10. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved on January 10. F (2005). 2006.newscientist.htm>. Retrieved on January 10.reconstructinghistory.htm>.". Retrieved on January 10.tarvandsaffron.cfm?chemic al_id=140>. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity".html>. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). Retrieved on January 10. <http://books. Reconstructing History.html>. "What is Saffron?" Cancer Letters 57 (2). H (2004). "Grading and Classification". Time Life Education. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). K (2003). P (2001).net/ . Tarvand Saffron>.com http://www. Willard. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen.000. <http://books. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. Beacon Press. The Cooking of <http://www. New Scientist. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron".com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>. Scribner. Nair. McGee. <http://www. "Saffron". <http://www. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Tarvand (2005b). Retrieved on January 10. SC. 2006[dead link]. <http://www. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus).McGann. 2006. 2006. JB (2005). Tarvand Saffron Company. 2006. PMID 2025883 Park. Rau.

Dead Sea.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea http://www.crazychefs. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

called xoana. It is short and squat.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape.[9]. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive).[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth.[1] and in the Iliad.5 cm long. ca 170 AD.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. are borne generally on the last year's wood. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. the olive suckers readily from the stump. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. two stamens and bifid stigma. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. Though.(XVII."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Asia and parts of Africa.crazychefs. referring to their wooden material. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. the olive."[7] indeed. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the .The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. The small white flowers. endives. from Lebanon. Its fruit. they were reverently preserved for centuries. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. http://www. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. by a spring. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. In Homer's Odyssey. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. olives.

in On the Nature of Plants. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. glory and peace . for which the Greeks had a separate name. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. wild-type olives. Theophrastus. glory. olives were grown commercially in Crete. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several http://www. the pits give rise to thorny. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. As far back as 3000 BC. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. Peru. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. but he makes clear (in 1. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful .[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. The olive tree itself.The leafy branches of the olive tree .crazychefs. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. indeed. play an important role in the Bible. Today.[12] After the 16th century. power and pureness. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. and then in the 18th century in California.16. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. spread far and wide by birds. fertility. and its cultivation began in Mexico. as well as olive oil and olives.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. in both the New and Old Testaments. wisdom. For example.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. Over the years. and one of the most significant. the olive has been the symbol of peace. As emblems of benediction and purification. The Book of Jacob 5. kotinos. Chile and Argentina. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible.

named "Plato's Olive Tree". It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. Istria in Croatia. and can live for very long. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. drought-. One olive tree in .[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. disease. claimed to be over 2. The age of an olive tree in Crete.600 years old. The older an olive tree is.crazychefs. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. Montenegro. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar.000 years old. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). has been calculated to be about 1. which is made into top quality olive oil. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.and fire-resistant. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was http://www. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears.

though showing a preference for the coast. 1600-2000 years old. Specifically. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. called the "Peisistratos Tree". and. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. In the same natural garden. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. see Olive (fruit). when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot . Italy. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. Modern experience does not always confirm this. According to a recent scientific survey. All seven trees continue to produce olives. A supposedly even older tree. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. both in Galilee region.400 years ago. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi.crazychefs.2. a few other millenary trees can be admired. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive http://www. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. and the olive fruit. olive leaf.6 km) as the limit. fine wood.

5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert http://www. Olive plantation in Andalucia. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. Israel. such as South Africa.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea . Sudan. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. northwest Africa) where winters are mild.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. Chile.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. laperrinei (Algeria. Australia. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. Niger. Argentina. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp.crazychefs. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). the Mediterranean Basin.

Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

crazychefs.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive . germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. stuffed (with pickled pimento. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. grown around the world. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. The olive grove of Amfissa. Rich taste and thick pulp. It is used mostly for . anchovies.200. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. but only a few are grown to a large extent. 'Bosana'. 'Manzanilla'. a large. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. In recent times. in southern Spain. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. often after being pitted. originating in Dos Hermanas. which consists of 1. with purple-green skin. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops.crazychefs. rounded-oval fruit. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region .000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural http://www.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Cailletier cultivar. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. Seville. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. A prolific bearer.

'Arbequina'. a large. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece.[23] 'Barnea'. brown olive grown in Catalonia. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. and elongated. They are black and generally used for table consumption. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. and coastal climate conditions. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. 'Empeltre'. Spain. Spain. 'Kalamata'. originating in the province of Córdoba. flourishing best on limestone slopes and http://www. They are green. another modern Israeli. round. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. 'Cornicabra'. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. It is used both for oil and for table olives. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. It has a strong but sweet flavour.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. Moreover. 'Nabali'. They grow in any light soil. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. good for eating and for oil. disease-resistant. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. It is mainly used for oil. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. named after the city of Kalamata. It is green. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. used as a table olive. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. a small. large. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. The olive is medium sized. This small olive. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. The flavour is mild and nutty. which. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. medium size. originating in the south of France (Aude département). but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Their flavour is mild and nutty. originating in Toledo.[21] 'Koroneiki'.net/ .[citation needed] 'Lucques'. good for eating and for oil. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. and elongated. Spain. even on clay if well drained. though difficult to cultivate. 'Souri'. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. originating from the southern Peloponese. Due to their highly valued flavour. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. Greece. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). 'Hojiblanca'. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. originating in the south of France. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. 'Picual'. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil.

when covered with a few centimetres of soil. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. More specifically. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. The olive is also sometimes grown from http://www. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. removing fruit from the tree. In southern Europe. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. but the time varies in each country. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. which form small swellings on the stems. embryonic buds. Occasionally. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. being very hard and close-grained. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker.) Olives like hot weather. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. Olives grow very slowly. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. However. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. it is valued by woodworkers. Olives are propagated in various ways. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. to facilitate germination. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. This method is used for olives used for oil. the trees are regularly pruned. where they soon form a vigorous . as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. In Greece. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. the oliviera. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. and can remain productive for as long. They tolerate drought well. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized.crazychefs. and with the season and the cultivar. soon vegetate. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit.poorer soil. P. as in Languedoc and Provence. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. A. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. In some places in Italy and Greece. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. In Italy. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. Another method uses an electric tool. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. 114). harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. up to several centuries. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February.

Olives can be used green. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. through to full purple black ripeness. which is why they taste milder than green olives.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. which leads to a superior finished product. Fresh are often sold at markets. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil.5-2.. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. After some weeks. The method also involves sawing off branches. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar.2 kg of oil per tree per year. or green with hints of colour).[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container.crazychefs. As a result. a bitter carbohydrate. which can be eaten fresh. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places.g. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. Each olive is slit deeply with a small . The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. the fruit is not bruised. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. the creation of lactic http://www. then drained. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. which is a natural preservative. which is healthy for future production. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. large fruit (e. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. The olives are soaked in water to wash. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. Typical yields are 1.

of which the water is changed daily. diseases. Cycloconium oleaginum.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. juniper berries and anchovies. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. spices. causing great damage to plantations. The ten largest producing countries. vinegar.6 to 8. olive oil. especially to young trees. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. lemon zest.crazychefs. leaving sawtooth damage. Popular flavourings are herbs. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. chili.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. an unnatural method.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. salt-curing. Lye-curing. A species of bacterium. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. lemon juice. their main predators are . can infect the trees for several successive seasons. Pests. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. In France and north-central Italy. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. induces tumour growth in the shoots. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. Sometimes. wine. but can be left to cure for up to three months. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. garlic cloves. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. oleae[27]. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. capsicum (pimento).[29] Cultivation area tripled from http://www. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. and weather A fungus.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. olives suffer occasionally from frost. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. feta. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. or removing the pit and stuffing them. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves.

[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.1 25. 3. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.140. Ancient Greek Agriculture.5.000 http://www..064 2. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. and was the first to instruct men in these matters. book 5".988 500.13. most notably South Australia.5 6. Bibliotheke.7 27. .14. 5. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.000 20. 3. and to cultivate olive-trees. 5. ^ Pausanias.9 6. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. An introduction. 1992. to make bee-hives. 82.685 765. ^ Homer.888 178.. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves. 6.000 250.000 275.000 470.597.100 3. 1.1). 4. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.149. ^ Theophrastus.400.500.000 998. ^ "..160.3 8.000 1..3 20.000 8.800.0 3.317. 4. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. p.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.830 2. On the Causes of Plants." (Diodorus Siculus.4 30.5 63. 7.000 318.6 31. 38. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.[31] References 1.000 498. Description of Greece 1. Odyssey.crazychefs. 4.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.000 430.000 49. 1).000 280.000 550. 81. 27.8 16.089 6.300. 1 ).339 300.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.000 1." (Herodotus. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.981 1.

. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. Brijuni National Park. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16.fao.brijuni. Ellen.cit. 27. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Madrid.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". Simhoni. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 13. Cavagnaro 25. Odes 1.8. J. M. (1999) Ancient Trees.15. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. Int. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. http://www. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. J. cited in F. ^ Burr. ca 30 BC 9.pasoroblesolivefestival. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. ^ Belaj et al. http://www.aspx?PageID=151. Processing methods. 29 April. ^ Janse.31. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. p. 17. nov. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. Available through Google Books 11.zatoun.. 1999. http://www. Tabak & O. 4th edition. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. ^ "Old Olive Tree". EspasaCalpe S. ^ Gooch. Leshonenu (Hebrew). vol. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. AGRISCIENTA. Riley (2002). 1996. 35. A. Bacteriol. (September 2002). John Hutton. Epikouria Magazine. ^ Balfour. J. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. & Ouazzani. 1779. M Bauza & R. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 29. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. nom. ^ [1] 21. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". 69. 1981.springerlink. ^ http://www. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. http://apps3. R. 2001. ^ O. 1982. rev. ^ Fotiadi. Retrieved 2007-03-10.. ^ Lewington. Spring/Summer 2006 26. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. J. D. ^ Muncipality Bar. E.. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. Apps3. R. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". ^ a b M. Australian Olives. Masuelli. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Epikouria Magazine. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. Number 4). Elena "Unusual Olives".crazychefs. Kislew. Juárez. pp 110–113. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. p. ^ Lumaret. 24. London: Collins & Brown Ltd.jsp.279 18. 30. 32:166–169. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina".org. Zatoun. http://www. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. Y. 2004". ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. op. ^ Riley.Near the Old Bar in Tombi." Horace.htm. ^ "FAO. Volume 15. me cichorea levesque malvae. 28. & . Rackham. Volume 18:27-35 20. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L.W. Moody.A.

The leaves are lanceolate. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A.R. (French .com http://www. with an entire margin.31. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. and south to northern Mexico. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. western North America. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen.crazychefs. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. glossy green. with slender branched stems. Corresponding to its species name." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. L. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. seldom produces flowers.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. however.

but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. by extension.[1] However.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their . which is the Armenian. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. due to the presence of estragole. but cannot be grown from seed. it normally goes dormant in winter. A perennial.crazychefs. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce.[1] Russian tarragon (A. dracunculoides L. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. Georgia and. Spreading plant can be divided easily. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous http://www. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. without excessive watering. sunny spot. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. Russia and Ukraine. It is normally purchased as a plant. and particularly suitable for chicken. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. Fresh. fish and egg dishes. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун).[1] It likes a hot.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. Persian and Russian word for .

Machinek A. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. 3. ^ Surburg.Cis-Pellitorin. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Horst. Maggie (2002). Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Johannes Panten (2006). Wiley-VCH. The Bountiful Container. Ley JP. Foerstner J. Workman http://www. Rose Marie Nichols. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. ISBN 9783527607891.crazychefs. Krammer G.[3] In Slovenia. pp. Properties and Uses. ^ a b c d McGee. 2. 233. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. References 1. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. ^ Gatfield . Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. Stuckey.

such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. with woody stems. Dalmatian sage. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. Common sage. Broadleaf sage. http://www. In the United States. In the Balkans and the Middle East. and some . sage has a slight peppery flavor. Britain and Flanders. It is a member of the mint family. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Culinary sage. Kitchen sage. In French cuisine. In Western cooking. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces.Salvia officinalis (Sage. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. Purple sage. it is used when roasting mutton. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. Germans often use it in sausage dishes.crazychefs. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. grayish leaves. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. Garden sage. cheeses (Sage Derby). The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. and blue to purplish flowers. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. though other species.

means ―to heal". flavonoid glycosides. chlorogenic acid. Sage leaf contains tannic acid.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf .crazychefs. cornsole. which contains cineole. Modern evidence supports its effects as an http://www. fumaric acid. salvia.more trichomes are visible on this side.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ursonic acid. oleic acid. caffeic acid. antibiotic. cornsolic acid. and estrogenic substances. . estrogenic. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. nicotinamide.trichomes are visible. borneol. ursolic acid. and tonic. The Latin name for sage. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. flavones. astringent. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. and thujone. The underside of a sage leaf .[1] In a double blind.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. hypoglycemic. antifungal. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. niacin.

emmenagogue. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. 'Alba'.com http://www. a cultivar with white. 2. Noroozian M. (2003). Mohammadi M. increasing women's fertility. a white-flowered cultivar. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. hemostatic. randomized and placebo-controlled trial".com/nutri/page8453. 'Lavandulaefolia'. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. yellow and green variegated leaves.2003. PMID 12605619. doi:10. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. Retrieved 2008-02-04. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt.x. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages.appliedhealth. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. ^ a b c "Sage". with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. and more. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. 'Tricolor'. a cultivar with large leaves. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. especially in sunny dry environments. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. and for low ground cover.[4] It was sometimes called S. a small leaved cultivar. Ohadinia S. Pliny. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. 'Extrakta'. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. 'Icterina'. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine.1365-2710. http://www. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. Applied Health. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. Dioscorides. and tonic.php. a local anesthetic for the skin. Khani . J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. and for other uses.00463. 'Berggarten'. and used as a diuretic. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. a styptic. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). OBeWise Nutriceutica. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. ^ Akhondzadeh S. References 1.crazychefs.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars.1046/j. snakebites. Jamshidi AH. a purple-leafed cultivar.

Sage: The Genus http://www. p. Spiridon E. 4. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pp. CRC Press. . Deni Bown (New York: DK. (2000). ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios.3. ^ a b Kintzios. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. ISBN 9789058230058.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful