Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. and in those derived from them. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. It can be propagated by . or by the sprig.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. In some Levantine countries. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. while flavourful. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. In French cuisine. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). Depending on how it is used in a dish. fresh thyme is often available year-round. Italian.g. assume that it means fresh. Libyan. storage life is rarely more than a week. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient.a little less if it is ground. Dried. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. As a rule of thumb. Syrian. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. soups and stews. Albanian. Leaves are often chopped. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. cuttings. when it specifies spoons it means the http://www. Lebanese. and of herbes de Provence.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). the whole sprig may be used (e. Greek. Persian. which is due to its content of thymol. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. Spanish. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . It tolerates drought well. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. and Turkish cuisines. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. While summer-seasonal. in a bouquet garni). along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. Thyme. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. tomatoes and eggs. Portuguese. Thyme is often used to flavour meats.

thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. etc.[6] Thymol. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. It also has medicinal uses. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. Because it is antiseptic. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small .crazychefs.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. tisane.[5] As with bay. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. an antiseptic. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed].[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. salve. it was used to medicate http://www. pulegioides × T. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. hybrid T. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. but is grown as a ground cover. All thyme species are nectar sources.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. The dried equivalent is 1:3.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics.

ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme.Variegated lemon thyme. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity.crazychefs. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times .

neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum .com http://www.crazychefs.

B2) 0. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133. B3) 1.Sugars 0. European. although parsley has a milder flavor.crazychefs.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit. and American cooking.1 mg http://www.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb. It is common in Middle Eastern.0 μg Calcium 138.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.1 mg recommendations for adults.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.3 g 0.0 mg Phosphorus 58.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.2 mg Magnesium 50.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0. often used as .0 mg Vitamin K 1640.8 g 3.0 mg Iron 6. B1) 0.Dietary fiber 3.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.1 mg Folate (Vit. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).9 g . 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

crazychefs. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. However. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. For example.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. neapolitanum). parsley itself may be affected by the http://www. which then tend to protect plants nearby. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). like flat leaf parsley or chervil. which helps accommodate the long taproot. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. used in soups and stews. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. it is not related to real turnips. it attracts predatory insects. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic . Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. While parsley is biennial. Like many other umbellifers. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. parsnip meaning "forked turnip".Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. tuberosum). One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. reducing pest attraction. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. not blooming until its second year.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. or flat leaf (P. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. Although little known in Britain and the United States.

^ "Parsley information on e. with fish. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. Last retrieved April". References 1. parsley is part of bouquet garni. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). lamb or goose.g. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm http://www.70% by mass. [1]) in oxalic acid. fried chicken. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef . where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. ^ a b c John W.". 2007. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. http://www. or 4900. "Parsley on plucodes.crazychefs.. Parsley as an oil.[3] Parsley is high (1. and sauces. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. Jett. In addition. 2. soups. garlic. leaf. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally.plucodes. "That Devilish Parsley.html. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. root. and lemon Ossobuco alla milanese. a mixture of parsley. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. In Southern and Central Europe. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. steaks. 4." West Virginia University Extension Service. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3.

com http://www.Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .crazychefs.

net/ . 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare http://www.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O.crazychefs.

Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm http://www. O vulgare gracile. of the mint family. It is a perennial herb. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. The flowers are purple. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. 3-4 mm long. native to Europe. Greek. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. spicy flavor. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. which is popular in southern Italy. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. each with distinct flavours. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh.crazychefs. Together with basil. and to add a nice. fried vegetables. Oregano growing in a field.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . capers.g. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. produced in erect spikes. Oregano is an important culinary herb. e. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). growing to 20-80 cm tall. Unlike most Italian herbs. as well as cultivars.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy . and grilled meat. and lovage leaves.

differs significantly in taste. together with paprika. especially for mutton and lambs meat. useful for relieving children's coughs. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. In Turkish Cuisine. In the Philippines. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. It has an aromatic. salt and pepper. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. however. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. it can be usually found on table. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. http://www. Oregano growing in a pot. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species.[5][6] .Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. West Asia) have similar flavors. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. Balkan peninsula. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue.crazychefs. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. Asia Minor) and O. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. heracleoticum (Italy. warm and slightly bitter taste. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. It varies in intensity. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. The influence of climate.

stomach upsets. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. stimulant.[7] and painful menstruation. limonene. especially in the United States. fungal infections. Lippia showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. thymol. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. Used topically.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. enteric parasites. mild fevers. indigestion. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. useful for relieving children's coughs. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. including Poliomintha longiflora. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. ^ http://www. also called Cuban oregano. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. and caryophyllene.uni-graz. Aqueous extracts.[12] References 1. the father of . Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. Plectranthus amboinicus. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. expectorant. capsules. stomachic and mildly tonic. influenza. ^ Organic Gardening 2. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. In the Philippines. this substitution would not work the other way round. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn.Main constituents include carvacrol. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον.[8] Hippocrates. ocimene. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico.crazychefs. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. antispasmodic. A Cretan oregano (O. carminative. but is usually stronger. oregano. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. Coleus aromaticus).html. emmenagogue. diaphoretic. cholagogue. pinene.

(2005). ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".uk/news/UWENews/article. ^ Epikouria Magazine.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4.php.1021/ ( http://jn. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. http://info. March 2009. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano . 6." Draft revision for "oregano".uwe.) and Origanum vulgare L. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. 24 November 2008. Fall/Winter 2007 10.2008. (01 May 2003). draft revision for "organum". Retrieved 2008-11-26. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. University of the West of England. 53 (21): 8162–8168. ^ ["http://www. 12. June 2008. Steinar. Leonor. Agric. 7. http://www. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". Fall/Spring 2007 5. PMID 12730411. ^ Dragland. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". 133 (5): 1286–1290. PMID 16218659.medicalnewstoday. 28. Medical News Today.nutrition. Food Chem. 11. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. et al.asp?item=1374&year=2008. J Nutr. ^ a b Faleiro. doi:10. ^ Epikouria Magazine. draft revision for "origanum". et al. Retrieved 200811-26. J.

[2] In Greek mythology. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". the diminutive of fenum or faenum. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). This came from the Old English fenol or finol. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. umbelliferous herb. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. In Ancient Greek. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. recorded in the 10th century.crazychefs. however. Ferula communis. It is a hardy. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). Also. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). it was from the giant fennel. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). but has become widely naturalised elsewhere ( http://www. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. The Latin word for the plant was . Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. perennial. it seems.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. meaning "hay".

20 g 1.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. glaucous green.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0. about 0.047 mg Folate (Vit. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. with hollow stems.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates .5 mm wide. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. bulb. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and grooved.01 mg 7.5 m. B2) 0.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. but thinner. they are finely dissected. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.29 g 0.24 g 1% Riboflavin ( http://www. and grows to heights of up to 2.Dietary fiber 3.crazychefs. It is erect.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. B3) . B1) 0.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long. half as wide or less.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.

crazychefs. syn. both raw and cooked. vulgare var. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. It is of cultivated origin.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. it is often mislabelled as "anise". in pastures. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. "bronze-leaved" . There are several cultivars of Florence http://www. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. both in its native range and elsewhere.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. by the late 19th century. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. but is more aromatic and sweeter. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. though usually not as strong. and in other open sites in many regions. It propagates well by seed. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). which is also known by several other names. In North American supermarkets. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour.20 mg Manganese 0. notably the Italian name finocchio.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. F.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. for its edible. including northern Europe. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. the United States.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole.

It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. grilled. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. The bulb is a crisp. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. It may be blanched or marinated.Fennel. anise-flavoured spice. stewed. often tossed with chicory and avocado. Many egg. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. badesoppu in Kannada. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. braised. but also the most expensive. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). both raw and cooked. or cooked in risotto. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. pastas. fish.crazychefs. variyali in Gujarati. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in side . where bulbs and fronds are used. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The http://www. which are very similar in taste and appearance. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. or eaten raw. sompu in Telugu. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. mouri in Bengali. salads. and risottos. though smaller. foliage. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. For cooking. green seeds are optimal.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. brown or green in colour when fresh.

it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething.crazychefs.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. also employed as a carminative.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. as it is said to improve eyesight.[12] For adults.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This use. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. or its polymers. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. sometimes with some http://www.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. although not supported by direct evidence. used to ease flatulence in infants. act as phytoestrogens. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. Fennel tea. which can explain some of its medical effects: it.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains .

and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.crazychefs.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. which promote growth of breast tissue. followed by http://www.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic . verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments.[17] However. badian (star anise).justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. fennel and coriander. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

the "real' cassia. In Urdu. cinnamon is known as kurundu.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name.C. and in Gujarati .[5] In Malayalam. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark.[2] In Marathi.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. itself ultimately from Phoenician. it is called darchin (‫. Hindi.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. In Telugu. Ceylon. it is called "Darchini" ( ). zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni .)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. in the original Sinhala. it is called Dalchina Chakka. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii.[3] In Sri Lanka. which are often called cinnamon too. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. Chakka meaning bark or wood. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. synonym C. In Farsi (Persian). it is known as "DalChini ( )".com http://www. In Bengali. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. native to Sri Lanka.crazychefs.

from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. a song describing the beauty of his beloved.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. aloe and cinnamon. in http://www. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing . Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt.crazychefs. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. and in Song of Solomon.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear.

sugar. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. which are arranged in panicles. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the . 7–18 cm (2. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. and used them to construct their nests. tea. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. and have a distinct odor. The flowers. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. although in the first century.2 feet) tall.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea.8–49. and coffee. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas.crazychefs.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. a Dutch captain reported. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. took control of the factories by 1640. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional http://www. p. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers." (Braudel 1984. They established a trading post in 1638.75–7. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. However. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. have a greenish color. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew.1 inches) long. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. in a letter of about 1292. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. "The shores of the island are full of it". Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis.

Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri http://www. and Egypt. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. According to the International Herald Tribune. eg. India. Vietnam. Bangladesh. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. which is left to dry. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. verum).[15] According to the FAO. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. . The next year. Zanzibar. Madagascar.crazychefs. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. Brazil. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades.5 mm) inner bark is used. followed by China. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. the outer woody portion is removed. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. Sumatra. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. Only the thin (0. the West Indies.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. Chips are trimmings of quills. and Vietnam. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia.

the related species. using only the thin inner bark. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. and is considered to be less strong than cassia.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. hard and woody in texture.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. is generally a medium to light reddish brown. However. as all of the layers of bark are used. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi).crazychefs. less dense. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. "Vietnamese cinnamon". or "Indonesian cinnamon". Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. zeylanicum).[16] Ceylon .com http://www. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". and more crumbly texture. many websites. has a finer. for example.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon.

cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals.crazychefs. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. a deep-blue tint is produced.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi).[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. and sweets. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. especially in Mexico. macerating it in seawater. but when cassia is http://www. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. especially apples. and then quickly distilling the whole. which is the main importer of true . In the United States. and fruits. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. bread-based dishes. hot cocoa. and liqueurs. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. used in a variety of thick soups. drinks. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. The two barks.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. It is of a golden-yellow color. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. ‫. when whole. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. rather than cassia. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling.5% to 1% of its composition. In the Middle East. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. True cinnamon. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. such as apple pie. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). tea. are easily distinguished. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per.

[34] Notes 1. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. and anethole.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. luck. and Myanmar (Burma). who failed. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). Sri Lanka (Ceylon). it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme.0.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. In Hoodoo. although it remains untested. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. ^ a b "Cinnamon". The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777.and a very hot aromatic taste. The Cinnamon Challenge.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. However. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. cassia.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. Encyclopaedia Britannica. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. beta-caryophyllene. 2008. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. cinnamyl . were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. few seem able to succeed.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). love. linalool. eugenol. and money.crazychefs. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cinnamaldehyde.

" remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. doi:10. ^ ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. 437f. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. Cathay and the Way ^ The Epicentre. ^ http://links.iol. Cinnamomum. Breyne) extracts".1021/ ^ [2] 18. Cinnamon. p. Cozzolino FF.437. retrieved 2008-07-15 11. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Van-Koiij A. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. PMID 10077878. Batlle R. 23. p. Henry. Account of the Island of Ceylon. http://lakdiva.henriettesherbal. 2009. 9. Encyclopedia of Spices. retrieved 200807-15 6. ^ http://news. ^ Yule. ^ Tennent. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.html#pg598. Mancini DA. Harvey. http://www.npr. Torres RP (December 1998). ^ Harris.1021/jf050709v. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". Food 17. PMID 16190627.fao. tr. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. ^ Knox. 22.CO%3B2-N ^ http://findarticles.nii. 53 (17): 6939–46. .php?storyId=6672644. Cai YZ. 53 (20): 7749–59. ^ "Cassia. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". revised ed.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. ^ López P. retrieved 2008-07-15 http://www. Sánchez C. Robert.html.2. ^ _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. Nerín C (August 2005). 8. retrieved 2008-07-15 12.htm 20. _of_life/html/1. http://dsr. Sun M.en.0. retrieved 200705-01 21. The History of Food.theepicentre. ^ Mancini-Filho J.. http://www.crazychefs.htm. ^ Felter. 437). J. Food Chem. p. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. doi:10. "Solid. Emily. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour.—Cinnamon. ^ http://www. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. Sir James 13.jstor. PMID 16104824. Corke H (October 2005). Agric. Col. ^ Shan J. ^ [1] 16. Anthea Bell. 4.stm 3. 437 7. p. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

doi:10.26. ^ [3].. http://www. http://www. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr.1643. Kristof et http://www. ^ Ranjbar. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". Akram et al. Khattak KN. 30. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".php?featured_food=80. Alan W. http://www.113. ^ Khan A. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. http://jn. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro" Safdar M.diabetesjournals. Retrieved 2007-12-17. July 2000. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients".my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH. Medicinal Seasonings. Corn. 33. http://www. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". retrieved 200705-01 25.1. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". doi:10. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia s_have_been/ 28. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF).php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68.1.pdf. retrieved 200705-01 32. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". 27. et al. http://eprints. Retrieved 2008-05-11.3215.crazychefs. PMID 14633804.lesliebeck.2217/14750708. Cat. Fernand (1984). Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276.htm. Braudel. 34. (2005).luckymojo.. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– Ali Khan MM.. New York: Kodansha International. ^ Vanschoonbeek. doi:10. ^ George Mateljan Foundation.12.. 26. retrieved 2007-12-12 31.html?source=r_health. Eugen J. ^ Taher.3.redorbit. Retrieved 200808-05. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). www. ^ Verspohl. Agricultural Research magazine. Retrieved Eleventh Edition. http://www.24.1002/ptr.whfoods. a publication now in the public domain.113. doi:10. http://www. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. Research: Cinnamon. Retrieved 200805-11.1016/00219673(88)90035-0.2337/diacare. Anderson RA (December 2003). Muhammad et . Archer (1988).com. Leslie. ^ Beck. Charles (1998). The Perspective of the World. 29.2217/14750708. http://care.futuremedicine.. ^ Yronwode.

canned. frozen. chopped.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. which it is not. pickled. one of the oldest vegetables."[3] Uses Onions. Allium Cepa is known only in http://www. powdered. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. They are known by the common name "onion" but. it usually refers to Allium cepa. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. and dehydrated forms.M.crazychefs. They are now available in . leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. used without qualifiers. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. and Allium asarense R. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L.Department of Export Agriculture. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. Onions can be used.

However. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. cats.chopped or sliced. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. snakebite and hair loss. spicy. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. Depending on the variety. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. recent evidence has shown that dogs.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. coughs. due to toxicity during http://www. an onion can be sharp. and also to relieve headaches. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. In Bronze Age settlements.[5] However. transported and stored.crazychefs. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. In ancient Greece. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine.[5] The onion is easily .

saturated 0.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.Sugars 4.Dietary fiber 1.013 g .7 g Fat .4 mg Vitamin E 0.1 g 89. B3) 0. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.24 g .046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit. 0 μg 9. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .1 g 1.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron .027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.12 mg Folate (Vit.34 g 0. B1) 0.monounsaturated 0.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0. B2) 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.042 g .11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.polyunsaturated 0.21 mg Magnesium http://www.02 mg Vitamin K 0.crazychefs.

diabetes. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. Peruvian Sweet. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. pungent yellow (New York Bold). Western White. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies).) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. For all varieties of onions. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. and Vidalia.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. However. and Vidalia. Empire Sweet. Imperial Valley Sweet. Texas 1015. Western Yellow. Imperial Valley Sweet. Peruvian Sweet.crazychefs. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. Empire Sweet. In general.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. If you are allergic to onions. eleven times the amount found in Western White. Shallots have the most phenols. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. Mexico. Texas 1015. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. and other diseases. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. Northern Red. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. Mexico.[10] In many parts of the world.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. Northern Red. some studies have found their action to be ineffective.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. Mexico. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. Peruvian Sweet. In the United States. Imperial Valley Sweet.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. anticholesterol. Western . six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. followed by Western http://www.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. Texas 1015. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). Empire Sweet. anticancer. osteoporosis. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content.

The volume of sulfenic acids released.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. differs among Allium species. limiting the amount of gas generated. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. and the irritation effect. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. allylmercaptan and allicin. chives. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. cells are broken. creating a stinging sensation. mouth and throat ulcerations. nausea. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. allylpropyldisulfide. therefore. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. Eye irritation can. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. and bananas. all present in garlic. diarrhea. http://www. As onions are sliced or eaten.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. garden lilies. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. breathing difficulties. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. it can lead to an allergic reaction. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. On January 31. Symptoms can include irritable bowel.include reactions to onions. garlic. where it binds to sensory . It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. 2008. shallots.crazychefs.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ginger.

These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. the Welsh . resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring.crazychefs. which have been developed in more recent times. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. from sets started from seed the previous year. more commonly today. Allium fistulosum. "short-day" http://www. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. Finally. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. which can be planted directly in the ground.

Oregon (USA).220 Turkey 1. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions. Tree onion or Egyptian onion . Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.149 Spain World Total 64.750 South Korea 1. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.637 Japan Egypt http://www.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. each of which forms a bulb. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.758 Russia 1.302 1. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.346 2. Vale.793 India 5.764 Pakistan .500 China United States 3.Produce bulblets in the flower head. a hybrid of Allium cepas. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.

[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba.The Onion Futures Act. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . It remains in effect as of http://www. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.crazychefs. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States. passed in 1958. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.

Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. from William Woodville.crazychefs. the most commonly used part of the plant. commonly known as http://www. known as garlic. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. shallot. and chive. Allium sativum. Its close relatives include the onion. Medical Botany.[1] A bulb of garlic. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. leek. It has a characteristic pungent. . is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. respectively. "crow garlic". Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. with Russia (1. In North America. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion".[5] The "wild garlic". and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. The leaves.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. according to Zohary and Hopf. with approximately 10. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). The cloves are used as seed. the so-called elephant garlic. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. and for medicinal purposes. In cold climates. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. They can suffer from pink . protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable.Yunnan province of China.crazychefs. Garlic plants can be grown close together. accounting for over 77% of world output. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. The papery.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. India (4. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. and Allium oleraceum. stems (scape). which grows wild in southwestern Asia. Allium vineale. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. are common weeds in fields. Garlic is grown globally.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) http://www. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. for consumption (raw or cooked). Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil.

810 168.000 . southern Europe. F = FAO estimate. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12.000 254. It is often paired with onion. including eastern http://www. northern Africa.4%). tomato. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.000 15. the Middle East.crazychefs. A = aggregate (may include official. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. or estimates). semiofficial. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world".[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.000 645.000 221.000 125. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. and parts of South and Central America. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. Southeast Asia.400 140. C = calculated figure. south Asia. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. California.000 142. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or ginger.000 128. P = official figure.686.Alaska) in fifth place (1.

bruschetta. In Japan and Korea. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. and then stir-fried with eggs. Blending garlic. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. United Kingdom and Australia. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. breads and pasta. and spices. Immature scapes are tender and http://www. the resulting product. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. and roast them in an oven. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. garlic toast. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. oil. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. or vegetables. They are also known as "garlic spears". almond.crazychefs. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. salt. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. oil. meat. called black garlic. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. is sweet and syrupy. The leaves are cut. meats. or "tops". the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. "stems".oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over . and is now being sold in the United States. and a chunky base produce skordalia. cleaned. crostini and canapé. In some cuisine. Garlic. In eastern Europe. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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Among the members of the onion family. usually enjoy these sensations. Humans.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. garlic could be . Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent.[51] To ward off vampires. where it is excreted. deterring animals like birds. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. thus mellowing its spiciness. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. therefore. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. or leeks.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. making garlic much more potent than onions. However. When eaten in quantity. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. leeks.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. however. chives. and vampires. included in many garlic http://www. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). shallots.crazychefs. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". However. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. such as pistou.[50] In Europe. garden lilies.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. including onions. and worms from eating the plant.[48] Due to its strong odor. and release of AMS several hours more. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. insects. all present in garlic. garlic. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. hung in windows. persillade. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. and bananas. ginger. Since digestion takes several hours. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. shallots. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. allylpropyldisulfide. forming allyl methyl sulfide. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. werewolves. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. allylmercaptan and allicin. The herb is. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose.

Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. at worst. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". bleeding. dizziness.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. You can help by converting this article to prose.crazychefs.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. emesis. and hypoglycemic drugs.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. In connection with the odor associated with garlic.In Daoism mythology. allergic reactions.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. antihypertensives. are largely unknown. as well as other medications. Garlic can thin the blood. and menstrual irregularities. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. calcium channel blockers. indicated .[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. indigestion. antiplatelets.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. minimal risks to normal individuals.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). sweating. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. antiparasitic value of garlic.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. However. and diarrhea.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. nausea. Editing help is available. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. if any exist. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. saquinavir. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. if appropriate. similar to the effect of aspirin. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term http://www.

The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. et al. Retrieved 2007-08-28.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns.html. 4. http://www. bigger. third edition (Oxford: University Press. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. ^ http://www.unigraz. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment.handle.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". 2000).) cultivars at Debre Zeit. p.nj. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic.crazychefs. garlick)". ^ a b c d Tabor. split. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. http://hdl. Notes 1. ^ McGee . 397 6.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b Lee. http://www. In particular.htm. G. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. (2004). topical use of raw garlic. 197 5. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. et is discouraged. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. (2005).net/10113/877.natural-holistic-health.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. Retrieved 5 June. ^ http://www. A bulb of garlic. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23).html 8. Domestication of plants in the Old World. including burns to children. J. 112 7. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. one the bulbs will grow 9. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. Ethiopia". Retrieved 5 June 2009.jhortscib.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. http://www.

Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. Daryn (2003). et al (June 2004).167. Ferraresi. PMID 15277094. J. Block E. ^ Benavides GA. 11..325. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. 25.167.. (Mrs. Mills RW. "Tropes.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. 19. ^ Chan KC. McFerren M (February 2007). Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). PMID 17328819. A. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. PMID 17123684. Biochem. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". 15 (6): 373–7. Motta. Oztürk HS. 5:109–115. Squadrito GL. 13.1016/j. 167 (4): 346–53. Hyg. Lin RS (June 1998). 28. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci.4.. 104 (46): 17977–82.1073/pnas. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345.manchester. PMID 17951430. ^ Mader FH (October 1990). Arch. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. 167 (4): 325–6. Aytaç B.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. PMID 9641475. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. A Modern Herbal. July 1. N. Vosoughi AR. PMID 17966136.S. ^ Borrelli F. 17. ^ Durak I.ama-assn. ^ Goodbye. 23.10. doi:10. Better Nutrition.1002/mnfr. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology".C. Med. Paul B.).1186/1476-511X-6-5. 33. J.2004. Yin MC.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". PMID 17325296. U.0705710104. 31.ama-assn. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial".200700072. Sova P (May 2004). 2006.A. R. http://archinte. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. Arch.1162/106361403773062678. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". 54 | P a g e http://www. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). [2] ^ Hamel. Lawson LD. doi:10.200700058.1001/ . Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. ^ Kojuri J. F. Izzo AA (November 2007). 29. doi:10. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . Proc.crazychefs. PMID 15218732." Int. 5. 22.1001/archinte. PMID 15157944. doi:10. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. Garlic. et al (November 2007). Olcay E. Acad. PMID 17325291. et al (February 2007). P. Sci. Intern.01. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Facts. Capasso R. Sylva. and Empiricism" (PDF). (p. Herald Publishing Co. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". 34. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117– 35. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. 12. doi:10..1002/mnfr. Nutr. 2005 ^ Groppo. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic".346. Güven C (2002). 15. Chao WJ (March 2007). "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know".4.lehoux/Tropes. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". ^ a b Steiner M. ^ Gardner CD. and Mary U.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman.A 400 Year History. 26. 21. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. http://personalpages. Med. J. Intern. doi:10. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. 27. Dent. 20. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients".005. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. Sartoratto. ^ Charlson M. http://archinte.pdf. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. 32. Maud. Accessed: December Akrami M (March 2007).. Natl. 24. doi:10. PMID 17918162. 30. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. 18. doi:10. PMID 2291748. Kavutcu M. ^ Durak I. 16. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store.

James. Aon MA. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. http://joi.pdf. (1989-01-30). 2007. 42.blogspot.html 45. ^ Pickering. W. ^ Health Canada .html 46. 53. garlic advisory 63.. 65.elsevier. Nishino H. Kominato Y. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. Complementary Medicines Summary. PMID 8441577. 120. ^ a b McNally. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. NLM Gateway. Matuura H. 39. 211. Thomson M. ^ Lemar KM. Imafuku M. Passa O. 52. 37. Castro C. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". section "Conclusion" 48. ^ Shuford JA.49. PMID 15616341. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. ^ Macpherson et al. 66. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection.crazychefs. doi:10. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".January 29. Pickering p. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. Fuwa Scolaro M. "Garlic burns". ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. a stress compound from garlic.28095-0. Shishido C. http://linkinghub. 49.Vol 9 No.. ISBN 0-30436561-0. (1991-08-01). 58. ^ John Retrieved 2009-01-30. Steckelberg JM. Slattery M. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. ^ Bukhari.jst.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. ^ Fareed G.473. Jennifer (2002-12-13).com http://www. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. ^ McGee p. "Effect of allixin. 38. http://joi.unito. Engl.go. ^ Macpherson et al. 40. Retrieved December 7. Toxicol. ^ Garlic . Retrieved December 7. ^ http://www. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. Microbiology (Reading.htm 44. David (2003). PMID 11600262.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65. on mutagenesis. UK Medicines Information.1128/AAC. PMID 11481410. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56..jst. 85 (3): 157–64. ^ Kodera Y. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. Lett. National Health Service. Iwai K. http://linkinghub. PMC: 538912. 049 . a phytoalexin produced by garlic..Garlic-in-Oil 61. Long D. In Search of Dracula. et al (October 2005). Antimicrob. ^ McNally 310–311 47. Sagi A.html 54. Retrieved 2007-0707. Lau B.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.ukmi. "Allixin. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). Teel R. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50..2005.". Sumida T. Sanders N. Patel R (January 2005). Itakura Y. 4 .Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. Yoshida S. Ronen M (November 2001).elsevier. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658– ^ Oi Y. 2007. 49 (1): 473. Jordan W..asm. (2001). PMID 16207909. ^ http://washokufood..1099/mic. PMID 8644128. ^ http://lem. doi:10. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. Yoffe B. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). 211 51. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nishimura S. ^ a b c d Hogg.goldbamboo.36. Ali M (June 1996). H. http://www. Agents Chemother. ^ http://www.1. Houghton Mifflin. Bordia T. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". Book 65 57. p. Volume 7. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Raymond T (1994). "Garlic burns". 64. Summer 2005 . Chesson C. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. 122. . ^ Baruchin 62.". Sterling Publishing.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.0. ^ a b Mayo Clinic.economicexpert.

The chemistry of garlic and onions. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. PMID 8506890. Boudoulas H.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. http://circ. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.. Block. J. Wang. Naoki Kashimoto. "Garlic burns". Lloyd. D. http://www. (1992). Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. R. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts.-Z. A. E. Garty BZ (March 1993).jp[青森県産]. C. G. H. (2001). Vol.. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. 405-407 (2002). Balise.crazychefs. H. 3rd ed. Am. Makoto Ichikawa. http://linkinghub. E. Shafir. 'Kyolic'. Campbell GR. L. L. M. Naoto Uda. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9.M. Z. Block. 354-363 (2002).ahajournals. and H. Kiazand. Lawson. Soc. [4] Lawson. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Jain AK. Bull.. Turner. Isao Sumioka. Block..P. E. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. Ling M. R. (2004). D. C. PMID 8441577. Hort. E. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. (2000). Kamenetsky. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. (1985).. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. J. Selfsufficientish . Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). H. Z. D. Pharm. D. A. L. (1996).References Japanese garlic. M. A.. Masanori Ayabe. K. Jiro Yoshida. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Vol. Shan. Lawson. Kraemer.. Susumu Yoshida. Chem. Chem. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353.. PMID 9247357. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". Bull. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Retrieved 1 May 2005. Am.elsevier. Efendy JL. Zemah. Breithaupt-Grögler K. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Gardner. Rabinowitch (2004). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. Block. Yukihiro Kodera. Sci. and Related Species (Second Edition). Garlic.. L. Vargas R. Simmons DL. Hamilton. Williams & Wilkens. New York: Avery. Gotzkowsky S. Hile. L. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical Med. PMID . "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". Kozue Ogasawara. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Pharm. Belz GG (October 1997). McMahon FG (June 1993).. 129: 144–151. Zhang. Campbell JH (July 1997). Barzilay. Lemar. Andy (2004).. S. A. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. 94 (6): 632–5. J. P. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Balch.Garlic. 50. P. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. Chatterjee. I. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. 50. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. Koch. R..

Kadam. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin".org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473.Lindsey J. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://aac. Leeks". ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Mader FH (October 1990). McGee. Silagy C. et al. http://www. Michael Bandell. Y-Y.K. Garlic. (1999). (eds). "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". Abstract.1.473. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. doi:10. Steckelberg JM. SunWook Hwang. Y-Y. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6..S.49. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34..12. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. S.1128/AAC. H. Bernhard H. (1997). PMID 8169881. Harold (2004). Lin RS (June 1998). J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Pharmacol. PMID 2291748. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". Neil A (1994). Salunkhe. Samer R. http://meta. (1998). Antimicrob. 49 (1): 473. Agents Chemother. D. Eid. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. 310–3. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). PMC: 538912. In: Ohigashi. Marcel Dekker.2005. PMID 15616341. et al. PMID 9641475. Veena Viswanath. Scribner. Patel R (January 2005).net/ . Shuford JA. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). 31 (6): 904–8.. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Steiner M. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Yeh. Macpherson.. J. "The Onion Family: Onions. Yeh.asm. Geierstanger. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology.crazychefs. et pp.

The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. In Vietnam.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. http://www. and consist of a long calyx. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape.5-2 cm long. terminating in four spreading sepals. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the . Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. when they are ready for collecting. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. Pakistan. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. it is called đinh hương. Zanzibar. Madagascar. after which they develop into a bright red. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. and Sri Lanka. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. Cloves are harvested when 1.

Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Cloves are used in cheeses. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. especially for digestive problems. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes.crazychefs. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. which sells Djarum Black. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor").[1] In north Indian cuisine. often in combination with cumin. it is used in almost all dishes. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. but with the addition of other spices).000 tonnes). A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. During Christmas. spleen and stomach meridians. In south Indian cuisine. they are used sparingly. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. entering the kidney. warm and aromatic. along with other spices. Cloves are used as a carminative. In Vietnamese http://www. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. but as they are extremely strong. cloves are often used to season pho broth. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India.

[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. Ayurvedic herbalist K. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. pimples etc. RH (AHG). Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus).[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli.[6] History Until modern times. vomiting and diarrhea. Khalsa. including cloves. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. and Tidore. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. along with nutmeg and pepper. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. most of the West Indies. Makian.[7] Nevertheless.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. It is also used in severe http://www. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. In the late fifteenth century. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. Brazil. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). including Bacan.[5] In West Africa. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese.crazychefs. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. and Zanzibar. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. their cultivation was introduced into . Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC.[7] Cloves. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. Moti. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. stomach qi downward. including for multiple sclerosis. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan).The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi.P. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. were highly prized in Roman times. Subsequently. mainly from the Maluku Islands. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe.

Prescription for Nutritional Healing.htm. Third Edition by Dan Bensky.squarespace. 3. methyl salicylate (painkiller). Vintage Books. Steven Clavey. ©2000.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves.html National Institutes of Health. gallotannic acid.nih. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. Erich Stoger. http://www. and several sesquiterpenes. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. xv.nlm. Avery Publishing. ^ Balch. Spice: The History of a Temptation. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. Special Diets for Illness 6. and Andrew Gamble. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin.. pp. ^ a b Turner. the flavonoids eugenin. 94. Phyllis and Balch. 5. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. Jack (2004).net/ .[8] Notes and references 1. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. crategolic acid. rhamnetin. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. Erich Stoger. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ^ Dorenburg. kaempferol. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". tannins. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. John Wiley and Sons Inc. pg. Steven Clavey. Karen. and eugenitin.html Tilotson. Andrew and Page. 3rd ed.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". Medicine Plus. 2. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. James. ^ http://www. stigmasterol and http://www. ^ "TibetMed .. comprising 72-90%.tibetmed. due to the high price of importing them. ©2003. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. ^ http://oneearthherbs.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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(2005). Retrieved 8 June 2009. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.htm?csnumber Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. 6. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography".Differentiation with other species Joshi et while Lederer et al. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院.2005.htm?csnumber=19183. PMID 15492355.crazychefs. Retrieved 10 November.5555/jaoi. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角".com http://www.asp?table=gbtwo& "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. (2006). doi:10. Retrieved 8 June . ^ Louisa Lim. 5. ^ Lederer. Retrieved 8 June 2009.88. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise".1021/jf058156b.1542/peds. ^ International Organization for Standardization.iso. NPR. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". 18 May 2009 2.Botanical nomenclature". employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. ^ Joshi. ^ International Organization for Standardization. http://www.2004-0058.atypon-link.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 .iso.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . f.703.) -.chinaios.Specification". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. Vaishali C. 3. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. Ines et al.3. et al. f.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. http://www. http://www. doi:10. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. http://www. 4.

[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. native from the east Mediterranean to East India. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum http://www. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.net/ . and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.crazychefs.

the story goes. including kamūnu in Akkadian.crazychefs. locally called "Kermun". Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. maduru. Kerman. parsley and dill.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". a member of the parsley family. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . Like many other Arabic words in the English http://www. longitudinally ridged. in northwestern China. being oblong in shape. In Northern India and Nepal. in Turkey.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). cumin is known as kimyon. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. in Iran and Central Asia. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. In Arabic. cumin is known as zireh. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ .net/ . in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. and yellow-brown in colour. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route.

India. and Chile. today it is mostly grown in Iran.crazychefs. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. Seeds. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. In South Asia. Turkey. have been dated to the second millennium BC. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). when added to hot milk and consumed. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Morocco. Uzbekistan. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. and this practice continues in Morocco. In Sri Lanka. . Tajikistan. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. Mexico. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from http://www. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. Syria.

and in some traditional breads from France. thread-like leaflets. and other Middle-Eastern. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. http://www. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. It is an herbaceous annual plant. tacos. and is found in achiote blends. North African. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. Cuban. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall.crazychefs. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. The flowers are small. Northern Mexican cuisines. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. It is traditionally added to chili. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sri Lankan. and borne in umbels. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. adobos. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. curries. curry powder. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. Middle Eastern. containing a single . popular in Indian. and bahaarat. either ground or as whole seeds. pinnate or bipinnate. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. Pakistani. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. enchiladas. but are smaller and darker in colour. white or pink. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. garam masala. Today.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. Contrary to popular belief in the US. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. sofrito.

81 g 8. B2) 0. B3) 4. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.saturated 1.327 mg 22% Niacin ( .5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.crazychefs. Cultivation of cumin requires a long. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. and needs fertile.very common in Mexican cuisine. However.Sugars 2. hot summer of 3–4 months. 64 μg 44. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine.27 g 17. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.5 g Fat .com http://www.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is grown from seed.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. sown in spring. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.Dietary fiber 10. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.25 g . it is drought-tolerant.435 mg Folate (Vit. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish.7 mg Vitamin E 3. well-drained soil.24 g 22.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).33 mg Vitamin K 5.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.

from the Swedish word "spisa".v.).Zinc 4.crazychefs. However. as in 'kot' . caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin".net/ . while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin.a small cat). and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. to eat.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'.com http://www. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. Not related to curcumin. In Polish the difference is even less significant. lighter in colour. In Swedish. For example.a cat and 'kotek' . a chemical found in turmeric.

and Carum carvi L. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L.030.2009.crazychefs. ^ "KMN. www. 2000).313. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . 2000. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Domestication of plants in the Old Retrieved 2008-03-13. http://www. third edition (Oxford: University Press. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". doi:10. Nicola S. ^ Growingtaste.77. 9. (2009). (2005). ^ http://www. from China".05. 4. doi:10.1302. ^ "Kamūnu. doi:10.1016/j. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 .pl?12617. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. 2. 206 5. 3. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ 7.arsgrin.html 6. Lu et al. et al.aca.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry.1002/ffj.". "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. ^ a b Essential Oils". whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1." http://www." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). Rong. ^ a b c Li. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). ^ a b Iacobellis. p.1021/jf0487351. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – .

crazychefs. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal .

Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. West Africa and the Caribbean. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www. shogaols and gingerols.crazychefs. cardamom. or spice. and galangal.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. cineol. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. and citral) have also been identified. medicine. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. sedative. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. In laboratory animals. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone.

especially in the Tanjore belt.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical . Ginger is also made into candy. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. ghee. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. salt. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. nuts. Ginger has a sialagogue action. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. stimulating the production of saliva. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. Adrak. Allam ( ) in Telugu. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. and sugar. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. For storage. Alay in Marathi. in Gujarati. and tender green chili peppers. enchi in http://www. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. which makes swallowing easier. to which honey is often added. crackers and cake. In South India.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or frozen for longer term storage. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. and Aduwa in Nepali. ginger ale. in Tamil Nadu. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. cookies. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. and ginger beer. [edit] Regional use In India. particularly gingerols and shogaols. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. Inji in Tamil. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. Additionally. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread.

It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. In Western cuisine. In Arabic. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. and making drinks such as sorrel.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. ginger is called gyin. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. parkin and ginger biscuits. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku.crazychefs. and a variety of nuts and seeds. On the island of Corfu. In Burma. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. ginger snaps. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. during their occupation of the islands. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. a type of ginger beer. France. However. In China. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. In the Caribbean. Greece. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). In the traditional Korean kimchi. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. gingerbread. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. In http://www. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. In the Ivory Coast. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and . is made. In Vietnam.

Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of http://www.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of . which several scientific studies support. cough and cold. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. though it does interact with some medications. though studies been inconsistent.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. morning sickness and chemotherapy. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea.crazychefs. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. including warfarin. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. and although it's generally recognized as safe. belching and nausea. and heart rhythms. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding . ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. clotting. which is considered a panacea. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. and individuals who have had ulcers.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. particularly if taken in powdered form. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. In China. In Burma. bloating. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common http://www. In India.crazychefs.[14] In Congo. people use ginger for making tea.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the United States. gas. reducing "winds" in the blood. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. it is considered good for a sore throat. In Indonesia. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. in food etc.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. ginger can cause heartburn.

it is immediately scalded. or washed and scraped. but this generally reduces its value. Scalding.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. Production trends India. Nepal(~11. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff.7%). replacing China.5%).000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. with over 30% of the global share. which has slipped to the second position (~20. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy http://www. washing and scraping gives white ginger.000 F 177.crazychefs. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. Traditionally. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. applied generally to the older and poorer . ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates.000 158.5%) and Nigeria(~10%).905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. produces black ginger. followed by Indonesia(~12. now leads in global production of ginger.

is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai http://www. is also known as "wild ginger".000 42. Also referred to as galangal. Asarum canadense. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan .270 1.000 28. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. www. semiofficial or estimates).445 F F F F F A No symbol = official . Galangal is also called Thai ginger. and its root has similar aromatic properties.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. a carcinogenic compound. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.contains ginger material References 1.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World Retrieved http://www.ars-grin. is used in cooking and medicine.arsgrin.000 8. but it is not related to true ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".crazychefs. A = Aggregate(may include official. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). the flower buds are the part eaten.000 57. F = FAO estimate. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 34.387. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. galangal.

"Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".ucla. ^ Ernst. MPH (1998). "Beverage of Champions".1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25).. (2006). Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. Kim Farrell. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". ^ PMID 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Afshari. Retrieved 2007-08-02.). Mary. Tin-Yun Ho. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". Shih-Lu Wu. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). 13. ^ ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01).6. ^ Jakes. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). 3.523. Jaw-Chyun. Susan (2007-01-15). Retrieved 5 November. 14. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger".2.7. Retrieved 5. PMID 10793599. Retrieved 2007-08-06. Zainab M. David Kiefer. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". & MSt. doi:10. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.2006. ^ McGee. 12. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. http://journals. doi:10. http://archfami. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. MD. M. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. 11.013. 4.1016/j. Sheng-Chu http://www.H. 10. 8. Harold (2004). http://www. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by Retrieved 2006-09-06. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371.library. http://www. 425-426.1001/archfami.1021/jf071460f. & Pittler. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". Ali Taghizadeh et al. 15. http://timeblog. ^ MD O' Hara.html.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. "Ginger". http://unitproj. doi:10. http://www. (01 Mar 2000).html. et 7. MD. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. (2007). This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF).amaassn. 9. .cfm?displayID=15. ^ Al-Achi.mayoclinic. Retrieved 2007-0808. Li-Jiau doi:10. E. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Kathi Kemper.01. New York: Scribner d=8&article_id=772. Retrieved 2007-08-02.

Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. slightly bitter. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30° . and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. and to impart color to mustard condiments. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. For these reasons.crazychefs. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. for http://www. In medieval Europe. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. Zingiberaceae. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. Erode. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

custardlike yellow color. cereals. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. Over-coloring. sauces. etc. Turmeric City. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of http://www. turmeric is also used fresh. much like ginger. orange juice. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sweets.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. popcorn color. and many more. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich.[citation needed] Sangli.Yellow City.crazychefs. and mustard. cake icings. In non-South Asian recipes. gelatins. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. yellow cakes. such as in pickles. but also in masak lemak. not only in curry. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. or Textile City. rendang. Although usually used in its dried.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. biscuits. relishes. dairy products. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. ice cream. powdered form. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. . such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. is sometimes used to compensate for fading.

which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. dry mixes. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. Indians. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. winter butter and margarine. turmeric has been used to color . and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. a traditional dish in South Asia. It is unknown why it works.[4] cancer. salad dressings. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. is also treated with turmeric powder. Japan.crazychefs. yogurt. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic http://www. Within one week of using turmeric. and other digestive disorders. burns and bruises. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron).[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. an uncurable and debilitating disease. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. are spiced with turmeric. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings).In combination with annatto (E160b). turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan.

Alzheimer's. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. which supports nerve growth. research activity into curcumin is exploding. with no adverse . Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. or BDNF. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. Bangalore. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. and the U. In 1998 researchers at St. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. John‘s Medical College. improves the absorption of turmeric. and Pakistan.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic http://www. multiple myeloma.S. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. found in black pepper. Snake Bite Anti venin.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. and colorectal cancer. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. Bangladesh. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India.crazychefs. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%.

In southern India. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is .Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. This happens in economically lower situations.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. jaggery.crazychefs. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. and coconut and cooked in steam. and it is used for power and purification rites. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. Also. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or http://www. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. During the south Indian festival Pongal. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. However. part of the Bengali wedding. such as saris. as a part of the marriage ritual. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha.

Retrieved June 2009.thieme-connect.07. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . Retrieved 2008-03-04. or Natural Yellow 3.5-dione. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4.foodchem.2008.172. ^ http://news. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. Joseph T. http://www. ^ Chan. Judy] (June 2009).I. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain".6E)-1. 5. www. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. 64(4) keto and Shoba G. http://www.aolhealth. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Joy D. 75300. (2009).bbc. a polyphenol.1016/j.W. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. Planta Med. 6. 2. Rajendran R. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. ^ http://www.C.1055/s-2006-957450 http://www. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". The systematic chemical name is (1E.crazychefs. et al.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1. ^ [| Srinivas 1998 May. AOL Health. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". Notes Majeed .

moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. also known as Candleberry.) Willd. 4–6 centimetres (1.6–2. which allows its use as a candle (see below).9–7. The leaves are pale green. The nut is round. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. flowers. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. Kemiri. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). simple and ovate. Indian walnut. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans.crazychefs. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. with wide spreading or pendulous branches.9 in) long. Euphorbiaceae. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. with an acute apex. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil http://www. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft).4 in) in diameter. 10–20 centimetres ( . hence its name. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

lit one end. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. In Java. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children.crazychefs. as the candlenut is much more bitter. they are mildly toxic when raw.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. and gonorrhea. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. giving them greater underwater visibility. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. burned with charcoal. leaves and . Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. fevers. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. ulcers. however. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in http://www. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. In Sumatra. a varnish with the oil. This led to their use as a measure of time. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. In Hawaiʻi. pounded seeds. named kukui were burned to provide light. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. In Malaya. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. On the island of Java in Indonesia. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. The flavor. swollen joints. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. the nuts. Outside of Southeast Asia. are applied around the navel for costiveness. including: leis from the shells. is quite different.

Liana I. In plantations. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii.[5] In Tonga. Mikiala Ayau.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 26. 4. p. http://books. http://books. Betty. ^ Scott. Beatrice H.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats).google. Lilinoe Andrews. Bess Press. http://books.crazychefs. University of Hawaii Press.html. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. ^ Dunford. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. http://canoeplants. University of Hawaii Press. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. Susan. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. ISBN . This larva is eaten by some people. ^ Krauss. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. she was given new life. Honda. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. protection and peace. ^ "Kukui". http://www. One of the legends told of a woman who. despite her best efforts to please her husband. p. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets).[citation needed] References still nowadays. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. Retrieved was routinely ripe nuts. "Chapter 4: Canoes". pp. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻ (1993). Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome Being a kind and just woman. and the husband was eventually killed. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. used as soap or shampoo.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). Craig Thomas (2000).). named tuitui are pounded into a paste. tukilamulamu. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. 5. ISBN 9780824822514. 50-51. 2. the god of agriculture.

[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. unrelated plants. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. . dark red when fully mature. .crazychefs. white . Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. and very often simply pepper. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. known as a peppercorn when dried. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. green pepper. may be described as black pepper. cultivated for its fruit. The terms pink peppercorns. The fruit. . is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. Kannada:meNasu. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. Peppercorns. .Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. Telugu:miriyam. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. containing a single seed. However. red pepper (as in bell or chile). Konkani:miriya konu. Malayalam:kurumulaku. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

where ground black pepper would visibly stand out.crazychefs.. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. Once dried.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. with the skin of the pepper removed. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. In the 16th century. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. French poivre.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. chemical or biological methods. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. wrinkled black . and other similar forms. The heat ruptures cell walls in the http://www. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week.S. and the naked seed is dried. the spice is called black peppercorn. this was shortened to pep.[4] In the U. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. White pepper consists of the seed only. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. in the early 20th century. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. including decortication. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. often alongside table salt. Dutch peper.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants.

White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. which is mostly no longer an issue. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. Pickled peppercorns. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. Schinus terebinthifolius. the Peruvian pepper tree.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. with a bright aroma. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. largely unknown in the West. unpreserved green pepper berries. particularly Thai cuisine. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. from Bangka Island.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns".[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. Schinus molle. Fresh. green. like black. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper.crazychefs.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and http://www.Black. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. are used in some Asian cuisines. made from the largest. also green. is made from the unripe .

the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures.[11] Black pepper is native to India. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. and before the fruit is mature. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. Competing plants are cleared away. The cuttings are usually cultivars. . The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. The flowers are small. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. entire. and ultimately fall off and are lost. moist. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. or trellises. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. the berries lose pungency. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. well-drained and rich in organic matter. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. if allowed to ripen. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes.crazychefs. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. but when full grown and still hard. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. It is a spreading vine. The leaves are alternate. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees.[12][13] Within the genus http://www. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year.

[14] J. in what is now the state of Kerala.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. Chile peppers. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long .com http://www. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. its most important source was India. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. In fact. particularly the Malabar Coast. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper".

and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Black pepper. changed the course of world history.crazychefs. Trade routes of the time were by land. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. or used the pepper locally. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. Sumatra. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. the Middle East. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. barged to Alexandria. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. pepper was also being grown in Java. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. http://www. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. Malaysia. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. Returning from India.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. growing in the north-western part of India. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. nor how it reached the Nile from India. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. but these areas traded mainly with China. Long pepper. . open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. By the 16th century. this trade advantage. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.Until well after the Middle Ages.

that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". especially Venice and Genoa.H. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. After the fall of Rome. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century.crazychefs..14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. Edward Gibbon wrote. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. it is sometimes their sweetness. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. I season delicacies. whereas. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. four. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. Similarly. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and of black. is fifteen denarii per pound. Yet within I bear a burning marrow.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. who travelled east to India. first the Persians and then the . the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. the banquets of kings. if expensive.. affordable only to the wealthy. 12. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". while that of white pepper is seven. There is no evidence to support this claim. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. I http://www. seeing that in other substances which we use. Apicius' De re coquinaria. Once into the Mediterranean.[22] In addition. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. But you will find in me no quality of any worth." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. and the prices reflected it. seasoning in the Roman Empire. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. pepper was a luxury item. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. clad in a wrinkled cover. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. and the luxuries of the table.

"we seek Christians and spices.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. especially in winter. In the 17th http://www. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. as well as around Africa. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade.crazychefs. and salt-cured meats were common fare. In 1498." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. Today. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). his representative replied. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. the effect is small. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. Pepper harvested for the European trader.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. However. has some antimicrobial properties. A depiction of . Pepper.

"[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. insect bites.. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. Note the cook's pepper . Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. gangrene. being stronger. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself.[26] By the 12th century. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. but both were used. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. diarrhea.crazychefs. hernia. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. including long pepper. indigestion. joint pain. heart disease. was often the preferred medication. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. as well as she could for sneezing.. however. hoarseness. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. insomnia. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. Long pepper. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). either long or black. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. Like many eastern http://www. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". — Alice in Wonderland (1865). an area in what is now the Sichuan province.[25] In the 3rd century CE. lung disease. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. but if this estimated 10. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. oral abscesses. each load being equal to 223 lbs. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads.000 pounds (4. liver problems. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". earache.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth.

White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. Refined piperine.[31] Also. chapter five. milligram-for-milligram. sabinene. causing the sneezing.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The outer fruit layer. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. tooth decay. and toothaches. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. if any. Some sources say that piperine. a substance present in black pepper.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the . and floral http://www. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. which is stripped of the fruit layer. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. a mildly carcinogenic compound. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines.crazychefs. woody. left on black pepper.[31] As a medicine.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. and linalool. which give citrusy. caryophyllene. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. irritates the nostrils. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium.sunburn. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. limonene. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. vitamin B. Few.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper.

producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. sometimes instead of pepper shakers.000 t (391. The price of pepper can be volatile.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. Malaysia (8%). Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders").com http://www. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. As of 2008.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%).000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. India. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. for example.000 short tons). Brazil (13%). but has fallen to just over 271. the most widely traded spice in the world. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to . Thailand (4%). Sri Lanka (6%). India (19%). and China (6%).[33] Once ground.[35] By weight. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns.crazychefs. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi.000 t (299. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. by monetary value. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. are used for this. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason.

Pepper. ISBN 0375407219. Spice. 8. Gernot (2006). ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). Black pepper is marica. http://books. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Text online. ^ J. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. ISBN 075653836X. ^ a b Jaramillo.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. Warrior. 88. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. www. p 94. 20. using almost none of its production domestically. ^ Ochef. Retrieved 6 November 2005.000 short tons).htm. 12. ^ Dalby p. from Penzey's Spices. ^ Innes Miller. http://www. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". Retrieved ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. M. Random House. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 13 November 2005. disease and weather. 19. Egyptian Pharaoh. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. http://www. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about ^ Katzer. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". Alejandra (2001). 7. and Builder.000 t (99.crazychefs.amjbot.thehindubusinessline. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)".M1. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep.2307/2657072. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. 10. 3. ^ Peppercorns. Retrieved 17 October 2006. doi:10. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 1969). 11. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. The Hindu Business line. Compass Point Books. Flora of Retrieved 2008-01-29. 2006-1120. Vietnam dominates the export market. 200803-27.pd f. Retrieved 2009-01-29.[36] Notes 1. 5.arsgrin.poor crop management. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 80 16. Retrieved 2008-03-02. Using fresh green 9. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15.efloras. 13. p. 93. 83 21. PMID 11302858. Innes Miller. 18. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". p. 4. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. . http://www. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). ^ Translation from 14. Ramses II. 17. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. The Spice Trade.ars-grin. American Journal of Botany 88: http://www. Retrieved 12 August 2006. http://www.

though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. ^ H.S.1365-2672. http://books. Larousse OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122.1046/j. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. http://books. 726. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 33. ^ Dalby p. 32. http://siteresources. ^ a b James A. CRC Press. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. 204. 156. Alan (2002).com/books?id=tg7R4hU8hkC&pg=PA395&lpg=PA395&dq=Pepper+safrole&source=web&ots=38F TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. 28. 2008-05-15.crazychefs. ^ Dalby p. 2. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". 23. 25. ^ Turner p. Jaffee. 108–109. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper http://www. 31. Steven (2004). G.x. ^ a b McGee p.worldbank. 10. ds/ . References Dalby. Karvy Comtrade Limited. Deans (2000). 29. 77. 2005. "Mill". ^ Turner p. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . http://www. 30. D. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. 35. Cambridge University Press. ^ Dalby pp.html. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. http://www. ^ Jaffee p. "Spices. 36. 12.2000. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. Berkeley: University of California Press. Prosper (2001). Davidson. Dangerous Tastes. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries"." 24. Andrew (2002). also Turner pp. J. ISBN ISBN 0600-60235-4. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 0520236742.pdf. ^ Montagne. table 2. 74–75. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). Duke (1993-08-16). 428. 26. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). ^ p.22.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper".accesstoinsight. doi:10. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. Vol. Dorman and S.karvycomtrade. Retrieved 2009-01-29. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). 171. 27. Dover. purchase required. ISBN 9781580084178. ^ Jaffee p. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. ISBN 0521367085. 34. Buddhist Monastic Code II.ch05.. 160. Retrieved 2008-01-29.00969. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. p. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. Full text at Blackwell website. pp. Retrieved November 12.

Scribner. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. OCLC http://www. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. OCLC 56590708. Harold (2004). London: Vintage Books. Jack (2004).crazychefs. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Spice: The History of a Temptation. 427–429. Turner.McGee. "Black Pepper and Relatives". ISBN . On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). pp. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.

net/ .7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".Sugars 2.224 mg Folate (Vit. including red.64 g 0.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. Peppers are native to Mexico.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.Pepper.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc http://www.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .Dietary fiber 1. Today. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.crazychefs.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.17 g 0.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0. sweet. B1) 0.40 g . B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. yellow. green and orange. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. B3) 0. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.057 mg 4. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B2) 0. Central America and northern South America.

bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. Across Europe. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. Indiana. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. In Norway.. With the similar meaning. such as Australia. in Dutch. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". In France it is called "poivron". the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. the fruit of Piper nigrum. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. In parts of Ohio.g. India. they are called "capsicum". green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery http://www. an unrelated plant. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most . Grilled. g. meaning Bulgarian pepper. and Pennsylvania. It is eaten with fried noodles. In the United States and Canada. meaning pepper-fruit. which has its roots in the word for pepper. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. "groene paprika". At that time peppercorns. which are green and yellow. Sweden. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". the term "paprika". but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. Malaysia and New Zealand. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. like pasta. In British English. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. When cut off. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. meaning Big pepper. were a highly prized condiment. respectively). "red pepper".crazychefs. It's widely used in a variety of dishes." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). instead of using as a spice. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. "green pepper"). In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". " In Japan. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. "gele paprika". "Miris" is Chilli. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). the word ピーマン ("pîman. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. regardless of their color. or "piment.

in various soups and . The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. maroon. red. violet. yellow. yellow or orange peppers. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. rainbow. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. orange and. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. white. pink. Varieties The color can be green.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. in salads. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. purple. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. more http://www. It is eaten as a raw snack.crazychefs. aqua. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. blue. black and brown.

a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). indigenous to Europe.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1.crazychefs. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita.foodreference. also known as M. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita http://www. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. [1]) is a hybrid .com/html/fmango. balsamea Willd.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The plant.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . ^ http://www.

net/ .20 in) diameter. noted since 1843[8]. with smooth stems.5 in) long and 1.5–4 cm (0.6–3. 72. 84. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. with 2n counts of 66. dark green with reddish veins. and 120 recorded.6 in) cm broad.crazychefs. The chromosome number is variable. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. it is usually sterile. 6–8 mm (0. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. including stream sides and drainage ditches. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. Flowering is from mid to late summer.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. If placed. Being a hybrid. The rhizomes are wide-spreading.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. forming thick. The flowers are purple. it can grow anywhere. with a few exceptions.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. spreading by its rhizomes. blunt spikes. and bare fibrous http://www.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. fleshy. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. square in cross section.31 in) long. he treated it as a species.24– 0. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins.59–1.

thus promoting belching. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters.1. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around . particularly menthyl acetate. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.[10] Similarly.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. ice cream.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo.crazychefs. and toothpaste. and is often used as a flavouring in tea.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. confectionery.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the http://www. chewing gum.

[16]. which they then call "after-dinner mints. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products.crazychefs. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. In addition to http://www. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. [21].[12] Outside of its native range. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden.[13] and in the United States. the Galápagos Islands. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. hairless. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Leaves aromatic.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. it is advisable to plant it in a . The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. If you choose to grow peppermint. Foliage lime-scented. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. as a natural insecticide. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. New Zealand. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. Eau De Cologne Mint). Leaves wrinkled. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. It needs a good water supply. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. A mild. and it is considered invasive in Australia. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. [18]. Stems reddish. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'.

ed. 9.006. Thomson Healthcare. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. C. (1989). doi:10. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. Retrieved 2009-02-07. ^ a b Huxley.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. 6. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. ^ Harley. ed. page 640.1016/j. ^ World Health Organization. ^ specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . (1992).net/ . 11. C. C. & Grey-Wilson. G.glu.who. R. ^ a b Akdogan. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". Retrieved 3 June 2009. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.2007. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines.. A. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. 2. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita http://www. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. 7. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints.dld.pdf. Mehmet (2004). Mentha L. A. 5..Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe.02. http://www. ^ Linnaeus. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. (2007).int/publications/2002/9241545372. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. ^ a b Blamey. M. et al.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. http://whqlibdoc. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats".. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. In: Stace. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . Flowers open from bottom up. M. (1975). ISBN 978-1563636783 10. 4th Edition. a popular confection. (1753).

S.iso. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice".com http://www.224.16. Australia". http://het. Ambika et al.10): 119 . "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint".)". populations. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 .E. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)".Specification".org/books/249/249_8.257.htm? doi:10. http://het. Retrieved 6 June 2009.. 21. ^ International Organization for Standardization. Bienvenu (1998).org/iso/catalogue_detail. . F. Retrieved 8 June 2009. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. ^ Farley. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. doi:10. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars.crazychefs.sagepub.159.)". Retrieved 3 doi:10. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ Edwards.. Retrieved 7 June to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. 22.. Retrieved 3 June.htm?csnumber=11633. (2004). "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital D. 25. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)".122. (2007). Frédéric et al.iso. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 ... on kidney tissue in rats".D. http://www. ^ Akdogan.28. Retrieved 3 June. paraquat.E.htm?csnumber=32041. 23. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. Valerie Howland (2006).actahort. 27. and Mentha spicata L. 19. http://www. 17.htm.sagepub. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 . Mehmet (2003). "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. http://www. Plant Cell. http://www.sagepub. Retrieved 7 June 2009. V.iso. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . Mehmet et "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". Derek R.1002/jsfa. ^ Akdogan.wiley. et al. Retrieved 3 June.actahort. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1023/A:1006185103897.S. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e ^ Sharma. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats".219. Zheljazkov.1151.interscience. http://tih.2740311104. http://www. 26. 24. http://www3. ^ Adamovic. ^ a b c Jullien.1071/AP99036. 20. Bienvenu (1999). F. Retrieved 6 June 2009.

to the Alliaceae family. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var.Gay The leek. the elephant garlic and kurrat. Allium ampeloprasum var.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.) J.crazychefs. Two related vegetables. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. also sometimes known as Allium porrum.). is a vegetable which belongs. although different in their uses as food. porrum (L. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. porrum (L. ampeloprasum . are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. along with the onion and garlic.

Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. Hilling leeks can produce better . Growing Leek field in Houthulst. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Once established in the garden.crazychefs. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering http://www. intended for harvest in the season when planted. to be planted out as weather permits. leeks are hardy. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. and overwintering leeks. and they have few pest or disease problems.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses.

crazychefs. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. as the leek ages. although less bitter than scallion. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. The tender core may be eaten. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. carrots and potatoes and different meats. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. which turns it soft and mild in taste. Raw. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below).Cuisine Leeks for sale. Lamb is the most popular. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. Fried. The onion-like layers form around a core. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. due to the layered structure of the leek. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap http://www. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. along with leek soup. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie . but. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. which can be used in salads. In its raw state. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. http://www.8 g Fat .06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.Sugars 3. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In her book.polyunsaturated 0. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.Dietary fiber 1. B1) .03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.C. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.E. 83 μg 14.crazychefs.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.04 g . led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.9 g . as well as other recipes with leeks.15 g 0.C. B3) 0.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.3 g 1.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.233 mg Folate (Vit. B2) 0. as well as wall carvings and drawings.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.saturated 0.004 g .‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B. who consumed it most often in soup.E. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.monounsaturated 0. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.

and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. representing Wales. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. you know. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time.crazychefs. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. In the play.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. for example.12 mg recommendations for adults. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. good http://www. According to one legend.Vitamin E . This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. David‘s Day. Shakespeare. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.

French Women Don't Get Fat. Mireille. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. 1978.Notes 1. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book.p. third edition (Oxford: University . ^ Guiliano. Knopf.crazychefs. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2.. 2000). ^ Jane Grigson. (Penguin Books. 3. Domestication of plants in the Old World. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.

raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Celery.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6 g Fat Protein Water 0.Dietary fibre 1.Sugars 2 g 3g . Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a .2 g 0. with fewer than 100 individuals http://www.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.crazychefs. dulce) or celeriac (var.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .

30 AD. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. Celery.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. and small rodents. Actually very small fruit. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). They also contain an organic compound called apiol. horses.crazychefs. such as chicken noodle . Celery salt is used as a seasoning. on the Chicago-style hot dog. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. celery is also grown for its seeds. Celery. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. and in Old Bay Seasoning. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. http://www. squirrels. as celery salt. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. onions. Celery is a staple in many soups. often used as a base for sauces and soups. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. birds. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. dogs. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs.In temperate countries.

Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. for people with celery allergy. they note "since A. foods that contain or may contain celery. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to http://www. M.[8] In the European Union.crazychefs. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. even in trace amounts. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. have to be clearly marked as such. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. Lemnos and Thebes. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. making avoiding such foods difficult.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. Celery root—commonly eaten as . In Homer's Iliad.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. at Kastanas. Celery contains androstenone. However. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. however. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. father of the Cabeiri.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks.

on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. They are ranged under two classes. sweetish. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. white and red. and the most crisp and tender. splits. apium Italicum. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. Under optimal conditions. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. The flowers are creamy-white. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. fields are harvested only once. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad.[14] With cultivation and blanching. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the . (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. In North America.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. 2–3 mm diameter..5–2 mm long and wide. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. due to extremely uniform crop growth. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. cracks. seleri. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. The plants are raised from seed. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. In the past. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. straightness and thickness of petiole. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. insect damage and rot). from the Latin http://www. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. and a distinctive smell.. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. borrowed from Greek.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. as the Grace of the whole Board".crazychefs. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. produced in dense compound umbels. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. earthy taste. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. at our Great Mens tables. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. 1. and Praetors feasts. shape. many of which differ little from the wild species. the whole plant having a coarse. but the leaves may be used in salads. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color.

130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". West J.. Lee LG. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. Thomson. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. 12. 16. 14. gentle handling. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery.46. ^ a b Fragiska. Suslow.crazychefs. 13. C (1753).net/ . (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens".shtml.6 (June 1993): 610-611. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 15. Retrieved 2008-03-04. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. ^ Cantwell. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. Western Journal of Medicine 158. et al. 9.nsf/pages/smallage. ^ OED. ^ D. ^ Celsus. http://postharvest.ucdavis. "Celery".practicallyedible. (Laurentii Salvii). Ko SN. Post-harvest technology research and information center. de Celery and Negative Calories 6. ^ snopes. 227. Zohary and M.[16] References 1. 2003. Kraft D. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). Wilson IBH. 10.202. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity".. Natural History XIX. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. (3rd ed. (2002-06-10).v. ^ Pliny. and proper sanitation. ^ Calcium sources 7. Species Plantarum: Tomus I.17:1697-1699. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. 8. 3. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41.L. ^ R. http://www. 2000) p. p. ^ Bublin M. Hopf. Holmiae. ^ (Latin) (2005). 1920). M. Scheiner O. Heiner DC. ^ Celestin J. ^ Teng CM.. ^ "Smallage".com http://www. 11. Thayer translation [1] 4. Radauer C. 2. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. P. M. ^ William Robinson and W.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). T. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82.

brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3. (Discuss) For other uses. Magnification of grains of sugar. see Sugar (disambiguation). B2) 0.21 g .Sugars 96. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0. Sugar.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .03 g Riboflavin (Vit.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .91 g . see sucrose.Sugars 99. For the common table sugar. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.98 g 0g 0g 0. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with http://www.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99.

com http://www. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. B2) 0. sugar maple (in maple syrup). Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet.77 g Thiamine (Vit. It forms the main ingredient in candy.026 mg Folate (Vit.crazychefs. B3) 0. and fructose. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. B1) 0. obesity and tooth decay.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions. mainly sucrose. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption. but also appears in fruit. lactose. sorghum.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit.Water .082 mg Vitamin B6 0.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. honey. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. and in many other sources.

In this informal sense. including palm sugar and fructose. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. (Compare the OED. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar.Popular In non-scientific use. "dextrose". and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions).[4] It came to English by way of French. Generically known as "syrups". such as glucose. means "pebble". the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. and texture) of beverages and food. In a list of ingredients. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet.) The Greek word for "sugar".net/ .crazychefs. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). etc. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. molasses or treacle.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. Etymology In the case of sugar. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. preservation. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs.) will likely denote a sugar. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). "fructose". Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Spanish and/or Italian. Scientific Scientifically. http://www. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". the Italian word zucchero. the Spanish word azúcar.

Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides .containing 1. 2. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. A notable exception. making the sugars reactive. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. syrups and fruit juices. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). disaccharides. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. This includes all the sugars referred to above. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 . raw sugar. important molecules in the body. 3. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. plus sugars naturally present in honey. Natural sugars come in fruit. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. has a "missing" oxygen atom. Sugars include monosaccharides. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. cook or consumer. as its name suggests. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. http://www.crazychefs.Culinary sugars Grainier. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. and galactose. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. including NADH and ATP. sweeter than the original sucrose. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. glucose. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. Note for example glycoproteins. or DNA. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. which form part of nucleic acids. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot http://www. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. with less than 0.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. galactose and mannose. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. This resulting syrup. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures.made from one glucose and one fructose). or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). Monosaccharides include fructose. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. which has the formula C6H12O6. lactose (milk sugar . producing invert sugar. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. proteins connected to one or more sugars. which is made of glucose. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. fructose. In these closed-chain forms. After digestion and absorption.crazychefs. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar .water (H2O) per bond. sugar will burn with a blue flame. If combined with fine . Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

^ Ahmad Y link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6.80 g/ml Notes 1. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0.illovosugar." http://men.htm 3. 5.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. ^ "Engineering Resources . "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. ^ Wuebben. 4. The International Sugar Trade. James. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7.crazychefs. Sugar Blues. ^ http://www.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. Michael (January 2001). Sugarcane. Blackwell Publishing.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. A C Hannah." Powder and Bulk References Adas. ^ International sugar statistics OCLC 44493265. Glyn (2004). OCLC 51837990 84251137. ISBN 063205476X.webmd. Temple University Press.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. History of Science and Technology in Islam.Bulk Density Chart. Joseph and Mike Carlson. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. 1996. ISBN 1566398320. Cambridge: Woodhead. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries.

Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. sugar beet molasses is used. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. for light brown sugar. Although in some areas.35 http://www. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. Brown sugar contains from 3. without mixing them separately.25% of the total volume).g.crazychefs. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. Products for industrial use ( . The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. however.5% molasses (dark brown sugar)." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. especially in the Netherlands. It is. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience.

net/ . substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel.crazychefs. which did not have full control over brown sugar production.[1] However.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. apart from pure carbohydrate. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. much like adding molasses would do. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. as opposed to 396 calories in white http://www. History In the late 1800s. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. as opposed to white sugar. Nutritionally. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. in his studies (cited in "Pure. The effort was so successful that by 1900. In other applications. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes).[2] John Yudkin. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. White and Deadly" ."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

com http://www. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. ^ New Scientist. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. Harvey. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. References 1. http://www. 6. centrifuged. crystals. where sugar cane was grown. Demerara is another dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar.wildernessfamilynaturals. Retrieved 2008-09-20. and are sold as Turbinado sugar.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined.fao. giving it a higher mineral content. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 2. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar.csrwire. light ^ Levenstein. but most is now produced in Mauritius. 32-33 5. 3. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar".com/muscovado_sugar. http://www. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar".com/ binado_Sugar. an island off Africa. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. which is then crystallized. or Demerara sugar.html. largecrystalled.".net/ . 7. resulting in the characteristic large. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. cane sugar. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. 2003.3 fao. Retrieved 2008-09-20.htm#bm07.crazychefs. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. 4.htm#sugarmade. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. http://www. Muscovado. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. light brown. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals.php?id=3026.

and iodized salt. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health . Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). but toxic to most land plants. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which some use to prevent caking.[citation needed] Conversely. including humans. refined salt (table salt). including high blood pressure. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits.crazychefs. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. It is a crystalline http://www. the two major components of salt. Chloride and sodium ions. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). pale pink or light gray in color. white.

[2]:38 From about 2800 .crazychefs.[2]:44 Along the Sahara.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. in the millennia before then. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. and the dye Tyrian purple.000 tons of salt. especially for meat. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). In 1960. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. salt provided the best-known food preservative.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. as were salted birds and salt fish. http://www. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure. glass. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. the caravans still transported some 15.

During the first millennium BC. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". as it avoided paying the "salt tax". in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". In religion According to Strong's Concordance. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on . Greek." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. taking their names from hal(l)-. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. (Judges 9:45. though incorrectly.[1] It is widely.) In the Sermon on the Mount.crazychefs. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass.also gave us Gaul.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC.Salzburg. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". salz. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6).[citation needed] The root hal(l).[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. the earliest being the story of Lot's http://www. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. God sent down four blessings from the sky . Halych in Ukraine. which was illegal under British rule. and Egyptian. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. the Roman exonym for the Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. who had heretofore mined for salt. the Hallstatt Celts. began open pan salt making. Hallstatt.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. a root for salt found in Celtic. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. In many Pagan religions esp. water. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water.

Halite. In Aztec mythology. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. such as in Sumo Wrestling. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.[9] The Ancient http://www.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal.In the native Japanese religion Shinto.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human .crazychefs. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water.

completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. which are kiln-dried. After the raw salt is obtained.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt.5% of salt production.[15] The majority is sold for industrial http://www. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight.Different natural salts have different mineralities. and thus is rarely eaten. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. Injected water dissolves the salt. and the making of soaps and detergents. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. Refined salt. Purification usually involves recrystallization. is mainly sodium chloride. Fleur de sel. which is most widely used presently.crazychefs. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. giving each one a unique flavor. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). food uses account for 17. . which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. natural sea salt harvested by hand. In recrystallization. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt.[12] However.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. One example are bath salts. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. has a unique flavor varying from region to region.

sodium aluminosilicate. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. however.154 g/cm3. calcium or magnesium carbonates. but was determined to be unnecessary. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. Single-serving salt packets. and a bulk density (dry. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. such as a few grains of uncooked rice.165 g/cm3. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. silicon dioxide. condiments such as soy sauce. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. calcium silicate. magnesium oxide.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium http://www. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom.[29] However. fatty acid salts (acid salts). Some people also add a desiccant. and calcium . Table salt Table salt is refined salt.crazychefs. Table salt has a particle density of 2.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.

Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in . 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. even fatal. In the United States.[31] Today. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). sodium iodide.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. or sodium iodate. fluorinated table salt is available. which can cause goitre. specifically endemic goiter. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. neurological problems. In France. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. In Canada.[33] Drinking too much water. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. and myxedema in adults.crazychefs. with insufficient salt intake. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. which can cause severe. cretinism in children. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. iodized salt is more common in the United States. The reason for this is unclear. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. which gives the table salt a yellow color. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). potassium. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. or even an electrolyte disturbance. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle http://www.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. magnesium. especially important for pregnant women. dizziness. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced.[32] Another additive.

person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. there are insufficient data to draw firm .[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. since salt was quite valuable). Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. in Japan.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy.crazychefs. salt consumption is higher." ([41]. independently of blood pressure effects. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease." ([41]. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. can cause hypernatremia.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. Salt is even sometimes used as a health http://www. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. such as in treatment of dysautonomia. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt." ([41] p3). p18) However. combined with an inadequate intake of water. It can exacerbate renal disease. forced salt intake.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK." ([44]. the risks have been exaggerated for most people.[38] heartburn. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake.

possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. A salt mill for sea salt. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. have been found to consume little salt. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. However. but achievable population goals.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. Some isolated .com http://www."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.crazychefs.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as the Yanomami in South America.[50].Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. SACN states. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. for a typical adult.

[51] In the United States. One manufacturer. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia.1g sodium). These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). Those who have kidney failure. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.6g sodium). When other health claims are made about a food (e.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). which will increase potassium intake. Low is 0. "low". a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.). without recourse to salt substitutes.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1.crazychefs. or Green (Low). Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia.'[55] Campaigns In 2004. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. calories.5g salt per 100g (or 0." In the UK. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. Australia. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. Amber (Medium).[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0.300 mg of sodium (= 2. etc. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. LoSalt.8 g salt) per day. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day.[57] In March http://www. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a . then that is a medium level of salt.3 g sodium = 5.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. low in fat.

in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. called halite. and Canada (12.5). 5. http://www. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. Notes 1. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "Salt". and by mining rock salt.3). In http://www. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. Catholic Encyclopedia. 7.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. 3.wikisource. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). the top five producers being the United States (40. Eplerenone and Inspra. Triamterene. 6. 2. Dytac. Answers. India (14. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). Retrieved 2008-12-14. 8.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride.3 million tonnes). The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. 1913. Germany (17. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application.9). ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. China (32. New York: Robert Appleton .answers.crazychefs. http://en. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. Costs can reach staggering amounts. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. 4th edition". and Hall in Austria.7). such as brine wells and salt lakes.

^ Gary Taubes. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. salt history. 14 August 1998. salt . salt 898 . Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. ISBN 9780309056663. 28.newton.interscience. Victoria) Salt 34. salt history. Retrieved 2008-07-29. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ References on food salt & health issues. no. Salt Institute. salt manufacture. Fall/Winter 2006 10. ^ a b http://news.saltsense.htm 19. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. "The (Political) Science of Salt". ^ HE-620 http://www. Kuemmel (1994). Ask a Scientist.Weather Curriculum Retrieved 2009-0708. ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. sodium. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt.crazychefs. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". pp.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. Transportation Research 16.9% sodium chloride 25. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". ^ B. 10. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www.907 37.wiley.htm. p. 5379. 281. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23.roskill. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. 11. Mason (2006-12-19). 14. http://www. ^ Iodized Salt 32. ^ Nauticus . 38. sodium.dep. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. ^ Table 27. ^ 15. 2008 29. J. Epikouria Magazine. http://books. salt uses. ^ What is Salt?. ^ Iodized Salt Retrieved 200907-08. ^ David A. Salt Institute. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www.9. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ Salt made the world go round Science.pdf 33.

S. http://www. Salt: A World History. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". 2006.005 48. ^ U. Putnam's Sons. Feldman. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. New York: Walker & Co. (accessed13 January 2007) 49.W..crazychefs. Sodium 52. ^ Cook NR. 62. ^ Susan R. Published online 2005. New York: W. doi:10.2004. Cutler JA. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. ^ Salt Matters 60. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt.a01. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP).legalmed. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. The Mummies of Ürümchi. D. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. Mark (2002). Schindler. The Story of Salt. Obarzanek E et al.1915040902051820.40. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57.06. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. Mark. New NY: G.P. OCLC 48426519. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical John Wiley & Sons. Inc. 28 January 2008.pub2 References Kurlansky. OCLC http://www. ISBN 0393320197. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) . and S.1002/ ISBN 0802713734. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. Erwin Koops. 61.1016/j. 7. 47-50. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. Legal Medicine 2005. Barber. doi:10. BMJ. Elizabeth Wayland (1999).uk/cash/.334(7599):885.hyp. Further reading Kurlansky. Sodium chloride. http://www. ^ Understanding labels 55. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. ^ Salt TV ads 59. Friedrich Schulz. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. Victoria) Fluid retention 46.. 2007. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. Norton & Co.

153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. 2001. Salt: Grain of Life. New York: Columbia University Press. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy .com .talk by Dr Trevor Beard. Arts and traditions of the table. Pierre.crazychefs. The Stationery Office. Department of Health. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters .Laszlo. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round.

net/ . This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes.crazychefs.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. the Philippines and Singapore. phrik thai. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. phrik khi nu(lit. such as Cambodia. Malaysia. Indonesia. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for http://www. Vietnam. It can also be found in India. found commonly in Thailand. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. mainly Kerala. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. as well as in neighbouring countries.

" " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. Although small in size compared to other types of http://www. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. "Big things come in small . but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia.000 to 100. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50.crazychefs. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries." which can best be described by the English equivalent. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

has peppers that point upward on the plant. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). Thai hot. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. Siling Labuyo (Filipino)" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. creating a rainbow effect. The more decorative.As well as the Malay word. and among the group of capsicum annuum. but slightly less pungent variety. orange. Ladâ. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). phrik khii nuu ( . sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. and then . Thai).com http://www. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). and go from green to yellow.crazychefs. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan.

Celeriac has a celery flavour. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in .' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. or used in casseroles. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. about the size of a large potato. which store a large amount of starch. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. Unlike other root http://www. it can also be used on its own. furrowed. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. It is a kind of celery. usually mashed. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. It has a tough. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves.crazychefs. gratins and baked dishes. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked.

Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. 'Ibis'.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 1. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. Among them are 'Prinz'.net/ . There are a number of cultivars available.6 g 9.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. Celeriac soup. rinsed. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 1.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. and 'Kojak'. 'Diamant'. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2 g . which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in http://www.crazychefs. Celeriac.3 g 1. especially in Europe.

or brinjal (Solanum melongena). As a nightshade. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. aubergine. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger.crazychefs. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. The stem is often spiny.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. and see text The eggplant. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It bears a fruit of the same http://www. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. Pakistan and Sri . to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. The flowers are white to purple.

with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. from Arabic al-badinjan. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. In Indian and South African English. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. The name aubergine. History Solanum melongena.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. used in the United States. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. which are edible. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah).[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. but much larger in cultivated forms. The name eggplant. flower The plant is native to India." Aubergine and brinjal. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. New http://www. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". which is used in British English.crazychefs. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's . In the Caribbean Trinidad. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. Australia. and contains numerous small. 1500 CE. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. The fruit is fleshy. soft seeds.

net/ . and Tycoon. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. Classic. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. especially purple. whiteskinned. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. or white. There are even orange varieties.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are http://www.crazychefs. Dusky. and Black Beauty. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Ichiban. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Pingtung Long. Burpee Hybrid. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. green. Black Magic. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. slightly pendulous cucumber. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Some cultivars have a color gradient. Traditional. in white skin Dourga. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. shape and color. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. A much wider range of shapes.

as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. as they are far less bitter. allowing for very rich dishes. rice. chutney. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. or tamarind. along with the fish Hilsa. It can be sliced. tahini. it is called Begun ( ). and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a . and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. peanuts. as in the French ratatouille. or other fillings and then http://www. The thin skin is also edible. In Bangladesh. and masala and then cooked in oil. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. tomatoes. In one dish. and garlic. The fruit flesh is smooth. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. for example. battered. It is often stewed. It. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. the Arabian moussaka. complex flavor. as in the related tomato. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. for example in sambhar. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. In Iranian cuisine. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. or Eggplant Parmesan. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. tahini. braised (紅燒茄子). stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). curries. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. and deep-fried. so that peeling is not required. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. As a native plant. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. In some parts of India. In the Caucasus.crazychefs. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. and achaar.

and spider mites. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. and potato. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. For this http://www.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. containing both female and male structures. Flowers are complete. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing . are also troublesome to eggplants. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. showing the inside. flea beetle. depending on cultivar. This is called Beguni ( ). such as tomato.) to 60 cm (24 in. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. pepper (capsicum). though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control.) between plants. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. aphids. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives.) between rows. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. the most serious of which is Verticillium. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed.crazychefs. Egypt. (Adults can be removed by hand.

B2) 0.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates . B1) .788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world. F = FAO estimate.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.043. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. raw Nutritional value per 100 g ( http://www.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Sugars 2.Dietary fiber 3. P = official figure.19 g 1.039 mg 5.35 g . Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. New Jersey is the largest producing state.7 g 0.[5] In the United States.(2. semi-official or estimates).

while 1. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours.crazychefs.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been .[8] On average. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines. However. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. B3) 0.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.01 mg/100g). Brazil. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking.084 mg Folate (Vit.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a http://www.Niacin (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.16 mg Manganese 0.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

oblongo-cylindricum. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. esculentum. globosi. brownii. Solanum longum Roxb. ovigera. luteum. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties.F. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. rumphii. variegatum. edule. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. capsicoides). such as agreste. multifidum. http://www. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. leucoum. . that of Blanco to S. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. inerme. mainly by Dikii. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. Scopoli's S. and (invalidly) by Sweet. On the other hand. trongum. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best.crazychefs. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. But this is not correct. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium).C. Similarly. ovigerum and S. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. violaceum and viride. ruber. H. racemosum. album.-Lag. There is an actual S. lasiocarpum. Names for various eggplant types.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. subrepandum. aethiopicum. esculentum. S.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. aethiopicum. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. Solanum oviferum Salisb. divaricatum. which used to include Dunal's S. insanum. tongdongense. sinuatorepandum. stenoleucum.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. racemiflorum.Varieties Solanum melongena var. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. giganteum. inerme and subinerme at that time.

2. D. Handbook of Food . Footnotes http://www. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology".Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. CRC Press. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. ISBN 1574445510. ^ Doijode. and Engineering by Yiu H.crazychefs. common. (2001). Hui (2006). S. Technology.

18(1): 59-62 13.Aubergine 8. Erich Hornbach.crazychefs. 7. Domino. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. Harish Babu * . ^ Edward F. 5. Dieges PH. ^ SN Pramod. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). Robert (2008-11-14).133(42):2081-3 ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. Mahesh † and Y. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. The New England Journal of Medicine. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. P. Andréa Thomaz. Volume 329:437 August 5. volume 82 (nº 3). Vol. P. 1993 Number 6 9. 2008-11-11. Toorenenbergen AW. ^ Kabashima K. http://pubs.50(2):101-102 11. Ebury Press. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. 2008 .3. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. Retrieved 2007-04-24.caes. Bruno Caramelli. 6. ^ Westerfield. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. A. http://faostat. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25.uga. pp. Arq Bras Cardiol. FAO.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). ^ "FAOSTAT".* YP Venkatesh. Tsenge Demana. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.) reveals female 273-6.pdf. ^ Solanum melongena var. 2004. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. Miyachi Y. ^ Health24. 202 4. ^ B. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena http://www. Retrieved 2009-07-01. . Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite.fao.

4–0. yellow. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. The tomato is native to South America. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. and have a weak. woody stem that often vines over other plants.8 in) across. syn. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red http://www. odd pinnate. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual.crazychefs. It is a perennial. One species.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. see section Fruit or vegetable below). with a serrated . Solanum lycopersicum.

corn and salt. the other by currant tomatoes.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. who named it pomo d‘oro. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. They also took it to the . and cultivation began in the 1540s. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. tomatl. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. meaning plump thing with a navel. a barber-surgeon. likely to be the original salsa recipe. was the first European to take back the tomato. However. in certain areas of Italy. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. golden apple. earlier in 1493. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. a mutation from a smoother. such as Florence. smaller vegetable .was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans.crazychefs. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. means "wolf-peach". an Italian physician and botanist. now Mexico City in 1521. lycopersicum. lumpy tomato.[4] The large.[6] Gerard's Herbal.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. according to Smith. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. ancestor of L.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. cerasiforme. The exact date of domestication is not known. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. The specific name. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. However. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. originated and was encouraged in http://www.

Currently. but the fruit is safe). In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. broths. By the mid-18th century. sent some seeds back to America. who ate tomatoes in Paris. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina.largely plagiarized from continental sources.crazychefs. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets.[6] But by the mid-1700s. The C. and before the end of that century. The Spanish tomato dish. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. ―within the last forty years. several states in the US Sun Belt became major . monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. Paella. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. In Victorian times. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. Thomas Jefferson. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1799 – c. The University of California. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker.[6] Nonetheless. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. Gerard's views were influential. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. and in general. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. a pioneer in tomato genetics research.M. and to the market gardens south of Chichester.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. British consul in Aleppo c. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). http://www. and as a garnish. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. California. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. particularly Florida and California. Charles M. most famously in Worthing. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. Over the past 15 years.

S.crazychefs. followed by United States and Turkey.[12] According to FAOSTAT.8 in) size as the wild tomato. through cherry tomatoes. orange. California accounts for 90% of U. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. and have a lower water content. or white fruit are also available. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. pink. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. production and 35% of world production. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. It may be deleted after Friday.6–2.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. they are known as plum tomatoes. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. 18 September 2009.4–0. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. black. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. For processing tomatoes. but a number of cultivars with yellow. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions.0–2.4 in) diameter range. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. about 5mm in diameter. green. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in http://www. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . China. Most cultivars produce red fruit. the largest producer.0 in) diameter. purple.

along with zucchini. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or . globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. as well as heirloom tomatoes. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . plum tomatoes.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf http://www. As in most sectors of agriculture. and are shaped like large strawberries.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. but unlike commercial hybrids. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories.[18] and productivity. based mostly on shape and size. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and.crazychefs. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes.[19] Hybrid plants remain common.

Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. including Brandywine (biggest red).[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes.especially heirlooms . Burracker's Favorite. Red Boar). As an intermediate form. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. orange. disease and pest resistance. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. brown. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. etc. ivory. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. Green Zebra (top right). some tomato cultivars .produce fruit in colors other than red. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. pink. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. they are often good choices for container growing. Black Krim (lower left corner). Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. but must be bought as seed. Lucky Cross).net/ . but are smaller than plum tomato. or bush. or home growers interested in canning. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. http://www. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. often via mail-order. and purple.crazychefs. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. white. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. A variety of specific cultivars. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars.cherry tomatoes are small and round. including yellow. which usually discourages fruit set. low acidity. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. although some determinate heirlooms exist. et cetera. multiple colors (Hillbilly. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). and lack of mealiness. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. Determinate. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool.

ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. their traditional pollinators. entirely within the closed corolla. In the wild.alternaria. red spider mite. tomato fruitworms. FF . Some common tomato pests are stink http://www. As a floral device to reduce selfing. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. which interrupts the lifecycle. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. T . too. As the name implies.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. The stamens were. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. and A . but manure or compost work well. carried by the beet leafhopper. tomatoes required cross-pollination. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. slugs. and remain. aphids. The most common letters are: V . The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. flea beetles. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas.tobacco mosaic virus. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars.verticillium wilt. cabbage loopers.fusarium wilt strain I. cutworms.fusarium wilt strain I & II.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. F . Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top.crazychefs. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. N nematodes.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow . whiteflies. original state. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production.

In an outside setting.crazychefs. or more often today. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. They may be recognized by their color. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. In more temperate climates. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. depending on variety. Unripe tomatoes are firm. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. However. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. by cultured bumblebees. This is not the same as self-pollination.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. despite the common claim that tomatoes do .com http://www. as with most species. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant.

Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. especially in cooked tomatoes. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). anthocyanin.crazychefs. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. They contain lycopene. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. as tomato sauce. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. and other antioxidants. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich).6 g 4g .com http://www.Recently. Though it is botanically a berry.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". in pieces. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. In some studies lycopene. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium).[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and . there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue).Sugars 2. or paste. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. carotene. a subset of fruit. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). The tomato is acidic.

make salsa. Of regular leaves. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. and grow as a series of branching stems. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes).net/ . Spain. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. it will not continue to ripen.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. fully functional. although erect bush varieties have been bred. meaning covered with fine short hairs. They are bred to continue ripening. Known for its tomato growth and production. When that tip eventually stops growing.5 °F). whether because of pruning or flowering. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture.5 °C (54. These hairs facilitate the vining process. Embracing it for this protest connotation. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature.crazychefs. or pickled. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. there are variations.[28] In October 1965. generally three feet tall or shorter. annually celebrates La http://www. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. lateral buds take over and grow into other. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. often by sun. such as rugose leaves.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. vines. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. initially decumbent. The fruit is also preserved by drying. Tomato plants are dicots. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. Determinate types are annual in all climates. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands).[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil.

com http://www. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. with both names found in the literature. plus 'persicum'. 'lyco'. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. Similarly. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). genetic evidence (e. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. As a true fruit. moths. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. among cultivated species. making the Linnaean name correct. according to type.. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. peach. (derivation. Other species in that family are potatoes. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs.e. These vary. wolf. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. would be more correct. other insects. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. . angora leaves. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination.[31] Their flowers.crazychefs. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. and be dried/fermented before germination. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. i. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. which frequently used it and still do). Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities.) H. tobacco. However. chili peppers. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). while paste tomatoes have very few. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Technically. variegated. Despite this.deeply grooved. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style.g. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). Therefore. called locular cavities. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. "wolf-peach"). This is because they are native to the Americas. have the anthers fused along the edges. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L.Karst.[32] while others are pollinated by flies.. or other external forces that present in the Americas. appearing on the apical meristem. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. very small cavities. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. butterflies. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit.

180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. corporations. Bejoseed. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. and numerous other traits. pest tolerance. http://www.S. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. Hedden (149 U. together with its seeds. However. AVRDC. In 1887. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. In 2006. As noted above. of Reynoldsburg. U. as are vegetables. cucumbers. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. flavor.S. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North . tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. 1883. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. Ohio. Monsanto. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. a tomato is the ovary.S. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. U. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. and organizations. shape. New York. University breeding programs are active in Florida. 304)). Livingston.W. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. universities. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts.crazychefs. color. North Carolina. etc. from a culinary standpoint.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. The U. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. disease tolerance. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. BHNSeed. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. A. However. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it.S. Corporations including Heinz. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. size. nutritional value.

Speakers from the British Isles."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Connecticut. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. On October 30.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. New Hampshire. however. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. stems. Kentucky. North Carolina. which is toxic to humans and animals.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). Rhode Island. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. http://www. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. 2006. The fresh fruit is.S. the U.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. Virginia.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato . and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. Ohio. Minnesota. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Pennsylvania. Tennessee. Massachusetts. Michigan. harmless. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. contain the poison Solanine. Georgia. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . Indiana. Vermont and Wisconsin.crazychefs. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes.

Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow.84 pounds (522 kg). It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. New Mexico (98).151.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. Yong Huang.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. the District of Columbia. and Canada.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder.8 m (65 ft) length. with . Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. Florida.[38] As of July 8.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. French and Germans. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. fresh serrano pepper. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115. Lake Buena Vista. Oklahoma in 1986. it caused at least one death." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. and fresh cilantro. As of July 2008.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. 40. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. and Arizona (49). from April 10. such as raw tomato.1 reported cases per million. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. On August http://www. in 2000.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. UK. discovered the unique plant in Beijing. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. with a harvest of more than 32.000 kilograms (250. Illinois (100).[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. 2008. China. fresh jalapeño pepper.crazychefs.7 and 16. 2008.S. Lancashire. 2007. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far. one would arrive at an estimated 40.273 illnesses from this outbreak. the U.6:1). of the cultivar 'Delicious'. respectively.

Fusarium.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium.S. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. indeterminate. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern . Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large http://www.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. Derived from Cherokee Purple.S. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially.

Tomato plants in the garden. http://www. in Korea.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Tomato Flower. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. good for Tomatoes on a vine. Young tomato plant. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato . Tomato slices.crazychefs. .Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

aspx?PageID=567 it handles more than 1. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus ^ a b Hartz. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian I. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". Smith. page 57: ". Subsection Lycopersicon). 8. http://www. The tomato in America: early history. p. (1994). Andrew F (1994). Peralta. 2008. ^ "http://www. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. USA: University of South Carolina ^ "C. T. et al.smithsonianmag.easthamptonstar. po.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. 1994.nationalarchives. (2002-0508)". ^ The Friend.smithsonianmag. 2002-05-08. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. bid/6280/Default. During the three months of the local harvest. Cyphomandra.crazychefs. Processing Tomato Production in California. University of Illinois Press. 7. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. Retrieved December 11 2009.html. Appleton and Co. 6.Food & Wine".universityofcalifornia. Tgrc. http://www. (2001). and cookery. Retrieved 2008-10-27. October 519 [1] 9. 12.five tons to the acre. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. 1876. Retrieved December 11 . ^ Tomato history 4. 2. E. Wettst. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. webpage: books-google-TTp17. 2009-01-26. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History.The East Hampton Star .html". Andrew F. ISBN 1-57003000-6.Your Archives". 3. Easthamptonstar. ^ http://www. ^ "UC Newsroom. Appletons' journal Published by D.C. D. 13. http://www. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon.17. G. (2002)." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2009-04-02. p.aspx. ISBN 0252-07009-7. Yourarchives.html". Footnotes 1. http://yourarchives. http://tgrc." 15. S. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). 223 10. Columbia. 1881.ucdavis. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. culture. ^ "http://www. 5. The Tomato in America. ^ a b section Lycopersicon Mill. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world.ucdavis. http://www. & Spooner. and Cookery. F. p." See: Natural History Horticulture: Principles and Practices.. ^ Acquaah.

edu/hyg-fact/5000/5532. http://www. 33.html.stm. Retrieved http://www.html 23.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ 27. 24. Retrieved July 14.osu.html. Ohioline. Retrieved 200810-27. ^".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 25. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and 21.gob.16. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention".edu. ^ http://www.smithsonianmag.html. ^ "http://www. http://www.html.html". Retrieved Retrieved 2009-04-02.eurekalert. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa".umn. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens fungi such as fusarium and verticillium.html.gob. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. 26. http://www.umn. http://www. Plb. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".kr.html" http://www.sinaloa.smithsonianmag. ^ " and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007). The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only page 57: "The plants are still growing.html". http://wwwplb. 2006. http://www. ^ "Crop Profiles .whfoods.osu.cornell. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato http://news.Tomato". ^ In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.ufseeds.html. "Tomato genome project gets $ http://www. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. http://ohioline. Retrieved 200705-24. HYG-5532-93". which are carried in the wind." 19. Retrieved December 11 2009. .plants. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more.html. Retrieved December 11 2009. Retrieved June ^ "http://www." 20.smithsonianmag. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. http://faq. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian ^ "Selecting." 22. Retrieved ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. Retrieved December 11 2009. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".crazychefs. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". 28. 32. http://www. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". 31. Retrieved 2007-05-24. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.gardenweb.smithsonianmag. Vegparadise. ^ "August 40. Retrieved 2008-10-27.cdc. Retrieved 2009-0721. Cbsnews. ISBN 1879906546. et al. 38:S3. ANR Publications. 42. ^ Voetsch. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". Tomato Recipe".com. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". http://www. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www.1086/381578.journals.html. 2007-08-30. http://www. ^ a b Pittenger. United States. (2004-04-15).foodsafetynetwork.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419& Retrieved 2008-1027. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Itn. ^ " Retrieved ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". Retrieved 2008-10-27. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . Nationalpost. Dennis Retrieved 2008-10-27. (2002).com/highestperch8. http://itn. Retrieved 200904-02. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".com News". Foodsafetynetwork. 37. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. California Master Gardener Handbook.html? "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States" by state". 35. 39. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak.vegparadise.crazychefs. p. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History.cbsnews. Tomato Nutrition. 643.shtml. http://www. 38. http://www. 41.

2 and 0. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. extracted oleoresins. argentea from New Guinea. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica . In Indonesia. or sliced finely.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. Species About 100 species. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices.6 to 0. called selei buah pala. a state in the south part of India.4 oz) dried. called Jaiphal in Hindi.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. malabarica from India.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. nutmeg and http://www. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. and Bombay Nutmeg M. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. including essential oils. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. the fruit is also made into jam. fragrans products.crazychefs. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. both are used as adulterants of M.7 in) wide. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. especially in Grenada. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. and nutmeg butter (see below). It also grows in Kerala. or Spice Islands.

it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. green. In Indian cuisine. and Barbados rum punch. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater).[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine.crazychefs. In European cuisine. "Lau Hau Peng". saffronlike hue it imparts. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat http://www. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. sauces. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a . nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. mulled wine. and string beans. Painkiller. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. and baked goods. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Penang cuisine. they are also used in soups. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. In Arabic. In the Caribbean. cauliflower. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. and eggnog.

and smells and tastes of nutmeg. preserving agents.crazychefs. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. It is semi-solid. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. although this is disputed. and sweets. The oil is colourless or light yellow. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval . in http://www. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. medicines. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. used as flavourings. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. syrups. reddish brown in colour. 758 – ca. for instance. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. which can be turned into myristic acid. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. beverages. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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Fermented products such as soy sauce. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties." However.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. yeast . or molasses. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. Canned. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. sugar beets. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. sugar cane.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. autolyzed yeast. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. it also said that. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. and protein isolate. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. About 1. particularly processed foods.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. However. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. hydrolyzed yeast. soy extracts. frozen. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. based on anecdotal http://www.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. and were not observed when MSG was given with food.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. being an amino acid. not reproducible. with 4% annual growth expected. steak sauce.crazychefs.

and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. Steven (August 2003). age 40–59 years. In the hydrolysis method. In 1993.html 2. flavour enhancer).2. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids.celiac.7% women). In the 2004 version of his book. On Food and Cooking. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. acidification. Drugs. such as hydrolyzed protein. 373-375. "Monosodium Glutamate".g. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. Foster. New York: Wiley. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet .crazychefs. [monosodium glutamate]. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate.. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. References 1. concentration.. MSG. For this reason. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). (2) synthesis. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate and Cosmetics (2nd ed.g. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. 621. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies].com http://www. pp. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. Albert Y. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. and crystallization. ^ Leung.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. and converted to its monosodium salt. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. ^ http://www. purified. even in large amounts. and (3) microbial fermentation.).". or its International Numbering System (INS) number.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. and mineral ions and growth factors. followed by either the name of the food additive. dextrose or citrate).

"Monosodium Glutamate". ^ a b Rundlett.nutrition.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. Zhou.3. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". ^ http://www. Case study: monosodium glutamate". 14. 277–282. 1875–1880. (1993). PMID 10736382. doi:10. Armstrong.2005. Stamler.a16 711. Regul.nytimes. 38–49.274. PMID 8282275.jstor. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Daniel W (1994). Guo. (April 2000). Nutr. 15. 10.. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Daniel.2008. the Secret Behind the Savor". PMID 18497735. Yamaguchi. 7. ^ a b Tarasoff L. http://www. Kelly Zhu.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract.1038/oby.00160. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121..1999. "A Short History of MSG".1337. Anjimoto Co. Linguang. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. . Martha L. ^ "Production process". 6. Masahiro. J.1002/chir. ^ http://vm. doi:10. Chiaki. ^ Walker R (October 1999). ^ http://www.ncbi.html?_r=1&oref=slogin.nih. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. 8.1006/rtph.1111/j.17457599. Julia (2008-03-05). http://www. ^ http://www. MSG. Inc. doi:10. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ^ a b Geha RS. Liancheng. New York Times.1002/14356007. Van Horn. Pharmacol. Chirality 6 (4): pp. Kimber L.2006. PMID 16999713. Jeremiah (August 2008). Dyer. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Wu. PMID 10597625. Toxicol. Zhao. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Ren C. 16. Jordan (2005). (October 2006). ^ He. Garside.530060410. Linda. 11. Shigeru.html 12. et al. 13.crazychefs. Food Chem.4. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods".F. Daviglus.ajinomoto. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review".com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute. ^ Freeman M.1525/gfc. Sano. Shizuko (2005).cfsan. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): http://www.pdf 9. ^ Moskin. doi:10. "Yes. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.ajinomoto.html Beiser A.38. Beifan. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. http://www. ^ Sand.nlm. Alan R. ^ Kawakita. Dongshuang. Ka. Takehara. Tetsuya. doi:10.

Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. 酱油 http://www.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy . 荳油 3.crazychefs. 豆油 3. 醬油 2.

Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji.500 years. and salt.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. Soy sauce was invented in China. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the . The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. water. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2.[3] In the 18th century. [4] By the mid-19th http://www. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. In its various forms. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods.crazychefs.

the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味.net/ . which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. sojae) and other related microorganisms. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. literally "delicious taste").crazychefs. such as in giant urns and under the sun. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Today. Although there are many types of soy sauce.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China.

thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. Another type. fragrance and saltiness.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. It has a richer. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. since it is saltier. shuānghuáng (雙璜). Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. like extra virgin olive oil. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Despite their rather similar appearance. with relatively low amounts of other grains. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. An additional classification of light soy sauce.crazychefs. and Chinese cuisine. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. slightly sweeter. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). one of the two types. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. pinyin: jiàngyóu. opaque. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Thai. ): A thin (nonviscous). It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under . In traditional Chinese cooking.3-DCP (1. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. or a mixture of both. Since it is lighter in color. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. lighter brown soy http://www. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. traditional Chinese: 醬油. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. consistency. Korean. but it also adds flavour. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. Touchōu is sold at a premium because.

wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. It contains little or no wheat. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. Usukuchi (淡口?. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. Shiro (白?. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. that is used in its production. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. or 醤油).Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of . is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. Technically. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. where it is known as "shōyu". 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. for example sashimi. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate".crazychefs. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. In contrast to "tamari" soy http://www.

Amakuchi (甘口?. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process.Saishikomi (再仕込?. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. Tokkyū (特級?) Special http://www. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. not pasteurized. 1 litre bottles. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized.crazychefs. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". it is much darker and more strongly flavored. . Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product.

usually implies limited quantity.crazychefs. It is a unique variety. which has a thick. In Indonesia. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. powder. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy . which is very similar to Chinese light soy http://www. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. in a pinch. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

"foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce.crazychefs.4% of soy sauce purchases. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Founded in 1909. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油).[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste).Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. Malaysia.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Later. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. uses the word 'kicap' for soy . traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. thin and dark brown in color. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and http://www. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). O'Long(黑龍). Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). WanJaShan(萬家香). dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). (called Joseon ganjang. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. is made entirely of soy and brine. lit. Joseon ganjang. 조선간장. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊).

and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. wheat.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans.crazychefs. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. It can also be very salty. China. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. pronounced SOO-kah). Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14].[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. it is also a table condiment.3-DCP (1. salt. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime).net/ . or sometimes simply tương.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh).com http://www. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces.[6] Furthermore. nước tương. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. and caramel.

Isaac. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. p.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. 2. No.asp?id=7598 10. Individuals with a wheat A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. 7.Kong and Taiwan. Lee Kum Kee. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce.miyajimasoy."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. ^ Press release. Kimlan. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. ^ http://www. including six samples with up to Golden Mark. Retrieved ^ Tanaka. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea".aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Golden Swan. OCLC 9752305 5.crazychefs.317 2.gmp. http://www. 3. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed".[citation needed] In Vietnam. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. Tung Chun and Seong-Gook (2002). 7. Pearl River Bridge. 2 (January 2000). p. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. Celiac disease.htm. 6.tcoc. (1781). the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20).) In March 2008. 4. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). the leaflet does include oyster sauce. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. ^ Tanaka. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce").tw/60anniversary/century-gofun. ^ http://www. Norio. . III. ^ 2nd edition. marinades and other types of sauces. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. Despite these being small in number in the UK.000 to 18.[1] Notes 1. Sinsin.smartfood. an increase over 23 to 5. ^ Jung. XXVII. Jammy Chai. Soon Teck• and http://www. ^ http://www. 6.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. pp. King Imperial. Retrieved 200801-07.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. 8." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. 9. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. Vol.

PMID 12469319. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. Florence. Retrieved 2008-01-07. chemical veggies -.nutraingredients. Hoboken. Kentucky: CRC Press. doi:10. Fereidoon. et al. 103. ISBN 1587161389. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". http://www. fermentation and micro-organisms.2323/jgam. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 0632059877. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. 12. Marian (2003) 15. 18. Makio (2005-04-18). 14. ^ Daniells. 186. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce".48.11. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". http://books. 16. ^ Toxic soy sauce. p. ^ Tanasupawat. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. ^ Kobayashi. PMID 16198255. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public .201. ^ Shahidi. Somboon (2002-06-18). Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. Stephen (2006-06-06).asp? scares hit Vietnam 20. Edition 2.144. nutraingredients. doi:10.1263/jbb. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for http://www. Naczk. p. Charles W (2005). ^

5–20.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.3–3.0% Stearic acid: 0.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.5% Linoleic acid: 3.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.crazychefs.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 211 | P a g e http://www.5–5.3% Myristic acid: <0.5–21.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.9150–0.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.0–83.9180 (@ 15.0% Arachidic acid: < .4677–1.8% Behenic acid: <0.5 °C) 84 cP 1.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Leccino Pendolino. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics.[3] Of the European production. Olive oil is used throughout the world. and Manzanilla de Jaén.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. Alberquina. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . 93% comes from Spain. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.crazychefs. Picholine. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production.6 (refined and pomace) 0. Australia. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. which produce approximately 350. Hojiblanca. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world http://www. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. Koroneiki. and Moraiolo. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. In 2006. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. family Oleaceae). World production in 2002 was 2. cosmetics. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives.4680–1. in France. in Greece. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. North Africa and the Near East. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. as well as in Crete. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands.000 tons of olive oil annually. principally Italy.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. Italy and Greece. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. Japan and China. but especially in the Mediterranean. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms).[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%.6 million tonnes. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. pharmaceuticals.

[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. The USDA uses a different http://www. IOOC terminology is precise. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. Spain. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. and by its flavor. and monitoring authenticity.600. with 23 member states. Oblica and Leccino. Spain.crazychefs.California. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method).000 US gallons (181. The California Olive Oil Council.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. by its chemistry. and Turkey.000 m3) came from Italy. often in "prestige" packaging. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. After extraction the remnant solid substance. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Spain. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. In North America. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. in Portugal. Galega. defining quality standards. of which 34. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. a private trade group. in Croatia. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. with production increasing to meet demand. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. The US imported 47. still contains a small quantity of oil. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC .000 US gallons (131. Mission. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest.800. called pomace.

" arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. but there are no guarantees. mostly hexane. for blended oils.[15] Under EU .[12] In some cases. but safe. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. is extremely lax and corrupt. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. 25. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. of free oleic acid it contains. it is believed.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior.[16] In April 2008. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil.crazychefs. Almost 700 people died. product as superior olive oil. particularly in Italy. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer.[14] In February 2008. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. however. both in Italy and abroad. defined as the percent. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids).[14] In March 2008. measured by weight. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. EU officials took issue with the new law. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. and by http://www.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation.

and are based on acidity. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. Pure olive oil. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. The US is not a member.3 grams per 100 grams (0. but may not be described simply as olive oil. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. This is also called its organoleptic quality. It has a free . of not more than 0. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. has an acidity less than 2%. contains no more than 0. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical http://www. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. and is judged to have a good taste.8% acidity. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps.5% acidity.crazychefs. another cause of rancidity. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only.the oil degrades. The U. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. Used on salads. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. It is fit for consumption. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. In order to classify it by taste. and is judged to have a superior taste. of no more than 1. These grades were established in 1948. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. expressed as oleic acid.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level.S. absence of defects. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil.

[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.S.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning.S. U.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.S. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.S.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive http://www. This is incorrect. (34 kJ/ml).[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. Grade D or U. with less flavour. U. Grade A or U. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very . All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. Grade C".[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. U. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.S. Grade C or U. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. "cold" does not define any precise temperature. Grade B or U. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.U. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label.5% and is "reasonably free from defects".4% and is "free from defects". which may be as low as 10-15 °C. First of all.0% and is "fairly free from defects".S.S.S. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means.S.

2 7 1.7 11. Spain and Italy.35 23. around 8 l. so the term "first press" is meaningless. over 26 liters per year.crazychefs. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated http://www. Portugal and Lebanon.pressed". Tunisia.1 1. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil.62 12. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 0.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. around .8 7. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13.7 l. around 14 l. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.

2. 1. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. which is much faster and more accurate. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. which are stacked on top of each other in a . 3. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. This is done in specialised chemical http://www. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". no or very little organoleptic defects). Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water).34 1.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. Green olives produce bitter oil.crazychefs. suggesting a different taste. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. not in the oil mills. If ground with mill stones. After grinding. 4. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). After grinding. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. then placed into the press.

In the United States. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty fat <1.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g . Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.7%) and sterols (about 0. The composition varies by cultivar.5 g .crazychefs.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. region.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. To achieve this possible . time of harvest.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). including oleocanthal and oleuropein. most notably oleic fat 3.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. and extraction process. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. altitude.polyunsaturated 11 g .monounsaturated 73 g .

while not having any impact on omega-3 fats.crazychefs. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. in the long term. During the first stage. This could. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. rather than its fatty acid profile. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity.This decision was announced November 1. During the second phase.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. It is theorized that.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive http://www.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. This way. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. antithrombotic. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. For example. at least in part. The study was conducted in two stages. and oleuropein. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. 2004.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles.[32] and may be a factor in preventing . they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols.

One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. Also. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. A very fresh oil. etc. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. For example. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available . When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. blenders. oils deteriorate and become stale. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. not for foods to be eaten cold.[citation needed]. Olive oil has more uses than just http://www. Also. like salads.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Used cold. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. In time. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference.crazychefs. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. cookware. as available in an oil producing region. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground.

it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory . castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. acting as a stool softener.crazychefs. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. It does have demulcent properties. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. It is also good for the management of pain.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. and mild laxative http://www. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM).

oleum "oil.. Besides .crazychefs. magical. from L.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. oile (12c. Mod. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. http://www." In ancient Greece. from Gk. olie. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. from O. soap-making. Homer called it "liquid gold. olive oil.Fr.Fr. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. and skin care application. from Anglo-Fr. 1175. huile). medicines.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". olive oil" (cf. olio). probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. drawn and engraved by J. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as a fuel in oil lamps.Fr. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. elaion "olive tree".N. and O.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power.

wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of . It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. Bodrum. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.crazychefs. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. In the centuries that followed.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the http://www. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC).[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. olive presses became common. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times).

000 tons of olive oil per season. oil containers are preferred.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. Lebanon. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states.crazychefs.[citation needed]. together with naked appearance of athletes. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). and area consisting of present day Palestine. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt.000 and 3. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. during the 13th century BC. According to the historian Pliny. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. the fertile crescent.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean http://www. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC.. stored in special containers. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. when the oil had risen to the top. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron).[dubious – discuss] During this time. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization.[46] Until 1500 BC. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. "the best in the Mediterranean". Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. Sinuhe. drained the water from the bottom. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. and .over 4. he maintained. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. where it is thought to have represented wealth. wrote of abundant olive trees. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. According to legend. allowing more time for more oil to be made. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to.

net/ . Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. 3."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. ^ International Olive Oil Council. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. its oil almost glows. and this secure city. the tourch is in a glass". Joann L Coviello. ^ "findarticles. http://www. ANR Publications." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. and. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). ^ G.internationaloliveoil.usda. in the consecration of altars and churches.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them.PDF. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. 158. Retrieved 2007-05-25. To douse the neither Eastern nor Western. http://findarticles. Retrieved 2007-05-25. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. 4. 2. "The Olive Tree.html. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". Margaret Lindstrand (2005). the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. References 1. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. Retrieved 2008-07-04. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). p. In Islam. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. ^ USDA. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. ^ USDA. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. Olive Production http://www. Steven Sibbett. http://www. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. and the Mount of Sinai.imitate the original Menorah.gourmetretailer. traditionally. 5. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF).crazychefs. even without fire touching A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings." He also stated that it cures 70 Louise http://www. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. originating from King David. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". light upon light.

Giammanco. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". http://www. 18. November 2. ^ "". ^ Riding. Retrieved 2008-11-16. M. 14. 20.scotsman. ^ "www. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. 10. ^ "www.".southafrica. Raymond & Co. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. Menotti A. F948260.html".nytimes. http://aje. 2007-08-13.). News". 17.1079/NRR200495 24. Di Majo. US Customs Department. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. ^ New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-16. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. http://www. 19 CFR 134. 11. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". ^ "Eubusiness. http://www. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. 19. Alan (1989-05-21).internationaloliveoil. and Maurizio La Guardia. The New York Times (H.internationaloliveoil.Scotsman.23/. Giammanco. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.htm.46. United States Department of Agriculture. PMID ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.6. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. J. 23.23/. 25. 124 (6): 903–15. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. 55 (3): 175– http://www. http://www.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07.htm". ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. Tom. ^ ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 15. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar". Pharmacol.Telegraph". (December 1986).ams. doi:10. Slippery Business The New Yorker.htm. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). Karvonen MJ.01.xml. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 2004. http://www. 16. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". 12. S. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud .telegraph. ^ a b "Telegraph article". http://www.eubusiness.1016/j. D. ^ a b McGee.telegraph. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". ^ Keys PMID 17321749. ^ Mueller. 98–112 (2005) DOI: . ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council et al.crazychefs.southafrica. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . http://query. http://www. Am. 7. Res. Tabacchi.

2000. PMID 10737284. André Bervillé. Masato Ueda.ama-assn. Vol. A : Bito. Catherine Breton. doi:10. ^ Ehud Galili et al. 1S45-50. (27 March 2000).com http://www. 43. M : Osawa. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Faseb J.v.crazychefs. Marotta T.tchain. Poulsen HE. 2085-2090. ^ Pagnol. 11. Brenes M. et al. Masamitsu Ichihashi. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications.xml. Dello Russo A. (January 2005).html. 19 November 2007 30. pp.1024/0300-9831." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. 55 (3): 680–6. Guida L. ^ Turner R. ^ http://www. ^ [2] Ichihashi. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice.videojug. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. Etienne N. 19. ^ Machowetz A. Suppl. Alonso MG.61. Vargas J. s. ^ "www. but cites no source. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. p. 1: Prevent Cancer. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?.telegraph. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". Carcinogenesis. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea 36. (January 2007). M : 31. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. An Wu.75. ^ Mayo Clinic. JDermatol-Sci. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". T : Ueda. Toshihiko Osawa. Olea europaea L. ^ a b Davidson. ^ Ferrara LA. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". PMID 17110467." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. No.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. 29. 37. PMID 15830923. http://www. ^ "Quite Interesting . ^ Mayo Clinic 32.28. 10. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. Nazim U. doi:10.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". 2000. 38. Toshinori Bito. s..Telegraph". Israel". Vol. 34. Mar. 19.1. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". 21 (1): 45– ." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. Osamu Nikaido. Use Olive Oil. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). Gruendel 39. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. says the 6th millennium in Jericho.". et al.html". 23. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. Ahmed. http://www. "New Year's Resolution No. p. T. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. Raimondi AS. ^ Romero C. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. p. ^ Rosenblum. J Agric Food Chem. Medina E. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ssp. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). Nov. 21. PMID 17263460. d'Episcopo L.tchain. ". "olive" and "oil" 40. Pagnol. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. doi:10. Olives A : Wu. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster.v.1096/fj.1021/jf0630217. N U : Budiyanto. De Castro A (February 2007). 35..06-6328com.

com http://www. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional ^ Nigel M. C. http://www. ed. B. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". Riley.youngmuslims.reshafim. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.htm.htm". "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". Harrington Park Press.crazychefs. Processing Provencal. ^ Thomas Scanlon. 2001.).org.46. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. ^ "www. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe".R. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. pp119–33 50. ^ F.youngmuslims.htm. Verstraete and V. . 2005 49. 47. Kennell.

Saffron has further medicinal applications.crazychefs. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. sativus flower bears three stigmas.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. each the distal end of a carpel. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. ən] / [ˈsæf. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus . A C.or hay-like fragrance. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring http://www. Saffron. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight.Saffron Saffron crocus C. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). crocin.

which means "yellow. in Central Asia. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. as was once generally believed. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. must be dug up. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. and replanted.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). Only in October. It is a sterile triploid form.5 centimetres (1. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves.[11] Upon flowering." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. A corm survives for one season. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when .com http://www.crazychefs. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. broken apart. In autumn. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran.2 in) in length. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. purple buds appear. Being sterile.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower.98–1. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers.

where annual rainfall averages 1. rats.. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage.035 oz) of dry saffron threads.8–5. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. maximizing sun exposure. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. and birds.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2.crazychefs. Greek.500 mm (39–59 in). The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover.9 in) deep. are critical factors affecting yields. where hot. leaf rusts.[16] http://www. well-watered. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes.000–1.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. and corm rot pose other threats. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. in concert with climate. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. . south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. Nematodes. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. low-density. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. they fare poorly in shady conditions. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. Planting depth and corm spacing. loose.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields.

8-diapo-8. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.[19] Meanwhile. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams ( . crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).8-carotenoic acid). lycopene.and β-carotenes.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0. and thus oil-soluble. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[19] many of which are carotenoids.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. including zeaxanthin.2 oz of dried saffron).com http://www. a product results that is itself water-soluble. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.0.crazychefs. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass.11 gr) of dried saffron. However. and various α. It also has many nonvolatile active components.

crazychefs.0 1.0–1.5 10.0 1.0 11.0 8.0 6.0–13.0– .0–8.0 2.0 12.0 6.0–7.0 3.0 0.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.5 40.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 4.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % http://www.0 6.0 10.0 9.0 6.0 1.0–14.0 12.

the heat.crazychefs. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human http://www. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. .4.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. Santorini. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents.6.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. combined with enzymatic action.3-diene-1.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal.0 Source: Goyns 1999.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. dried hay like". the scent of which has been described as "saffron.6. a volatile oil.6. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. Significantly. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. When saffron is dried after its harvest.[18] Safranal. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties.Fiber (crude) 5.6-trimethyl-2. incidentally.

Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. ointments. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. Since then. divine offerings. a sterile mutant form of C. colic. and scabies. townspeople in Rhodes. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. sativus.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. physicians in http://www.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4.[28][29] Later. Thus. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. In late Hellenistic Egypt.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. mascaras.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. cough.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt.crazychefs.[33] potpourris. cartwrightianus. C. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. There.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments.000 . and medical treatments. and in the mithridatium.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax.

com http://www.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. saffron threads were woven into textiles.[42] ritually offered to divinities.[43] Thus. rice.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. dating to 978–993 AD. Wan Zhen. and used in dyes. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. .[39][40] Later.[44] During his Asian campaigns. or jackfruit. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. and body washes. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. a Chinese medical expert. At such sites. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.[44] From there. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena.[53] On the other hand.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. For example. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy.crazychefs. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.[46][47][48] Meanwhile.Asia The 17. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. a less expensive dye. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. perfumes. Isfahan.[51] However. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac.

It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. In Europe. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. Italy. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. However.saffron is in Kashmir.[62] By 1730. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern http://www.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg.[58] Soon after. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". indeed. named for its new specialty crop. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. imprisoned.[59][60] Only in southern France.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. tea.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. and Spain." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. which grew prosperous. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. did significant cultivation . and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. and Italy. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. and executed. under which saffron adulterators were fined. especially Norfolk and Suffolk.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. and then the saffron is obtained. coffee. It can be used to aromatise wine. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code.[55] During the 14th century Black Death.crazychefs. France. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange.

[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). and Cornish cuisines. Turkish. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa).grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. and in perfumery. Pennsylvania. Arab. noodles. Medicinally. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. and chicken or trout .[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. http://www. and antioxidantlike properties.crazychefs.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). European. Indian.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. Central Asian. particularly in China and India. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. Azerbaijan. Morocco. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. Spain's varieties.200/£1. England. and Italy. various "boutique" crops are available from New http://www. In Western countries. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'.000 and 200.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). the United States. and other countries. and aroma. For example.500/€7.crazychefs. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.000-170. Annually.000 per pound (US$1. are generally mellower in colour. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.000–75. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. Vivid crimson .500 per kilogram. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. in decreasing order of production. Greece.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. the average retail price is $1. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.[5] Iran. slight moistness. Aside from these. India.000 flowers. Switzerland.100/€1.550 per kilogram). flavour. Spain.100–11.[2] A pound comprises between 70.000 flowers. are the major producers of saffron.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.000 threads. they are graded by government-imposed standards. France. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. elasticity.

which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain.S. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization.. and colourative effect. picrocrocin (taste). picrocrocin. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. blights. near L'Aquila.crazychefs. Repeated droughts. and crop failures in Kashmir. Sardinia. In the U. for quality and quantity. is in San Gavino Monreale. and safranal (fragrance) content.some organically . It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). contribute to its high prices. combined with an Indian export ban. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. aroma. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. and safranal content. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region.79 in). Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. among the world's darkest.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). unusually pungent aroma. There. it also has very high crocin. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. shape. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small http://www.

and other powders used as diluting fillers. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. traders. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income.national standards bodies. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. with turmeric. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. pliability. and thus a greater colourative intensity. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. II. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. paprika. pomegranate fibers. many growers. and consumers reject such lab test numbers.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. However. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. in India. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration.[77] . Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. III. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. aroma. red-dyed silk fibers. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I).[80] Thus. and I (finest quality). ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. Honshū. ^ Willard 2001. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. ^ Willard 2001.asp?AcNo=20043148643. 5. 18. Sterling. p. 4. Grilli Caiola . 17. p. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. 6. 4. 23. 22. p. Kansai. p. www. 3. ^ Dharmananda 2005. 21. http://www. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. p. pp. 12. ^ DPIWE . p. in mice. 19. 3. 2. p. http://books. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 2–3. 1. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 7.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府).google. 1. p. 423. ^ Willard 2001. ^ McGee 2004. 3. 2. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002.".com/books?id=AaTpWEIlgNwC. 24. ^ Harper 2001. 8.cababstractsplus. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. Retrieved 2008-03-02.crazychefs. pp. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. 422. ^ a b McGee 2004. crocin and safranal. ^ a b Deo 2003. 1. 20. ^ a b c Hill 2004. 4. 13. 3–4. 9. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments.Saffron reproductive biology 11. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. 103. 53. http://www. p. stigma extracts and their constituents. p. p. p. ^ Rau 1969. ^ a b Deo 2003. pp. ^ Kumar V (2006). ^ M. 16. ^ Grigg 1974.cababstractsplus. 287. 3. 272. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 15. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Deo ^ http://vision. 1. p. ^ Willard 2001. 128. p. ^ Willard 2001. 59. 2. 55. ^ Willard 2001. p. 133. ^ Fletcher 2005. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. 68. ^ Finlay. ^ Willard 2001.iovs. p. pp. p. 17–18. pp. p. p. 47. pp. ^ a b Dalby 2002. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. ^ Honan 2004. pp. 29. 2. 67. 60. 61. 1. Kuo & Wang 1964. p. ^ http://www. 50. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. p. 41. Random House. 103–104. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.pdf 71. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Hill 2004. 44. 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Grigg. JC (2002). Principles and Methods of Toxicology. Retrieved on January 10. St. Hasegawa. Ferrence. 2006. PMID 8590890 Hayes. 2006. D (2001). AW (2001).co. <>. Retrieved on January 10. 2006.nytimes. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2). 2006. <http://www. D (1998). < "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". G (2001). 2006. BBC News. Wiley.)". <http://news. S (1998–1999). "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron". Honan. Saffron. "Saffron (Crocus sativus L.stm>. SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005). "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress". ISBN 0-312-34068-0. Goyns. PMID 16180089 Katzer. JH. 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. <http://news. ISBN 90-5702-394-6. ISBN 0-521-09843-2. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron". The Agricultural Systems of the World. 2006. MH (1999). Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4).etymonline. BBC News. PMID 15259204 Fletcher. A (2005). "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution". ISBN 1-58008-024-3. SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995). Food & Martin's Press. <http://news. Leffingwell. <http://www. "Saffron". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). <http://www.ikashmir. <http://www. Lak. WH (2004). ISBN 0-471-21423-X. DB (1974).au/ Cambridge University Press. T (2004).uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/212491.html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>. "Saffron". saffron". Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1) Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. 2006.nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>. Retrieved on January 10.pdf>. Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. Online Etymology Dictionary.stm>.php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>. D (1998b).html>. The New York Times. The Essential Saffron Companion.leffingwell. < .co. m>. Retrieved on January Hill. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine". Lak. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron". 2006[dead link]. "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera". SC (2004).>. The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen. 2006. Jessie. Ten Speed Press.tas. Retrieved on January 10. 2006. BBC News. Retrieved on January 10.uni-graz. Retrieved on January 10.DPIWE (2005).com/download/ http://www. N (2005). J (1998). Fotedar. Retrieved on January Leffingwell Reports 2 (5). Taylor & Francis. "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. Retrieved on January 10. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved on January 10. ISBN 1-56032-814-2.

JB (2005). Retrieved on January 10. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN P (2001). B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). Tarvand Saffron Cancer Letters 57 (2). Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. 2006. Willard. Tarvand Saffron Nair. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron".McGann.html>.net/ . < http://www. Retrieved on January 10. SC. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". 2006. K (2003).cfm?chemic al_id=140>. Retrieved on January 10. PMID 2025883 Park. Time Life Education.". 2006. Rau. Retrieved on January 10. "Grading and Classification".crazychefs. <http://www. <http://www. H (2004). < 2006. <http://www. <http://books.newscientist. 2006. Reconstructing>. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. SR (1969). Retrieved on January>. The Cooking of India. Beacon Press. New Scientist. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus).reconstructinghistory. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). USDA Phytochemical Database. "Saffron". 2006. Retrieved on January 10.htm>.html>. Tarvand (2005b). "What is Saffron?".htm>. F (2005). 2006[dead link].pl.tarvandsaffron. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Pearce. . Dead Sea. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.

com http://www. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. the olive suckers readily from the stump. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin."[7] indeed. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. Its fruit. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. referring to their wooden material.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet.crazychefs. two stamens and bifid stigma. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. by a spring. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. the olive. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. The small white flowers. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. In Homer's Odyssey. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature.5 cm long. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures.[1] and in the Iliad.[9]. olives. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. It is short and squat. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. they were reverently preserved for centuries. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. Theophrastus.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. endives. called xoana. Asia and parts of Africa. ca 170 . and smooth mallows provide sustenance.(XVII. from Lebanon. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. Though. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. are borne generally on the last year's wood. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age.

but he makes clear (in 1.The leafy branches of the olive tree . does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. for which the Greeks had a separate name. olives were grown commercially in Crete. the pits give rise to thorny. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. and one of the most significant. spread far and wide by birds. in On the Nature of Plants. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. Today. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. the Europeans brought the olive to the New . wisdom. the olive has been the symbol of peace. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. The Book of Jacob 5.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. Over the years. glory. power and pureness. wild-type olives. as well as olive oil and olives. in both the New and Old Testaments.16. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. Peru. As far back as 3000 BC. For example. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. Theophrastus. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. play an important role in the Bible.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. glory and peace .[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and its cultivation began in Mexico. indeed. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful http://www. The olive tree itself. Chile and Argentina. kotinos.[12] After the 16th century. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. As emblems of benediction and purification. fertility. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. and then in the 18th century in California.crazychefs.

000 years old.crazychefs.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. claimed to be over 2. which is made into top quality olive oil. drought-. Montenegro. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year).and fire-resistant. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. and can live for very .Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. disease. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears.600 years old. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is http://www. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. has been calculated to be about 1. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. The age of an olive tree in Crete. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. Istria in Croatia. One olive tree in Bar. named "Plato's Olive Tree". The older an olive tree is.

and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. a few other millenary trees can be . the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. fine wood. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. though showing a preference for the coast. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. In the same natural garden. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. All seven trees continue to produce olives. Modern experience does not always confirm this.2. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. Specifically. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. According to a recent scientific survey. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. have been determined to be over 3000 years old.crazychefs. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region.400 years ago. and the olive fruit.6 km) as the limit. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. olive leaf. see Olive (fruit). is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. Italy. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. A supposedly even older tree. 1600-2000 years old. both in Galilee http://www.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. called the "Peisistratos Tree". two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. and.

which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). Olive plantation in Andalucia. northwest Africa) where winters are mild. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. laperrinei (Algeria. such as South Africa. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. http://www.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. . The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. Chile. the Mediterranean Basin. Australia. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. Argentina. Sudan. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants.

net/ .com http://www.crazychefs.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive . germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

originating in Dos Hermanas. with purple-green skin. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'.crazychefs. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins.Cailletier cultivar.200.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . Rich taste and thick pulp. which consists of 1. in southern Spain. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. often after being pitted. Seville. but only a few are grown to a large extent. rounded-oval fruit. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural . a large. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. grown around the world. 'Manzanilla'. A prolific bearer. anchovies. It is used mostly for oils. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. The olive grove of Amfissa. In recent times. 'Bosana'.com http://www. stuffed (with pickled pimento. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease.

'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). and elongated. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. Spain. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'.net/ . a small. originating in the south of France. 'Nabali'. originating in Toledo. It is mainly used for oil. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. another modern Israeli. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. It is green.[21] 'Koroneiki'. a large. They grow in any light soil. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. The flavour is mild and nutty. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. even on clay if well drained. They are black and generally used for table consumption. brown olive grown in Catalonia. originating in the province of Córdoba. and elongated. The olive is medium sized. originating from the southern Peloponese. 'Cornicabra'.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. named after the city of Kalamata. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). good for eating and for oil. 'Kalamata'.com http://www. 'Souri'. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. Greece.crazychefs. It has a strong but sweet flavour. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. It is used both for oil and for table olives. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. round. Spain. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. used as a table olive. Their flavour is mild and nutty. good for eating and for oil. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. though difficult to cultivate.[23] 'Barnea'. 'Hojiblanca'. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. 'Picual'. 'Empeltre'. 'Arbequina'. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. They are green. large. and coastal climate conditions. Spain. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. originating in the south of France (Aude département). Due to their highly valued flavour. This small olive. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. Moreover. medium size. disease-resistant. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste.

com http://www. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. Occasionally. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. Olives are propagated in various ways. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. the oliviera. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. More specifically.) Olives like hot weather. Another method uses an electric tool. They tolerate drought well. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. soon vegetate. P. being very hard and close-grained. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. A. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. to facilitate . In southern Europe.poorer soil. In Greece. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. but they seldom bear well two years in succession.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. up to several centuries. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. but the time varies in each country. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. This method is used for olives used for oil. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. In some places in Italy and Greece. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olives grow very slowly. and with the season and the cultivar. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. as in Languedoc and Provence. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting.crazychefs. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. 114). that has large tongs that spin around quickly. which form small swellings on the stems. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. the trees are regularly pruned. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. removing fruit from the tree. embryonic buds. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. However. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. and can remain productive for as long. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. it is valued by woodworkers. In Italy.

[25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar.2 kg of oil per tree per year. which is healthy for future production. or green with hints of colour). and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. which can be eaten fresh.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. the creation of lactic acid. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. large fruit ( http://www.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. Olives can be used green. which is a natural preservative. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. The method also involves sawing off branches. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. then drained. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. a bitter carbohydrate. the fruit is not bruised. The olives are soaked in water to wash.crazychefs. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. through to full purple black ripeness..5-2. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. which is why they taste milder than green olives. which leads to a superior finished product. Typical yields are 1. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fresh are often sold at markets. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the . The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar.g. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. As a result. After some weeks.

salt-curing. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. Sometimes. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. an unnatural method. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. The ten largest producing countries. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. Pests. causing great damage to plantations. In France and north-central Italy. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. oleae[27]. lemon juice. diseases. of which the water is changed daily. and weather A fungus. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. Cycloconium oleaginum. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the . olives suffer occasionally from frost.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. feta. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. wine.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004.crazychefs. or removing the pit and stuffing them. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. Popular flavourings are herbs.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. but can be left to cure for up to three months. their main predators are wasps. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. Lye-curing.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. lemon zest. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. garlic cloves. leaving sawtooth damage. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. especially to young http://www. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage.6 to 8. juniper berries and anchovies. olive oil. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. induces tumour growth in the shoots. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. spices.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. vinegar. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. capsicum (pimento). chili. A species of bacterium. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal.

6 31. Ancient Greek Agriculture." (Herodotus.064 .000 1.7 27. 1 ). 2.3 8.1 25. 1992. 7. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.500.000 318.000 275. Description of Greece 1. 81.8 16." (Diodorus Siculus.0 3.981 1.800.. 5. ^ ". 3.000 498. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.149. 4.597. most notably South Australia. 4. and to cultivate olive-trees. 4.317.5. Odyssey.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.988 500. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.5 6. 3. An introduction. 1.000 550.000 250.000 430.888 178.5 63. On the Causes of Plants.089 6.000 20. 5. 27. to make bee-hives..160.830 2. book 5".13. ^ Theophrastus. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 8.. 82.685 765.14.300.000 49.000 http://www.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. ^ Pausanias.crazychefs.140. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation. p..000 470.000 998.400.1).000 1.339 300. 6.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.[31] References 1. ^ Homer.100 3. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.000 594.4 30. 38.3 20.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens. 1). Bibliotheke.9 6.

Rackham.crazychefs. ^ Balfour.. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. ^ Belaj et al. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares.pasoroblesolivefestival. nov. J. ^ Muncipality Bar. ^ "FAO. R. M Bauza & R. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. 28. 24. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L.zatoun.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". ^ "Old Olive Tree".com/content/dlb533pw9cbwc59e/. ^ Lumaret.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. vol.jsp. ^ Riley. John Hutton. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. pp 110–113. op. Epikouria Magazine. Brijuni National Park. Zatoun. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.8. 1779. J. ^ [1] 30. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.fao. Simhoni. Cavagnaro P. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. Retrieved 2009-05-18.15. ca 30 BC 9. Fall/Spring (2005) 12.. Spring/Summer 2006 26. ^ "Me pascunt . J. (1999) Ancient Trees..fao. E. Bacteriol. Retrieved 2007-03-10. M. 2001. Madrid. 32:166–169. Apps3. 29 April. Volume 15. Tabak & O. 1982. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. ^ a b M.. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil".cit. ^ O. p.A. http://www. A. ^ Fotiadi. Epikouria Magazine. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. 23.springerlink. 29. cited in F. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. Leshonenu (Hebrew). Retrieved EspasaCalpe S. Juárez. 105. Processing methods. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". 35. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. 1999. Riley (2002). me cichorea levesque malvae. ^ http://www. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. 13. D. Kislew. 27. ^ Gooch. Odes 1. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. Int. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. R.279 18. Elena "Unusual Olives". 17. Y. http://www. N. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. AGRISCIENTA. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. Syst. nom. http://apps3. Volume 18:27-35 20. Moody. Number 4). Retrieved 2007-08-31. http://www. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. J.W. 2004".. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. 69. & Ouazzani. rev." Horace. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15.aspx?PageID=151. 4th edition. (September 2002). ^ Janse. Ellen. 1981. Australian Olives. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives".org/wiews/olive/intro. Available through Google Books 11. ^ Burr. ^ Lewington. p. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean 25. & Parker.31. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10.htm. Masuelli.

seldom produces flowers. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. L. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. with an entire margin. and south to northern Mexico. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L.31. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. glossy green. (French . Corresponding to its species name.crazychefs.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves are lanceolate. http://www. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India.R. with slender branched stems. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. western North America. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review.

pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун).) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. Russia and Ukraine. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. Georgia and. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. dracunculoides L. Persian and Russian word for . Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. without excessive watering. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin.[1] Russian tarragon ( http://www. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. it normally goes dormant in winter. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. and particularly suitable for chicken. It is normally purchased as a plant. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. Fresh. by extension. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն.net/ . but cannot be grown from seed. due to the presence of estragole. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. sunny spot. A perennial. which is the Armenian. Spreading plant can be divided easily. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans.[1] However. fish and egg dishes.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen.[1] It likes a hot.crazychefs. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall.

2. References 1. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. ISBN 9783527607891. Properties and Uses. Machinek A. pp.[3] In Slovenia. Wiley-VCH. Maggie (2002). officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. http://www. 233. Johannes Panten (2006). Rose Marie Nichols. ^ a b c d McGee. Foerstner J. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Krammer G. Horst. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. 3.crazychefs.Cis-Pellitorin. Workman Publishing. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . ^ Gatfield IL. ^ Surburg. Ley JP. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. The Bountiful Container.

Purple sage. though other species. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. Broadleaf sage. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related http://www. Garden sage. and blue to purplish flowers. Britain and Flanders. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. In French cuisine. Culinary sage. cheeses (Sage Derby). It is a member of the mint family. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. sage has a slight peppery flavor. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. Kitchen sage. grayish leaves. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until . It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. In Western cooking. Lamiaceae. Dalmatian sage. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.Salvia officinalis (Sage. In the United States. In the Balkans and the Middle East. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. Common sage. and some drinks. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Sage is also common in Italian cooking. with woody stems. it is used when roasting mutton.

flavones. ursonic acid. ursolic acid.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. fumaric acid. cornsolic acid. antifungal. and estrogenic substances.trichomes are visible. antibiotic. The Latin name for sage. caffeic . salvia.crazychefs. antispasmodic. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. http://www. nicotinamide. cornsole. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. The underside of a sage leaf . randomized and placebo-controlled trial. which contains cineole.more trichomes are visible on this side. hypoglycemic.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . and thujone.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. astringent. niacin. means ―to heal". and tonic. chlorogenic acid. flavonoid glycosides.[1] In a double blind. oleic acid. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. borneol.

and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. http://www. a cultivar with large leaves. Khani M. a white-flowered cultivar. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. increasing women's fertility. and for low ground cover. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. randomized and placebo-controlled trial".php.x. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages.00463. 'Alba'. 'Berggarten'. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. a small leaved cultivar. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. emmenagogue. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. (2003). snakebites.1365-2710. Mohammadi M. http://www. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. a purple-leafed cultivar.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. Dioscorides. .Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. and tonic. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. OBeWise Nutriceutica.2003. Ohadinia S. Retrieved 2008-02-04. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. a local anesthetic for the skin. yellow and green variegated leaves.appliedhealth. 'Icterina'. 'Tricolor'. PMID 12605619. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. a cultivar with white.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. and more. and for other uses. ^ Akhondzadeh S. ^ a b c "Sage". a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague.[4] It was sometimes called Noroozian M. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages.1046/j. 'Lavandulaefolia'. especially in sunny dry environments. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). References 1. and used as a diuretic. Pliny. doi:10. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. 'Extrakta'. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. Jamshidi AH. a styptic. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. Applied Health. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt.

pp. Sage: The Genus Salvia. 10-11. ^ a b Kintzios.crazychefs. Deni Bown (New York: DK. (2000). p.3. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. CRC . ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 4. Spiridon http://www. ISBN 9789058230058.