Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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Italian. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. Syrian. which is due to its content of thymol. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). Albanian. Persian. Dried. cuttings. Libyan. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form.g. Thyme is often used to flavour meats.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. Spanish. in a bouquet garni). A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. It can be propagated by seed. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. the whole sprig may be used (e.a little less if it is ground. Thyme. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork.crazychefs. While summer-seasonal. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. It tolerates drought well. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Leaves are often chopped. Lebanese. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. fresh thyme is often available year-round. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. and Turkish cuisines. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. and in those derived from them. Depending on how it is used in a dish. and of herbes de http://www. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. while flavourful. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. As a rule of thumb. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. storage life is rarely more than a week.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. In some Levantine . use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Thyme is sold both fresh and dried.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. soups and stews. In French cuisine. assume that it means fresh. Portuguese. or by the sprig. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. tomatoes and eggs. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. Greek.

salve. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary http://www.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. hybrid T. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pulegioides × T.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed].[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. It also has medicinal uses. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for . Because it is antiseptic. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. an antiseptic. The dried equivalent is 1:3. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. it was used to medicate bandages. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. tisane. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. etc.[6] Thymol.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. All thyme species are nectar sources.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. but is grown as a ground cover. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme.crazychefs.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb.[5] As with bay.

8|Page Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity.Variegated lemon thyme. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme.crazychefs.

neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/ .crazychefs.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum http://www.

B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.Dietary fiber 3.1 mg Folate (Vit. European. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb. although parsley has a milder flavor.1 mg recommendations for adults.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. It is common in Middle .Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.8 g http://www.0 μg Calcium 138.0 mg Phosphorus 58.0 mg Iron 6. often used as spice.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.9 g . B3) 1. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and American cooking.Sugars 0.2 mg Magnesium 50.crazychefs. B2) 0. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).1 mg 6. B1) 0.3 g 0.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .

as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. tuberosum). Green parsley is often used as a garnish. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. which helps accommodate the long taproot. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens.crazychefs. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. or flat leaf (P. Like many other umbellifers. parsnip meaning "forked turnip".[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). reducing pest attraction. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. For example. While parsley is biennial. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite http://www. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. used in soups and stews. which then tend to protect plants nearby. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. not blooming until its second year. . One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. neapolitanum). Although little known in Britain and the United States. it attracts predatory insects.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. it is not related to real turnips.

meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. garlic. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). and sauces. [1]) in oxalic acid. or 4900. Jett. soups. http://www. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient http://www. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés." West Virginia University Extension Service.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries.[3] Parsley is high (1. parsley is part of bouquet garni.. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. Last retrieved April 26. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine.crazychefs. http://www.70% by mass. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. e. and lemon zest. Parsley as an oil. In addition. a mixture of parsley. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.aspx?id=1075&s=4. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. steaks. 2007. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. "That Devilish Parsley. In Southern and Central Europe.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. ^ a b c John W. root.plucodes. fried". with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). leaf.g. with fish. References 1. "Parsley on plucodes. 4. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato).com". Ossobuco alla milanese. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. lamb or goose. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and . 2.

crazychefs.Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .crazychefs.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.

Greek. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. and grilled meat. The flowers are purple. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes.g. which is popular in southern . and to add a nice. spicy flavor. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. of the mint family.crazychefs. Oregano is an important culinary herb. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. produced in erect spikes.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . as well as cultivars. Together with basil. native to Europe. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. e. growing to 20-80 cm tall. each with distinct flavours. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. 3-4 mm long. and lovage leaves. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. fried vegetables.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. capers. Varieties There are a number of http://www. O vulgare gracile. It is a perennial herb. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). Oregano growing in a field.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. Unlike most Italian herbs.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food.

because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential http://www. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. however. it can be usually found on table. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. Balkan peninsula. especially for mutton and lambs meat. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. In Turkish Cuisine. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory . Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. In the Philippines. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. together with paprika. differs significantly in taste. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. West Asia) have similar flavors. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. Asia Minor) and O.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. useful for relieving children's coughs. It varies in intensity. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. heracleoticum (Italy. which.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. It has an aromatic. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The influence of climate.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity.[5][6] Additionally. warm and slightly bitter taste. Oregano growing in a pot. salt and pepper.

indigestion. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico.html. which simply referred to "an acrid herb" . but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. Plectranthus amboinicus. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. limonene. In the Philippines.[8] Hippocrates. fungal infections. diaphoretic. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". enteric Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but is usually stronger. the father of medicine. Used topically. emmenagogue. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. Lippia berlandieri. influenza. pinene. also called Cuban oregano. stomach upsets. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn.[7] and painful menstruation. capsules. oregano. ocimene. especially in the United States. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. useful for relieving children's coughs. including Poliomintha longiflora. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. antispasmodic. this substitution would not work the other way round. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. ^ Organic Gardening 2. mild fevers.Main constituents include carvacrol. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. Aqueous extracts. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat.uni-graz. Coleus aromaticus).[12] References 1. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word http://www. cholagogue. expectorant. stomachic and mildly tonic.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. carminative. thymol. stimulant. A Cretan oregano (O. ^ http://www. and caryophyllene.

net/ . 12. PMID 16218659. ^ ["http://www. ^ a b Faleiro.) and Origanum vulgare L. PMID 12730411. et al. Medical News Today. 6. J. 24 November 2008. http://info.". Fall/Spring 2007 5.php.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. 53 (21): 8162–8168.3. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. http://jn. Leonor. draft revision for "organum".asp?item=1374&year=2008.10. et al. Retrieved 200811-26. March Fall/Winter 2007 10.2008. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. (2005). June 2008. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants".medicalnewstoday. Food Chem. Steinar. 28. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. ( 133 (5): 1286–1290. Draft revision for "oregano". ^ Dragland. ^ Epikouria Magazine. doi:10.uwe. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. 11. draft revision for "origanum". University of the West of ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". J Nutr. Retrieved 2008-11-26.nutrition. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". (01 May 2003).1021/jf0510079. ^ Epikouria Magazine. http://www. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8.

crazychefs. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. however. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 http://www.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. meaning "hay". and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. it was from the giant fennel. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable.[2] In Greek mythology. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). the diminutive of fenum or faenum. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). recorded in the 10th century. perennial. Also. with yellow flowers and feathery . It is a hardy. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. Ferula communis. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. umbelliferous herb. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. In Ancient Greek. it seems.

The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long. they are finely .047 mg Folate (Vit.5 mm wide.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.crazychefs. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). (Its leaves are similar to those of dill. and grooved. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. but thinner. It is erect.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates .29 g 0. bulb. half as wide or less.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. and grows to heights of up to 2. with hollow stems. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long.01 mg 7.20 g 1.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. B2) 0.Dietary fiber 3. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. about http://www.5 m.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B1) 0.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. glaucous green. B3) 0.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. both in its native range and elsewhere. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. notably the Italian name finocchio. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant.20 mg Manganese 0.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. both raw and cooked. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. F. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. in pastures. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. it is often mislabelled as "anise".[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. but is more aromatic and sweeter. There are several cultivars of Florence http://www. It propagates well by seed. including northern . It is of cultivated origin. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type.crazychefs. "bronze-leaved" fennel. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. though usually not as strong. syn. the United States. and in other open sites in many regions. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. by the late 19th century.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. for its edible.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). which is also known by several other names. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. vulgare var.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. In North American supermarkets.

hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. brown or green in colour when fresh. often tossed with chicory and avocado. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. mouri in http://www. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. sompu in Telugu. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery.Fennel. or cooked in . 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though smaller. For cooking. where bulbs and fronds are used. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world.crazychefs. both raw and cooked. in side dishes. but also the most expensive. salads. which are very similar in taste and appearance. stewed. variyali in Gujarati. The bulb is a crisp. fish. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. foliage. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. braised. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. green seeds are optimal. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. pastas. badesoppu in Kannada. It may be blanched or marinated. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. Many egg. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. and risottos. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. or eaten raw. anise-flavoured spice. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. grilled. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ).

Eyes In the Indian subcontinent.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. Fennel tea. act as phytoestrogens. sometimes with some sweetener. as it is said to improve eyesight. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties.crazychefs. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of . This use. which can explain some of its medical effects: it.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye http://www. also employed as a carminative. used to ease flatulence in infants. or its polymers. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.[12] For adults.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. although not supported by direct evidence.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye.

followed by India.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. which promote growth of breast . Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. fennel and coriander. badian (star anise).[17] However.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and http://www. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet.

Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. it is called "Darchini" ( ). It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. In Urdu. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. In Farsi (Persian).)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. itself ultimately from Phoenician. in the original http://www.[3] In Sri Lanka. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. Hindi.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.[2] In Marathi. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. Ceylon.[5] In Malayalam. it is known as "DalChini ( )". cinnamon is known as kurundu.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. In Bengali. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. synonym C. which are often called cinnamon too. it is called darchin (‫. Chakka meaning bark or wood.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. the "real' cassia.crazychefs. and in Gujarati taj. native to Sri Lanka.C. In Telugu.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. it is called Dalchina .

and in Song of Solomon.crazychefs. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. a song describing the beauty of his . Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. aloe and cinnamon. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. in Proverbs. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew .[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt.

took control of the factories by 1640. They established a trading post in 1638.[12][13][14] See also . was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia." (Braudel 1984. a Dutch captain reported. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks.1 inches) long. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. and have a distinct odor.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa.crazychefs. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single http://www. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. in a letter of about 1292. have a greenish color. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers.2 feet) tall. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. tea. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. which are arranged in panicles. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32.Ages. 7–18 cm (2. although in the first century. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. However. and used them to construct their nests. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild.75–7. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. sugar. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. and coffee. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. The flowers. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270.8–49. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. p. "The shores of the island are full of it". In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

crazychefs.[15] According to the FAO. Bangladesh. Madagascar. According to the International Herald Tribune. eg. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as . India. Only the thin (0. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. and Vietnam. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. Java. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. The next year. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. Vietnam. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. which is left to dry. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. Brazil. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant http://www.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. and Egypt. followed by China. Chips are trimmings of quills. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Zanzibar. the West Indies. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. verum). Mexican is divided into M00 000 special.5 mm) inner bark is used. the outer woody portion is removed. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. Sumatra.

com .crazychefs. "Vietnamese cinnamon".[16] Ceylon cinnamon. using only the thin inner bark. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. and more crumbly texture. less dense. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. many websites. hard and woody in texture. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). and is considered to be less strong than cassia. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. However. is generally a medium to light reddish brown.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. zeylanicum). Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). has a finer. the related species. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". for example.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . as all of the layers of bark are used. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. or "Indonesian cinnamon". also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C.

macerating it in seawater. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. ‫. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. True cinnamon. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). and liqueurs. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. and then quickly distilling the . capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. a deep-blue tint is produced. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. are easily distinguished. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. but when cassia is present. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). drinks. In the United States. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark.5% to 1% of its composition. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of http://www. It is of a golden-yellow color. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. especially in Mexico. tea. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. such as apple pie. and fruits. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct.crazychefs. In the Middle East. rather than cassia.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. bread-based dishes. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. especially apples.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. when whole. hot cocoa. used in a variety of thick soups. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. The two barks. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. and sweets.

Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. linalool.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. beta-caryophyllene.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. and money. However.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance.[34] Notes 1. luck. and anethole. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. cinnamyl acetate. love.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. Encyclopaedia Britannica. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. Sri Lanka (Ceylon)." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . cinnamaldehyde. In Hoodoo. cassia.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. ^ a b "Cinnamon". it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh.crazychefs. eugenol. The Cinnamon Challenge. who failed.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. 2008. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.0. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. and Myanmar (Burma). although it remains untested. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds.and a very hot aromatic taste. and methyl chavicol[citation needed].[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. few seem able to succeed.

Agric.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains".com 17. 53 (20): 7749–59. Torres RP (December 1998). doi:10.iol. Breyne) extracts" _of_life/html/1.. ^ http://www. Nerín C (August 2005). 53 (17): 6939–46. Henry. Cai http://www. thespicehouse. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. Van-Koiij 20. http://dsr. PMID 10077878. 4. Food Chem.437. ^ [2] 18.ihaystack. ^ "Cassia. ^ [1] 16. http://www.1021/jf051513y. p. ^ López P.htm. http://lakdiva. .bbc.npr.stm d=1 14.1021/jf050709v. retrieved 2008-07-15 11. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. 437f." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. ^ 13. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 8. Food Chem.henriettesherbal. 437). Agric.0. 22.thespicehouse. The History of Food. "Solid.jstor.html. retrieved 200807-15 6. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. ^ Harris. Anthea Bell.crazychefs. 437 7. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour.nii.2. Mancini DA. doi:10. p. ^ http://links. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. revised ed. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. p. Cathay and the Way Thither. Account of the Island of Ceylon. ^ http://www. ^ Tennent. 10. Sun M. p. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. Sánchez _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/ ^ The Epicentre.—Cinnamon. Cinnamon. Sir James Emerson. ^ Shan B. 9. ^ http://news. ^ http://www. Emily.en. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. PMID 16190627. ^ Felter. http://www. retrieved 200705-01 21. http://www. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents".php?storyId=6672644.html. PMID 16104824. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ Encyclopedia of Spices.html. Cozzolino FF. Batlle R.CO%3B2-N 15. J. http://www. Corke H (October 2005). ^ http://findarticles. p. ^ Mancini-Filho J.

^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). retrieved 200705-01 32.luckymojo. "Determination of http://care.diabetesjournals. Charles (1998).3. doi:10.whfoods. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients".nutrition. http://www. Eleventh Edition.pdf. http://www. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF).htm. http://www.1.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68.redorbit.sciencedaily. Retrieved 2008-05-11.1016/00219673(88) s_have_been/index. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".3215.113. doi:10. Ali Khan MM. 28. http://eprints. ^ Taher. ^ "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). ^ [3]. http://www. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. 27. ground.. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".com/ .3. ^ George Mateljan Foundation. 33. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. Agricultural Research magazine.futuremedicine. Leslie. Retrieved 2007-12-17. retrieved 200705-01 25. doi:10.24. retrieved 2007-12-12 31.1..12. July 2000. Archer (1988). ^ Vanschoonbeek. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro" Fernand (1984). Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. ^ Verspohl. Khattak KN. Braudel.2337/diacare.lesliebeck. Akram et al. (2005). ^ Beck. a publication now in the public domain.2217/14750708. Medicinal Seasonings.php? ^ Khan A. doi:10. The Perspective of the World. Anderson RA (December 2003). 29. Research: Thalido.sciencedaily.crazychefs. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". Retrieved 200808-05. Safdar M. Kristof et al. http://jn. ^ www.2217/14750708. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. Retrieved 200805-11. Eugen J..utm. Retrieved 2008-05-11.1002/ptr. 34. PMID 14633804. New York: Kodansha International. Cinnamon. 30. et al. http://www. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www.. Alan W. Muhammad et al.

and dehydrated forms. http://www. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. They are known by the common name "onion" but.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia.Department of Export Agriculture. one of the oldest vegetables. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. powdered. Onions can be used."[3] Uses Onions. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. and Allium asarense R. used without qualifiers. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. chopped. canned. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. pickled. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. which it is not. it usually refers to Allium . are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures.M. They are now available in fresh. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion.

in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. and other animals should not be given onions in any form.crazychefs. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack.[5] However. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. and also to relieve headaches. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". However. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. cats. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. transported and stored. coughs.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side . In Bronze Age http://www. In ancient Greece. due to toxicity during digestion. spicy. an onion can be sharp. Depending on the variety.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. recent evidence has shown that dogs. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. snakebite and hair loss. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles.[5] The onion is easily propagated.chopped or sliced.

1 g 89.12 mg Folate (Vit.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.042 g .crazychefs.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.monounsaturated 0.saturated 0.polyunsaturated 0.Sugars 4.013 g . B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.21 mg Magnesium 0. B3) 0.Dietary fiber 1. B2) 0. B1) 0.24 g .129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 g 1.4 mg Vitamin E 0.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0. 0 μg 9.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .34 g .116 mg Vitamin B6 0.7 g Fat .02 mg Vitamin K http://www.

net/ . Empire Sweet. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. and other diseases. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. Texas 1015. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. For all varieties of onions. Western Yellow. Texas 1015. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. However. Empire Sweet.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. Mexico. followed by Western Yellow. anticancer. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. If you are allergic to onions. eleven times the amount found in Western White. diabetes. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. Mexico. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. Peruvian Sweet. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. pungent yellow (New York Bold). pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their http://www. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. In general. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Western White. anticholesterol.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. Imperial Valley Sweet. Peruvian Sweet. Empire Sweet. and Vidalia. Peruvian Sweet.crazychefs. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. and Vidalia.[10] In many parts of the world.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. Texas 1015. Northern Red. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. Mexico. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. Western White.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. Northern Red. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). In the United States. Imperial Valley Sweet. osteoporosis. Imperial Valley Sweet. Shallots have the most phenols. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide.

garlic. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. differs among Allium species. it can lead to an allergic reaction.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As onions are sliced or eaten. . garden http://www. chives. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. Eye irritation can. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). where it binds to sensory neurons.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. allylpropyldisulfide. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. The volume of sulfenic acids released. nausea.include reactions to onions. On January 31. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. mouth and throat ulcerations. allylmercaptan and allicin.crazychefs. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. cells are broken.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. creating a stinging sensation. therefore. diarrhea. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. ginger. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. shallots. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. and the irritation effect. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. breathing difficulties. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. and bananas. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. leeks. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. all present in garlic. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. limiting the amount of gas generated.

their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. which can be planted directly in the ground. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" http://www. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" . more commonly today. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Finally. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. Allium fistulosum. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. which have been developed in more recent times. which is said not to produce dry bulbs.crazychefs. the Welsh onion. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. "short-day" onions. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. from sets started from seed the previous year.

a hybrid of Allium cepas. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green http://www. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.637 Japan Egypt 1.302 1.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).764 Pakistan 1. Tree onion or Egyptian onion . Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.149 Spain World Total . such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.500 China United States 3. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9. Oregon (USA). Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.793 India 5.346 2.758 Russia 1.220 Turkey 1. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions. Vale.Produce bulblets in the flower head.crazychefs.750 South Korea 1. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. each of which forms a bulb. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.

Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. passed in 1958.crazychefs. It remains in effect as of 2009. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile .com http://www. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.The Onion Futures Act. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices.

from William Woodville. commonly known as garlic. 1793.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum.crazychefs. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. known as . Allium sativum. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves.[1] A bulb of garlic. Its close relatives include the onion. shallot. Medical Botany. It has a characteristic http://www. and chive. leek. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. the most commonly used part of the plant.

most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic.[6] One of the best-known "garlics".crazychefs. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. They can suffer from pink root. respectively. In North America. Garlic plants can be grown close together. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. for consumption (raw or cooked).6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are common weeds in fields. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. accounting for over 77% of world output. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. and for medicinal purposes. according to Zohary and Hopf. with Russia (1. The cloves are used as seed. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese.Yunnan province of China. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. India (4. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". Garlic is grown globally. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. and Allium oleraceum. stems (scape). a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually.1%) and South Korea (2%) http://www. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. the so-called elephant garlic. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). "crow garlic". The papery. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable.[5] The "wild garlic".[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. Allium vineale. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. with approximately . The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. The leaves. In cold climates.

810 168. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. semiofficial.000 142. F = FAO estimate. A = aggregate (may include official.000 125.686. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output.000 15.000 325. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking . California.000 http://www. northern Africa.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.Alaska) in fifth place (1.000 254.000 128. C = calculated figure.4%). which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". It is often paired with onion. including eastern Asia.000 221. southern Europe. P = official figure. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data.crazychefs. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. Southeast Asia. the Middle East. south Asia. or ginger. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. or estimates). and parts of South and Central America. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. tomato.400 140. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.088. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy.

meats. The leaves are cut. garlic toast.crazychefs. and then stir-fried with eggs. the resulting product. Garlic. is sweet and syrupy. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. meat. Immature scapes are tender and edible. or vegetables. and a chunky base produce skordalia. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. They are also known as "garlic spears". salt. oil. almond. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. or "tops". and spices. In some cuisine. Scapes generally have a milder taste than http://www. United Kingdom and Australia. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. and is now being sold in the United States. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. crostini and canapé. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. breads and pasta. In eastern Europe. Blending garlic. In Japan and Korea. oil. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. . If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. "stems". and roast them in an oven. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. called black garlic. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cleaned. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. all present in garlic. When eaten in quantity. therefore. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. The herb is. allylpropyldisulfide. such as pistou. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. however. hung in windows. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. werewolves. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. allylmercaptan and allicin. usually enjoy these sensations. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". making garlic much more potent than onions. and bananas.[50] In Europe. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right.[48] Due to its strong odor.[51] To ward off vampires. insects. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. garlic could be worn. forming allyl methyl sulfide. including onions. and vampires. garden lilies. Among the members of the onion family. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. persillade. deterring animals like birds. and release of AMS several hours more. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. shallots.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. thus mellowing its spiciness. leeks. Humans. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. Since digestion takes several hours. where it is excreted. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative .[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. shallots.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. ginger. and worms from eating the plant. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour http://www. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). included in many garlic recipes. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. garlic. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. However. chives. or leeks. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic.

Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. minimal risks to normal individuals. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. sweating.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. antiplatelets. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations.crazychefs. calcium channel blockers. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. However. saquinavir. You can help by converting this article to prose. if any exist.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. antiparasitic value of garlic.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. indigestion. similar to the effect of aspirin.In Daoism mythology.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. nausea. and hypoglycemic drugs. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque".net/ . as well as other medications. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi".[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). Editing help is available. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. indicated Muhammad. allergic reactions. and menstrual irregularities. emesis. dizziness. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. Garlic can thin the blood. bleeding. In connection with the odor associated with garlic.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. at worst. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. if appropriate. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of http://www. and diarrhea.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. are largely unknown. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. antihypertensives. 2000).[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. 4.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. (2005). ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23).html. http://www.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". 197 ^ a b Lee. G.handle. topical use of raw garlic.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. Retrieved 2007-08-28.nj.jhortscib. http://www. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. 397 6. 112 7. one the bulbs will grow http://www. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. third edition (Oxford: University Press. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. et al. ^ http://www. Notes 1. is . split.natural-holistic-health. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L.htm.crazychefs. ^ http://www. J. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. A bulb of garlic. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. Domestication of plants in the Old World.) cultivars at Debre Zeit.unigraz. ^ a b c d Tabor. ^ McGee p. (2004).com/alternative-therapies/herbs-for-health/medicinal-garlic/ 9. Retrieved 5 June. Retrieved 5 June 2009. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. including burns to children. 3. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. et al. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. In particular.html 8. bigger. p. garlick)". Ethiopia".

J. PMID 2291748.167. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (p. ^ Charlson M. 33. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). Nutr. Motta. R. Med. Sartoratto. 20. 167 (4): 325–6. Biochem.167.1162/ F.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". 5:109–115. J.005.pdf. 22. 19.0705710104. Intern. Ferraresi. ^ Kojuri J. doi:10. et al (November 2007).10. Hyg. PMID 17918162. Facts. 104 (46): 17977–82. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know".org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346. and Mary A Modern Herbal.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. PMID 17325296. (Mrs. "Tropes. 54 | P a g e http://www. McFerren M (February 2007). Izzo AA (November 2007). Natl. ^ Durak I. N.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. doi:10. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. Med. 11. PMID 17325291.lehoux/Tropes. 30. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. Mills RW. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". 17. 167 (4): 346–53. 24. ^ Durak I. Chao WJ (March 2007). 2005 ^ Groppo. [2] ^ Hamel. Akrami M (March 2007). Lawson LD. ^ Chan KC. PMID 17951430. doi:10. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. 12.4. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. PMID 15277094. ^ Goodbye. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Better Nutrition. 14. ^ Benavides GA. Sci. Olcay E. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Intern. http://archinte. Proc. PMID 17123684.1001/archinte. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". doi:10. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. P. Vosoughi ..200700072. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . 21.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. 27. July 1. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology".1016/j. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. 15 (6): 373–7.ama-assn.ama-assn.. doi:10. Daryn (2003). ^ Mader FH (October 1990).). doi:10. 31. Squadrito GL. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store.2004.crazychefs. et al (June 2004). ^ a b Steiner M. http://archinte. et al (February 2007). PMID 17328819. Sylva. Capasso R.. PMID 15157944. Yin MC. Oztürk HS. Paul B.A 400 Year History. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L.325. 28.. Accessed: December 18. Herald Publishing Co. PMID 9641475. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). PMID 17966136. U. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. 26.1002/mnfr. Acad. Ramacciato. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. 32. 16.1001/archinte. PMID 15218732. Aytaç B. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". Güven C (2002). Garlic. ^ Gardner CD. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. Lin RS (June 1998).1186/1476-511X-6-5. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". 35.jnutbio.S. http://personalpages. 29. doi:10.A." Int. doi:10. and Empiricism" (PDF). Dent. 25. 23. Sova P (May 2004). 15. 13. A. Kavutcu M. 18. doi:10. 2006.1002/mnfr.. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. 5. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". Block E.4. ^ Borrelli F. Arch. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. J. Maud.1073/pnas.

garlic advisory 63. Retrieved 2007-0707. http://www. 2007. Engl.Garlic-in-Oil 61. ^ a b c d Hogg. ^ McGee "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390. PMID Shishido C. ^ John S. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans".. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 53. 66. http://www. ^ Shuford JA. ^ Lemar KM.economicexpert. Iwai K. PMID 11600262. ^ Bukhari. Antimicrob. Fuwa T. Agents Chemother. ^ Health Canada . Volume 7. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). 310–311 47. 85 (3): 157–64. 1988. Complementary Medicines Summary.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. p. ^ Oi Y. 43. Retrieved December 7.go. David (2003).1128/AAC. et al (October 2005).28095-0. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. Slattery M. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Castro C.36. Scolaro 54. Steckelberg PMC: 538912. 9 No. http://linkinghub. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). Bordia T.. (2001) 39. H. "Garlic burns". Sagi A.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257– ^ Garlic .html 46.". Raymond T (1994).. Long D. 41.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59.jst. Passa O. "Effect of allixin. Retrieved December 7.blogspot. ^ Macpherson et al. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. ^ Kodera Y. Book 65 Sterling Publishing.go. PMID 11481410.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. 211 Nishimura S.crazychefs.) 62. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. 49 (1): 473. Aon MA.htm 65. Jennifer (2002-12-13). 40. p. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. http://joi. In Search of Dracula. Matuura H. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. doi:10. 37. ^ http://lem. Chesson C. 120.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ^ McNally p.. UK Medicines Information.asm. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. ^ a b McNally. PMID 16207909.. Houghton Mifflin. ^ Fareed G. ^ http://washokufood. ^ Pickering. 52. http://joi. ^ http://www.49. Ronen M (November 2001).. Kominato Y. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. Lett. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. PMID 15616341. Yoffe B. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. Patel R (January 2005). PMID 8441577. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. Microbiology (Reading. NLM Gateway. 122. Sumida T. Teel R. Imafuku M. ^ Macpherson et al. a stress compound from 2007. Yoshida S. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. Jordan W. W. Toxicol. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter.html 45. "Allixin. Thomson M. Lau B. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Pickering p.. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. http://aac.1099/mic. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. doi:10.goldbamboo. (1989-01-30).January 29. ISBN 0-30436561-0. 049 . (1991-08-01). ^ http://www. 4 . Summer 2005 . http://linkinghub. Nishino H.1. Sanders N. http://mic. section "Conclusion" 48. Ali M (June 1996). 211. ^ Baruchin AM. "Garlic burns". . ^ Mosquito Repellents 50.jst. National Health Service.elsevier.".2005. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30".unito. Itakura Y. on mutagenesis.pdf. 38. 64.

―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖.M. Kiazand. D. D. Pharm. 'Kyolic'. Garty BZ (March 1993). garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. L. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 50. . (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. L.References Japanese garlic. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. H. M. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. 129: 144–151. D..にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Sci. Block. Yukihiro Kodera. [4] Lawson. 354-363 (2002). Barzilay. Campbell GR. Selfsufficientish . Lawson. J. Am.. J... I. Hile.. Naoto Uda. 94 (6): 632–5. (2000). Masanori Ayabe. Rabinowitch (2004).. Naoki Kashimoto. 405-407 (2002). Lawson. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. PMID 8441577. 50. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. The chemistry of garlic and onions. http://circ. Jiro Yoshida. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". (1996).Garlic. Zhang.crazychefs. D. S. L. Z. Pharm. R. A. Bull. Andy (2004). L. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. (2004). P. D. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. Hamilton. Shafir. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. Gardner. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. Block. J. (1992). on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3).com http://www. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. M. Vargas R. Vol.-Z. Med. (1985). ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Isao Sumioka. A.P. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55.. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. Breithaupt-Grögler K. Am. Efendy JL. 3rd ed. R. Ling[青森県産]. C. R. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Makoto Ichikawa. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Garlic. G. L. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. Z. New York: Avery. P. Campbell JH (July 1997). A. H. Chem. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. E. Soc... Williams & Wilkens. Chatterjee. "Garlic burns". Block.. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Bull. Kozue Ogasawara. Koch. Vol. http://linkinghub. A. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". E.ahajournals. Balch.. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID 8506890. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. E. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono.. Simmons DL.. PMID 9355906. Kraemer. McMahon FG (June 1993).. C. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Zemah. Block. and H. Turner. Hort. (2001). and Related Species (Second Edition). Gotzkowsky S. Susumu Yoshida. Kamenetsky. PMID 9247357.elsevier. Chem. Jain AK. Shan. Retrieved 1 May 2005. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. D. Lloyd. Lemar.. Balise. Boudoulas H. Wang. Belz GG (October 1997).

(1999). Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. (eds). and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". H.. PMC: 538912.473. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. Bernhard H. 31 (6): 904–8. Leeks".49. Cardiovasc. Marcel Dekker. Eid. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Y-Y. D. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". et al. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". Steckelberg JM.K. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. Michael Bandell. Shuford JA..crazychefs. PMID . "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". Scribner. SunWook Hwang. PMID 8169881. et al.wkhealth. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Antimicrob. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. http://meta. et al. Y-Y. Steiner M. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. S. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets.1128/ http://www. Geierstanger.S. (1998). Pharmacol. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".Lindsey J.2005. Harold (2004). ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Yeh. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Salunkhe. In: Ohigashi. pp.12. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Macpherson. PMID 2291748. 49 (1): 473. Garlic.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904.asm. Samer R. Abstract. Lin RS (June 1998). Neil A (1994).. Patel R (January 2005). Kadam. (1997). McGee. Veena Viswanath. J. "The Onion Family: Onions. Yeh. Agents Chemother. Mader FH (October 1990). Silagy C. PMID 9641475. 310–3.

and Sri Lanka. terminating in four spreading sepals. Pakistan. when they are ready for collecting. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. and consist of a long calyx. it is called đinh hương. In Vietnam. after which they develop into a bright red. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. Madagascar. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m.crazychefs. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae.5-2 cm long. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. it is also grown in India under the name http://www. . The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. Cloves are harvested when 1.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. Zanzibar.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape.

along with other spices. which sells Djarum Black. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. warm and aromatic. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. especially for digestive problems. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis.000 tonnes). but with the addition of other spices). During Christmas. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. entering the kidney. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). and are notable in their ability to warm the middle.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. In south Indian cuisine.[1] In north Indian cuisine. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. cloves are often used to season pho broth. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive . Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid.crazychefs. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. Cloves are used as a carminative. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Vietnamese cuisine. but as they are extremely strong.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. often in combination with cumin. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. Cloves are used in cheeses. spleen and stomach meridians. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. they are used sparingly. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. it is used in almost all http://www.

the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. mainly from the Maluku Islands. Subsequently.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate.[6] History Until modern times. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. RH (AHG). Makian. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases.[7] Cloves. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. .The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi.[5] In West Africa. Khalsa. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. were highly prized in Roman times.P. vomiting and diarrhea. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. and Zanzibar. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year http://www." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. It is also used in severe burns.crazychefs. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. Moti. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. Ayurvedic herbalist K.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. including Bacan. and Tidore. including for multiple sclerosis. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. pimples stomach qi downward. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese.[7] Nevertheless. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). Ternate. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. along with nutmeg and pepper. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. In the late fifteenth century. including cloves. most of the West Indies.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC.

rhamnetin. ^ http://www. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. ^ 8. 2. due to the high price of importing them.. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". Vintage Books. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. Erich and Andrew Gamble. gallotannic tannins. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Andrew and Page. John Wiley and Sons Inc. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves.. Phyllis and Balch. xv. James. crategolic acid. ^ "TibetMed . ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. comprising 72-90%. 5. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4.nlm. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. 3. methyl salicylate (painkiller). ^ Balch. and several sesquiterpenes. Avery Publishing. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.html National Institutes of Health.htm. and eugenitin.crazychefs. Spice: The History of a Temptation. ^ a b . kaempferol. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. Karen. ©2000. Steven Clavey. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. ©2003. Jack (2004). Alan. ^ Dorenburg.html Tilotson. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. http://www. Medicine Plus. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. stigmasterol and campesterol.nih.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. pp.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". Special Diets for Illness 6. the flavonoids eugenin.squarespace. 3rd ed. 94. pg.[8] Notes and references http://www. Erich Stoger. Steven Clavey. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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5.2005. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. Retrieved 8 June 2009. doi:10.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. 3. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise".com/BZ-shuju/standshow. . "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. Retrieved 10 November. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. while Lederer et al.Specification".org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. 18 May 2009 2. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角".iso. http://www. PMID 15492355. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. NPR. f. ^ International Organization for Standardization.iso.Differentiation with other species Joshi et http://www.1021/jf058156b. Retrieved 8 June 2009. et al.2004-0058. http://www. Ines et al. ^ Lederer. 4. http://www. f.1542/peds. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706.crazychefs. doi:10. (2006).org/iso/catalogue_detail. ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ Louisa Lim.htm?csnumber =4844.) -.3.htm?csnumber=19183. ^ Joshi.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . Vaishali C.Botanical nomenclature". "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice".703. http://www. Retrieved 8 June 2009. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography".a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1.5555/jaoi.88. (2005).[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 .atypon-link. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -.

com http://www.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum . ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. native from the east Mediterranean to East India. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.

[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. In Northern India and Nepal. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). locally called "Kermun". cumin is known as zireh. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. in Iran and Central Asia.crazychefs. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle".(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni .Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . in Turkey. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. parsley and .com http://www. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. Kerman. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. a member of the parsley family. in northwestern China. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. cumin is known as kimyon.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. and yellow-brown in colour. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. In Arabic. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. longitudinally ridged. including kamūnu in Akkadian. the story goes. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. being oblong in shape. maduru. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

crazychefs. Egypt. India. Mexico. Uzbekistan. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Seeds. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Turkey. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). and this practice continues in Morocco. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. Tajikistan. In Sri Lanka.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. In South http://www. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. Syria. today it is mostly grown in Iran. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. when added to hot milk and consumed. and Chile. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding . Morocco. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour.

sofrito. pinnate or bipinnate. and bahaarat. either ground or as whole seeds. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. Cuban. North African.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. The flowers are small. containing a single seed. It is traditionally added to chili. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. Pakistani. but are smaller and darker in colour. and is found in achiote blends. garam masala. and other Middle-Eastern. Indian. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Today. Sri Lankan. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. It is an herbaceous annual plant.crazychefs. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. Northern Mexican cuisines. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. and borne in umbels. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. . curry powder. Middle Eastern. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. enchiladas. Contrary to popular belief in the US. thread-like leaflets. popular in Indian.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. and http://www. and in some traditional breads from France. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tacos. adobos. white or pink.

327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.33 mg Vitamin K 5. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 g Fat .5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . hot summer of 3–4 months. Cultivation of cumin requires a .36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B3) 4. It is grown from seed. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. However.435 mg Folate (Vit.very common in Mexican cuisine. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).81 g 8.crazychefs.Dietary fiber 10.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes. B2) 0. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. 64 μg 44. sown in spring.24 g 22.7 mg Vitamin E 3. well-drained soil. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman http://www. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. it is drought-tolerant.25 g .Sugars 2.saturated 1.579 mg Vitamin B6 0.27 g 17. and needs fertile.

which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. to eat. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".v. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. In Swedish. For example.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. In Polish the difference is even less significant. from the Swedish word "spisa".). Not related to curcumin.crazychefs. However.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. a chemical found in turmeric. as in 'kot' . another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi).a cat and 'kotek' . lighter in colour. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin.Zinc 4.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for http://www. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the .a small cat). unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

and Carum carvi L. Lu et al. doi:10. . Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. ^ "Kamūnu. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. 2000. ^ Growingtaste.".foodreference.77. 2000).gov.1002/ from China". 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ " whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1.05. 2." premiumwanadoo. ^ http://www. Nicola S. ^ a b Wang. 4. 206 5. p." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition).aca. ^ a b Iacobellis. http://www. Retrieved 2008-03-13. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 .1021/jf0487351. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. ^ a b c 7. doi:10. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". http://www. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . Domestication of plants in the Old World.crazychefs. third edition (Oxford: University Press.1302. et cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry.1016/j.030. Essential Oils". Rong. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.html 6. doi:10. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004).313. (2009). (2005). 8.

crazychefs. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal .

[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. shogaols and gingerols. cardamom. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. and citral) have also been identified. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are . Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β http://www. In laboratory animals. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. or spice. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. sedative. West Africa and the Caribbean. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. and galangal.crazychefs. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. medicine. cineol. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae).

which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. stimulating the production of saliva. cookies. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. particularly gingerols and shogaols. Adrak. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. salt. or frozen for longer term storage. nuts. enchi in Malayalam. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. and tender green chili peppers. [edit] Regional use In India. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. Ginger has a sialagogue action. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. which makes swallowing easier. in Tamil Nadu. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. ginger ale. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Additionally. For storage. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. Ginger is also made into candy. and sugar. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. especially in the Tanjore belt.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. Inji in Tamil. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. Alay in Marathi. In South India. crackers and cake. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. to which honey is often added. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many http://www.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. in Gujarati. Allam ( ) in Telugu. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil.crazychefs. and ginger beer. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. ghee. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 . and Aduwa in Nepali. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds.

ginger snaps. ginger is called gyin. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United . called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). In Western cuisine.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. In Vietnam. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot.crazychefs. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. and making drinks such as sorrel. parkin and ginger biscuits. In China. during their occupation of the islands. In Arabic. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. and a variety of nuts and seeds. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. In Japan. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. France. In Burma. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. gingerbread. In the traditional Korean kimchi. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. is made. On the island of Corfu. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the http://www. a type of ginger beer. In the Caribbean. In the Ivory Coast. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Greece. However. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish.

Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. though studies been inconsistent. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. though it does interact with some medications.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative . Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. which several scientific studies support. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. including warfarin.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. cough and cold.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger.crazychefs. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. morning sickness and chemotherapy.

belching and nausea. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. it is considered good for a sore throat. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. particularly if taken in powdered form. gas. in food etc. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce http://www. In Indonesia. reducing "winds" in the blood. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. bloating. In China. and heart rhythms. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. and although it's generally recognized as safe.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood . ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold.crazychefs. In the United States. people use ginger for making tea. ginger can cause heartburn. In India.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and individuals who have had ulcers. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. clotting.[14] In Congo. In Burma. which is considered a panacea.

crazychefs. or washed and scraped. followed by Indonesia(~12. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. which has slipped to the second position (~20. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Scalding. Nepal(~11. Production trends India. now leads in global production of ginger.000 F 177. in order to kill it and prevent . replacing China.000 158.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers.7%).5%) and Nigeria(~10%). Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. produces black ginger. with over 30% of the global share. washing and scraping gives white ginger. it is immediately scalded.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5%). It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. Traditionally. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical http://www. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. but this generally reduces its value.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates.

270 1. Also referred to as galangal.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. The plant also contains aristolochic http://www. semiofficial or estimates) a carcinogenic compound. Asarum canadense.000 8. is also known as "wild ginger". and its root has similar aromatic properties. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai.crazychefs. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan .000 57. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).gov.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . F = FAO estimate.000 34.arsgrin. Retrieved 2008-03-03. http://www.000 42.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. the flower buds are the part eaten.000 28.ars-grin. . A = Aggregate(may include official. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is used in cooking and medicine. Galangal is also called Thai ginger.contains ginger material References A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. www. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. but it is not related to true ginger. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family.

Retrieved 2007-08-02. M. Jaw-Chyun.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). Kathi Kemper. MD. 425-426. "A Current Look at Ginger Use".library.umm. & MSt.. http://www. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. E. 10. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger" .com http://www. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.mayoclinic. Ali Taghizadeh et al.html. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. 4. 15. ^ Afshari.).edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch. PMID 10793599. MD. "Ginger".013. et al.H. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed.1001/archfami.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772.html. Tin-Yun Ho.amaassn. 9. ^ Jakes. Retrieved 2006-09-06. 3.cfm?displayID=15. ^ Ernst. Retrieved 2007-08-02. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666.523. Retrieved 2007-08-06. 8. "Beverage of Champions". http://www. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007).1016/j. Retrieved 5 5.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ Retrieved 2007-08-02. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). Retrieved 2007-08-02. 14.01.foodchem. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats".com/health/ginger/NS_patient-ginger. http://archfami. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. 11. MD. ^ Al-Achi. ^ MD O' Hara. ^ McGee. Zainab M. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". ^ Chen. Retrieved 2007-0808.7. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. Li-Jiau Huang.1021/jf071460f. Sheng-Chu Kuo.crazychefs. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".com 7. Shih-Lu Wu. (2006). Kim Farrell. 13. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. doi:10. http://www. (01 Mar 2000). Susan (2007-01-15). PMID 9821826. David This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). New York: Scribner "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). doi:10. ^ Al-Amin. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)".com 12. doi:10.cambridge.2. & Pittler. http://journals. http://unitproj. Antoine.2006. http://timeblog. (2007). Harold (2004). MPH (1998). Mary. doi:10. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://bja. 6.uspharmacist.

com http://www. Zingiberaceae. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. Erode. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed].Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. for dyeing. Plants are gathered annually for their . a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. For these reasons. and to impart color to mustard condiments. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. slightly bitter. In medieval Europe.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C.crazychefs.

turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich.crazychefs. Over-coloring. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing http://www. Turmeric City. sauces. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes.[citation needed] Sangli. biscuits. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). powdered form. cereals. In non-South Asian recipes. gelatins. such as in pickles. etc. and mustard. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. turmeric is also used fresh. but also in masak lemak. orange juice. Although usually used in its dried. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. relishes. and many more. popcorn color. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. cake icings. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. yellow cakes. dairy products.Yellow City. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. sweets. much like ginger. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. custardlike yellow color. not only in curry. ice . yogurt. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. rendang. or Textile City.

and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. and other digestive disorders. is also treated with turmeric powder. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). It is unknown why it works. a traditional dish in South Asia. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. dry . Indians. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. Japan. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron).crazychefs. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. burns and bruises. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. salad dressings.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement.In combination with annatto (E160b). are spiced with turmeric. winter butter and margarine. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. yogurt. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic http://www. Within one week of using turmeric.[4] cancer. an uncurable and debilitating disease. turmeric has been used to color cheeses.

[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. multiple myeloma.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Alzheimer's. John‘s Medical College. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004.crazychefs. Snake Bite Anti venin. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. research activity into curcumin is http://www. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. and Pakistan. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. Bangalore. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. found in black pepper. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . improves the absorption of turmeric.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. . and the U. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. with no adverse effects. or BDNF. which supports nerve growth.S. and colorectal cancer. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. In 1998 researchers at St. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations.

Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. During the south Indian festival Pongal. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. part of the Bengali wedding. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. and coconut and cooked in steam. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. Also. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. However. This happens in economically lower situations.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. as a part of the marriage ritual. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. and it is used for power and purification rites. jaggery. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. such as saris. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial http://www.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour.crazychefs. In southern .[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals.

E. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". 64(4):353-6. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers.foodchem. 2.ars-grin. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.5-dione. 6.I.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect.W. Retrieved June doi:10.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1.thieme-connect. ^ "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". ^ [|Ketteler. keto and enol. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. Joy . Planta Med.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. www.stm 5.6E)-1. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". Judy] (June 2009). 75300. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . et al. Srinivas ^ http://www. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights Shoba Rajendran R. (2009). Majeed M. http://www.aolhealth. a Joseph T. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. http://www. or Natural Yellow 3. The systematic chemical name is ( The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution.1016/j.C. 1998 May.172. Notes 1. ^ http://www. AOL Health.090. Retrieved 2008-03-04.

Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics.4 in) in diameter. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. Indian walnut.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. simple and ovate. 4–6 centimetres (1. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. also known as Candleberry. Euphorbiaceae. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil http://www. The leaves are pale green. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). with wide spreading or pendulous branches.9 in) long.6–2.9–7. flowers. with an acute .) Willd.crazychefs. which allows its use as a candle (see below). moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. hence its name. The nut is round. Kemiri. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. 10–20 centimetres (3. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana).

are applied around the navel for costiveness. named kukui were burned to provide light. In Sumatra. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. ulcers. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. they are mildly toxic when http://www. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. On the island of Java in Indonesia. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. In Hawaiʻi. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. the nuts.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. and gonorrhea. fevers. In Java. giving them greater underwater visibility. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. pounded seeds. including: leis from the shells. In . Outside of Southeast Asia. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. as the candlenut is much more bitter. The flavor. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. burned with charcoal.crazychefs. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. swollen joints. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. however. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is quite different. a varnish with the oil. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. lit one end. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. This led to their use as a measure of time. leaves and flowers.

Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. ^ Scott.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). Finally. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono.[citation needed] References 1. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). 4.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). .[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. ISBN 9780824822514. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. the god of agriculture. "Chapter 4: Canoes".google. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). despite her best efforts to please her husband. Retrieved 2009-03-06.). Craig Thomas (2000). still Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. University of Hawaii Press. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Susan. p. 5. Lilinoe http://www. ISBN 9781573061377. 50-51. was routinely beaten. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. In plantations. Beatrice H. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. and the husband was eventually killed. 26. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. This larva is eaten by some people. ^ "Kukui". Being a kind and just woman. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. http://canoeplants. Liana I. protection and peace. she was given new ripe nuts. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Hawaiians of Old (3[5] In Tonga. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment.crazychefs. tukilamulamu. ^ Krauss. pp. p. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. http://books. Bess Press. (1993). ^ Dunford. 122. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3.html. http://books. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. University of Hawaii Press. Mikiala Ayau. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. used as soap or One of the legends told of a woman who. http://books. named tuitui are pounded into a paste.

white pepper. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. .[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family http://www. The terms pink peppercorns. unrelated plants. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. However. green pepper. Peppercorns. containing a single seed. . . and very often simply pepper.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P.crazychefs. The fruit. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. dark red when fully mature. cultivated for its fruit. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. Kannada:meNasu. Telugu:miriyam. Malayalam:kurumulaku. red pepper (as in bell or chile).net/ . Konkani:miriya konu. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. . known as a peppercorn when dried. may be described as black pepper. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them.

com http://www. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. French poivre. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. Dutch peper. wrinkled black layer. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. Once dried. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. with the skin of the pepper removed. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. often alongside table salt. In the 16th century. White pepper consists of the seed only. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali.[4] In the U. chemical or biological methods. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. including decortication.S.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. in the early 20th century. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes.. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. the spice is called black peppercorn. this was shortened to . and the naked seed is dried. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well.crazychefs. and other similar forms. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week.

[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. like black. Schinus terebinthifolius. are used in some Asian cuisines. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. green.crazychefs. made from the largest. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). which are the fruits of a plant from a different family.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper.Black. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. unpreserved green pepper berries. which is mostly no longer an issue. largely unknown in the West. Pickled peppercorns. Fresh. the Peruvian pepper tree. particularly Thai cuisine. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. from Bangka http://www.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. is made from the unripe berries. also green. Schinus molle. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. with a bright aroma. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". are unripe berries preserved in brine or . Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.

It is a spreading vine. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. The flowers are small.[11] Black pepper is native to India. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. The cuttings are usually cultivars.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. but when full grown and still hard. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. poles. Competing plants are cleared away. the berries lose pungency. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. and before the fruit is mature. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. The leaves are . The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. if allowed to ripen.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. entire. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year.crazychefs. or trellises. and ultimately fall off and are lost. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. well-drained and rich in organic matter. moist. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting http://www.

History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times.crazychefs. its most important source was India. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In fact. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia.[14] J.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. Chile peppers. particularly the Malabar Coast. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely http://www. the dried fruit of closely related Piper . The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. in what is now the state of Kerala. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE.

was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. changed the course of world history. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. Sumatra. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. pepper was also being grown in Java. Sunda. Madagascar.crazychefs. Black pepper. Malaysia. but these areas traded mainly with China. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. Trade routes of the time were by land. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. growing in the north-western part of India. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. Long pepper. or used the pepper locally. virtually all of the black pepper found in .Until well after the Middle Ages. By the 16th century. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. nor how it reached the Nile from http://www. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. this trade advantage. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. barged to Alexandria. Returning from India. the Middle East.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean.

pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick.. the banquets of kings. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well.crazychefs. 12. Similarly. Apicius' De re coquinaria. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. whereas. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long . four. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". clad in a wrinkled cover. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. first the Persians and then the Arabs. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. affordable only to the wealthy.[22] In addition. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. seeing that in other substances which we use. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. it is sometimes their http://www. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. There is no evidence to support this claim. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. I wonder. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. and the prices reflected it. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N.H. pepper was a luxury item. After the fall of Rome. and the luxuries of the table.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. if expensive. while that of white pepper is seven. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast.." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. seasoning in the Roman Empire. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. especially Venice and Genoa. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. who travelled east to India. I season delicacies. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. Once into the Mediterranean. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . is fifteen denarii per pound. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. and of black. Edward Gibbon wrote.

India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. as well as around Africa. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. his representative replied. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. A depiction of . started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. However. In 1498.compound that gives pepper its spiciness." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and http://www. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. and salt-cured meats were common fare. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. especially in winter. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. "we seek Christians and spices. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. the effect is small. has some antimicrobial properties.crazychefs. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. Today. Pepper. In the 17th century. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. Pepper harvested for the European trader.

It does not appear to have been widely known at the time."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. hoarseness. but both were used. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. Like many eastern spices. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect.. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". being stronger. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". joint pain.[25] In the 3rd century CE. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. was often the preferred medication.crazychefs. including long pepper. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. each load being equal to 223 lbs. however. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). lung disease. oral abscesses. Long pepper. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. indigestion. diarrhea. insect bites. an area in what is now the Sichuan province.. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. gangrene. insomnia.[26] By the 12th century. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. heart disease. but if this estimated 10.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE.000 pounds (4.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. earache. hernia. liver problems. Note the cook's pepper mill. either long or black. as well as she could for sneezing. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in . 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ".

pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. woody. vitamin B.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. sabinene. Some sources say that piperine. which is stripped of the fruit layer. tooth decay. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. and toothaches.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Refined piperine. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. and floral notes. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. which give citrusy. left on black pepper. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound.sunburn. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. irritates the http://www. chapter five.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. limonene. causing the sneezing. a substance present in black pepper. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala . Few. milligram-for-milligram. caryophyllene. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all.[31] As a medicine. and linalool. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium.crazychefs. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. if any. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit.[31] Also. The outer fruit layer. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. a mildly carcinogenic compound.

which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns.crazychefs. The price of pepper can be volatile.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. Brazil (13%).[33] Once ground. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%).[35] By weight. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. and China (6%). the most widely traded spice in the world. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as http://www. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. As of 2008. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason.000 t (299. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. Thailand (4%).000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 t (391. Malaysia (8%). dispensers of pre-ground pepper.000 short tons). which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. but has fallen to just over 271. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. Sri Lanka (6%). India (19%). pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. for example. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in . so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). by monetary value. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. are used for this. India.

and Builder. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 12. p. 200803-27.da. 17. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. The Hindu Business line.ars-grin. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. http://www.crazychefs. Retrieved 12 August 2006. Using fresh green peppercorns. 4. ^ J. http://www. 13. p. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). PMID 11302858. ^ a b Jaramillo. Retrieved Flora of China. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". Ramses . Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. Retrieved 17 October 2006.arsgrin. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. 93. Retrieved 6 November 2005. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. disease and weather. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". The riddle's answer is of course pepper. 3. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. ^ Peppercorns. ^ Innes Miller. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. Alejandra (2001). 88. p ^ Translation from Turner. Black pepper is marica. 8. ^ Katzer.000 t (99. 18. http://www. 2. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 11.2307/2657072.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. f. 5. 19. Innes Miller. 80 16. ISBN 0375407219. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. http://www. ^ Ochef.thehindubusinessline. 10. 1969).com 9. 83 21.efloras.poor crop management. Retrieved 6 November ISBN 075653836X. 2006-1120. ^ Dalby p. using almost none of its production domestically. Retrieved 2009-01-29. http://www. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. Gernot (2006).000 short tons).M1. Vietnam dominates the export Warrior. 7. from Penzey's Spices. M. The Spice Trade. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). Random House. 14. Retrieved 13 November 2005. 6.[36] Notes 1. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. Text online. Compass Point Books. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Egyptian Spice.

31. doi:10. Retrieved 2008-01-29. http://siteresources. Dover. 12. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or p. Prosper (2001). ^ Dalby pp. References Dalby.00969. http://www. Deans (2000). G. 28.1365-2672. ^ Turner s_20080515_01.x. Retrieved November 12. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 23. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). http://books. ^ Montagne. ^ Dalby p.karvycomtrade. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Buddhist Monastic Code II. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ Turner p. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". "Mill". "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". 2. 204. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. Hamlyn. 395. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. Full text at Blackwell website. Dorman and S.1046/j. 36. 27. 74–75. Davidson. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.. ^ a b James A. 10. table 2.worldbank.ch05.crazychefs. p. Vol. Andrew (2002). CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . 2005. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. ISBN 0520236742. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". ^ Dalby p. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). J. 35. Berkeley: University of California Press. 33. Alan (2002). Jaffee. 726. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank).com/books?id=tg7R4hU8hkC&pg=PA395&lpg=PA395&dq=Pepper+safrole&source=web&ots=38F TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. ^ Jaffee ds/IndiaSpices. D. ISBN 0849336201. ^ H.22.2000.S. 26. 32. 156." 24.accesstoinsight. ISBN 0600-60235-4. ISBN 0521367085. ^ a b McGee p. Cambridge University Press. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. 171. Karvy Comtrade Limited. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. http://www. pp. ^ Jaffee . 2008-05-15. Larousse Gastronomique. 30. Steven (2004). "Spices.pdf. 428. CRC Press. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. also Turner 34. 108–109. Duke (1993-08-16). http://books. purchase required. ISBN 9781580084178. ^ U. Dangerous Tastes. http://www. 29.

Harold (2004). yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum . OCLC http://www.crazychefs. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. London: Vintage Books. OCLC 56590708. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 0375707050. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Spice: The History of a Temptation. "Black Pepper and Relatives".McGee. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Jack (2004). pp. Turner. 427–429.

86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.Pepper. Today.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.crazychefs.057 mg 4. Central America and northern South America.Dietary fiber 1.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.Sugars 2.17 g 0.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B2) 0. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.224 mg Folate (Vit. including .028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B3) 0. B1) 0. Peppers are native to Mexico. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries.64 g 0.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0. http://www. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world. sweet.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0. green and orange. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".40 g .

which has its roots in the word for pepper. an unrelated plant. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. It is eaten with fried noodles. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. meaning Bulgarian pepper. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. "gele paprika".net/ . In Norway. "groene paprika". regardless of their color. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. or "piment. "red pepper". the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. such as Australia. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket.. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. At that time peppercorns. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. " In Japan. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". "Miris" is Chilli. "green pepper"). hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries.crazychefs. In the United States and Canada. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. Indiana. In British English. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. Grilled. When cut off. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". like pasta. meaning Big pepper. respectively). in Dutch. Malaysia and New Zealand. and Pennsylvania." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets).g. In France it is called "poivron". Across Europe. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. the fruit of Piper nigrum. Sweden. which are green and yellow.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. In parts of Ohio. India. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. meaning http://www. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. With the similar meaning. they are called "capsicum". the word ピーマン ("pîman. the term "paprika". g. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. were a highly prized condiment. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. instead of using as a spice. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão.

net/ . the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. maroon. aqua. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. in salads. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". black and brown. yellow or orange peppers. purple. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. rainbow. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. blue.crazychefs. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Varieties The color can be green. more http://www. It is eaten as a raw snack. white. yellow. red. orange and. violet. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. in various soups and stews. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. pink.

a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). Peppermint (Mentha × piperita. also known as M. indigenous to ^ http://www.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . It is found wild occasionally with its parent http://www. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. The plant.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. balsamea . [1]) is a hybrid mint. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L.crazychefs.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1.

[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. 84. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. blunt spikes. dark green with reddish veins. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. spreading by its rhizomes. with smooth stems. 6–8 mm (0. Being a hybrid. The rhizomes are wide-spreading.6–3. forming thick. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively.6 in) cm broad. square in cross section. Flowering is from mid to late http://www.crazychefs. fleshy. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. he treated it as a species.24– 0. it is usually sterile. The flowers are .20 in) diameter. The chromosome number is variable. noted since 1843[8]. with 2n counts of 66. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. including stream sides and drainage ditches. 72.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England.5–4 cm (0. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1.31 in) long. and bare fibrous roots. with a few exceptions. it can grow anywhere.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region.59–1. If placed. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 in) long and 1. and 120 recorded. http://www. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007.[10] Similarly.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and toothpaste. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. ice cream. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. chewing gum. particularly menthyl acetate. confectionery. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal .Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. thus promoting belching. and is often used as a flavouring in tea.1.

New Zealand. hairless. It needs a good water supply. [18].[13] and in the United . Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. the Galápagos Islands. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. Stems reddish. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. and it is considered invasive in Australia. Foliage lime-scented. as a natural insecticide. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. Eau De Cologne Mint). The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds.crazychefs.[12] Outside of its native range. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. In addition to that. [16]. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. [21]." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. If you choose to grow peppermint.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole http://www. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. A mild. Leaves wrinkled.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. it is advisable to plant it in a container. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. which they then call "after-dinner mints. Leaves aromatic. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases.

^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". 4th Edition. C. Mentha L.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. Retrieved 3 June 2009.006. & Grey-Wilson. ^ a b Blamey. ISBN 978-1563636783 page 640. http://whqlibdoc. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial" A. A. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. doi:10. G. R..[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . a popular confection. C. ^ Harley. In: Stace. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. ^ World Health . ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. 2. http://www. (1989). 6. ed.glu. 11.1016/j.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. (2007). Retrieved 2009-02-07. (1753).a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . 7.crazychefs.. ^ Cappello. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8.who. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. 5. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ed. ^ Linnaeus. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. et al. Thomson Healthcare. Mehmet (2004). Flowers open from bottom up. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. C. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. ^ a b Huxley.02.pdf. M.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 .. (1992). ^ a b Akdogan. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. (1975). M.2007. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. 9.

19. doi:10. Retrieved 7 June 2009. doi:10.)".com/cgi/content/abstract/23/1/21. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)".iso. http://www. ^ Edwards. Retrieved 8 June 2009. (2004).1071/ http://www. 18. Ambika et al. and Mentha spicata L. Mehmet (2003). Valerie Howland (2006). to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. F. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv.E.)".htm?csnumber=32041. Bienvenu (1998). 27. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". 21. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. ^ Akdogan.. D. http://het. 26. (2007). . F. 20.iso. Retrieved 6 June 2009.122. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. S. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 . Frédéric et al. Bienvenu (1999). "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. 25.sagepub.E. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. ^ International Organization for Standardization.actahort. Retrieved 6 June 2009. populations. Retrieved 3 June. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". paraquat. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .10): 119 .1002/jsfa. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . Retrieved 3 June.htm?csnumber=11633.257.. Retrieved 3 June.htm. J. on kidney tissue in rats".2740311104. ^ Farley. ^ a b c Jullien. ^ International Organization for Standardization.1151.crazychefs. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats".S. http://het.interscience. 23. http://www. http://www. Australia". ^ Adamovic. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita ^ Akdogan. Retrieved 7 June 2009. ^ Sharma. ^ International Organization for Standardization..sagepub.Specification". http://www.224.16. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Plant Cell.sagepub. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". 22.28. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 . "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L.159.wiley. Mehmet et al. Derek R. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . Zheljazkov.htm?csnumber=4844. V. Retrieved 3 June. doi:10. et al.1023/A:1006185103897. 24.. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)".com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119.

Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. porrum (L. Allium ampeloprasum var. is a vegetable which belongs. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. although different in their uses as food.Gay The http://www.crazychefs. the elephant garlic and kurrat.) J. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to the Alliaceae family. porrum (L.). along with the onion and garlic. also sometimes known as Allium . ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. Two related vegetables. ampeloprasum var.

and overwintering leeks. to be planted out as weather permits. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. leeks are hardy. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Once established in the garden. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. and they have few pest or disease problems. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature http://www. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching).net/ . Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting.crazychefs. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. intended for harvest in the season when planted. Growing Leek field in Houthulst.

doing especially well when they are the prime http://www. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. as the leek ages. but. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. Raw. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. The onion-like layers form around a core. The tender core may be eaten. Lamb is the most popular. It has a fresh smell similar to . A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. In its raw state. Fried. which can be used in salads. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. due to the layered structure of the leek. carrots and potatoes and different meats.Cuisine Leeks for sale. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. which turns it soft and mild in taste. although less bitter than scallion. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. along with leek soup. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled.

crazychefs. B1) 0. B2) 0.E.saturated 0.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.C.04 g . onwards.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit. as well as wall carvings and drawings.233 mg Folate (Vit. B3) .03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.monounsaturated 0. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.Sugars 3.3 g 1. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.polyunsaturated 0.06 mg 5% Riboflavin ( http://www. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.8 g Fat .E.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates . who consumed it most often in soup.Dietary fiber 1.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.004 g . In her book. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.C. as well as other recipes with leeks. 83 μg 14.15 g 0.9 g .

net/ . a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. In the play. representing Wales. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. good countryman. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. you know.Vitamin E 0. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed http://www. David‘s Day.crazychefs. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. for example. According to one legend. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards.12 mg recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. Shakespeare.

Domestication of plants in the Old http://www. Knopf.Notes 1. ^ Jane Grigson. ^ Guiliano. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. 3. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. (Penguin Books. French Women Don't Get .crazychefs. Mireille..p. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. third edition (Oxford: University Press. 1978. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2000).

Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. with fewer than 100 individuals left. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.2 g 0.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .crazychefs.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. dulce) or celeriac ( .Sugars 2 g 3g . raw Nutritional value per 100 g ( http://www.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable.6 g Fat Protein Water 0.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. Celery. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.Dietary fibre 1.

celery is also grown for its seeds. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. Celery is a staple in many soups.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats.In temperate countries. often used as a base for sauces and soups. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery http://www. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). and carrots make up the French mirepoix. on the Chicago-style hot dog. Celery salt is used as a seasoning.crazychefs. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. such as chicken noodle soup. as celery salt. horses. 30 AD. onions. Celery is widely eaten by guinea . dogs. Celery. birds. Actually very small fruit. and in Old Bay Seasoning. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. onions. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. squirrels. and small rodents. Celery. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries.

so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. at Kastanas.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of .Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. Celery contains androstenone. however. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. M. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. even in trace amounts. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. foods that contain or may contain celery. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. Lemnos and Thebes.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. making avoiding such foods difficult. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. However. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content.crazychefs." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. have to be clearly marked as such. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. In Homer's Iliad. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. for people with celery http://www. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead.[8] In the European Union. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. they note "since A. father of the Cabeiri. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac.

from the Latin selinon. Under optimal conditions.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. They are ranged under two classes.. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. In the past. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. In North America. 1. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. cracks. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). 2–3 mm diameter.. and Praetors feasts. and the most crisp and tender. fields are harvested only once. The plants are raised from seed. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. shape.crazychefs. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. but the leaves may be used in salads. white and red.5–2 mm long and wide. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. apium Italicum. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. The flowers are creamy-white. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. produced in dense compound http://www. earthy taste. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. at our Great Mens tables. due to extremely uniform crop growth.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. . the whole plant having a coarse. insect damage and rot). splits. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. straightness and thickness of petiole. as the Grace of the whole Board". celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. borrowed from Greek. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. many of which differ little from the wild species. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. and a distinctive smell.[14] With cultivation and blanching.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. seleri. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm.

com/edible. M. http://postharvest. ^ Celsus.practicallyedible. ^ Cantwell. 3. Thayer translation [1] 4. Thomson. ^ William Robinson and W. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. 16. p. 227. C (1753). (2002-06-10). "Celery". Scheiner O. 12. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82.L. 8. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. Post-harvest technology research and information center. Holmiae. (2005). (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens" Celery and Negative Calories 6. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 15. 13. Zohary and M.6 (June 1993): 610-611. s. Heiner DC. ^ Teng CM. 14. 11. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". ^ a b Fragiska. Hopf. ^ R. Retrieved 2009-05-03. Radauer C. Western Journal of Medicine 158. et al.17:1697-1699. ^ Celestin J. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. 10. and proper sanitation.46. 1920).com http://www. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. de Medicina. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. T. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo.shtml.[16] References 1. 9. (Laurentii Salvii). ^ "Smallage". ^ D.nsf/pages/smallage. (3rd ed. 2003. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. 2. Wilson IBH. Natural History XIX. 2000) p. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". Ko SN. gentle handling. http://www. Kraft D. P. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia.crazychefs. ^ Calcium sources 7. ^ Bublin M.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F).v. ^ Pliny. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables.ucdavis. ^ OED. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). West J. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". Lee LG. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. Suslow.. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 . Retrieved 2008-03-04. ^ snopes.

see Sugar (disambiguation).5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates . brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.91 g .Sugars 99.Sugars . showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B2) 0. (Discuss) For other uses.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99.98 g 0g 0g http://www.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.crazychefs. see sucrose. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars. Magnification of grains of sugar.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates . Sugar. For the common table sugar.21 g .

It forms the main ingredient in candy. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. sugar maple (in maple syrup). B2) 0. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. B3) 0. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. but also appears in fruit. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1.77 g Thiamine (Vit. mainly sucrose. B1) 0.Water 1. lactose.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. sorghum.026 mg Folate (Vit. honey. and in many other .com http://www.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. and fructose. obesity and tooth decay.crazychefs.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar.082 mg Vitamin B6 0.

Scientific Scientifically. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose".crazychefs. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). Etymology In the case of sugar. zahari. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including palm sugar and fructose.[4] It came to English by way of French. the Italian word zucchero. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Spanish and/or Italian. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. (Compare the OED.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. In this informal sense. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). etc. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. molasses or treacle.) will likely denote a sugar. preservation. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. "dextrose". alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners http://www. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre).net/ . "fructose". means "pebble". such as glucose. Generically known as "syrups". they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. and texture) of beverages and food. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. In a list of ingredients. the Spanish word azúcar.Popular In non-scientific use.) The Greek word for "sugar". and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs.

com http://www. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. cook or consumer. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. syrups and fruit juices. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. making the sugars reactive. important molecules in the body.containing 1. A notable exception. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. plus sugars naturally present in honey. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. Natural sugars come in fruit. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). deoxyribose. Sugars include monosaccharides. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. 2. 3. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all.crazychefs. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. This includes all the sugars referred to above. has a "missing" oxygen . as its name suggests. raw sugar. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. disaccharides.Culinary sugars Grainier.

These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. proteins connected to one or more sugars. or DNA. galactose and mannose. with less than 0. This resulting syrup. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. Monosaccharides include fructose. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. which has the formula C6H12O6. producing invert sugar. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. sweeter than the original sucrose. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and .made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. which form part of nucleic acids.water (H2O) per bond. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). In these closed-chain forms. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . If combined with fine ash.made from one glucose and one fructose). fructose.crazychefs. and galactose. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. After digestion and absorption. including NADH and ATP. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as http://www. sugar will burn with a blue flame.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. glucose. which is made of glucose. Note for example glycoproteins. lactose (milk sugar .

23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. 4. A C 2.crazychefs. Sugar Blues. History of Science and Technology in Islam. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. Cambridge: Woodhead. ^ scientificpsychic. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 063205476X.Bulk Density . ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. 5. Temple University Press. Glyn (2004). Michael (January 2001). OCLC 44493265." Powder and Bulk References Adas. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History." http://men. Joseph and Mike Carlson. ^ "Engineering Resources .06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = http://www. James. OCLC 51837990 84251137.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. The International Sugar Trade. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When.htm 3. 1996.80 g/ml Notes 1. ISBN 1566398320.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. ^ Wuebben. Sugarcane.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West.

Products for industrial use (e. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). It is. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar.crazychefs. however. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. Although in some areas. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial .com http://www. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0.25% of the total volume). especially in the Netherlands.g. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. Brown sugar contains from 3.35 mm. for light brown sugar. sugar beet molasses is used. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. without mixing them separately.

a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. History In the late 1800s. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. White and Deadly" . The effort was so successful that by 1900. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types.[2] John Yudkin. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white . apart from pure carbohydrate. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 http://www. much like adding molasses would do.[1] However. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. as opposed to white sugar.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar.crazychefs. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. in his studies (cited in "Pure. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes).When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. In other applications. Nutritionally.

and are sold as Turbinado sugar. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 2. 32-33 5. damp sugar that retains all of the natural ^ Levenstein. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice.htm#sugarmade. which is then binado_Sugar. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar.3 fao. 4. Harvey.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. .com/muscovado_sugar.".com/PressRelease. centrifuged. Demerara is another unrefined. but most is now produced in Mauritius. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. giving it a higher mineral content.html. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. or Demerara sugar. 6. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane.htm#bm07. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar.php?id=3026. Retrieved 2008-09-20. Muscovado. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. ^ New Scientist. largecrystalled. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". resulting in the characteristic large.csrwire.wholesomesweeteners. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www.wildernessfamilynaturals. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. http://www. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left).org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where sugar cane was grown. http://www. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar http://www. 7. 2003. Retrieved 2008-09-20. light brown. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". http://www.crazychefs.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. crystals. an island off Africa.1. cane sugar. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. References 1.fao. light brown. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics.

but toxic to most land plants. the two major components of salt. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in http://www. refined salt (table salt).Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. white. Chloride and sodium ions.[citation needed] Conversely. Salt flavor is one of the basic . including humans. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. which some use to prevent caking. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. including high blood pressure. It is a crystalline solid. pale pink or light gray in color.crazychefs. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. and iodized salt. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself.

and the dye Tyrian purple. salt provided the best-known food preservative. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. glass. in the millennia before http://www. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. especially for meat. as were salted birds and salt fish. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure. the caravans still transported some 15. China dates back to at least 6000 . however.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2]:44 Along the Sahara.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.000 tons of salt.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. In 1960.

In religion According to Strong's Concordance. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. taking their names from hal(l)-. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. God sent down four blessings from the sky .[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf.also gave us Gaul.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. the Roman exonym for the Celts. a root for salt found in Celtic. Greek.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). During the first millennium BC. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. (Judges 9:45. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. though incorrectly. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. water. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it.crazychefs. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables.) In the Sermon on the Mount. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. which was illegal under British rule. and Egyptian. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine .[citation needed] The root hal(l). Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. who had heretofore mined for salt. began open pan salt making. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". the Hallstatt Celts. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt.Salzburg. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. In many Pagan religions esp.[1] It is widely. Halych in Ukraine. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace.

In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. such as in Sumo Wrestling. In Aztec mythology.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and http://www.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.crazychefs. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at . Halite. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal.

The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical . which are kiln-dried. One example are bath salts. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. natural sea salt harvested by hand.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. which is most widely used presently. and the making of soaps and detergents. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper.Different natural salts have different mineralities. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. Fleur de sel. Refined salt.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. Purification usually involves recrystallization. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. Today.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts).com http://www. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. giving each one a unique flavor. Injected water dissolves the salt.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products.[12] However. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt.5% of salt production. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. is mainly sodium chloride. In recrystallization. food uses account for 17. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. After the raw salt is obtained. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. and thus is rarely eaten. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things.

[29] However. condiments such as soy sauce. Table salt has a particle density of 2. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. and calcium aluminosilicate. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. silicon dioxide. magnesium oxide. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. calcium silicate. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. Some people also add a desiccant.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. but was determined to be http://www.crazychefs. however. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about .154 g/cm3.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. fatty acid salts (acid salts). Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . calcium or magnesium carbonates. Single-serving salt packets. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. sodium aluminosilicate. and a bulk density (dry. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.165 g/cm3.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution.

or even an electrolyte disturbance. which can cause severe. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. iodized salt is more common in the United States. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. The reason for this is unclear.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. or sodium iodate. which gives the table salt a yellow color.crazychefs. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. In the United States. In France.[32] Another additive. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. In Canada. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. especially important for pregnant women. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. specifically endemic goiter. which can cause goitre. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. cretinism in children. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans.[31] http://www. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). even fatal. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. sodium iodide. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. potassium. magnesium.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium . The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. dizziness. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. neurological problems. fluorinated table salt is available. with insufficient salt intake. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps.[33] Drinking too much water. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. and myxedema in adults. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment.

" ([41] p3).[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways.[38] heartburn." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment." ([44]. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. since salt was quite valuable). in Japan.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women." ([41]. It can exacerbate renal disease. combined with an inadequate intake of water. forced salt intake. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. can cause hypernatremia. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt.crazychefs. independently of blood pressure . such as in treatment of dysautonomia. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention).person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. p18) However." ([41].[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the http://www. salt consumption is higher. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products.

crazychefs. A salt mill for sea salt.[50].[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. but achievable population goals.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. Some isolated . average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. have been found to consume little salt. SACN states."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK http://www. such as the Yanomami in South America. for a typical adult.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy.

The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children.g.5g salt per 100g (or 0. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium.).[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt.crazychefs.'[55] Campaigns In 2004.[57] In March 2007. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). "low".[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. Those who have kidney failure.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). LoSalt.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt.8 g salt) per day. etc. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania.6g sodium). These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride.[51] In the United States. then that is a medium level of salt. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. or Green (Low). which recommends no more than 6g of salt per . a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.3 g sodium = 5. Amber (Medium). When other health claims are made about a food (e. Low is 0. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication.300 mg of sodium (= http://www. calories. One manufacturer. low in fat. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. Australia. without recourse to salt substitutes. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures." In the UK. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". which will increase potassium intake. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.1g sodium).

such as brine wells and salt lakes. Notes 1. Dytac.3 million tonnes). Triamterene. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). 6.crazychefs.5). Retrieved 2008-12-14.3). Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. 2. New York: Robert Appleton[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. Eplerenone and Inspra. Answers. the top five producers being the United States (40. Costs can reach staggering amounts. . In 2002. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://en. India (14.7).wikisource. and Canada (12. called halite. 8. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. 3. ^ "Salt". Germany ( their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. China (32. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium http://www. 4. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). and Hall in Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. Catholic Encyclopedia. and by mining rock salt. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. 4th edition". 7. http://www. 1913. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride.

Epikouria Magazine. ^ ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result& Mason (2006-12-19). http://www.htm 19. 14 August 1998.crazychefs. ^ What is Salt?.dep. 5379. http://www3. Retrieved 2009-0708. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers".newton. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. salt manufacture.saltsense. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. salt uses. Retrieved 2008-07-29. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. sodium. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. 2008 29. Science. salt history. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. ISBN "The (Political) Science of Salt".907 ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. Retrieved 200907-08.9% sodium chloride 25. ^ Table 27. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www.Weather Curriculum 18. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. Vol. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. salt ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. ^ Iodized Salt 31. Fall/Winter 2006 10. Transportation Research Board. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: 16. ^ Gary Taubes. J. salt "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". Victoria) Salt ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. ^ HE-620 24.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). 281. no. ^ References on food salt & health issues. 28. ^ a b http://news. Salt Institute. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. 10. ^ Nauticus .afssa. ^ .htm 15. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. Ask a Scientist. http://books. ^ Iodized Salt 32. salt uses. 12.pdf 898 . 11. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. Kuemmel (1994). 14. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.stm 38. ^ David A. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. Salt Institute. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36.

ac. Putnam's Sons. ^ Susan R. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. The Story of Salt.06.. The Mummies of Ürümchi. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). 47-50. Salt: A World History. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51.pub2 References Kurlansky. Mark (2002). Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases.healthandwellbeing. doi:10. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. ISBN 0802713734. ^ Cook NR. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. Cutler JA. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57.P. New York: Walker & Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. 2007. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. Mark. Schindler. Friedrich Schulz. Inc. http://www. NY: G. ^ Understanding labels 55. 2006. Further reading Kurlansky. New York: W. John Wiley & http://www. New York. Feldman. doi:10. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47.334(7599):885. Norton & Co. ^ Salt Matters 60. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. http://www. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Legal Medicine 2005. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56.2004. Victoria) Fluid retention 46.40.crazychefs.1002/0471238961. S. Sodium chloride. 7. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63.legalmed. Published online 2005. ^ U. BMJ. ISBN 0393320197. 62. and S. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. OCLC 48573453. Obarzanek E et al.005 . OCLC 48426519. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. ^ Salt TV ads 59. 61.W. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. Barber. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt".1915040902051820. 28 January 2008. Erwin Koops. Sodium (accessed13 January 2007) 49..1016/j.

Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. New York: Columbia University by Dr Trevor Beard.crazychefs. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Arts and traditions of the table. The Stationery Office. Salt: Grain of Life. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy .com . Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . 2001. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round.Laszlo. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. Department of Health. Pierre.

found commonly in Thailand. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. such as Cambodia. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. phrik thai. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. mainly Kerala. the Philippines and Singapore. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . as well as in neighbouring countries. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. phrik khi nu(lit. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu).net/ . Malaysia. Vietnam. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. Indonesia. It can also be found in http://www.crazychefs.

com http://www. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones.000 to 100.000 on the Scoville pungency scale.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili." which can best be described by the English equivalent. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red.crazychefs. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. "Big things come in small packages.

and among the group of capsicum annuum. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. but slightly less pungent variety. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. Ladâ. and then red. has peppers that point upward on the plant. orange. The more decorative.crazychefs.wikipedia. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. Thai). creating a rainbow effect. Thai" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam.As well as the Malay word. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian).net/ . It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. and go from green to yellow. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum http://www. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). phrik khii nuu ( .

or used in casseroles. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. it can also be used on its own. It has a tough.crazychefs. . Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. which store a large amount of starch. It is a kind of celery. Unlike other root vegetables. gratins and baked dishes. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. Celeriac has a celery http://www. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. usually mashed. about the size of a large potato. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter.

3 g 1. Among them are 'Prinz'. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000.crazychefs. and 'Kojak'.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. Celeriac soup.6 g 9. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. rinsed. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and .The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. 'Ibis'. Celeriac.Sugars 1. 'Diamant'.Dietary fiber 1. especially in Europe.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the http://www.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.2 g . There are a number of cultivars available.

and see text The eggplant. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. or brinjal (Solanum melongena).com http://www. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. It bears a fruit of the same name. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) .crazychefs. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. As a nightshade. The stem is often spiny. aubergine. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. The flowers are white to purple. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L.

from Sanskrit vatin-ganah).com http://www. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. The fruit is fleshy. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. from Persian bad'en-j'aan." Aubergine and brinjal. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. In the Caribbean Trinidad. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1500 CE.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. The name aubergine. but much larger in cultivated forms. and contains numerous small. soft seeds. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. the fruit is known as a " . History Solanum melongena. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. which are edible. which is used in British English. The name eggplant.crazychefs. New Zealand. In Indian and South African English.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. used in the United States. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. from Arabic al-badinjan. flower The plant is native to India. Australia. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs.

Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. and Black Beauty. in white skin Dourga. Burpee Hybrid. green. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. shape and color. or white. Ichiban.crazychefs. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. A much wider range of shapes. Black Magic. There are even orange varieties. http://www. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. slightly pendulous . The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Some cultivars have a color gradient. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. Dusky. and Tycoon. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. Traditional. especially purple. Pingtung Long. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Classic.

The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. allowing for very rich dishes.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. In the Caucasus. along with the fish Hilsa. and masala and then cooked in oil. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. In one dish. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). for example. or http://www. peanuts. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. as in the French ratatouille. The thin skin is also edible. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. for example in sambhar. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. and garlic. and deep-fried. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. it is called Begun ( ). as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. As a native plant. tahini. rice. or Eggplant Parmesan. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. In Bangladesh. so that peeling is not required. curries. battered. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. and achaar.crazychefs. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. the Italian melanzane alla . chutney. In some parts of India. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. It. It can be sliced. as in the related tomato. The fruit flesh is smooth. tahini. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. braised (紅燒茄子). It is often stewed. In Iranian cuisine. tomatoes. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. or other fillings and then baked. complex flavor. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. as they are far less bitter. the Arabian moussaka. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food.

and potato.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables.crazychefs. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. containing both female and male structures. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. and spider mites. pepper (capsicum). it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Egypt. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae.) to 60 cm (24 in. showing the inside. such as http://www. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. flea beetle. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. are also troublesome to eggplants. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Flowers are complete. aphids. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. This is called Beguni ( ). and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. (Adults can be removed by hand.) between plants. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in . Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. the most serious of which is Verticillium. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. For this reason.) between rows. depending on cultivar. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%).

Sugars 2.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. F = FAO estimate. New Jersey is the largest producing state.039 mg 5. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. semi-official or estimates). C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official. B2) 0.7 g 0. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.crazychefs.Dietary fiber 3.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .net/ .[5] In the United States.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.043.35 g .037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. P = official figure.(2. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data. B1) http://www.19 g 1. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.

Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.Niacin (Vit.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed].01 mg/100g). such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. However. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming .649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.[8] On average. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. while 1.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2. Brazil. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for http://www. B3) 0.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.16 mg Manganese 0. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium.084 mg Folate (Vit.crazychefs. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.

which used to include Dunal's S. album. capsicoides). Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. racemiflorum. aethiopicum. Names for various eggplant types. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. mainly by Dikii.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. luteum. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. subrepandum.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. sinuatorepandum. Solanum oviferum Salisb. oblongo-cylindricum. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. insanum. trongum. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. lasiocarpum. Solanum longum Roxb. edule. Scopoli's S. There is an actual S. multifidum. On the other hand. racemosum. rumphii. and (invalidly) by Sweet. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. S. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). variegatum. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. esculentum.Varieties Solanum melongena var. tongdongense. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. But this is not http://www. stenoleucum. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. Dunal. divaricatum. esculentum. brownii. giganteum. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best.F. ovigerum and S. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. globosi.crazychefs. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. Similarly. inerme. ovigera. aethiopicum. H. ruber. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. such as agreste. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S.-Lag. violaceum. violaceum and . that of Blanco to S.C. inerme and subinerme at that time. leucoum. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S.

Footnotes 1. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". S.crazychefs. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). (2001). and Engineering by Yiu http://www. CRC Press. . ^ Doijode. D. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Technology. Handbook of Food Science. ISBN 1574445510. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. common. Hui (2006).Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant.

A. Miyachi http://pubs. ^ SN Pramod. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. Ebury Press. ^ B. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. The New England Journal of Medicine. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. FAO. Erich Hornbach. http://faostat. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). Harish Babu * . pp. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2008 10.caes.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. 5. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008.Aubergine 8. 7. 2004. Arq Bras . P. volume 82 (nº 3). Andréa Thomaz. Dieges PH.crazychefs. ^ "FAOSTAT".com . Tsenge Demana. 202 4.3.133(42):2081-3 12. Mahesh † and Y. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). ^ Health24. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. Volume 329:437 August 5. 2008-11-11. 6.uga. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. http://www. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. ^ Solanum melongena var. P.) reveals female predominance. ^ Edward F.* YP Venkatesh. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite.50(2):101-102 11. Vol. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. ^ Kabashima K. Retrieved 2007-04-24.pdf. Bruno Caramelli. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels" Robert (2008-11-14). Retrieved 2009-07-01. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. N. 1993 Number 6 9. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. 18(1): 59-62 13. 273-6. ^ Westerfield. Toorenenbergen AW.

with a serrated margin. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. odd pinnate. http://www. One species. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. see section Fruit or vegetable below). The tomato is native to South America.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. yellow. Solanum lycopersicum.4–0.8 in) across.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. and have a weak.crazychefs. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. woody stem that often vines over other plants. It is a perennial. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). However. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of http://www. a mutation from a smoother. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. and cultivation began in the 1540s. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. a barber-surgeon. an Italian physician and botanist. ancestor of L. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. lycopersicum.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. cerasiforme. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. was the first European to take back the tomato. It was probably eaten shortly after it was . Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. meaning plump thing with a navel. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes.[6] Gerard's Herbal. smaller vegetable . The specific name. tomatl. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. means "wolf-peach". However. earlier in 1493. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. such as Florence. corn and salt. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. The exact date of domestication is not known.[4] The large.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. They also took it to the Philippines. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. golden apple. likely to be the original salsa recipe.crazychefs. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. now Mexico City in 1521. lumpy tomato. the other by currant tomatoes. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. who named it pomo d‘oro. in certain areas of Italy. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. according to Smith.

1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. The University of California. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. Charles M. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. The C. Thomas Jefferson. Rick. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. but the fruit is safe). In Victorian times.[6] Nonetheless. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. most famously in Worthing. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. sent some seeds back to . California. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. and as a garnish. who ate tomatoes in Paris. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. Over the past 15 years. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton.M. particularly Florida and California. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. and before the end of that century. and in general.largely plagiarized from continental sources. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. The Spanish tomato dish.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. Paella. By the mid-18th century. and to the market gardens south of Chichester.[6] But by the mid-1700s. 1799 – c. British consul in Aleppo c. broths. Currently. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses.crazychefs. ―within the last forty years. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. Gerard's views were http://www.

[12] According to FAOSTAT. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types.8 in) size as the wild tomato. pink. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0.0–2. through cherry tomatoes. production and 35% of world production. China. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. followed by United States and Turkey. black. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. 18 September 2009. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. or white fruit are also available. purple. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. It may be deleted after Friday.4 in) diameter range. Most cultivars produce red fruit. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and have a lower water content.0 in) diameter. the largest producer. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. For processing http://www. but a number of cultivars with yellow.6– .S.4–0. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. about 5mm in diameter. California accounts for 90% of U. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. green. orange.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. they are known as plum tomatoes. accounted for about one quarter of the global output.

have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the .2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications .Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. and are shaped like large strawberries. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. along with zucchini. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes.[18] and productivity. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes).[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. plum tomatoes.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. but unlike commercial hybrids. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks.[19] Hybrid plants remain common.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes.crazychefs. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. as well as heirloom tomatoes. based mostly on shape and size. As in most sectors of agriculture. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating.

and lack of mealiness. low . white. orange. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. they are often good choices for container growing. some tomato cultivars . which usually discourages fruit set. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. ivory. but must be bought as seed. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. including Brandywine (biggest red). types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. et cetera.cherry tomatoes are small and round. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads.especially heirlooms . Green Zebra (top right). Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. Red Boar). multiple colors (Hillbilly. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. but are smaller than plum tomato.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. Black Krim (lower left corner).crazychefs. although some determinate heirlooms exist. and purple. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. often via http://www. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). brown. or home growers interested in canning. including yellow. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries.produce fruit in colors other than red. Lucky Cross). A variety of specific cultivars. Determinate. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pink. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. black. etc. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. Burracker's Favorite. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. or bush. As an intermediate form.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. disease and pest resistance. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season.

tomatoes required cross-pollination. and A . and remain. The most common letters are: V .and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping.alternaria. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance.fusarium wilt strain I & II. which interrupts the lifecycle. entirely within the closed corolla. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. In the wild. As the name implies.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. T . they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. carried by the beet leafhopper. red spider mite. As a floral device to reduce selfing. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. FF . flea beetles. N nematodes.crazychefs. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. their traditional pollinators. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. tomato fruitworms.verticillium http://www. F . the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars.tobacco mosaic virus. aphids. original state. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. cabbage loopers. too. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. slugs. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. but manure or compost work well.fusarium wilt strain I. The stamens were. As tomatoes were moved from their native . cutworms. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. whiteflies.

Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. by cultured bumblebees. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. In more temperate climates. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. as with most species. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing.crazychefs. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. depending on variety. However. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. or more often today. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . This is not the same as self-pollination. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). In an outside setting. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. They may be recognized by their color. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep http://www. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. Unripe tomatoes are firm.

5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. as tomato sauce. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Though it is botanically a berry. In some studies lycopene. a subset of fruit. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). carotene. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants.6 g 4g . especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). in pieces. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine.Recently.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). or paste. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars.crazychefs. http://www. and other antioxidants.Sugars 2. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. They contain lycopene. The tomato is acidic. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the . Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. especially in cooked tomatoes.

typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. Of regular leaves. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. whether because of pruning or flowering. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. initially decumbent. When that tip eventually stops growing. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12.make salsa. Cultural impact The town of Buñol.[28] In October 1965.5 °F). Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their . tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. fully functional. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). often by sun. or pickled. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing.crazychefs. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. although erect bush varieties have been bred. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. generally three feet tall or shorter. Embracing it for this protest connotation. annually celebrates La Tomatina.5 °C (54. lateral buds take over and grow into other.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. and grow as a series of branching stems. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. Known for its tomato growth and production. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). http://www. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. meaning covered with fine short hairs. The fruit is also preserved by drying. there are variations. They are bred to continue ripening. it will not continue to ripen. Spain. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Tomato plants are dicots. such as rugose leaves. These hairs facilitate the vining process. Determinate types are annual in all climates.

but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. Therefore. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. and be dried/fermented before germination. have the anthers fused along the edges. (derivation. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. other insects. Other species in that family are potatoes. peach. tobacco.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008.e. i. variegated. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world)..crazychefs. genetic evidence (e. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. Similarly. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum.Karst. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. wolf.. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. As a true fruit. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). 'lyco'. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). However. This is because they are native to the Americas.deeply grooved. moths. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. Some smaller varieties have two .[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. Technically. Despite this. with both names found in the literature. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. butterflies. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. "wolf-peach"). or other external forces that present in the Americas. making the Linnaean name correct. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. which frequently used it and still do). Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. while paste tomatoes have very few.[31] Their http://www. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. very small cavities. called locular cavities.) H. appearing on the apical meristem. would be more correct. among cultivated species. angora leaves. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. These vary. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. However. plus 'persicum'. according to type.[32] while others are pollinated by flies.g. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. chili peppers.

from a culinary standpoint.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use.S. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. Bejoseed.S. shape.crazychefs.S. pest tolerance. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. Oregon. In . Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. However. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. The U. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. North Carolina. 304)). as are vegetables. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. of Reynoldsburg. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. 1883. universities. size. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices.W. A. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. and numerous other traits. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. cucumbers. together with its seeds. flavor. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. and organizations. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. a tomato is the ovary. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. http://www. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. AVRDC. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits.S. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. U. Corporations including Heinz. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. Livingston. University breeding programs are active in Florida. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. color. Monsanto. BHNSeed. Hedden (149 U. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. nutritional value. In 1887. New York. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. disease tolerance. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. etc. Ohio. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. corporations. As noted above.

S. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. Speakers from the British Isles. Indiana.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. North Carolina. The fresh fruit is. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant.crazychefs. which is toxic to humans and animals. the U. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . Tennessee. Maine. Kentucky. http://www.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). harmless. 2006. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. Michigan. Rhode Island. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. Minnesota. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. however. Georgia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. Ohio."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Connecticut. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato . On October 30. New Hampshire. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). Massachusetts.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Virginia. Pennsylvania. Vermont and Wisconsin. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. contain the poison Solanine.

[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. fresh serrano pepper. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. respectively. New Mexico (98).com http://www.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. Lancashire. fresh jalapeño pepper. UK. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. with 49. with a harvest of more than 32.151. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista.6:1).[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. 40. Yong Huang. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. the District of Columbia. 2008. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. from April 10. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. and Canada. China. 2007. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world.000 kilograms (250.S. such as raw tomato. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.1 reported cases per million.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). one would arrive at an estimated 40.7 and . of the cultivar 'Delicious'. As of July 2008. French and Germans. 2008. Oklahoma in 1986.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115. and Arizona (49). the U.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada.84 pounds (522 kg). New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far. and fresh cilantro.273 illnesses from this outbreak.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. in 2000. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). Florida. Lake Buena Vista.[38] As of July 8. it caused at least one death. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1.8 m (65 ft) length. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. On August 30. Illinois (100).

Fusarium. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown . as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very http://www. indeterminate. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow.S. Derived from Cherokee Purple.S. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes.crazychefs. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France.

Tomato Flower. Tomato . pickling. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in Korea. Tomato plants in the garden. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. good for Tomatoes on a http://www. Young tomato plant. Tomato slices. .com http://www.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world.html.. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . M. ^ "http://www. Subsection Lycopersicon). Tgrc.. ^ http://faostat. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. et al.. A. (2001).net/ ." http://www." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Tomato in America.easthamptonstar. October 26. ^ Acquaah. Retrieved 2009-04-02. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . Culture. USA: University of South Carolina ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History.Food & Wine".M. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum Retrieved 2008-10-27. 2. and Cookery. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. Smith. 2008. ^ "UC Newsroom. D. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. 519 [1] 9.17. University of Illinois Press. The tomato in America: early history. 13.smithsonianmag. 223 10.html. tons to the acre. http://www.Smith.fao. 11.nationalarchives.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". ^ The Friend. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Retrieved December 11 2009. ISBN 0252-07009-7. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. ^ a b ^ a b Hartz. Andrew F (1994). webpage: books-google-TTp17. During the three months of the local harvest. 7. Columbia. F.". p. Footnotes 1.nationalarchives. I. Retrieved 2009-04-02. page 57: ". 1876." See: Natural History Museum.Your Archives". 12. ^ "C.smithsonianmag. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. (2002-0508)".edu. ISBN 1-57003000-6. Appletons' journal Published by D. section Lycopersicon Mill. Yourarchives.universityofcalifornia.html". 1994. Retrieved December 11 2009. Appleton and Co. Processing Tomato Production in California. Andrew F. Wettst. (1994).smithsonianmag. http://www. and Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. Normania. http://www. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online).edu/news/article/4319.C. Peralta. 8.The East Hampton Star . (2002). p. 1881.aspx?PageID=567 14. 2009-01-26. http://tgrc. S. 3. ^ "http://www. 6. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. bid/6280/Default. G. ^ Tomato history 4. Easthamptonstar. Cyphomandra. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. p. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans.crazychefs. it handles more than 1. & Spooner.

html.whfoods. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". Retrieved 2007-05-24. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. Faq. ^ http://www." 20.html. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. 28.html.16. Retrieved July 14. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).com/faq/lists/tomato/2004111539004321.umn. Retrieved Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes.html 23. ^ "http://www. HYG-5532-93". http://www. 33.html". http://www.html". Retrieved 2008-10-27. Smithsonianmag.ucdavis. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". page 57: "The plants are still http://www. Retrieved http://www." Retrieved December 11 2009.gardenweb. 25. Retrieved June 30. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". ^ "Crop Profiles . "Tomato genome project gets $1.8M". 24. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 27. 17. 30. which are carried in the Retrieved Retrieved December 11 2009. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. News.ncsu.Tomato".smithsonianmag. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one ^ "http://www. http://www.html.smithsonianmag. ^ and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. Retrieved 2008-10-27. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips. http://www. http://news. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the 29. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.ucdavis. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". http://www.html.html.html". Retrieved 2008-10-27.smithsonianmag.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44.cornell.osu. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once.crazychefs. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".com/genpage. .am/wiki/Tomato#Early_tomatoes 21. Retrieved 2008-10-27. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention"." http://www. 31.sinaloa. http://faq. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look 22.smithsonianmag.gob. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato Retrieved December 11 2009. ^ " Plb.html. 2006. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine". ^ "http://www. ^

Retrieved 2009-0402.html. 2004. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States".34. (2004-04-15). p. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. http://www.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". ^ "August 8. Vegparadise. Retrieved 200904-02.html. 40. Retrieved 2009-0721.html?id=585498. United States. Tomato Recipe". ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. http://www. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".1086/381578. 35.cdc. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 9781879906549. http://www. ^ Voetsch. ANR Publications.CBS News".gov/salmonella/saintpaul/. http://www. 38:S3. Cdc. Retrieved 2008-10-27.vegparadise. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. ^ a b Pittenger. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . ^ "ITN. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 42. 38. Foodsafetynetwork. 39. 36. 37. et al.journals. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Tomato Nutrition. California Master Gardener Handbook. http://itn. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". http://www.html.cbsnews. Itn. http://www. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ ISBN 1879906546. Dennis .ca/en/article-details. 41. by state". (2002).uchicago. Retrieved 2008-1027.

Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. called selei buah pala. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees.2 and 0. and nutmeg butter (see below).com http://www. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". extracted oleoresins.4 oz) dried. nutmeg and mace. or sliced finely. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. fragrans products. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source.6 to 0. both are used as adulterants of M. and Bombay Nutmeg M. a state in the south part of . cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). or Spice Islands. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. malabarica from India. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. In Indonesia.crazychefs.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. It also grows in Kerala. especially in Grenada. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. called Jaiphal in Hindi.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. argentea from New Guinea. including essential oils. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. the fruit is also made into jam.7 in) wide. Species About 100 species.

Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. "Lau Hau Peng". In Penang cuisine. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. mulled http://www. In Arabic. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. green. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. and Barbados rum punch. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an . sauces. cauliflower. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). they are also used in soups.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities.crazychefs. In the Caribbean. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. In Indian cuisine. and eggnog. In European cuisine. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. Painkiller. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. saffronlike hue it imparts. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. and baked goods. and string beans.

preserving agents. syrups. medicines. beverages. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. for instance. which can be turned into myristic acid.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. The oil is colourless or light yellow. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked http://www. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. in . 758 – ca. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. used as flavourings. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. It is semi-solid. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.crazychefs. reddish brown in colour. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. and sweets. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. although this is disputed. and smells and tastes of nutmeg.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. it also said that. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. autolyzed yeast. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. or molasses. About 1.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. hydrolyzed .6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring http://www. soy extracts. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. with 4% annual growth expected. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. sugar beets. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. particularly processed foods. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky.crazychefs. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. and protein isolate. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. Fermented products such as soy sauce. However. Canned. and were not observed when MSG was given with food.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. yeast extract. being an amino acid. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. based on anecdotal reports.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. frozen. steak sauce. sugar cane. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. not reproducible.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives." However.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer.

g..g. or its International Numbering System (INS) number.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. 621. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies].com http://www.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. such as hydrolyzed protein. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. and crystallization. MSG. References 1. and (3) microbial fermentation.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. In the 2004 version of his book. (2) synthesis. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. Foster. purified. In the hydrolysis method.celiac. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. dextrose or citrate).). the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture.".com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1.html 2. even in large amounts. New York: Wiley. On Food and Cooking. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. Albert Y. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free . concentration. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Steven (August 2003).2.7% women). age 40–59 years. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. acidification. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. Drugs. For this reason. followed by either the name of the food additive. 373-375.. pp. and converted to its monosodium salt. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. and mineral ions and growth factors. "Monosodium Glutamate". Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. ^ http://www. In 1993. ^ Leung. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). [monosodium glutamate]. flavour enhancer). ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8.crazychefs. The label must bear the food additive class name (e.

^ http://www. (April 2000).net/ . Yangfeng. Kelly M. et al. ^ a b Tarasoff L.html.38. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nutr. PMID 10736382.17457599. Julia (2008-03-05) ^ Kawakita.ajinomoto. Alan R. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.1337. PMID 18497735. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Zhu. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. Regul. PMID 16999713. the Secret Behind the Savor". Martha L. Daniel W (1994). doi:10.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. "A Short History of MSG". Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.3. Linda. Wu. Armstrong. http://www. Shizuko (2005). Zhou. Garside. 15. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.nutrition. J. ^ http://www.1525/gfc. 7. Daniel. doi:10. Daviglus. Jordan (2005). PMID 8282275.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127& "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods".nytimes. ^ He. Food Chem.2008. Beifan. Chiaki. Pharmacol.nih.4. Stamler. (October 2006). Ka. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. (1993). ^ Freeman M.html 12.1002/chir. Dyer. 14. MSG.1002/14356007. " http://www.pdf 9. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Yamaguchi. Toxicol.html 4. http://jn. Liancheng. Beiser ^ Moskin. Case study: monosodium glutamate". "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". 11.F. ^ J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6.5. ^ Walker R (October 1999).1038/oby. 8. doi:10.ajinomoto.2005. doi:10.a16 711. ^ "Production process". Tetsuya. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.celiac. Chirality 6 (4): pp. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". Shioya. Linguang. http://www. PMID 10597625. "Monosodium Glutamate". 16. 31 (12): 1019–1035. 1875– 5. New York Times.2006. Inc.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. ^ a b Geha RS. 6. Kimber L. doi:10.fda.nlm.crazychefs. Masahiro. Ren C. 10.1006/rtph. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". doi:10.cfsan.1999. http://www. Van ^ http://www. doi:10. 38–49. Anjimoto Co. ^ a b 13. Sano. ^ http://vm. Guo.x. Toxicol. Zhao. 277–282.ncbi. Jeremiah (August 2008). Takehara.530060410.274..

Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 豆油 3. 荳油 3. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chinese name Traditional Chinese .crazychefs. 醬油 http://www. 酱油 2.

it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. In its various forms. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. Soy sauce was invented in China.crazychefs. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. and salt.500 years. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. water. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted .com http://www. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK).[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737.[3] In the 18th century. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. [4] By the mid-19th century.

Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural .com http://www. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Today. such as in giant urns and under the sun. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. sojae) and other related microorganisms. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. literally "delicious taste"). and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. Although there are many types of soy sauce. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments.

Korean. one of the two types. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. or a mixture of both. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). lighter brown soy sauce. Despite their rather similar appearance. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning.crazychefs. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. since it is . There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. An additional classification of light soy http://www. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. consistency. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. but it also adds flavour. fragrance and saltiness. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. It has a richer. pinyin: jiàngyóu. shuānghuáng (雙璜). Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish.3-DCP (1. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. Thai. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. like extra virgin olive oil. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. In traditional Chinese cooking. opaque. slightly sweeter. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. traditional Chinese: 醬油. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. Since it is lighter in color. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. ): A thin (nonviscous). Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". Another type. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. with relatively low amounts of other grains. and Chinese cuisine. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar.

its usage eventually spread all over Japan. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. Usukuchi (淡口?.com http://www.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than . It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. where it is known as "shōyu". 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. It contains little or no wheat. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. for example sashimi. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan.crazychefs. Technically. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. Shiro (白?.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. that is used in its production. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. or 醤油). it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production.

not pasteurized. 1 litre bottles. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce.crazychefs. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. Consequently. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. Amakuchi (甘口?.net/ . All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented http://www.Saishikomi (再仕込?. it is much darker and more strongly flavored.

Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. It is a unique http://www. which has a thick. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. powder. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. in a pinch. usually implies limited quantity. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. In Indonesia. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. Kecap manis Sweet soy . but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar.crazychefs.

Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). 조선간장. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. is made entirely of soy and brine.4% of soy sauce purchases.crazychefs. lit. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. O'Long(黑龍). Joseon ganjang. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Malaysia. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. and has a saltiness that varies according to the . Later. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste).[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (called Joseon ganjang. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than http://www.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. WanJaShan(萬家香). Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. Founded in 1909. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. thin and dark brown in color. .3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in http://www. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. or sometimes simply tương.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals.3-DCP (1. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. wheat. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime).[6] Furthermore. and caramel. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. salt. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. nước tương. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. It can also be very salty.crazychefs.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. pronounced SOO-kah). much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. it is also a table condiment. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce.

tcoc. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001.Kong and Taiwan. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). marinades and other types of Tung Chun and Wanjasham. ^ (1781). Soon Teck• and Kang. Pearl River Bridge. King Imperial. http://www. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. ^ Titsingh. 4. Jammy Chai. an increase over 23 to 5. p. Lee Kum .tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption.crazychefs. Sinsin. 2 (January 2000)." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. Retrieved 2008-01-07. Golden Swan.smartfood.[1] Notes 1.000 to 18. Seong-Gook (2002). 2nd edition.asp?id=7598 10. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. Vol.317 2. Celiac disease. 2. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce.htm. the leaflet does include oyster sauce.miyajimasoy. Individuals with a wheat allergy. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. including six samples with up to 11. pp. OCLC 9752305 5. http://www. p. ^ "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce").tw/newsdetail. 8. Despite these being small in number in the UK. ^ Tanaka.gmp. p. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. ^ http://www. 7. ^ http://www. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. http://www. 3. Retrieved 200801-07.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. Press release. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea".) In March 2008. 7. Isaac. XXVII."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". No. III.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Kimlan.' Michael Leboffe and Burton ^ Jung. 6.[citation needed] In Vietnam. ^ http://www. Golden Mark. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan.

12. nutraingredients. Edition 2. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID 15. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand".net/ .crazychefs. Somboon (2002-06-18). http://www. ^ Toxic soy sauce. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. 13. Marian (2003). doi:10.11. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. ^ 16. Food. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. Naczk. PMID 12469319.2323/jgam. Kentucky: CRC Press. Fereidoon. 186. Charles W (2005). Hoboken. ISBN 0632059877. Retrieved 2008-01-07. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. Makio (2005-04-18).48. scares hit Vietnam 20. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. p. ^ Bamford. ^ Kobayashi.201. ^ Tanasupawat. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". et al. p.1263/jbb. 18. doi:10. http://books.nutraingredients. chemical veggies -. 14. fermentation and micro-organisms. ISBN 1587161389. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD".144.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. Stephen (2006-06-06). ^ Daniells. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209.

5–5.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.0 % Linolenic acid: < .5 °C) 84 cP 1.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.5% Linoleic acid: 3.5–20.3% Myristic acid: <0.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.8% Behenic acid: <0.9150–0.0% Arachidic acid: <0.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/ 211 | P a g e http://www.5–21.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.9180 (@ 15.crazychefs.4677–1.3–3.0–83.0% Stearic acid: 0.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.

93% comes from Spain. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms).000 tons of olive oil annually.crazychefs. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. World production in 2002 was 2. North Africa and the Near East.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. Alberquina. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cosmetics. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported.6 million tonnes. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. which produce approximately 350. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. http://www. which receives about three-quarters of total exports.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. Olive oil is used throughout the world. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. in Greece. Italy and Greece. Leccino Pendolino. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. Japan and China. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. Australia.[3] Of the European production. but especially in the Mediterranean. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. Koroneiki. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. and Moraiolo. pharmaceuticals. principally Italy. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. Olives are grown for oil in . with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. and Manzanilla de Jaén. Hojiblanca. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. family Oleaceae).4680–1.6 (refined and pomace) 0. as well as in Crete. in France. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. In 2006.

and by its flavor. in Croatia. of which http://www. Spain. in Portugal.800. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. Spain. In North America. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. IOOC terminology is precise. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). Oblica and Leccino. The US imported 47.000 US gallons (131.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. with 23 member states. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method).[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy.000 m3) came from Italy.600. still contains a small quantity of oil. Spain. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. After extraction the remnant solid substance. a private trade group. and monitoring authenticity. Mission. Galega. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. The California Olive Oil Council. and Turkey. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil).net/ . with production increasing to meet demand.California. The USDA uses a different system. often in "prestige" packaging.000 US gallons (181.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. called pomace. by its chemistry.crazychefs. defining quality standards.

measured by weight. it is believed. but there are no guarantees. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the . but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). for blended oils.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. defined as the percent. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). product as superior olive oil. 25. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. Almost 700 people died. EU officials took issue with the new law. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. both in Italy and abroad. and by heat. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported.[14] In March 2008. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. particularly in Italy. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. however.[16] In April 2008. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. is extremely lax and corrupt. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation.[15] Under EU http://www.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.[14] In February 2008. mostly hexane.[12] In some cases. but safe.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity.crazychefs. of free oleic acid it contains. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant.

more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. another cause of rancidity. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. and is judged to have a good taste.crazychefs. and is judged to have a superior taste. contains no more than 0. Pure olive oil. has an acidity less than 2%. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. The US is not a member. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps.8% acidity. Used on salads. of no more than 1. absence of defects. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. These grades were established in 1948. The U. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. but may not be described simply as olive oil.the oil degrades. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. It has a free acidity. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. It is fit for consumption. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. of not more than 0. and are based on acidity. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test.3 grams per 100 grams (0. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country.5% acidity. This is also called its organoleptic quality. In order to classify it by taste.S. expressed as oleic http://www.

5% and is "reasonably free from defects". Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3.S. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.S.S. Grade C or U. U. (34 kJ/ml).S. "cold" does not define any precise temperature. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. U. with less flavour. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.S.S. Grade B or U. Grade D or U.0% and is "fairly free from defects". in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. Grade C". U.U. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.S.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better .0% and "fails to meet the requirements of http://www. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label.crazychefs. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. which may be as low as 10-15 °C. Grade A or U. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. This is incorrect.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled.S.S.4% and is "free from defects". First of all. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used.

around 8 .crazychefs.7 l. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.1 0. around 14 l. Tunisia.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. around 0. over 26 liters per year. Northern Europe and North America consume far less. Portugal and Lebanon. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.8 7.35 23.pressed".62 12. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. so the term "first press" is meaningless. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.1 1. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. Spain and http://www.2 7 1.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide.7 11.

The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. This is done in specialised chemical plants. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor.34 1. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. 4. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. 1. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. and overripe olives produce rancid http://www. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product.crazychefs. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". which are stacked on top of each other in a column. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. Green olives produce bitter oil. no or very little organoleptic defects). This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. which is much faster and more accurate. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. After grinding. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. then placed into the press. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. If ground with mill stones. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). 2. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. suggesting a different taste. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe . the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. not in the oil mills. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. 3.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. After grinding. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste.

region.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. and extraction process.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.monounsaturated 73 g .com http://www. In the United States. The composition varies by cultivar. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. including oleocanthal and oleuropein.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g ( fat 3.7%) and sterols (about 0. time of harvest. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.crazychefs. most notably oleic acid. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g . Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . To achieve this possible benefit. .5 g .omega-3 fat <1.polyunsaturated 11 g .Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids.

explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial http://www.This decision was announced November 1.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. at least in part. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. and oleuropein. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. and that it exerts antiinflamatory.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. in the long term. 2004. It is theorized . the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). rather than its fatty acid profile. During the first stage. During the second phase. The study was conducted in two stages.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. This way. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. antithrombotic.crazychefs. This could. For example. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats.

Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. Also. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. In time. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. For http://www. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. not for foods to be eaten cold. etc.[citation needed]. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. cookware. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. as available in an oil producing region. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. Used cold. It is also used for sauteing ingredients.crazychefs. Also. like salads. A very fresh oil. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. blenders. oils deteriorate and become stale. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and .

especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions.crazychefs. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. and mild laxative properties. acting as a stool softener. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean http://www. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. It does have demulcent properties. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug .Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. It is also good for the management of pain. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer.[36][37] Jeanne Calment.

from Anglo-Fr. olive oil" (cf. soap-making. Besides food. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. medicines. Mod.Fr. magical. from O. oleum "oil. from Gk. elaion "olive tree".Fr. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and http://www. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. oile (12c. Homer called it "liquid gold.crazychefs. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. huile).Turkey The Manufacture of Oil..Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c." In ancient Greece. 1175. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. and O. It. olio).N. olive oil.Fr. olie. and skin care application.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". olive oil has been used for religious . as a fuel in oil lamps. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. drawn and engraved by J. from L.

It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 http://www.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. olive presses became common. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. In the centuries that . from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean.crazychefs. Bodrum. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo.

the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the . The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. wrote of abundant olive trees. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. "the best in the Mediterranean".000 tons of olive oil per season. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. the fertile crescent.over 4. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. stored in special containers. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem.. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. drained the water from the bottom. during the 13th century BC. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states.[46] Until 1500 BC. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. According to legend.crazychefs. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. and Israel. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. and area consisting of present day Palestine. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1.[dubious – discuss] During this time. According to the historian Pliny. when the oil had risen to the top. together with naked appearance of athletes.[citation needed]. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. Sinuhe.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish http://www. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. allowing more time for more oil to be made. Lebanon. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. oil containers are preferred. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. where it is thought to have represented wealth. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron).000 and 3. he maintained. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests.

p. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath.usda. 158. Joann L Coviello. http://findarticles. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. Steven Sibbett. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". 3. 2. home prayer corners and in the and. References 1. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. neither Eastern nor Western. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive.internationaloliveoil. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. even without fire touching it. "The Olive Tree. http://www. http://www. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. ^ USDA. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. http://www.imitate the original Menorah. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. ^ G. and this secure city. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. 5. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. ^"[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree.html. http://www. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. and the Mount of". The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. the tourch is in a glass bulb. Retrieved 2007-05-25. ANR . Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the Retrieved 2008-07-04. light upon light. In[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. Retrieved 2007-05-25. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". 4. originating from King David. ^ "findarticles. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. its oil almost glows." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. ^ International Olive Oil Council. in the consecration of altars and churches. Margaret Lindstrand (2005). Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. Louise Ferguson. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). Olive Production Manual. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. To douse the flame.

46. ^ Riding. and Maurizio La Guardia. US Customs Department. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. http://www. 11. PMID 17321749. Slippery Business The New ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis. Am.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. (December 1986).html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure.xml. http://aje. Retrieved 2008-11-16.html". 12.6. http://www. ^ Covas MI (March 2007).internationaloliveoil. 19 CFR 134.1079/NRR200495 24. John.htm. Alan (1989-05-21). Karvonen News". ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. Raymond & Co. Giammanco. ^ New York Times. 10. ^ "EUbusiness.internationaloliveoil. 25. D. 21. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. Tom.01.2007. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. Retrieved 2008-11-16.1016/j. November 2.oxfordjournals. PMID". ^ Durant. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud .com/gst/fullpage. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. 17.010. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".gov/AMSv1. S. 15. G. 7. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. Res.Scotsman.html. J.phrs. ^ " http://www. M. http://www. ^ a b "Telegraph article". Menotti A.23/.eubusiness.telegraph. ^ "www.htm". http://www.xml. J. Retrieved 2008-11-09. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)".telegraph. http://query. http://www. ^ a b McGee. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.nytimes. ^ "Eubusiness. Tabacchi. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05.southafrica. ^ Mueller.usda. et al. 124 (6): 903–15. Epidemiol. 23.ams.eubusiness.4005000. 55 (3): 175– 20. doi:10. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study".com".jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. Pharmacol. United States Department of Agriculture. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar". Di Majo.crazychefs. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". ^ Keys A. http://news. Giammanco. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07.Telegraph".net/ . 19. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. http://www. Dennis. The New York Times (H. 2004.scotsman.

jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. 11. M : Ahmed. Vol. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori".org 31. ^ Mayo Clinic 32.1. Use Olive Oil. ".xml.. ^ Mayo Clinic. Dello Russo A. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. 19 November 2007 30. (January 2005). ^ Turner R. 43. (27 March 2000). Catherine Breton. ^ Pagnol. p. Nov. 19. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42.. ^ Ferrara LA. Toshinori Bito. 45.61. ^ "Quite Interesting . "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. J Agric Food Chem. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997).75. De Castro A (February 2007). 23. Faseb J. 10. Masato Ueda. 2000. An Wu. ^ http://www.html. "New Year's Resolution No. Poulsen HE. PMID 17110467.ama-assn.28. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. 44. d'Episcopo L. 55 (3): 680–6. PMID 17263460. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. Medina E.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". A : Bito. ssp. s.Telegraph". 39.v. http://www. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. Ahmed. Olives 41. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. 19. 2085-2090. but cites no source. s.crazychefs. ^ [2] Ichihashi. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". (January 2007). pp. 21. "olive" and "oil" 40. Masamitsu "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. Gruendel S. 1: Prevent Cancer. JDermatol-Sci. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms".net/ . ^ Romero C.telegraph. Nazim doi:10. Osamu Nikaido.". Suppl. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. T. et al. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. 1S45-50. 34." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. Israel". ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Raimondi AS. 38. ^ Rosenblum. ^ "www. Brenes M. ^ Ehud Galili et al.v." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. M : Osawa.tchain.1096/fj. Etienne N. N U : Budiyanto. 29. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. Vol. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. ^ Machowetz A.1021/jf0630217. T : Ueda. 2000. 35. Vargas J." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. Alonso MG. ^ a b Davidson. 37.html". Toshihiko Osawa. et al.06-6328com. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". PMID 10737284. A : Wu. André Bervillé. Carcinogenesis. 36.1024/0300-9831. p. Marotta T. http://www. Guida L. Pagnol. Mar.tchain. Olea europaea L. 21 (1): 45–52. PMID 15830923. p.

net/ .ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95.crazychefs.htm. pp119–33 50. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2005 49. ^ "www. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". 2001. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.htm. Harrington Park Press. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece".R. Scanlon. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil".youngmuslims. 47.46. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in http://www.youngmuslims. Kennell. http://www.reshafim. Processing methods. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed.htm".).ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. C. ^ Nigel M. ^ Thomas F. Verstraete and V. ed. Provencal. Riley. ^ F.

[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform.crazychefs.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. ən] / [ˈsæf. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and . Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. Saffron has further medicinal applications.or hay-like fragrance. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. sativus flower bears three stigmas. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. crocin. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). each the distal end of a carpel.Saffron Saffron crocus http://www. Saffron. A C.

[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. It is a sterile triploid form. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. Being . each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. must be dug up.2 in) in length. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran.98–1. Only in October. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). and replanted. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. In autumn. A corm survives for one season. broken apart.[11] Upon flowering. which means "yellow. as was once generally http://www. in Central Asia. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop.crazychefs. purple buds appear. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve.5 centimetres (1.

maximizing sun exposure. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits.8–5. and birds.[16] Furthermore. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere).[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. are critical factors affecting yields. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. rats.500 mm (39–59 in).[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. Nematodes. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. Moroccan. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. leaf rusts. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. loose.crazychefs. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight ( . Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier.e. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere.9 in) deep.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields.. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. low-density. Planting depth and corm spacing. they fare poorly in shady conditions. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. Plants grow best in strong and direct http://www. where hot.000–1. Greek. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. and corm rot pose other threats. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. well-watered. in concert with climate. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. where annual rainfall averages 1. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable.

11 gr) of dried saffron. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0.8-diapo-8.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds.8-carotenoic acid). saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. lycopene. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.2 oz of dried saffron).net/ .and β-carotenes. http://www. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. and thus oil-soluble. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.crazychefs.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0. It also has many nonvolatile active components. a product results that is itself water-soluble. and various α. including zeaxanthin.[19] many of which are carotenoids.[19] Meanwhile. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).

0 6.0 1.0–7.5 10.0 4.crazychefs.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0–15.0 12.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 8.0 9.0 6.0–14.0 0.0 10.0 3.0– http://www.0 2.0 11.0 6.0– .5 40.0 1.0 1.0 12.0 6.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0–8.

p. combined with enzymatic action. incidentally.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1.0 Source: Goyns 1999.crazychefs. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.6. dried hay like".6. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. a volatile oil. When saffron is dried after its harvest. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.4.6. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Fiber (crude) 5. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's http://www.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2.3-diene-1.[18] Safranal. Santorini.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. the heat.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some .[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. Significantly.6-trimethyl-2. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen.

[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. . emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. cough. In late Hellenistic Egypt. mascaras. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas.000 years. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. Thus.[28][29] Later.crazychefs.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. ointments.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. Since then.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. sativus.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. physicians in http://www.[33] potpourris. divine offerings. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. and medical treatments. There. townspeople in Rhodes. and scabies. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. cartwrightianus.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. and in the mithridatium. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. colic.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a sterile mutant form of C. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia.

Wan Zhen. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century . Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. and baths as a curative for battle wounds.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. perfumes.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. a less expensive http://www. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. For example. and body washes.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric.[44] From there. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".[44] During his Asian campaigns. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.Asia The 17.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara.[39][40] Later. medicines. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia.[42] ritually offered to divinities. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. and used in dyes. Isfahan. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. dating to 978–993 AD.[51] However. rice. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.[43] Thus.crazychefs.[53] On the other hand. a Chinese medical expert. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. or jackfruit. saffron threads were woven into textiles. At such sites.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak.

[59][60] Only in southern France. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. saffron cultivation spread throughout England.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. Italy. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. In Europe. tea. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. It can be used to aromatise wine. imprisoned. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. coffee.[62] By 1730. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to . did significant cultivation endure. and Italy. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. and executed. and then the saffron is obtained. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.saffron is in Kashmir. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. which grew prosperous. However.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. and Spain. named for its new specialty crop." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of http://www.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel.[58] Soon after. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. indeed. France. under which saffron adulterators were fined."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts.crazychefs.

Indian. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing.crazychefs. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. Arab. and antioxidantlike properties. noodles. immunomodulating. and chicken or trout dishes.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). and Cornish cuisines. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. Medicinally.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. particularly in China and India. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. European.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian).[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pennsylvania. and in .[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. Central http://www.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. Turkish.

[2] A pound comprises between 70.200/£1.000 flowers. Annually. elasticity. are generally mellower in colour. Vivid crimson colouring. are the major producers of saffron.000 per pound (US$1. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. India. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide.500 per http://www.000–75. the United States. the average retail price is $ . Greece. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.550 per kilogram).[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. and aroma.100–11.100/€1. For example.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. they are graded by government-imposed standards. France.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. Morocco. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. Spain's varieties.500/€7. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'.000-170. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and other countries. Switzerland.000 threads.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5. slight moistness. flavour.000 and 200.000 flowers. and Italy.crazychefs. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. England. Azerbaijan.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. Spain.[5] Iran.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. Aside from these. In Western countries. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. in decreasing order of production.

and colourative effect. contribute to its high prices. near L'Aquila. Repeated droughts. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. is in San Gavino http://www.S. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour).crazychefs. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. it also has very high crocin.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. among the world's darkest. There. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). and safranal content. and safranal (fragrance) content. picrocrocin (taste). It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. combined with an Indian export ban. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. for quality and quantity. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization.79 in). But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. In the U. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. unusually pungent aroma. aroma. which is among the most difficult for consumers to . picrocrocin.. and crop failures in Kashmir. shape. Sardinia. blights. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.some organically grown.

and I (finest quality). many growers. II.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. aroma. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration.[80] Thus. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. red-dyed silk fibers. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light.national standards bodies. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. traders. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. and thus a greater colourative intensity. pomegranate fibers. paprika. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and other powders used as diluting fillers. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. in India. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. . with turmeric. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide.[77] However. http://www. However.crazychefs. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0).

19. p. 3. p. p. ^ a b c Hill 2004. 6. 12. p. 3. ^ Kumar V (2006).com http://www. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. 9. ^ Willard 2001. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. ^ Dharmananda 2005.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). ^ DPIWE 2005. 15. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ Willard 2001.".net/ . p. 423. Sterling. 16. 23. 8. 287. ^ M. p. stigma extracts and their constituents. ^ a b Deo 2003. pp. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001.Saffron reproductive biology 11. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. 18. 7. Retrieved 2007-12-01. p. 3. 5. p. crocin and safranal. ^ Harper 2001. http://books. p.asp?AcNo=20043148643. 2. ^ Deo 2003. 103. 2–3. 17. 3. p. ^ Willard 2. p. ^ Grigg 1974. 422. ^ McGee 2004. pp. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 272. ^ Rau 1969. 3–4. 4. 4. 1. ^ a b McGee 2004. Honshū. Grilli Caiola . in mice. p. 53. 20. pp. 22. 21. 4. Kansai. ^ Willard 2001.cababstractsplus. Retrieved ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. ^ a b Deo 2003.crazychefs. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. 14. 24. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. p.cababstractsplus. 1. 13. www.

12. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ a b Willard 2001.iovs. ^ Willard 2001. 29. 48. 59. p. ^ Willard 2001. 55. 35. ^ a b c Willard p. 33. pp. p. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette.pdf 71. 273. p. 32. transl. pp. 143. 99. p. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. de Medicina. 42. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1. 1. p. Kuo & Wang 1964. p. 28. 256. 224. p. ^ a b Dalby 2002. p. ^ Willard 2001. 128. p. ^ Finlay. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ Rau 1969. 31. 50. 65. 1935 [1] 38. 41. ^ http://www. p.25. ^ Ferrence 2004. 138. 2. ^ Willard 2001. 30 AD. 47. 45. 30. pp. p. p. 67. 60. p. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. 138–139. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. ^ Lak 1998b. 34. p. ^ Willard 2001. p. 35. ^ McGee 2004. ^ Honan 2004. 27. 49. pp. Victoria (30 December 2002). 1. 40. p. 56. 54–55. 73. 95. 2. p. 58. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. 51. ^ Willard 2001. 2. pp. ^ Hayes 2001. 66. 20. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ Willard 41. 133. 39. p. p. ^ Fletcher 2005. Random House. 61. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 34–35. pp. 43. ^ http://www. 58. pp. 70. Loeb Classical Library . ^ Willard 2001. 41. ^ Humphries 1998. ^ Willard 2001. 57. 59. 26. 138. 103–104. ^ Willard 2001. 64. 37. 68. p. 142–146. ^ Celsus.pdf 70. 52. p. ^ Dalby 2002. ^ Honan 2004. ^ Hill 2004. ^ Goyns 1999. 54. 63. ^ a b Willard 2001. 44. p. ^ Willard 2001. 2–3. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ Chang. 36. ^ http://vision. 101. ^ Willard 69. ^ a b Willard 2001. 55. 422. 17–18. ^ Deo 2003. 63. 1. p.crazychefs. ^ Dalby 2003. p. p. 117. 6. 1. ^ Willard 2001. pp. 132– p. http://www. 11. 46. 62.

Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 11. ^ Lak 1998. Dalby. Liang.library. ^ Goyns 1999. VP Papageorgiou & Z Sinakos (2005). S (2005). 81. 77.htm>. PMID 16028982 Deo. Dalby. ^ Hussain 2005. ^ Willard>. extract and its bioactive constituents".cri.pdf>. <http://www. CT Kuo & CK Wang (1964).): effect on the uterus and/or estrous cycle". 274. PY. W. 2006. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10 82. Abdullaev. 102–104. B (2003).nz/home/productsservices/publications/broadsheets/020saffron. <http://www.crazychefs. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Tarvand 2005b. Phytotherapy Research 19 (11). MJ Gregory & RC Menary (2005).crop. <http://unitproj.ebmonline. ISBN 0-520-23674-2. References Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2003). <http://www. Routledge (UK). <http://books. FI (2002). ^ Hill 2004. A (2002). "Saffron". p. 8. < Food in the Ancient World from A to Z. "Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L. 20). Davies. 78. PMID 16317646 Chang. "Effect of drying temperature and air flow on the production and retention of secondary metabolites in saffron". "Tasmania's Saffron Gold". PMID 11788779 Assimopoulou. 80. Retrieved on January 10. 53 (15). ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2003. ^ Tarvand "Kashmiri saffron producers see red over Iranian imports".net. p. 2006[dead link]. "Growing Saffron—The World's Most Expensive Spice".cfm?displayID=22>. P (2002).edu/biomed/spice/index.)".net.htm>. 2006.htm>. pp. University of California Press. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. p. 201. 2008. 2006. . Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. 245 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. < Darling Biomedical Library (UCLA). Institute for Traditional Medicine. Retrieved on January 10. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2006. Experimental Biology and Medicine 227 (1).org/cgi/content/full/227/1/20>. AN. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10. Darling Biomedical Library (2002).org/arts/saffron. ISBN http://www. "Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. "The pharmacological action of 藏红花 (zà hóng huā—Crocus sativus L. 76. 75. Crop & Food Research (New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research) (no. Retrieved on July 27. "Saffron: An Anti-Depressant Herb". Landline (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Dharmananda. 79. NW. A (2003).

Retrieved on January 10. 2006. Food & Agriculture. N (2005).pdf>. Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4).st m>. The Agricultural Systems of the World.nytimes. Lak. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5).pdf>. Retrieved on January 10. The Essential Saffron Companion. "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". St. BBC News. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron". 2006. ISBN 1-58008-024-3.nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>. < Principles and Methods of Toxicology. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine".stm>.dpiwe. "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. 2006. JC (2002). The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10. "Saffron". Hussain. Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1). Grigg. SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005). J (1998). Ferrence. <http://www. Humphries. <http://www. Online Etymology D (2001).com/index.leffingwell. AW (2001).uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/212491. <>. <http://news. <http://www. BBC News. SC (2004).au/inter. <http://books. Retrieved on January 10. 2006[dead link].com http://www.)". "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron". DB (1974). PMID 15259204 Fletcher. Retrieved on January 10. Hasegawa.php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>. Ten Speed Press. "Saffron". Retrieved on January 10.etymonline. 2006. D (1998b).co. G (2001). Honan. SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995). 2006. 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2006. <http://www.tas. < Hill. Fotedar.html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>. Retrieved on January 10. Martin's Press. 2006. T (2004). ISBN 0-471-21423-X.DPIWE (2005).gov. Retrieved on January 10. BBC News. Retrieved on January . A (2005).html>. WH (2004).>. PMID 16180089 Katzer. "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera".org/pdf/Vitasta1998-1999. saffron". ISBN 0-521-09843-2. Jessie. MH (1999). S (1998–1999). PMID 8590890 Hayes. Taylor & Francis. The New York Times. Lak. <http://news. ISBN 1-56032-814-2. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2). "Saffron (Crocus sativus L. "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron". Harper.crazychefs. 2006. "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). Taylor & Francis. D (1998).uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/213043. Cambridge University Leffingwell. ISBN 90-5702-394-6. Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Goyns. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution". ISBN 0-312-34068-0.

<http://www. McGee. "What is Saffron?".htm>. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005).com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>. Retrieved on January 10. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. Willard. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. <http://www. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive> 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Beacon Press. < . Tarvand Saffron Company. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron".tarvandsaffron. SC.cfm?chemic al_id=140>.com/classification.barc. Nair. Pearce. Tarvand Saffron Company. Retrieved on January 10.usda. 2006. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity".pl. SR (1969).com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>.html>. Time Life Education. 2006. <http://books. PMID 2025883 Park. The Cooking of India. F (2005). Retrieved on January 10. JB (2005). 2006. <http://www. USDA Phytochemical Database.000. Retrieved on January 10. Tarvand (2005b).com/channel/earth/mg18524831. 2006. 2006[dead link]. H (2004). <http://books. "Grading and Classification". 2006. Cancer Letters 57 (2).McGann. Reconstructing History. 2006. "Saffron".". New Scientist. Retrieved on January 10. K (2003).com/ http://www. Retrieved on January 10.html>.crazychefs. P (2001). Rau. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus).newscientist.reconstructinghistory. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www.

Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea http://www. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea . Dead Sea.crazychefs.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive).[9]. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two . native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive."[7] indeed. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. referring to their wooden material. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. It is short and squat.(XVII. Theophrastus.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. two stamens and bifid stigma. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. olives. endives. In Homer's Odyssey. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. by a spring. from Lebanon. they were reverently preserved for centuries.crazychefs. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. the olive suckers readily from the stump. Its fruit.[1] and in the Iliad. are borne generally on the last year's wood. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea.5 cm long. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. called xoana. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. the olive. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. Asia and parts of http://www."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The small white flowers. ca 170 AD. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. Though.

It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. Chile and Argentina.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. indeed. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. Peru. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible.16. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. Over the years. and its cultivation began in Mexico. The Book of Jacob 5. For example. As emblems of benediction and purification. play an important role in the Bible. in both the New and Old Testaments. power and pureness. for which the Greeks had a separate name. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. but he makes clear (in 1. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. As far back as 3000 BC.[12] After the 16th century. and one of the most significant.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. the Europeans brought the olive to the New http://www. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. The olive tree itself. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good . the olive has been the symbol of peace. fertility. wisdom. olives were grown commercially in Crete. in On the Nature of Plants.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. and then in the 18th century in California. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.The leafy branches of the olive tree . Theophrastus. kotinos. Today. the pits give rise to thorny. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. spread far and wide by birds. glory. as well as olive oil and olives. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees.crazychefs. wild-type olives. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. glory and peace . It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games.

Montenegro. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). The older an olive tree is. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of . is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. claimed to be over 2. drought-. One olive tree in Bar.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. has been calculated to be about 1. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.and fire-resistant. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. The age of an olive tree in Crete.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old.000 years old. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. which is made into top quality olive oil. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. Istria in Croatia.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. named "Plato's Olive Tree". disease. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. and can live for very long.600 years http://www.crazychefs.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old.

is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. olive leaf. All seven trees continue to produce olives.6 km) as the limit. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. 1600-2000 years old. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. and. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. Italy. fine wood.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. In the same natural garden. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though showing a preference for the . According to a recent scientific survey.400 years ago. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century http://www. and the olive fruit. Modern experience does not always confirm this. a few other millenary trees can be admired. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. both in Galilee region. called the "Peisistratos Tree". Specifically.2. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv.crazychefs. see Olive (fruit). A supposedly even older tree. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan.

has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. Argentina. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and . olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results).5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. Australia. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. Olive plantation in Andalucia. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. Olive leaves are used in medicinal http://www. Israel. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. laperrinei (Algeria. such as South Africa. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). northwest Africa) where winters are mild. Niger.crazychefs. Sudan. the Mediterranean Basin. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. Chile.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. .Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. .com http://www.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

originating in Dos Hermanas. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. The olive grove of Amfissa.crazychefs. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. often after being pitted.200. grown around the world. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. with purple-green skin. stuffed (with pickled pimento. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. anchovies. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. It is used mostly for oils. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region .net/ . quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. a large. In recent times. which consists of 1. 'Bosana'. Rich taste and thick pulp. 'Manzanilla'. rounded-oval fruit.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. A prolific bearer.Cailletier cultivar. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. Seville. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. in southern Spain. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. but only a few are grown to a large http://www.

originating in the province of Córdoba. Spain. Spain. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. It has a strong but sweet flavour. They are black and generally used for table consumption. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. Spain. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. medium size. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. Their flavour is mild and nutty. disease-resistant. these cultivars are now grown in other countries.[23] 'Barnea'. round. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. even on clay if well drained. originating in the south of France (Aude département). These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. large. 'Empeltre'. 'Nabali'. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. Due to their highly valued flavour. and elongated. used as a table olive. brown olive grown in Catalonia. Greece. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. originating from the southern Peloponese. 'Souri'. The olive is medium sized. This small olive. Moreover. They grow in any light soil. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. though difficult to http://www. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. The flavour is mild and nutty. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. 'Hojiblanca'. and coastal climate conditions. It is used both for oil and for table olives. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. It is green. a large. originating in Toledo. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. named after the city of Kalamata. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. a small. 'Picual'. another modern Israeli.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. 'Arbequina'. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. They are green. good for eating and for oil. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. originating in the south of France. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil.[21] 'Koroneiki'. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. good for eating and for oil. . black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste.[citation needed] 'Lucques'.crazychefs. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. 'Kalamata'. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. 'Cornicabra'. and elongated. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). It is mainly used for oil. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén).

Olives grow very slowly. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down.crazychefs. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. In Greece. embryonic buds. as in Languedoc and Provence. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. removing fruit from the tree. Occasionally.) Olives like hot weather. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. In Italy. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. and can remain productive for as long. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. and with the season and the cultivar. Olives are propagated in various ways. up to several centuries. Another method uses an electric tool. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. More specifically. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. which form small swellings on the stems. being very hard and close-grained. This method is used for olives used for oil. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. the oliviera. it is valued by woodworkers.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in . However. P. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. soon vegetate. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers.poorer soil. but the time varies in each country. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. In some places in Italy and Greece. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. the trees are regularly pruned. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. to facilitate http://www. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. A. They tolerate drought well. 114). and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. In southern Europe.

5-2.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water.crazychefs. Typical yields are . As a result.. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. large fruit (e. the creation of lactic acid. After some weeks. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. or green with hints of colour). The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. the fruit is not bruised.g. which leads to a superior finished product. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. Fresh are often sold at markets. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar.2 kg of oil per tree per year. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. which is why they taste milder than green olives. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. then drained. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. which is healthy for future production. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. which can be eaten fresh.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. a bitter carbohydrate. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. Olives can be used green. The method also involves sawing off http://www. which is a natural preservative. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. The olives are soaked in water to wash. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. through to full purple black ripeness.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil.

and weather A fungus. A species of bacterium. especially to young trees. oleae[27]. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. but can be left to cure for up to three months. Sometimes. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. capsicum (pimento). If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. Pests. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. or removing the pit and stuffing them.crazychefs. olive oil. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. lemon zest. spices. Lye-curing. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. The ten largest producing countries. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. induces tumour growth in the shoots. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. causing great damage to plantations. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit.6 to 8. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. their main predators are wasps. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black http://www. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. brine-curing and fresh watercuring.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. lemon juice. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. an unnatural method. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. diseases. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. olives suffer occasionally from frost. leaving sawtooth damage. of which the water is changed daily.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. wine. Cycloconium . A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. In France and north-central Italy. chili. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. vinegar. salt-curing. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. feta. Popular flavourings are herbs. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. juniper berries and anchovies. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. garlic cloves.

800. 1992.0 3.339 300.300.5 63. 82. Bibliotheke. to make bee-hives.000 318.317. On the Causes of Plants.13.597. 7.6 31.[31] References 1. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.14.830 2.140. 81.000 275. ^ Homer. Odyssey. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.000 49. 6.400. p.9 6. 3. . noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.000 8.000 550. 3. and to cultivate olive-trees.000 430. An introduction. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. Ancient Greek Agriculture. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees.149.981 1.3 20. ^ ".000 20. ^ Theophrastus.5 6.685 765.100 3.5. 1.1).500. book 5". 27.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.000 470. 5.000 http://www.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.000 498.8 16.000 1.064 2." (Diodorus Siculus.160. 1). most notably South Australia. 4...7 27.089 6. 2.. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation. 4.000 1." (Herodotus.888 178.4 30.3 8.. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.000 594.1 25.000 998.crazychefs. 4. 38. 1 ).000 280. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece 1. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.988 500.

J. http://www.W. 30.brijuni. Volume 18:27-35 20.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. Volume 1996. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. M. A. Number 4).pasoroblesolivefestival. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. (1999) Ancient Trees..htm. http://www. ^ Burr.crazychefs. ca 30 BC 9. me cichorea levesque malvae. ^ Riley. Bacteriol. http://www. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. 1999. 2001. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. 1982. Moody.15. ^ "Old Olive Tree". nom. 13.fao.cit. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". London: Collins & Brown Ltd. J. E. 32:166–169. ^ a b M. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. Cavagnaro P. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares.aspx?PageID=151. ^ http://www. 29 April. Retrieved 2007-03-10. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. 24. 23. Rackham. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. 17. ^ Lewington. ^ "FAO. 25. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. Tabak & O. Juárez. John Hutton. Retrieved 2007-08-31. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. Epikouria Magazine. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L..springerlink. AGRISCIENTA.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. ^ O. nov.8. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Fotiadi. http://apps3. 105. 1779. 28. J. Madrid. Int. ^ Muncipality Bar. Epikouria Magazine.. Australian Olives. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. EspasaCalpe S.fao. Ellen. cited in F. Zatoun. Odes 1. (September 2002). 27. ^ [1] 21.. R. Available through Google Books 11. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope.279 18." Horace. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. & Ouazzani. 4th edition. ^ . M Bauza & R.31. Retrieved Processing methods. 2004". Masuelli. 29. Apps3. D. Brijuni National Park.jsp. vol. http://www. Retrieved 2009-05-18. p. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. pp 110–113. Simhoni. Leshonenu (Hebrew). Y. ^ Gooch.. N. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. Riley (2002). 69. op. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". Elena "Unusual Olives". ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". & Parker. ^ Janse. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. Syst. J. ^ Balfour. R. Spring/Summer 2006 26. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. ^ Belaj et al.

(French tarragon. and south to northern Mexico. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. The leaves are lanceolate. Corresponding to its species name. glossy green.R.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. with slender branched http://www. western North America.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. with an entire margin. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. seldom produces flowers.31." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. however. . a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A.crazychefs. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter.

and particularly suitable for chicken. but cannot be grown from seed. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). which is the Armenian. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased.[1] It likes a hot.[1] Russian tarragon (A.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking.crazychefs. without excessive watering. sunny spot. It is normally purchased as a plant. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fish and egg . It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. Spreading plant can be divided http://www. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. Russia and Ukraine. by extension. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. due to the presence of estragole. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect.[1] However. Fresh. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. A perennial. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. Georgia and. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. it normally goes dormant in winter. dracunculoides L. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. Persian and Russian word for .

Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. ISBN 9783527607891.[3] In Slovenia. Workman Publishing. The Bountiful Container. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called . Johannes Panten (2006). 3. 233. Maggie (2002). References http://www. Properties and Uses. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Stuckey. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Machinek A. Krammer G. Ley JP. 2.Cis-Pellitorin. pp. Horst. Foerstner J. ^ Gatfield IL.crazychefs. ^ Surburg. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Rose Marie Nichols. ^ a b c d McGee. Wiley-VCH. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L.

266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). grayish leaves. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. sage has a slight peppery . and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. Lamiaceae. In Western cooking. Common sage. with woody stems. Culinary sage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. Britain and Flanders. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. In the Balkans and the Middle East. Broadleaf http://www. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). and some drinks. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. cheeses (Sage Derby). and blue to purplish flowers. though other species.Salvia officinalis (Sage.crazychefs. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. Purple sage. Garden sage. Kitchen sage. Dalmatian sage. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. In the United States. it is used when roasting mutton. In French cuisine. It is a member of the mint family.

which contains cineole. nicotinamide. borneol. antibiotic. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. flavonoid glycosides. The Latin name for sage. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. fumaric acid. The underside of a sage leaf . http://www.trichomes are visible. ursonic acid. salvia. caffeic acid.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . estrogenic.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. flavones.more trichomes are visible on this side. and thujone. hypoglycemic. ursolic acid. oleic acid. astringent. cornsolic acid. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate.crazychefs. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. and estrogenic substances. . Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. means ―to heal". niacin. chlorogenic acid.[1] In a double blind. and tonic. antispasmodic.

'Berggarten'. and used as a diuretic. a styptic. a cultivar with large leaves. OBeWise Nutriceutica. Jamshidi AH. ^ a b c "Sage". with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. Noroozian M.1365-2710. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double . J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. emmenagogue.appliedhealth. http://www. Dioscorides. Pliny. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). 'Alba'. 2. ^ Akhondzadeh S. 'Tricolor'. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus.crazychefs. hemostatic. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. Ohadinia S. and more.x.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties.2003. http://www.1046/j. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. a cultivar with white.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. Mohammadi M. and tonic. Khani M. (2003). 'Icterina'. a small leaved cultivar. and for other uses. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. yellow and green variegated leaves. a purple-leafed cultivar. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". a local anesthetic for the skin. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value.php. especially in sunny dry is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. 'Lavandulaefolia'. Retrieved 2008-02-04. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic.00463.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. and for low ground cover. References 1.[4] It was sometimes called S. 'Extrakta'. PMID 12605619. doi:10. a white-flowered cultivar. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. increasing women's fertility. Applied Health.

(2000). pp. p. Spiridon http://www. 4. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. Sage: The Genus Salvia. ^ a b Kintzios. 10-11.3.crazychefs. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Deni Bown (New York: DK. CRC Press. ISBN .

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