Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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storage life is rarely more than a week. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant.a little less if it is ground. Greek. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). and in those derived from them. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. and of herbes de Provence. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. While summer-seasonal. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves.crazychefs. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. while flavourful. Italian. fresh thyme is often available year-round. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. or by the sprig. In French cuisine. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). in a bouquet garni). tomatoes and eggs. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Portuguese. cuttings. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. Depending on how it is used in a dish. Persian. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Thyme. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. Spanish. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. In some Levantine countries. Leaves are often chopped. the whole sprig may be used (e. Albanian. It can be propagated by seed.g. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. and Turkish cuisines. Lebanese. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Syrian. As a rule of thumb. soups and stews. when it specifies spoons it means the http://www. It tolerates drought well.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Dried. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. which is due to its content of thymol.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained . assume that it means fresh. Libyan. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form.

as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. hybrid T. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. The dried equivalent is 1:3. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. etc. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained http://www.crazychefs.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs.[5] As with bay. Because it is antiseptic. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. pulegioides × T. it was used to medicate bandages.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. but is grown as a ground cover.[6] Thymol. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed].[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. salve. an antiseptic. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. All thyme species are nectar sources. It also has medicinal uses. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. tisane.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and . rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa.

including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing.Variegated lemon thyme. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/ . good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.

com .Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

B3) 1. although parsley has a milder flavor. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.1 mg recommendations for adults.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.8 g 3. B1) 0.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.crazychefs.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.0 mg Iron 6. European. often used as spice.Dietary fiber 3.1 mg 6.3 g 0. and American cooking. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).0 mg Phosphorus 58.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 0. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133. It is common in Middle Eastern.0 μg Calcium 138.2 mg Magnesium 50.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit. B2) http://www.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.9 g .net/ .1 mg Folate (Vit.0 mg Vitamin K 1640. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. or flat leaf (P.[1] Parsley grows well in deep . Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. it is not related to real turnips. However.crazychefs.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic http://www. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. While parsley is biennial. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. not blooming until its second year. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. Although little known in Britain and the United States. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. which helps accommodate the long taproot. neapolitanum). used in soups and stews. tuberosum). Like many other umbellifers.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. For example. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. reducing pest attraction. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. which then tend to protect plants nearby. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. it attracts predatory insects.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var.

com". root. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath." West Virginia University Extension Service.aspx?id=1075&s=4. "Parsley on plucodes. soups. In addition. or 4900. http://www. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook . In Southern and Central Europe. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. 4. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. References 1.html. fried chicken. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. lamb or goose. http://www. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. [1]) in oxalic acid.g. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. parsley is part of bouquet garni. 2.drugs. 2007. ^ a b c John W. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier.. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon.crazychefs. with fish. e. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. "That Devilish Parsley.[3] Parsley is high (1. http://www. a mixture of parsley.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. Last retrieved April".plucodes. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Parsley as an oil. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. and sauces. steaks. leaf. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). Ossobuco alla milanese.70% by mass. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. and lemon zest. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries.

net/ .Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.crazychefs.

com http://www. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum . vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.crazychefs.

British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. as well as cultivars. and lovage leaves.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. of the mint family. Unlike most Italian herbs. Together with basil. e. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. Greek. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. and grilled meat. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes.g. The flowers are purple.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. each with distinct flavours. which is popular in southern Italy. 3-4 mm . Oregano is an important culinary herb. fried vegetables. growing to 20-80 cm tall.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. Oregano growing in a field. capers. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. native to Europe. and to add a nice. O vulgare gracile.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . It is a perennial herb. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat.crazychefs. spicy flavor. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. produced in erect spikes.

Asia Minor) and O. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. however. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The related species Origanum onites (Greece.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. In Turkish Cuisine.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. together with paprika. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various http://www. it can be usually found on table. especially for mutton and lambs meat.crazychefs. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. differs significantly in taste. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. It has an aromatic.[5][6] Additionally. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is . The influence of climate. useful for relieving children's coughs. warm and slightly bitter taste. Oregano growing in a pot. In the Philippines. salt and pepper. It varies in intensity. which.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. heracleoticum (Italy. West Asia) have similar flavors. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. Balkan peninsula.

It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. diaphoretic. also called Cuban oregano. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. emmenagogue. enteric parasites. but is usually stronger.html. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. expectorant. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. . The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano.[7] and painful menstruation. stimulant. Aqueous extracts. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States.Main constituents include carvacrol. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. indigestion. pinene. especially in the United http://www. stomach upsets. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. A Cretan oregano (O. limonene. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). this substitution would not work the other way round. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. cholagogue. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. carminative. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. ocimene. useful for relieving children's coughs. Used topically. and caryophyllene.crazychefs. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. Plectranthus amboinicus. ^ http://www. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. antispasmodic. influenza.[8] Hippocrates. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in".[12] References 1. ^ Organic Gardening 2. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. including Poliomintha longiflora. Lippia berlandieri. stomachic and mildly tonic. fungal infections. In the Philippines. Coleus aromaticus). the father of medicine. capsules. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. mild fevers. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments.uni-graz.

^ ["http://www. J Nutr.) and Origanum vulgare L. Retrieved 2008-11-26. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants".uwe. doi:10. http://www. ^ Epikouria Magazine. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. PMID 16218659. Steinar. ^ Dragland. 12.". Food Chem. March 2009. Fall/Spring 2007 5. 133 (5): 1286–1290.2008. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L.asp?item=1374&year=2008. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online.nutrition. J. Medical News Today. 28. 11. Retrieved http://www. University of the West of England. (Cav. 7. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. draft revision for "organum". June 2008. 6. ^ Epikouria ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project".co.10. http://jn.3.dmannose. (2005). et al. draft revision for "origanum". ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. et al. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. Leonor.1021/ Draft revision for "oregano". Fall/Winter 2007 . PMID 12730411. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". 53 (21): 8162–8168. 24 November 2008. (01 May 2003). ^ a b Faleiro.

Also. it seems. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον) . The Latin word for the plant was ferula. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs http://www. perennial. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. This came from the Old English fenol or finol.[2] In Greek mythology. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). recorded in the 10th century. It is a hardy. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. Ferula communis. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). In Ancient Greek. however. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. umbelliferous herb. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. it was from the giant fennel. meaning "hay". Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).

01 mg 7. and grows to heights of up to 2. B1) 0.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.20 g 1. but thinner.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. B2) 0. It is http://www. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill. bulb.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. they are finely dissected. half as wide or less.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.5 m.29 g 0.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.5 mm wide. with hollow stems.crazychefs.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. glaucous . and grooved. B3) 0. about 0. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.047 mg Folate (Vit.Dietary fiber 3.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long.

a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. but is more aromatic and http://www.crazychefs.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. It propagates well by seed. which is also known by several other names. syn. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. In North American supermarkets. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). in pastures. by the late 19th century. "bronze-leaved" fennel. and in other open sites in many regions.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. including northern Europe. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. it is often mislabelled as "anise". the United States. vulgare var.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a .[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0.20 mg Manganese 0. notably the Italian name finocchio. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. It is of cultivated origin. both raw and cooked. F. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. both in its native range and elsewhere. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. for its edible. though usually not as strong. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise.

badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. in side dishes. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. sompu in Telugu. The bulb is a crisp. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. Many egg. variyali in Gujarati. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. braised. fish. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. anise-flavoured spice. where bulbs and fronds are used. mouri in Bengali. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. green seeds are optimal. For cooking. salads. but also the most expensive. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. foliage. grilled. It may be blanched or marinated.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. or cooked in risotto. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. badesoppu in Kannada. or eaten raw. often tossed with chicory and avocado. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages.Fennel. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German . It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. which are very similar in taste and appearance. both raw and cooked. though smaller. pastas.crazychefs. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. and risottos. brown or green in colour when http://www. stewed.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery.

to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. act as phytoestrogens. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. sometimes with some sweetener. as it is said to improve eyesight.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye http://www. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration.crazychefs. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'.net/ . used to ease flatulence in infants. Fennel tea.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties.[12] For adults. also employed as a carminative. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. although not supported by direct evidence. This use. or its polymers.

Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. badian (star anise).com http://www. which promote growth of breast tissue. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.crazychefs. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. followed by India.[17] However.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fennel and . Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child.

)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. native to Sri Lanka.[5] In Malayalam. it is known as "DalChini ( )".C.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former http://www.crazychefs. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. and in Gujarati taj. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. In Bengali. it is called darchin (‫. In Telugu. Hindi. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. cinnamon is known as kurundu. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family . it is called Dalchina Chakka.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. synonym C. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. In Urdu. itself ultimately from Phoenician.[2] In Marathi. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. in the original Sinhala. Ceylon. the "real' cassia. it is called "Darchini" ( ). which are often called cinnamon too.[3] In Sri Lanka. In Farsi (Persian). In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. Chakka meaning bark or wood. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera.

cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. and in Song of Solomon. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. a song describing the beauty of his .[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 http://www. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. in Proverbs.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. aloe and cinnamon.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers.crazychefs. to protect their monopoly as suppliers.

The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. They established a trading post in 1638." (Braudel 1984.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa.crazychefs. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. which are arranged in panicles. a Dutch captain reported. However. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. have a greenish color.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of http://www. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. p. in a letter of about 1292. and have a distinct odor.Ages. and used them to construct their nests. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. sugar. tea. and coffee. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32.2 feet) tall.1 inches) long. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. took control of the factories by 1640. although in the first century.75–7. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. 7–18 cm (2. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. "The shores of the island are full of it". the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western . The flowers.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score.8–49.

Madagascar. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. Vietnam. Chips are trimmings of quills. The next year. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. which is left to dry.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. Bangladesh. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. India. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon.crazychefs. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. Java. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. and . Zanzibar. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per http://www. the outer woody portion is removed. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. According to the International Herald Tribune. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia.5 mm) inner bark is used. Brazil. and Vietnam. the West Indies. Sumatra. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. Only the thin (0.[15] According to the FAO. followed by China. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. eg. verum).

rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. and is considered to be less strong than http://www. the related . "Vietnamese cinnamon". using only the thin inner bark. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . zeylanicum). Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. less dense. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. or "Indonesian cinnamon". is generally a medium to light reddish brown. many websites.crazychefs.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. has a finer. and more crumbly texture.[16] Ceylon cinnamon. as all of the layers of bark are used. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). hard and woody in texture. for example. However.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon.

such as apple pie. and then quickly distilling the whole. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. used in a variety of thick soups. hot cocoa.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. In the Middle East.5% to 1% of its composition. tea. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bread-based dishes. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). The two barks. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. especially apples. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. In the United States. when whole. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. macerating it in seawater.crazychefs. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. and sweets. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. are easily distinguished. It is of a golden-yellow color.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. especially in Mexico. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. and liqueurs. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. and fruits. . but when cassia is present.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. True cinnamon. a deep-blue tint is produced. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. rather than http://www. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. ‫. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills.

" 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and money.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. and methyl chavicol[citation needed].[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. luck. cinnamyl acetate.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. linalool. ^ a b "Cinnamon". and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. and Myanmar (Burma). that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. beta-caryophyllene.[34] Notes 1. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. few seem able to succeed. although it remains untested.0. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. cinnamaldehyde. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. In Hoodoo. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. Encyclopaedia Britannica. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. and anethole. love. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves).and a very hot aromatic taste.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid http://www. cassia. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts.crazychefs.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. The Cinnamon Challenge. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). who failed. . One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. However. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). 2008.

"Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. Account of the Island of 15. retrieved 200807-15 6. p. ^ http://www.0. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ Knox. Encyclopedia of Spices.henriettesherbal. p.1021/ _of_life/html/1. 4.jstor.crazychefs.—Cinnamon. retrieved 2008-07-15 11. revised ed. ^ 13. Breyne) extracts". doi:10. 437f. http://www. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. ^ ^ http://www. retrieved 2008-07-15 http://www. Sir James ^ [2] Sun M. Sánchez C.ihaystack.npr. Agric. ^ [1] 16. ^ http://news. The History of Food.html.html#pg598..html. ^ "Cassia. Emily. ^ Felter. 437 7. PMID 16190627. "Solid. J. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Corke H (October 2005). ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ Tennent. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. Cathay and the Way Thither." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. ^ Shan B. 8.2. 53 (20): 7749–59.iol. p.php?storyId=6672644. http://www. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat http://lakdiva. Agric. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. Van-Koiij A. 437).and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". 9.fao. 2009. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. 23.stm 3. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. ^ Mancini-Filho J. p. http://www. Torres RP (December 1998). Harvey. Nerín C (August 2005). Food Chem.htm.thespicehouse.437. Henry. Batlle R.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. ^ . Mancini DA. Col. ^ Harris. Robert. http://dsr. Cinnamomum. Food Chem. 10. ^ http://findarticles. http://www. ^ López thespicehouse. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cozzolino FF. 20. PMID 16104824.theepicentre. ^ The Epicentre. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7.en. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent 53 (17): 6939–46. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". Anthea doi:10. Cai PMID 10077878. retrieved 200705-01 21.

30. a publication now in the public domain. ^ Taher. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". 26. Khattak KN. retrieved 2007-12-12 31.12. Anderson RA (December 2003). Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8.html?source=r_health. retrieved 200705-01 32. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000).1002/ptr.113. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".com. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206.nutrition. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". http://eprints. Ali Khan http://www. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. Corn. July 2000.diabetesjournals.1016/00219673(88)90035-0. Retrieved 200808-05. ^ Beck. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica.sciencedaily.24. (2005). ^ Verspohl. Fernand (1984).my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH.2217/14750708. ^ Ranjbar. ^ Yronwode.1643. 33. ^ Vanschoonbeek.2217/14750708. Agricultural Research magazine.whfoods.. Cat. ^ [3].1. doi:10. Kristof et al.lesliebeck. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. Braudel. Medicinal Seasonings. Akram et al. ^ Khan http://www. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.php?tname=foodspice& "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). http://www. doi:10. Alan W.3. Archer (1988). "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. Eleventh Edition.3215.sciencedaily. 27. ^ George Mateljan Foundation.2337/diacare. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". http://www. Retrieved 2008-05-11. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. 29. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. Muhammad et al. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. Retrieved 2008-05-11. http://care.php?featured_food=80. PMID 14633804.utm. Retrieved s_have_been/index. Safdar M. http://www. http://www. Eugen J. Leslie. Retrieved 2007-12-17. retrieved 200705-01 25. et al.. www. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".. Research: Thalido.htm.luckymojo. New York: Kodansha International. Charles (1998).. ground. .3.futuremedicine.redorbit. doi:10. doi:10. The Perspective of the World. 28.. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007).com/genpage.pdf..

one of the oldest vegetables. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium."[3] Uses Onions. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. chopped. pickled. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. powdered.Department of Export Agriculture. Onions can be used. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. They are known by the common name "onion" but.M. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. and dehydrated forms. canned.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. used without . which it is not. it usually refers to Allium cepa.[1] but related wild species occur in Central http://www. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. and Allium asarense R. frozen. They are now available in fresh. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

spicy.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood.[5] However. coughs. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal http://www. However. cats. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. Depending on the variety. recent evidence has shown that dogs. and also to relieve headaches.crazychefs. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. an onion can be sharp. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. transported and stored. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. In ancient Greece. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine.chopped or sliced. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. In Bronze Age settlements. snakebite and hair loss. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet.[5] The onion is easily propagated. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". due to toxicity during digestion.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and .

017 g Protein Water Vitamin A .02 mg Vitamin K 0.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B1) 0.21 mg Magnesium 0.Dietary fiber 1.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.24 g .11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.saturated 0.34 g 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .1 g 1.crazychefs. B2) 0.013 g .com http://www.1 g 89.7 g Fat .116 mg Vitamin B6 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.polyunsaturated 0.4 mg Vitamin E 0.Sugars 4. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.monounsaturated 0.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.042 g . 0 μg 9. B3) 0.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.

it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. Western White. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. Shallots have the most phenols. Texas 1015.[10] In many parts of the world. anticholesterol. Texas 1015. Northern Red.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. In general. followed by Western Yellow. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. Mexico. Texas 1015.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. Northern Red. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. and Vidalia. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. diabetes. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat.crazychefs. Empire Sweet. Mexico. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. Western White. However. For all varieties of onions. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. If you are allergic to onions.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. eleven times the amount found in Western White. In the United States. and other diseases. Imperial Valley Sweet. anticancer. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. Empire Sweet. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. Peruvian Sweet. and Vidalia. Peruvian Sweet. Imperial Valley Sweet. Imperial Valley http://www. Mexico. Western Yellow. Empire Sweet.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. Peruvian Sweet. pungent yellow (New York Bold).net/ . However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. osteoporosis.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. the variety with the lowest phenolic content.

and bananas. As onions are sliced or eaten. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. nausea.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Symptoms can include irritable . the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. differs among Allium species. On January 31. and the irritation effect. http://www. allylmercaptan and allicin.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. allylpropyldisulfide.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. diarrhea. chives. shallots. therefore. ginger. breathing difficulties. all present in garlic. cells are broken. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. where it binds to sensory neurons. 2008. mouth and throat ulcerations. garlic. garden lilies. limiting the amount of gas generated. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes.crazychefs. creating a stinging sensation.include reactions to onions. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. Eye irritation can. The volume of sulfenic acids released. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. it can lead to an allergic reaction. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes.

which are the leaves and/or immature plants. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. Allium fistulosum. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early http://www. which have been developed in more recent times. more commonly today. from sets started from seed the previous year. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. "short-day" onions. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. Finally. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. the Welsh onion. which can be planted directly in the ground. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or.crazychefs. Seed-bearing onions are day-length . producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions.

758 Russia 1.Produce bulblets in the flower head. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk. Vale.750 South Korea 1.793 India 5. each of which forms a bulb.crazychefs.346 2.500 China United States 3. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.220 Turkey 1. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.302 http://www.637 Japan Egypt 1.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). Oregon (USA). The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.149 Spain World Total 64. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest. a hybrid of Allium cepas. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .net/ . Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.764 Pakistan 1.

It remains in effect as of 2009. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases. passed in http://www. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices.The Onion Futures . bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

shallot. commonly known as garlic. leek.crazychefs. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the most commonly used part of the http://www. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Allium sativum. Medical Botany. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. It has a characteristic pungent. and chive.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. known as garlic. from William Woodville. Its close relatives include the onion. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium . sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. 1793.[1] A bulb of garlic.

according to Zohary and Hopf. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic.Yunnan province of China. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). The leaves.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". stems (scape). Allium vineale. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. Garlic plants can be grown close together."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. are common weeds in fields. for consumption (raw or cooked). accounting for over 77% of world output. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. Garlic is grown globally. In cold climates.[5] The "wild garlic".6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with Russia (1. and for medicinal purposes. They can suffer from pink root. and Allium oleraceum. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. with approximately 10.crazychefs. The cloves are used as seed. India (4. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. In North America. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. "crow garlic". known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. The . respectively. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. the so-called elephant garlic. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild http://www. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates.

or ginger. P = official figure. California.810 168.088. south Asia. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12.000 254.686. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tomato.000 15. northern Africa.000 645.000 128.000 125. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". Southeast http://www. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. including eastern Asia.Alaska) in fifth place (1. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. F = FAO estimate.000 142. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. It is often paired with onion.000 221.crazychefs. or estimates). Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. A = aggregate (may include official. semiofficial.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official .[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output.000 325. southern Europe. C = calculated figure. the Middle East. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.4%). and parts of South and Central America.400 140.

"stems". oil. salt. Garlic. In eastern Europe. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. Blending garlic. Immature scapes are tender and edible. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. meat. crostini and canapé. and then stir-fried with eggs. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. or "tops". is sweet and syrupy. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. breads and pasta. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. They are also known as "garlic spears". the resulting http://www.crazychefs. or vegetables. almond. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. and a chunky base produce skordalia. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. and spices. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. garlic toast. bruschetta. In Japan and Korea. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. In some cuisine. oil. and roast them in an oven. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. meats. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. and is now being sold in the United . The leaves are cut. cleaned. called black garlic. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. United Kingdom and Australia.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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persillade. garlic. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the . A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. deterring animals like cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. Humans. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose.[51] To ward off vampires. ginger. or leeks. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. shallots. The herb is. Since digestion takes several hours. where it is excreted. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. and vampires.[48] Due to its strong odor. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. chives. shallots. hung in windows. therefore. garlic could be worn. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. and bananas. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. Among the members of the onion family. such as pistou.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. garden lilies. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. forming allyl methyl sulfide. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic.[50] In Europe. leeks. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. insects. making garlic much more potent than onions. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. allylmercaptan and allicin. and release of AMS several hours more. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. The process of cooking garlic removes http://www. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. however. included in many garlic recipes. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. and worms from eating the plant. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. allylpropyldisulfide. all present in garlic. However.crazychefs. When eaten in quantity. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae).[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. usually enjoy these sensations. including onions. However. thus mellowing its spiciness. werewolves.

(August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). minimal risks to normal individuals.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. at worst. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. are largely unknown.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved.In Daoism mythology. indicated Muhammad. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. Garlic can thin the blood. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. antiplatelets. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". and menstrual irregularities.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. and diarrhea. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. similar to the effect of aspirin.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. . saquinavir. if appropriate. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. antihypertensives. calcium channel blockers. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. allergic http://www.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. dizziness. as well as other medications. You can help by converting this article to prose. if any exist. However. emesis. nausea.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. bleeding. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. antiparasitic value of garlic. indigestion. Editing help is available.crazychefs. and hypoglycemic drugs.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats.

"Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. ^ . ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23).nj. including burns to children. A bulb of garlic.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. (2005). ^ http://www. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. split. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. 2. http://www. 112 7. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. Retrieved 2007-08-28. et al.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. ^ McGee p. one the bulbs will grow peeled. is discouraged.jhortscib. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. G. 9. http://hdl. Notes 1.crazychefs.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection".com http://www.htm.unigraz. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. Ethiopia". "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting.html 8. 3. 397 6. Retrieved 5 June 2009. third edition (Oxford: University Press. p. topical use of raw In particular. Retrieved 5 June.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. ^ a b c d Tabor. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L.natural-holistic-health. 197 5. (2004).[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. et al.html. Domestication of plants in the Old World. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. ^ a b Lee. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. http://www. 2000). garlick)".

doi:10. ^ Chan KC. PMID 17966136.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -.lehoux/Tropes. ^ a b Steiner M. Intern. Hyg. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. (p. J. et al (February 2007).S.200700072. Biochem. doi:10. Sci.167. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve.ama-assn. 104 (46): 17977–82. 2005 ^ Groppo. 12. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. 33. McFerren M (February 2007). Accessed: December Dent. Akrami M (March 2007). 35. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L.jnutbio.1186/1476-511X-6-5. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. PMID 15277094. PMID 17325296. Acad. Chao WJ (March 2007). PMID 9641475. Lin RS (June 1998).A 400 Year History. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. Intern.ama-assn. A Modern Herbal.1016/j. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. 18. Sylva. et al (November 2007). PMID 15157944.1073/pnas.0705710104. PMID 17951430.A.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. 5:109–115. 32. Izzo AA (November 2007). "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". 14. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". doi:10. Herald Publishing Co. 28. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". J. July 1.). P. Med.200700058. Natl. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. doi:10.1002/mnfr. Olcay E. 17. Sartoratto.01. 27. Güven C (2002).Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. PMID 17328819. 13.. [2] ^ Hamel. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). 24. ^ Gardner CD. Better Nutrition. Arch. http://archinte. doi:10. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". 29. U.1001/archinte. 167 (4): 346–53. N. http://personalpages. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . Motta. 54 | P a g e http://www. Yin MC.. Squadrito GL. PMID 17123684. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. 2006.4. 11. Garlic. ^ Durak I. 5.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. Vosoughi AR. Med. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. PMID 2291748. Block Oztürk HS.167. Ferraresi. 31. ^ Kojuri J. 21. (Mrs.C.crazychefs. 25.1002/mnfr. doi:10." Int.4.manchester. Arch.005. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. "Tropes. and Empiricism" (PDF). ^ Goodbye. Daryn (2003).1001/archinte. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". 20. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904– . ^ Charlson M. PMID 15218732. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store.346. 19. 167 (4): 325–6. J. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. Sova P (May 2004). 15 (6): 373–7. Aytaç B. ^ Borrelli F. Capasso R. et al (June 2004). Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. PMID 17918162. doi:10.. Lawson LD. ^ Mader FH (October 1990). Maud. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. 30.2004. doi:10. 15. and Mary U. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". 23. Proc. ^ Benavides GA. R. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". Nutr..325. Facts. Ramacciato. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). F. Kavutcu M. 26. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". Paul B.10. 16.1162/106361403773062678.pdf. PMID 17325291. ^ Durak I. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. A. Mills RW. doi:10.

nhs. 43.elsevier. ^ Baruchin AM. Scolaro M. ^ Lemar KM. Matuura H. Lau B.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.1128/AAC. Shishido C.economicexpert. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea.) 62. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein on mutagenesis. Lett. "Garlic burns".com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582.crazychefs. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. ISBN 0-30436561-0. Retrieved 2007-0707. 211 51. ^ http://washokufood. ^ a b McNally. p.htm 44. Engl. Kominato Y. Long D. doi:10. Nishino H. Jordan W. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats". AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. 40. Summer 2005 .jst.Vol 9 No. 211..html 46. a stress compound from garlic. 1988. ^ John S.pdf. http://aac.sgmjournals. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". http://www. "Allixin. PMID 11481410. Pickering p. Passa O. NLM Gateway. Yoffe B. Yoshida S.". 38. In Search of Dracula.asm. Sterling "Effect of allixin. Retrieved 2009-01-30. Book 65 57. ^ Health Canada . Fuwa T. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". 42. Sumida T. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. section "Conclusion" 48. 65. PMID 8644128. Aon MA. http://joi.go. ^ http://lem. 64. 4 . ^ Garlic . ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). doi:10. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 310–311 47. Toxicol. Raymond T (1994).. ^ McGee p. (2001). Slattery M. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). ^ Bukhari. James. ^ http://www.elsevier. Sanders N. Sagi A. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. Thomson M. Jennifer (2002-12-13). Retrieved December 7. PMID 16207909. Ronen M (November 2001). ^ Kodera Y. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. National Health Service. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". David (2003).org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257.. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. "Garlic burns". PMC: 538912. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. Itakura Y. PMID 8441577. Houghton Mifflin. UK Medicines Information.html 54. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6.blogspot. ^ a b Mayo http://mic.36. (1991-08-01). Ali M (June 1996).JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ^ McNally p. Iwai K. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. ^ .ch.jst.0.go. garlic advisory 63.. 58. 122. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. ^ Macpherson et al.2005. Microbiology (Reading. W. ^ Fareed G.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257– http://www. ^ a b c d 52. 39. (1989-01-30). Agents Chemother. Antimicrob. PMID 15616341. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. Nishimura S.1099/mic. 49. http://joi. Bordia ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. Imafuku M. ^ Macpherson et al.. H. 49 (1): 473. 85 (3): 157–64. et al (October 2005). ^ Oi Y. http://linkinghub. Complementary Medicines Summary.28095-0. 53. 2007. 049 . ^ Shuford JA.. 120. Castro C.473. ^ CSU SafeFood 41.html 45. Steckelberg JM. Volume sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59.Garlic-in-Oil 61. Teel R. Retrieved December 7.unito. 66. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. 2007. Patel R (January 2005). PMID 37. Chesson C. ^ Pickering.1.". ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L.January 29.

. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. K. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. 354-363 (2002). Andy (2004).M. and Related Species (Second Edition). A..elsevier.. (1985). Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). L. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and . Selfsufficientish . 50. E. Lemar. D. Balise. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. Barzilay. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Block. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. S. 94 (6): 632–5. Williams & Wilkens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. Pharm. R. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. 405-407 (2002). C. D. Kamenetsky. PMID 8506890. Block. PMID 8441577. 50. L. Med. Susumu Yoshida. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Yukihiro Kodera. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. Wang.Garlic. Bull. Hamilton. The chemistry of garlic and[青森県産]. Vol. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Lawson. Z.. Kiazand. Simmons DL. "Garlic burns". Turner. Gardner. Bull. Masanori Ayabe. (2004). P. Chatterjee.. http://www. Soc. (1996). 'Kyolic'. R. Hile. Lloyd.. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. E. Z. G. Boudoulas H.References Japanese garlic.crazychefs. Retrieved 1 May 2005... McMahon FG (June 1993). Breithaupt-Grögler K. D. PMID 9355906.. Chem. D. Hort.. 3rd ed. PMID 9247357. P. J.. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. A. Sci. J. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. Shafir. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. R. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. Vargas R. Block. Naoto Uda. (2001). Am. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42.P. Shan. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". Garty BZ (March 1993). Jain AK. H. http://circ. Balch. Zhang. H. J. Chem. Jiro Yoshida. (2000). D. http://linkinghub. Makoto Ichikawa. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. [4] Lawson. 129: 144–151. Rabinowitch (2004). L. Garlic. and H. Isao Sumioka. L. Kozue Ogasawara. Vol. C. D.ahajournals.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. E. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. E. Zemah. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono.-Z. Pharm. Ling M. New York: Avery. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". L. A. M. Naoki Kashimoto. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy... Gotzkowsky S. Efendy JL. (1992). Am. Lawson. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. M. Campbell GR. H. A. Campbell JH (July 1997). I. Belz GG (October 1997)...

SunWook Hwang. In: Ohigashi. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". (1998). J. Harold (2004). (1999). Leeks". Salunkhe. et al. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Abstract. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". Neil A (1994). J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. 49 (1): 473.12. PMID 15616341. Silagy C. PMID 9641475. Pharmacol. et al. Patel R (January 2005). (1997).1128/ http://www. Michael Bandell.2005.. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209.Lindsey J. D. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. Shuford JA. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology.crazychefs. et al.. Antimicrob. http://aac. Lin RS (June 1998). Geierstanger. http://meta. Kadam.1. "The Onion Family: Onions. H. Garlic. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Mader FH (October 1990).K. 31 (6): 904– Marcel Dekker. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. pp. Eid. Veena Viswanath. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. PMC: 538912. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005).473. Agents Chemother. doi:10. Cardiovasc. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. PMID 8169881. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study".49.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Yeh. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Yeh.. 310–3. PMID 2291748. McGee. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Y-Y. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". S. Steckelberg . Bernhard H. Y-Y.wkhealth.asm. Steiner M.. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.S. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". (eds). Samer R. Macpherson.

Pakistan.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. when they are ready for collecting. and Sri Lanka. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. In Vietnam. syn. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. and consist of a long calyx. after which they develop into a bright red. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. it is called đinh hươ http://www. Zanzibar. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. terminating in four spreading sepals.crazychefs. Madagascar.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium . aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. Cloves are harvested when 1. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5-2 cm long.

net/ . Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. along with other spices. entering the kidney. In Vietnamese cuisine.crazychefs. especially for digestive problems. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. Cloves are used in cheeses. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. In south Indian cuisine. Cloves are used as a carminative. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor").com http://www. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. cloves are often used to season pho broth. During Christmas. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] In north Indian cuisine. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. warm and aromatic.000 tonnes). it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. it is used in almost all dishes. often in combination with cumin. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. they are used sparingly. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. but with the addition of other spices). but as they are extremely strong. which sells Djarum Black. spleen and stomach meridians. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis.

60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices.P. Khalsa.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces.crazychefs. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. along with nutmeg and pepper.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year .com http://www. Moti. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. In the late fifteenth century.[6] History Until modern times. Brazil. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands)." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus).The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. including Bacan. It is also used in severe burns. Ayurvedic herbalist K. and Tidore. Makian. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. including for multiple sclerosis.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean.[7] Cloves. Subsequently. Ternate. including cloves. mainly from the Maluku Islands. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. and Zanzibar. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. pimples etc. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. most of the West Indies. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). were highly prized in Roman times. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach stomach qi downward. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain.[5] In West Africa.[7] Nevertheless. vomiting and diarrhea. RH (AHG).

^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. 8. pp. Andrew and Page. Spice: The History of a Temptation. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. and several sesquiterpenes. Steven Clavey. Erich National Institutes of Health. Erich Stoger. comprising 72-90%. rhamnetin. John Wiley and Sons Inc.crazychefs. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. ^ "TibetMed . ^ a b Turner. and Andrew Gamble. Jack (2004). 3. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. Special Diets for Illness 6. Vintage Books. crategolic acid. ©2003. 94. ^ http://oneearthherbs.tibetmed. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". 2. Phyllis and Balch. Alan. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. Steven the flavonoids eugenin. James.[8] Notes and references 1. xv.nih. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia . Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Karen. stigmasterol and campesterol. methyl salicylate (painkiller). 3rd ed. ^ Balch. Medicine Plus. tannins.. 5. ^ http://www. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. ^ Dorenburg.nlm. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. and eugenitin.squarespace. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. ©2000. Avery Publishing.html Tilotson..htm. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is http://www. due to the high price of importing them. gallotannic acid. kaempferol. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. pg.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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"GB/T 7652-2006 八角". ^ Louisa Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". 6. f.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. doi:10. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. http://www.iso. doi:10. (2005). . ^ Lederer.1542/peds.htm?csnumber =4844. NPR. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook.iso. 4.Specification". http://www.crazychefs. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. 18 May 2009 2. Vaishali C.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. while Lederer et al. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum http://www. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species.1021/jf058156b. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. ^ International Organization for Standardization. et al.703.5555/jaoi.88. Ines et al.htm?csnumber=19183.) -. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. http://www. ^ International Organization for Standardization.Botanical nomenclature". Retrieved 10 November. Retrieved 8 June 2009. 3. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院.com/AOAC/doi/abs/10. Retrieved 8 June http://www. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS.2004-0058.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 .Differentiation with other species Joshi et al.2005.chinaios. PMID 15492355. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. f. Retrieved 8 June 2009.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . (2006).3. ^ Joshi.

[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum .com http://www.crazychefs. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. native from the east Mediterranean to East India. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.

most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. a member of the parsley family. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ .(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). the story goes. Kerman. maduru. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle".crazychefs.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. In Arabic. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). the white variety being suduru and the large variety. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. including kamūnu in Akkadian. being oblong in shape. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. and yellow-brown in colour. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. in northwestern China. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as . in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. cumin is known as kimyon. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. longitudinally ridged. cumin is known as zireh. in Turkey. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. locally called "Kermun". in Iran and Central Asia.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". parsley and dill.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. In Northern India and Nepal. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from http://www.

Morocco. when added to hot milk and consumed. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. India. In South Asia. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. Egypt. Mexico.crazychefs. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. and Chile. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). today it is mostly grown in Iran. Uzbekistan. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. Tajikistan. and this practice continues in Morocco. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. Since returned to favour in parts of http://www. Syria. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. excavated at the Syrian site Tell . Turkey. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Sri Lanka. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. Seeds.

Indian. It is an herbaceous annual plant. but are smaller and darker in colour. and is found in achiote . sofrito.crazychefs. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. Middle Eastern. thread-like leaflets. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. containing a single seed. and bahaarat. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. and borne in umbels. enchiladas. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. garam masala. and other Middle-Eastern. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. Northern Mexican cuisines. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. curry http://www. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. either ground or as whole seeds. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. curries. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. popular in Indian. white or pink. The flowers are small. Pakistani. tacos. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. Sri Lankan. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. Today. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. Contrary to popular belief in the US. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pinnate or bipinnate. adobos. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. North African. Cuban. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. and in some traditional breads from France. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. It is traditionally added to chili.

hot summer of 3–4 months.Sugars 2. It is grown from seed. B2) 0.25 g . Cultivation of cumin requires a long.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. However. B3) 4.81 g 8. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates.327 mg 22% Niacin ( .saturated 1. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C http://www.Dietary fiber 10.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.5 g Fat . sown in spring.24 g 22. it is drought-tolerant.very common in Mexican cuisine. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).435 mg Folate (Vit. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. 64 μg 44.crazychefs.33 mg Vitamin K 5. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . well-drained soil. and needs fertile. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.7 mg Vitamin E 3.27 g 17.

Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Swedish.crazychefs. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin.Zinc 4. a chemical found in turmeric. In Polish the difference is even less significant. Not related to curcumin. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi).[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. However. lighter in colour.).a small cat). Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". For .a cat and 'kotek' . which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek http://www. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway".v. to eat. from the Swedish word "spisa". The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin).caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. as in 'kot' .

Rong. Lu et 6.1016/ ^ http://www. Essential Oils". Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . 206 5. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. Nicola whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1.". Retrieved .1021/jf0487351. and Carum carvi L. doi:10.2009.1302. 2000). ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. ^ "KMN. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN"." premiumwanadoo.arsgrin. doi:10. http://www. doi:10. from China". ^ "Kamūnu. 8. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.ars-grin. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L.030.1002/ffj. 2000. Domestication of plants in the Old 7. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 .foodreference. (2005). ^ a b Iacobellis. (2009).crazychefs.aca.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. ^ Growingtaste. third edition (Oxford: University Press. et al. ^ a b c Li. 9. p.77. 3. ^ a b Wang. 2. www." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61.

net/ .crazychefs.Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. or spice. and citral) have also been identified. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. http://www. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. West Africa and the Caribbean. shogaols and gingerols. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. cineol.crazychefs.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. cardamom. and galangal. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In laboratory . sedative.

especially in the Tanjore belt. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. and Aduwa in Nepali. nuts. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. to which honey is often added. In South India.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. stimulating the production of saliva. For storage. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced . Ginger is also made into candy. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. Adrak. salt. and tender green chili peppers. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Alay in Marathi. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. crackers and cake. and ginger beer. in Tamil Nadu. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. Inji in Tamil. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. particularly gingerols and shogaols.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. Ginger has a sialagogue action. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. Allam ( ) in Telugu. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. and sugar. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. or frozen for longer term storage. ghee. in http://www. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. enchi in Malayalam.crazychefs. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. [edit] Regional use In India. cookies. which makes swallowing easier. ginger ale. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Additionally. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste.

ginger is ground and mixed with orange. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the Caribbean. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. ginger is called gyin. gingerbread. and a variety of nuts and seeds. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira).Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. In Burma. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. ginger snaps. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. In China. during their occupation of the islands. France. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. In the traditional Korean kimchi. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. parkin and ginger biscuits. In Vietnam. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. and making drinks such as sorrel. In Arabic. In Japan. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. In Western cuisine. On the island of Corfu. It is also consumed as a salad dish called http://www. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. . ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. In the Ivory Coast. a type of ginger beer. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic.crazychefs. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. is made. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. Greece. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine.

[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. morning sickness and chemotherapy. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of http://www. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for .[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. which several scientific studies support. including warfarin. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. cough and cold.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. though studies been inconsistent. though it does interact with some medications. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger.

Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. which is considered a panacea.[14] In Congo. In India.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. clotting. reducing "winds" in the blood.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. In the United States. and heart rhythms. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding http://www. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. In China. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. ginger can cause heartburn.crazychefs. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. bloating. In Indonesia. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. gas. and individuals who have had ulcers. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. belching and nausea. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. in food etc. In Burma. people use ginger for making tea. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. it is considered good for a sore throat. and although it's generally recognized as safe. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. particularly if taken in powdered .

It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. it is immediately scalded. produces black ginger. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. or washed and scraped. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. washing and scraping gives white ginger.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). which has slipped to the second position (~20. followed by Indonesia(~12.7%). the root is gathered when the stalk withers.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff.000 F 177. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. Traditionally. with over 30% of the global share. Scalding. Nepal(~11. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting.000 158. but this generally reduces its value.5%). now leads in global production of ginger.crazychefs. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . replacing China. Production trends India.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers.

See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan .crazychefs.387. and its root has similar aromatic properties. the flower buds are the part eaten.270 1. a carcinogenic compound. Asarum canadense.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. is also known as "wild ginger". or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai.ars-grin. semiofficial or estimates). fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).000 34. F = FAO estimate. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. is used in cooking and medicine. The plant also contains aristolochic Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family.000 http://www.000 57.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138.000 42. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.arsgrin.000 but it is not related to true ginger. Retrieved 2008-03-03.contains ginger material References 1.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . A = Aggregate(may include official. Also referred to as galangal. www. http://www. Galangal is also called Thai ginger. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".net/ . 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

(2006). 8.crazychefs. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536.umm. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. http://journals.H. Retrieved 2007-08-02.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. MD. Jaw-Chyun.oxfordjournals. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). MD. Li-Jiau British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371.uspharmacist. "Beverage of Champions". http://archfami.2006.2. ^ Al-Achi. 4. Retrieved 2007-08-06.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". ^ Al-Amin. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Antoine. "Ginger".net/ .mayoclinic. New York: Scribner pp. 11.. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". PMID 9821826. M. Retrieved 2007-08-02. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. 9. 3.ucla. doi:10. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007).com 7. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". et al. Harold (2004).1021/jf071460f.1016/j. ^ Chen. ^ Jakes. 5. & Pittler. doi:10. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF).foodchem. 6. http://unitproj. Ali Taghizadeh et al. Tin-Yun Ho.1001/archfami. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390– http://www. Kathi Kemper. (2007). 15.). ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. & MSt.cambridge. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Retrieved 2007-0808. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. http://www. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". 425-426. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). Sheng-Chu Retrieved 5 November. http://timeblog. Mary.html. Susan (2007-01-15). Kim Farrell.523. ^ Afshari. Zainab M. http://www.html. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats".013.cfm? 12. http://bja. David Kiefer. (01 Mar 2000) MD. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. Retrieved 2007-08-02. MPH (1998).org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367. ^ MD O' Hara. 14. http://www. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ McGee. doi:10. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. PMID 10793599.library. Shih-Lu Wu. Retrieved 2006-09-06. 13.amaassn. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". 10. ^ Ernst.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". "The effect of ginger on diabetic

is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed].com http://www. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron .[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. for dyeing. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. Erode. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In medieval Europe. For these reasons. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. slightly bitter. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Zingiberaceae. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. and to impart color to mustard condiments. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell.crazychefs.

It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. In non-South Asian recipes. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. ice cream. orange juice. powdered form. turmeric is also used fresh. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. gelatins.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. much like ginger. yogurt. sweets. Turmeric City. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. biscuits. Over-coloring. custardlike yellow color. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. cake icings. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. dairy products. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. and many more. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. sauces.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine.[citation needed] Sangli.Yellow City. and mustard. not only in curry. popcorn color. cereals. relishes. or Textile City. It is used in canned beverages and baked . Although usually used in its dried. yellow cakes. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. but also in masak lemak. rendang.crazychefs. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). etc. such as in pickles.

winter butter and margarine. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. salad dressings. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. It is unknown why it works. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth.[4] cancer. an uncurable and debilitating disease. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. Indians.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome.crazychefs. Within one week of using turmeric. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. and other digestive disorders. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. Japan. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. are spiced with turmeric. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. a traditional dish in South Asia. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. yogurt.In combination with annatto (E160b).net/ . use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. is also treated with turmeric powder. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. burns and bruises. dry mixes.

In 1998 researchers at http://www. and the U. Bangalore. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. or BDNF. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Alzheimer's. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens.S. John‘s Medical College. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. research activity into curcumin is exploding. multiple myeloma. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine.crazychefs. . Snake Bite Anti venin. found in black pepper. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. with no adverse effects. and Pakistan. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. improves the absorption of turmeric. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. which supports nerve growth. and colorectal cancer. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol.

part of the Bengali wedding. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. as a part of the marriage ritual. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). However. such as http://www. jaggery. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. This happens in economically lower situations. and coconut and cooked in steam. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. During the south Indian festival Pongal. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony.crazychefs. and it is used for power and purification rites. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. In southern India. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. Also. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like .[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals.

5-dione.W. Srinivas PS. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". E. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". 75300.1016/ 5. or Natural Yellow 3. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.aolhealth.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. 6. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. The systematic chemical name is (1E. | accessyear = 2009}} 3.thieme-connect. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.090.I. Retrieved 2008-03-04. Judy] (June 2009).co. Rajendran R. ^ Chan. Notes 1. ^ http://www.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN".com http://www.6E)-1. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . a polyphenol. Retrieved June 2009. et al.ars-grin.C. Joseph Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. keto and .172. 1998 Shoba It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. ^ [|Ketteler. Majeed M.foodchem. AOL Health. doi:10. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C. www. Planta Med. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. http://www.07. http://www. ^ http://news.crazychefs. (2009). Joy D. 64(4):353-6.

4 in) in diameter. 10–20 centimetres (3. Indian walnut. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). which allows its use as a candle (see below). also known as Candleberry. flowers. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. simple and . with wide spreading or pendulous branches.crazychefs.) Willd. with an acute apex. hence its name.6–2. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L.9 in) long.9–7. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. Euphorbiaceae. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The nut is round. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana).Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) http://www. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. 4–6 centimetres (1. Kemiri. The leaves are pale green.

the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. however. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. named kukui were burned to provide light. leaves and flowers. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are applied around the navel for costiveness. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice.crazychefs. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. In Hawaiʻi. ink for tattoos from charred http://www. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. ulcers. and gonorrhea. This led to their use as a measure of time. The flavor. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. giving them greater underwater visibility. swollen joints. is quite different. the nuts. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. as the candlenut is much more bitter. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. lit one end. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. On the island of Java in Indonesia. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. burned with . In Sumatra. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. including: leis from the shells. In Malaya. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. a varnish with the oil. fevers. Outside of Southeast Asia. pounded seeds. In Java. they are mildly toxic when raw. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache.

and the husband was eventually killed.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua' A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). used as soap or Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. protection and peace. tukilamulamu. "Chapter 4: Canoes". was routinely beaten. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in 26. Retrieved 2009-03-06.).[5] In Tonga. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. Liana Susan. 5. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. ripe nuts.html. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). http://canoeplants. Being a kind and just woman. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. pp. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. she was given new life. 122. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). (1993). the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. Betty. ^ "Kukui".com/kukui. Beatrice H. This larva is eaten by some people. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil.crazychefs. 2. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. Plants in Hawaiian Culture.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. despite her best efforts to please her husband. p. Finally. the god of agriculture. still . http://books. http://books. Lilinoe Andrews. 50-51. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. Bess Press. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. In http://www. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. Craig Thomas (2000). ISBN 9781573061377. http://books. ^ Dunford. University of Hawaii Press. ^ Scott.[citation needed] References 1. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of Mikiala Ayau. Honda. ISBN 9780824822514. One of the legends told of a woman who. ^ Krauss. University of Hawaii Press. p.

green pepper. Kannada:meNasu. Konkani:miriya konu.crazychefs. However. and very often simply pepper. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. dark red when fully mature. cultivated for its fruit. known as a peppercorn when dried. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. unrelated plants. Peppercorns.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. red pepper (as in bell or chile). Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. may be described as black pepper. Malayalam:kurumulaku. The terms pink peppercorns.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family . . . and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. . The fruit. Telugu:miriyam. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. white http://www. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. . containing a single seed.

speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. in the early 20th century.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. and other similar forms.S. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. this was shortened to pep. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. the spice is called black peppercorn. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. chemical or biological methods. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant.. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. French poivre. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. In the 16th century. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. where ground black pepper would visibly stand http://www. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as . The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. wrinkled black layer. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. including decortication. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine.crazychefs. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. Dutch peper. and the naked seed is dried. often alongside table salt. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Once dried. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed.[4] In the U.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. with the skin of the pepper removed. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. White pepper consists of the seed only.

and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. made from the largest. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper.Black. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. particularly Thai cuisine. from Bangka Island. green. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. which is mostly no longer an issue. like black. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. Fresh. with a bright http://www.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. Schinus terebinthifolius. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. Schinus molle. Pickled peppercorns. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. are used in some Asian cuisines.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. also green. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). which are the fruits of a plant from a different . is made from the unripe berries. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. the Peruvian pepper tree. largely unknown in the West. unpreserved green pepper berries. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper.crazychefs.

five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. moist. and before the fruit is mature. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year.crazychefs. but when full grown and still hard. poles. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free . The cuttings are usually cultivars. or trellises. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. and ultimately fall off and are lost.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. The leaves are alternate. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. entire. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. the berries lose pungency. well-drained and rich in organic matter. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. It is a spreading vine.[11] Black pepper is native to India.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. Competing plants are cleared away. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. The flowers are small. if allowed to ripen.

were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. in what is now the state of Kerala.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long . some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. In fact.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. its most important source was India. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia.crazychefs. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". particularly the Malabar Coast. Chile peppers.[14] J.

pepper was also being grown in Java. the Middle East. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. but these areas traded mainly with China. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. By the 16th century. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. this trade advantage. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. changed the course of world history. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. Black pepper. Returning from India. Sunda.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. barged to Alexandria.crazychefs. growing in the north-western part of India. Sumatra. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. nor how it reached the Nile from India. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. plus long pepper's greater http://www. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. Long . Malaysia. Madagascar. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE.Until well after the Middle Ages. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. Trade routes of the time were by land. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. or used the pepper locally.

clad in a wrinkled cover. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. affordable only to the wealthy. Edward Gibbon wrote. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. and of black. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. the banquets of kings." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. whereas.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. seeing that in other substances which we use. Once into the Mediterranean. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. 12. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who.H. four.. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. it is sometimes their sweetness. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. who travelled east to India.[22] In addition. and the luxuries of the table. if expensive. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. Apicius' De re coquinaria. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. and the prices reflected it. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. especially Venice and Genoa.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian . Yet within I bear a burning marrow. After the fall of Rome.crazychefs. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. first the Persians and then the Arabs. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Similarly. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm.. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. pepper was a luxury item. I season delicacies. There is no evidence to support this http://www. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. seasoning in the Roman Empire. I wonder. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". is fifteen denarii per pound. while that of white pepper is seven. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread.

"we seek Christians and spices. has some antimicrobial properties. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. especially in http://www. A depiction of Calicut. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe . However.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). In 1498. his representative replied.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. Pepper. In the 17th century.crazychefs.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. and salt-cured meats were common fare. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. Today. as well as around Africa. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. Pepper harvested for the European trader. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. the effect is small.

000 pounds (4. gangrene. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves.[26] By the 12th century. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". liver problems.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE.. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). oral abscesses. indigestion. Note the cook's pepper mill. hernia. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. including long pepper. but if this estimated 10."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding . Long pepper. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. being stronger. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. lung disease. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. Like many eastern spices. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. insect bites. as well as she could for sneezing.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper.[25] In the 3rd century CE.crazychefs. but both were used. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. was often the preferred medication. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 http://www. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. joint pain. heart disease. however. hoarseness. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. diarrhea. either long or black. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. earache.. insomnia. each load being equal to 223 lbs.

caryophyllene. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. if any. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. and floral notes. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly http://www.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. limonene.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. milligram-for-milligram. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. irritates the . There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. and linalool. chapter five. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. sabinene. tooth decay. woody. left on black pepper.[31] As a medicine. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. causing the sneezing. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. which is stripped of the fruit layer. vitamin B. Few. Some sources say that piperine. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. The outer fruit layer. which give citrusy. a mildly carcinogenic compound. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question.sunburn. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. Refined piperine.crazychefs.[31] Also. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. and toothaches. a substance present in black pepper.

producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. The price of pepper can be volatile. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of http://www. for example. are used for this. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002.000 short tons). so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. the most widely traded spice in the world. by monetary value. dispensers of pre-ground pepper.crazychefs.000 t (391. Sri Lanka (6%).000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. and China (6%). India.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns . but has fallen to just over 271. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). As of 2008. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. India (19%).[33] Once ground.000 t (299.[35] By weight. Thailand (4%). Brazil (13%). Malaysia (8%). sometimes instead of pepper shakers.

2. Alejandra (2001).com 9. disease and weather.M1. Text online. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. 19. http://www. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. ^ Translation from Turner. The Hindu Business line. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's 14. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08).google. doi:10. 6. 18. Flora of China. Innes Miller. 20. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF).ph/wps/wcm/resources/file/ebb81841763712b/black%20pepper. Retrieved 12 August 2006.thehindubusinessline. http://www. ^ Katzer. ^ Dalby p.000 t (99. Egyptian Pharaoh. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. http://books. Retrieved 6 November 2005. ^ a b Jaramillo. Spice. Ramses II. www. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus".000 short tons).com/2008/03/27/stories/2008032751741300.amjbot. using almost none of its production domestically.crazychefs. ISBN 075653836X. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 17 October http://www. ISBN 0375407219. Warrior. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. from Penzey's Spices. Retrieved http://www. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. ^ Peppercorns. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. p. ^ Ochef. 83 21. p 94. Retrieved 6 November . 13. Pepper.[36] Notes 1. ^ Innes Miller. Retrieved 13 November 2005. 4. 8. 88. Using fresh green peppercorns. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN".pd f. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. 80 Compass Point ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either.2307/2657072.htm.ars-grin.efloras. ^ J. 3. Vietnam dominates the export market. http://www. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". The Spice Trade. p. 2006-1120. 93. Gernot (2006).com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24.poor crop management. Random House. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. p. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 12. Black pepper is marica. M. 11. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). 5. 1969). 17. and Builder. Retrieved 2009-01-29. http://www. 10.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 6 November 2005.arsgrin. PMID 7.

purchase required. ^ a b James A. Steven (2004). Retrieved s_20080515_01. ^ U. Vol. table 2. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 29.S. 2. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ISBN 0521367085. Cambridge University Press. 171.x. Davidson. http://books. 26. 428. Dorman and S. http://www. ^ ds/ . CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. 23. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". Full text at Blackwell website. CRC ^ "Karvy's special Reports . ^ a b McGee p. Larousse Gastronomique. ^ Jaffee p. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum.1365-2672. 156. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. ^ Dalby pp. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). 160.. "Spices. Berkeley: University of California Press. 77.karvycomtrade. OCLC 47231315 50747863 which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. 32. Retrieved November 12. Andrew (2002). http://books. http://siteresources. Deans (2000). "Mill". 33.ch05. Dover. D. ISBN 9781580084178. Prosper (2001). pp. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. 28. ^ Montagne. 34.1046/j.2000. G. ^ Jaffee TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result.00969. 35. http://www. ^ Turner p. 25. 726. 30. 27. Why does pepper make you sneeze?.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper".pdf. also Turner pp. 10. p. Duke (1993-08-16). 395. ISBN 0849336201. Buddhist Monastic Code II.pdf. Karvy Comtrade Limited. References Dalby." 24. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. 74–75. ^ Dalby p. Alan (2002). http://www. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30).22. Hamlyn.accesstoinsight. ^ Dalby p. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). 204. ISBN 0600-60235-4. 12. 31. ISBN 0520236742. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. Dangerous Tastes. p.worldbank. 108–109. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". 36. 2008-05-15. ^ Turner p. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. Jaffee.

annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L.crazychefs. Spice: The History of a Temptation. 427–429. Turner.McGee. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). London: Vintage Books. "Black Pepper and Relatives". OCLC 56590708. ISBN . pp. Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Jack (2004). 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Harold (2004). OCLC 61213802. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C.

Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.17 g 0. Today.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0. Peppers are native to Mexico. including red. B3) 0.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. sweet.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Central America and northern South America.Pepper. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.057 mg 4. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.Sugars 2. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries.crazychefs.Dietary fiber 1.40 g .net/ . 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. green and http://www.224 mg Folate (Vit.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. yellow. B2) 0. B1) 0. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.64 g 0.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.

Sweden. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. Across Europe. "gele paprika". India. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". In parts of Ohio. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. such as Australia. meaning Bulgarian pepper. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version.g. " In Japan. instead of using as a spice.crazychefs. In the United States and Canada.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. they are called "capsicum". respectively). and "Maalu" means Vegetable. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Norway. in Dutch. In France it is called "poivron". It's widely used in a variety of dishes. which are green and yellow.. or "piment. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. the fruit of Piper nigrum. which has its roots in the word for pepper. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. Indiana. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). like pasta. meaning pepper-fruit. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. In British English. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. were a highly prized condiment. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. When cut off. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. an unrelated plant. It is eaten with fried noodles. meaning Big pepper. the word ピーマン ("pîman. and Pennsylvania. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". With the similar meaning. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. Grilled. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum http://www. "green pepper").net/ . At that time peppercorns. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. the term "paprika". called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). g. "groene paprika". rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. "red pepper". whereas パプリカ ("papurika. regardless of their color. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. "Miris" is Chilli. Malaysia and New Zealand. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers.

black and brown. in salads. yellow. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. more rarely. aqua. orange and. yellow or orange peppers. white. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. maroon. Varieties The color can be green. pink. red. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. violet. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. in various soups and .In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". It is eaten as a raw snack. rainbow. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. blue. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less http://www. purple.crazychefs.

foodreference.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. It is found wild occasionally with its parent also known as . balsamea Willd.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. indigenous to Europe. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). ^ http://www. The plant. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. [1]) is a hybrid mint.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively.5 in) long and 1.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. 6–8 mm (0. and bare fibrous roots. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.6–3.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid.5–4 cm (0. spreading by its rhizomes.24– 0. The rhizomes are .com http://www. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. with smooth stems. forming thick. he treated it as a species.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. Flowering is from mid to late summer. noted since 1843[8]. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. with 2n counts of 66. fleshy. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. 72. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. it can grow anywhere. blunt spikes. including stream sides and drainage ditches. dark green with reddish veins. square in cross section. and 120 recorded.6 in) cm broad. The flowers are purple. with a few exceptions.59–1. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins.31 in) long. The chromosome number is variable. Being a hybrid.20 in) diameter. it is usually sterile. 84.crazychefs. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. If placed.

[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. chewing gum. particularly menthyl acetate. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. and is often used as a flavouring in tea. confectionery.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. ice cream.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.[10] . thus promoting belching. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. and toothpaste.crazychefs. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo.1. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.

while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. Stems reddish. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. the Galápagos Islands. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'.[12] Outside of its native range." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. New Zealand. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. Leaves aromatic. A mild. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. [18]. Foliage lime-scented. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'.net/ . They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. It needs a good water supply. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. [16]. Eau De Cologne Mint). hairless.crazychefs. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of http://www. it is advisable to plant it in a container. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. [21]. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. Leaves wrinkled. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. If you choose to grow peppermint.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. as a natural insecticide.[13] and in the United States. and it is considered invasive in Australia. In addition to that. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. which they then call "after-dinner mints.

Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. C. (1975).com http://www. M. ^ a b (1989). ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs".ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. 4th Edition.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . ed. 6.02. 11.glu. ^ Harley. (2007). A. page 640. Retrieved 2009-02-07. Mehmet (2004). Thomson Healthcare. et al.006.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. A. In: Stace. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. http://www. a popular confection. ^ Cappello. M. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines.who. Mentha L. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. C. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. 9. R. ^ a b Akdogan. & Grey-Wilson. 2. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. C. (1992).crazychefs. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. ^ World Health Organization.2007. ^ a b Blamey. doi:10. http://whqlibdoc. 7. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2".org/en/node/199.. Flowers open from bottom up. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". . (1753). ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12.. ^ Linnaeus. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". G. ed.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . ISBN 978-1563636783 10.dld..1016/j. Retrieved 3 June 2009. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

http://www3. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. S. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .org/books/249/ Retrieved 6 June 2009.257.iso. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 . 22. Bienvenu (1998).. D. Bienvenu (1999). "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". Retrieved 3 (2004). 17. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . J. ^ Akdogan. 19. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.sagepub. Retrieved 3 June.wiley.Specification".)". 26. V. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . ^ International Organization for Standardization.interscience. http://tih. Retrieved 3 June.iso. Mehmet et al. 21.1071/AP99036.. et al.16. Australia".net/ . http://www.1002/jsfa. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. http://www.htm. 24. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". Retrieved 3 June.sagepub. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)".E. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .10): 119 .iso. Plant Cell.. paraquat.28. doi:10. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats".actahort. 18. Ambika et al. Valerie Howland (2006). Mehmet (2003).sagepub. on kidney tissue in rats". "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". ^ Edwards. 25. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. and Mentha spicata L. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. Frédéric et al.htm?csnumber=32041.159. ^ International Organization for Standardization.crazychefs.1151. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. ^ a b c Jullien.2740311104.htm?csnumber=4844. http://het. (2007). ^ Akdogan. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 .)".com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119. ^ Farley. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -.htm. Retrieved 7 June 2009.. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. Derek http://www.E. http://www. http://www.D. Zheljazkov.1023/A:1006185103897. ^ Sharma. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.S. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . Retrieved 7 June 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2009.htm?csnumber=11633. http://het. doi:10. 20.219.actahort. ^ Adamovic. 27. populations. Retrieved 6 June 2009.224. F.

com http://www. although different in their uses as food. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to the Alliaceae family. also sometimes known as Allium porrum. is a vegetable which belongs.crazychefs. ampeloprasum var.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.). Two related vegetables. the elephant garlic and kurrat. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. ampeloprasum Subspecies: . porrum (L. along with the onion and garlic.Gay The leek. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. porrum (L. Allium ampeloprasum var.) J. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var.

Growing Leek field in Houthulst. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in http://www. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. Once established in the .crazychefs. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. intended for harvest in the season when planted. to be planted out as weather permits. and they have few pest or disease problems. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. leeks are hardy. and overwintering leeks. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens.

It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. Fried. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. carrots and potatoes and different meats. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. which turns it soft and mild in http://www. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. The tender core may be eaten. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). along with leek soup. In its raw state. but. although less bitter than scallion. which can be used in salads. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek.crazychefs. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. as the leek ages. Lamb is the most popular. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. Raw. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the . the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. having been overlooked for several centuries[1].Cuisine Leeks for sale. due to the layered structure of the leek. The onion-like layers form around a core.

In her book.004 g .net/ .polyunsaturated 0.9 g .saturated 0.04 g .233 mg Folate (Vit. onwards.E.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. 83 μg 14. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.monounsaturated 0. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe. B3) 0.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero. B2) 0. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.C.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .15 g 0.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.crazychefs. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.E. as well as wall carvings and drawings. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.3 g 1.C.Dietary fiber 1. B1) 0.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.Sugars 3.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A http://www. who consumed it most often in soup.8 g Fat . led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B. Cultural significance Raw Leeks. as well as other recipes with leeks.

crazychefs.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. According to one legend. for http://www. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. David‘s Day.12 mg recommendations for adults. Shakespeare.Vitamin E 0. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed . but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. In the play. you know. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. good countryman. representing Wales. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales.

p. French Women Don't Get Fat. ^ . ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. Mireille. (Penguin Books.crazychefs. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book.Notes 1. Domestication of plants in the Old World. third edition (Oxford: University Press. 3. ^ Jane Grigson. Knopf. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.. http://www. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2000).

Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.2 g 0.Sugars 2 g 3g . rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten. with fewer than 100 individuals http://www.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. dulce) or celeriac (var.6 g Fat Protein Water 0. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.Dietary fibre 1.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .net/ . 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L. Celery.

The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus http://www.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. onions. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. Celery. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. birds. on the Chicago-style hot dog. such as chicken noodle soup. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. Actually very small fruit. often used as a base for sauces and soups. Celery is a staple in many soups.In temperate countries. squirrels. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. and in Old Bay Seasoning. dogs. 30 AD. onions. celery is also grown for its seeds. and small rodents. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. Celery.crazychefs. as celery salt. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. .

Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. for people with celery allergy. However. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. father of the Cabeiri. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of http://www.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. Celery contains androstenone. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. have to be clearly marked as such. they note "since A. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe.[8] In the European Union. at Kastanas. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. however. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. even in trace amounts.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. M. foods that contain or may contain celery. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. Lemnos and Thebes.crazychefs. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. In Homer's . the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. making avoiding such foods difficult.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium.

many of which differ little from the wild species. and the most crisp and tender. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. and Praetors feasts. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. at our Great Mens tables. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars.. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. earthy taste. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. insect damage and rot). sweetish.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. cracks. 2–3 mm diameter. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. the whole plant having a coarse. In North America.[14] With cultivation and blanching.. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. In the past. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. They are ranged under two classes. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. fields are harvested only once. from the Latin selinon. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). due to extremely uniform crop growth. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. 1. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. borrowed from Greek. produced in dense compound umbels. and a distinctive smell. straightness and thickness of http://www. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. seleri. Under optimal conditions. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. splits. but the leaves may be used in salads. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery.5–2 mm long and wide. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. The flowers are creamy-white. as the Grace of the whole Board".crazychefs.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. shape. The plants are raised from seed. white and red. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of . apium Italicum. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured.

Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". ^ D.46. ^ snopes. 14. Heiner DC. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. ^ OED.nsf/pages/smallage. and proper sanitation. 2. ^ Teng CM. 2003. (2005). Holmiae. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. (Laurentii Salvii). Radauer . M. de Medicina. ^ R. Thayer translation [1] ^ "Smallage". which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. ^ Celsus. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ (June 1993): 610-611. ^ Cantwell. ^ Celestin J. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 2000) p.. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. 227. 3. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis".crazychefs.ucdavis. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. Celery and Negative Calories 6.L.shtml. Kraft D. 9.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). P. 15. 16. ^ Calcium sources 7. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. Post-harvest technology research and information center. 10. 1920). Wilson IBH. (3rd ed. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. ^ Pliny.. 11. et al. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables.17:1697-1699. http://www. ^ a b Fragiska.202. Retrieved 2008-03-04. http://postharvest. Suslow. Lee LG. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. M. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality".com http://www. 8. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". Ko SN. 12. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. Zohary and M. Western Journal of Medicine 158. 13. ^ William Robinson and W. West J. "Celery".[16] References 1. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. p. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. (2002-06-10). Thomson. C (1753). Natural History XIX. Scheiner O. Hopf.practicallyedible. ^ Bublin M. T. gentle handling.v.

showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% http://www. see Sugar (disambiguation).21 g .Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0. Magnification of grains of sugar.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (Discuss) For other .98 g 0g 0g 0. B2) 0. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.crazychefs. see sucrose.91 g .Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.Sugars 96.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.Sugars 99. For the common table sugar. Sugar.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .

026 mg Folate (Vit. B3) 0. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. It forms the main ingredient in candy. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B1) 0. sugar maple (in maple syrup). Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. lactose. sorghum. and in many other sources. B2) 0.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit.77 g Thiamine (Vit.Water 1. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions. obesity and tooth decay. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. mainly sucrose.crazychefs. but also appears in fruit. honey. and . Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.082 mg Vitamin B6 0.

Scientific Scientifically.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars.) The Greek word for "sugar". molasses or treacle. such as glucose. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. including palm sugar and fructose. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. the Italian word zucchero. Generically known as "syrups". "fructose". Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". In a list of ingredients.crazychefs. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. and texture) of beverages and food.) will likely denote a sugar. etc. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre).[4] It came to English by way of French. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs.Popular In non-scientific use. Etymology In the case of sugar. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. "dextrose". the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. means "pebble". 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". zahari. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. (Compare the OED. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved http://www. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. preservation. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. the Spanish word azúcar. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. Culinary/nutritional In culinary . In this informal sense. Spanish and/or Italian. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup.

Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all.crazychefs. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. 3. making the sugars reactive. A notable exception. . syrups and fruit juices. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides .containing 1. deoxyribose. plus sugars naturally present in honey. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. cook or consumer. has a "missing" oxygen atom. Sugars include monosaccharides. 2. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer.Culinary sugars Grainier. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O).com http://www. important molecules in the body. This includes all the sugars referred to above. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Natural sugars come in fruit. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. as its name suggests. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. raw sugar.

These disaccharides have the formula http://www. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. In these closed-chain forms. Monosaccharides include fructose. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. If combined with fine ash. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch).[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. Note for example glycoproteins. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. or DNA. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. lactose (milk sugar . a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. which has the formula C6H12O6. producing invert sugar. and galactose. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. sweeter than the original sucrose. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. proteins connected to one or more sugars.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. which form part of nucleic acids. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides.water (H2O) per bond. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses).net/ . which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. This resulting syrup. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. which is made of glucose.crazychefs. sugar will burn with a blue flame. fructose. galactose and mannose. glucose. After digestion and absorption. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . with less than 0. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11.made from one glucose and one fructose). including NADH and ATP.

htm 3. ISBN 1566398320. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. The International Sugar Trade.webmd. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. 4. Joseph and Mike Carlson. Michael (January 2001). ^ International sugar statistics http://www. OCLC 51837990 84251137. Sugar Blues. Blackwell Publishing. Glyn (2004). ISBN 063205476X.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0." Powder and Bulk References Adas.Bulk Density Chart.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. A C Hannah. ^ Wuebben.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0.crazychefs.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. Temple University Press.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = . History of Science and Technology in Islam. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Cambridge: Woodhead. ^ "Engineering Resources . Sugarcane.illovosugar.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6." http://men. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. OCLC 44493265. 2.80 g/ml Notes 1. 5. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. ^ http://www.

25% of the total volume).5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). sugar beet molasses is . Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar.35 mm. Brown sugar contains from 3. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. especially in the Netherlands. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. It is. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. Although in some areas.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. Products for industrial use (e.g. without mixing them separately. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. for light brown http://www. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. however. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed.

History In the late 1800s. which did not have full control over brown sugar production.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. in his studies (cited in " . The effort was so successful that by 1900. because of the difference in moisture content between the two http://www. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. apart from pure carbohydrate. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. Nutritionally. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. as opposed to white sugar.crazychefs. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] However.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. much like adding molasses would do. In other applications.[2] John Yudkin. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. White and Deadly" . as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar.

http://www. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar.crazychefs. which is then crystallized.wildernessfamilynaturals. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. Harvey. where sugar cane was grown. 6. giving it a higher mineral content. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 4.php?id=3026. Demerara is another unrefined. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. resulting in the characteristic large. but most is now produced in Mauritius. centrifuged. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. 2. largecrystalled. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado http://www. cane sugar.htm#sugarmade. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. . Some Demerara is still produced in South America. light brown. damp sugar that retains all of the natural ^ Levenstein.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. 7.3 fao. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. Retrieved 2008-09-20. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". or Demerara sugar. an island off Africa.". 32-33 5.1. 3. ^ New Scientist. References 1.htm#bm07. and are sold as Turbinado crystals. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. 2003. http://www. light brown. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. Muscovado.fao. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left).com/PressRelease.

including humans. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the two major components of salt.crazychefs.[citation needed] Conversely. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt).Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. refined salt (table salt). Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. white. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. This salt shaker also contains grains of . which some use to prevent caking. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. including high blood pressure. It is a crystalline solid. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. but toxic to most land plants. pale pink or light gray in color. and iodized salt. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. Chloride and sodium http://www. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning.

the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire.000 tons of salt. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. making it one of the oldest verifiable http://www.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. however.crazychefs. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans).[2]:44 Along the . the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. and the dye Tyrian purple. glass. In 1960. the caravans still transported some 15. as were salted birds and salt fish. salt provided the best-known food preservative. especially for meat.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in the millennia before then.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. China dates back to at least 6000 BC.

iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. (Judges 9:45. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. Halych in Ukraine. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. which was illegal under British rule. God sent down four blessings from the sky . This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people.Salzburg. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt.) In the Sermon on the Mount. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. taking their names from hal(l)-. began open pan salt making. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt.[citation needed] The root hal(l).[1] It is widely. Hallstatt. the Roman exonym for the Celts.crazychefs. water. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in . there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). and Egyptian. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.also gave us Gaul. though incorrectly. salz. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". who had heretofore mined for salt.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this http://www. Greek. a root for salt found in Celtic.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. In religion According to Strong's Concordance." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. the Hallstatt Celts. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. In many Pagan religions esp. During the first millennium BC.

which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts.In the native Japanese religion Shinto.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. In Aztec mythology. http://www. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at . and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. such as in Sumo Wrestling.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.

crazychefs. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. After the raw salt is obtained. Fleur de sel.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. One example are bath salts. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. In recrystallization.5% of salt production. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in .[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water.Different natural salts have different mineralities.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic http://www. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Today. which are kiln-dried.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). Purification usually involves recrystallization. and the making of soaps and detergents. food uses account for 17. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. and thus is rarely eaten. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia.[12] However. giving each one a unique flavor. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. which is most widely used presently. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. Refined salt. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. natural sea salt harvested by hand. is mainly sodium chloride. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. Injected water dissolves the salt.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts.

[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide.154 g/cm3. and a bulk density (dry. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. magnesium oxide.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. Single-serving salt packets. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. calcium .crazychefs. sodium aluminosilicate.165 g/cm3.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. Table salt Table salt is refined salt.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate.[29] However. however. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. and calcium aluminosilicate. Table salt has a particle density of 2. fatty acid salts (acid salts). silicon dioxide. but was determined to be unnecessary. Some people also add a desiccant.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National http://www. condiments such as soy sauce. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. calcium or magnesium carbonates. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride.

the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101.[33] Drinking too much water. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country.[32] Another additive. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. iodized salt is more common in the United States. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. neurological problems. which can cause goitre. which can cause severe. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. In the United States. which gives the table salt a yellow color.crazychefs. cretinism in children. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. potassium.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. fluorinated table salt is . Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. dizziness. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. even fatal. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. sodium iodide. The reason for this is unclear. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). especially important for pregnant women. and myxedema in adults. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. magnesium. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table http://www.[31] Today. or sodium iodate. with insufficient salt intake. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. or even an electrolyte disturbance.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. In France. specifically endemic goiter.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. In Canada.

combined with an inadequate intake of water. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years." ([41].[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). It can exacerbate renal disease." ([41]. there are insufficient data to draw firm . Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. p18) However. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia).crazychefs." ([44]." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy.[38] heartburn. independently of blood pressure effects. in Japan. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. such as in treatment of dysautonomia.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. forced salt intake." ([41] p3).com http://www.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. salt consumption is higher. can cause hypernatremia. since salt was quite valuable). Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. However.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. SACN states. for a typical adult.[50]. Some isolated cultures. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. A salt mill for sea salt. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption .Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. such as the Yanomami in South America. but achievable population goals. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. have been found to consume little salt."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK http://www. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand.

8 g salt) per day.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. Amber (Medium). the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute.5g salt per 100g (or 0.3 g sodium = 5.1g sodium).[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. One manufacturer. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).3g salt or less per 100g (or 0.[57] In March http://www. LoSalt. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. or Green (Low).6g sodium). Low is 0. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. then that is a medium level of salt. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. low in fat.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI).g. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. "low". Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.crazychefs.'[55] Campaigns In 2004. Those who have kidney failure. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.[51] In the United States. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. When other health claims are made about a food (e.300 mg of sodium (= .[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. which will increase potassium intake. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High).[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". without recourse to salt substitutes. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. Australia. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996.). actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. etc. calories." In the UK.

7. China (32.answers. 4th edition". New York: Robert Appleton Company.7). called halite.wikisource. 2. 8. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Triamterene. and by mining rock salt. and Hall in Austria. 6. 4. http://www.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. such as brine wells and salt lakes. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. 1913. 5. total world production was estimated at 210 million their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. ^ "Salt". Eplerenone and Inspra. http://en. India (14. Retrieved 2008-12-14.crazychefs.3 million tonnes). In 2002.3). Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. the top five producers being the United States ( http://www. and Canada (12. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. Notes 1. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Dytac. Catholic Encyclopedia.9).5). Costs can reach staggering amounts. Germany ( 3. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in .

Vol. ^ Roskill Information Services salt history. 14. 12. Retrieved 2009-0708.stm 38. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. ^ References on food salt & health issues. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13.htm 19.roskill. 14 August 1998. sodium. salt manufacture. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. Epikouria 33. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. ^ HE-620 24. ^ a b http://news. ^ David A. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. Salt Institute. Fall/Winter 2006 . pp. sodium. 10. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine http://www. 2008 29. Retrieved 2008-07-29. Ask a 37. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Table 27. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". "The (Political) Science of Salt". salt history. http://www.9% sodium chloride 25. 5379. Transportation Research Board. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. Retrieved 200907-08. ^ http://www. no. Salt Institute. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. salt uses. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans".com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effe ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1.dep. Kuemmel (1994). ^ Iodized Salt 31. ^ B. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. 28.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. Victoria) Salt 34.Weather Curriculum 18. salt uses.interscience. ^ European Salt Producers' Association ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt).9. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36.saltsense. ^ What is Salt?. ISBN 9780309056663. Mason (2006-12-19).afssa. salt ^ Salt made the world go round 17. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. 281. ^ Iodized Salt 32. 11. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations.wiley. ^ Nauticus . J.newton. 898 .htm 15. ^ Gary 16.

^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. Erwin Koops. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51.334(7599):885.pub2 References http://www. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43.1915040902051820.1002/0471238961. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41.005 48. and S. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. ISBN 0393320197. John Wiley & Sons. Cutler JA. Published online 2005. ^ Susan R. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. NY: G. The Story of Salt. ^ Understanding labels 55.crazychefs. Salt: A World History. doi:10.healthandwellbeing. http://www. Further reading Kurlansky. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. ISBN 0802713734. Schindler. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53.a01.P. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values.hyp. Obarzanek E et al. Sodium chloride. Mark. Friedrich Schulz. New York. 2007. doi:10. 61. 28 January ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. ^ U. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. Feldman..1016/j. Barber. 2006. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt".06. OCLC (accessed13 January 2007) 49. Inc.W. Putnam's Sons. ^ Salt TV ads . Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. 47-50. Sodium 52. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. New York: Walker & Co.legalmed. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57.. ^ Salt Matters 60. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. New York: W. Legal Medicine 2005. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). http://www. D. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. ^ Cook NR. 62. Mark (2002). ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. S. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. The Mummies of Ürümchi. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. OCLC 48426519.40. Norton &

com http://www. . Pierre. New York: Columbia University Press. The Stationery by Dr Trevor Beard.crazychefs. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. Salt: Grain of Life. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round.Laszlo. Department of Health. Arts and traditions of the table.

net/ . phrik khi nu(lit. as well as in neighbouring countries. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. Vietnam. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . found commonly in Thailand. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Indonesia. such as Cambodia. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth http://www. the Philippines and Singapore. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. Malaysia. phrik thai.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. It can also be found in India. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. mainly Kerala.

This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. "Big things come in small packages.000 to 100. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies.crazychefs. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia.000 on the Scoville pungency scale." which can best be described by the English equivalent.

annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C." 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and go from green to yellow. has peppers that point upward on the plant. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. The more . v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. and then red. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C.As well as the Malay word. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). Thai). Thai hot. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). Ladâ. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam.wikipedia. creating a rainbow http://www. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. and among the group of capsicum annuum. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. but slightly less pungent variety.crazychefs. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). phrik khii nuu ( .

or used in casseroles.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to .Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. furrowed. It has a tough. which store a large amount of starch. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. about the size of a large potato. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. Unlike other root vegetables. gratins and baked dishes.crazychefs. Celeriac has a celery flavour. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. usually mashed. It is a kind of celery. it can also be used on its own.

'Diamant'. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Celeriac soup.3 g 1. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for . Among them are 'Prinz'.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. especially in Europe. rinsed.Dietary fiber 1.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables.6 g 9. Celeriac.crazychefs.Sugars 1. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. 'Ibis'. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry http://www.2 g . There are a number of cultivars available. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. and 'Kojak'.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.

and see text The eggplant. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad.crazychefs. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). The stem is often spiny. It bears a fruit of the same name. As a nightshade. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) http://www. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. The flowers are white to purple. aubergine. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. (Semi-)wild types can grow much .

an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. and contains numerous http://www. soft seeds. used in the United States." Aubergine and brinjal. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the Caribbean Trinidad. 1500 CE.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. which is used in British English. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. The name aubergine. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. History Solanum melongena. New Zealand. Australia.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. In Indian and South African English. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). from Arabic al-badinjan. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. The name eggplant. flower The plant is native to India. but much larger in cultivated forms. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". the fruit is known as a "brinjal. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely . which are edible.crazychefs. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. The fruit is fleshy.

Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Tycoon. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated . while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. and Black Beauty. There are even orange varieties. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. A much wider range of shapes. Dusky. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. in white skin Dourga. shape and color. whiteskinned. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. Ichiban. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. or white. especially purple. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. green. Traditional. Black Magic. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green.crazychefs. Burpee Hybrid. slightly pendulous cucumber. Classic. Some cultivars have a color gradient. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Pingtung Long.

Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. The fruit flesh is smooth. the Arabian moussaka. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. curries. It is often stewed. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. as they are far less bitter. so that peeling is not required. and deep-fried. and achaar. as in the related tomato. it is called Begun ( ). The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to http://www. It can be sliced. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt.crazychefs. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. In one dish. In the Caucasus. complex flavor. It. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. allowing for very rich dishes. as in the French ratatouille. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. chutney. or other fillings and then baked. In Bangladesh. tahini. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as . In some parts of India. In Iranian cuisine. battered. along with the fish Hilsa. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. rice. for example in sambhar. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. As a native plant. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. or Eggplant Parmesan. or tamarind. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. tahini. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. The thin skin is also edible. peanuts. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. braised (紅燒茄子). for example. and garlic. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. and masala and then cooked in oil. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. tomatoes. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan.

Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Egypt. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. depending on cultivar. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%).) between plants. pepper (capsicum).) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. (Adults can be removed by hand. Flowers are complete. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. such as tomato. and spider mites.crazychefs. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. This is called Beguni ( ). are also troublesome to eggplants. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. and potato. the most serious of which is Verticillium.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. flea beetle. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is http://www. For this reason. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.) between rows. containing both female and male structures. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. with 85 percent of output coming from three . [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. aphids. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. showing the inside. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae.) to 60 cm (24 in.

19 g 1.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine ( http://www.crazychefs. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.[5] In the United States.Dietary fiber 3.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.043. F = FAO estimate.(2.Sugars 2. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.039 mg 5. B2) 0.35 g . New Jersey is the largest producing .788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. P = official figure. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data. B1) 0.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.7 g 0. semi-official or estimates).

[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals.crazychefs.Niacin ( . while 1. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University. B3) 0. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. However. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. Brazil.084 mg Folate (Vit.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.[8] On average. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) http://www. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0.01 mg/100g).4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.16 mg Manganese 0. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.

inerme. esculentum. There is an actual S. Solanum longum Roxb. album. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. brownii. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium).net/ . S. ovigerum and S. tongdongense. Names for various eggplant types. esculentum. racemiflorum. insanum. aethiopicum. edule. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. Similarly. mainly by Dikii. violaceum. ovigera.crazychefs. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. leucoum. capsicoides). violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which used to include Dunal's S. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. H. divaricatum. luteum. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S.-Lag.Varieties Solanum melongena var. globosi. Scopoli's http://www. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. aethiopicum.C. But this is not correct. subrepandum. Solanum oviferum Salisb. Dunal. oblongo-cylindricum. multifidum. stenoleucum. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. rumphii. trongum. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. that of Blanco to S. giganteum.F. sinuatorepandum. and (invalidly) by Sweet. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. such as agreste. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. lasiocarpum. violaceum and viride. On the other hand. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. ruber.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. inerme and subinerme at that time. racemosum.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. variegatum.

Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. (2001). ^ Doijode. D. and Engineering by Yiu http://www. common. Technology. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . S. Hui (2006). 2.crazychefs. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. CRC Press. Footnotes 1. Handbook of Food Science. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". ISBN 1574445510.

^ Health24. N. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. 5. Robert (2008-11-14). Retrieved 2009-07-01. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. 2004. ^ Edward F. http://faostat. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. Volume 329:437 August 5. Domino.50(2):101-102 11. 7. 2008 10. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. ^ "FAOSTAT".net/ . Bruno Caramelli. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". FAO. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Arq Bras Cardiol.caes. A. 6.uga. 202 4.* YP Venkatesh. Tsenge Demana.fao. Dieges http://www. ^ Westerfield. Mahesh † and Y. P.pdf.133(42):2081-3 12. 273-6. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. Harish Babu * . The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. Erich Hornbach. ^ SN Pramod. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1993 Number 6 9.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. Vol.) reveals female predominance. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. P. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). Retrieved 2007-04-24. Andréa Thomaz. Toorenenbergen AW. ^ B. 2008-11-11. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. Miyachi Y.3. ^ Solanum melongena var. ^ Kabashima K. Occupational pollinosis in commercial pp. 18(1): 59-62 13. volume 82 (nº 3).Aubergine 8. Ebury Press.

The tomato is native to South America.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. Solanum lycopersicum. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable.8 in) across. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. One species. with a serrated margin. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. woody stem that often vines over other . yellow.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today.crazychefs. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color.4–0. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. and have a weak. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. see section Fruit or vegetable below). odd pinnate. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. It is a perennial. http://www.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together.

cerasiforme. smaller vegetable . The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus.crazychefs.[4] The . a barber-surgeon. The specific name. However. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. The exact date of domestication is not known. a mutation from a smoother. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). now Mexico City in 1521. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. likely to be the original salsa recipe. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. However. golden apple. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. lumpy tomato. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. meaning plump thing with a navel. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. means "wolf-peach". earlier in 1493. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC.[6] Gerard's Herbal. in certain areas of Italy. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. http://www. corn and salt. an Italian physician and botanist. and cultivation began in the 1540s. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. such as Florence. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. was the first European to take back the tomato. according to Smith. They also took it to the Philippines. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. who named it pomo d‘oro. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. ancestor of L. lycopersicum. the other by currant tomatoes. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language.

North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. By the mid-18th century. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. California.[6] But by the mid-1700s. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the . Rick. Gerard's views were influential. The Spanish tomato dish. Thomas Jefferson. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. The C. and as a garnish. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. British consul in Aleppo c.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. and before the end of that http://www. particularly Florida and California. and in general. The University of California.M. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. Charles M. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. Currently. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. who ate tomatoes in Paris. Over the past 15 years. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. most famously in Worthing. but the fruit is safe). sent some seeds back to America. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. broths. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. In Victorian times. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish.largely plagiarized from continental sources.crazychefs. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). Paella. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. ―within the last forty years.[6] Nonetheless. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. 1799 – c. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato.

The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. orange. through cherry http://www. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. California accounts for 90% of U. production and 35% of world production. the largest producer.S. For processing tomatoes. black. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. 18 September 2009. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter.0–2. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. purple. followed by United States and Turkey.8 in) size as the wild tomato. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated.4 in) diameter range. green. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. about 5mm in diameter. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. or white fruit are also available.6–2. and have a lower water content.crazychefs.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. but a number of cultivars with yellow. It may be deleted after Friday.4–0. . Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. Most cultivars produce red fruit. they are known as plum tomatoes. China.0 in) diameter. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions.[12] According to FAOSTAT.

as well as heirloom tomatoes.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks.crazychefs.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh http://www. based mostly on shape and size. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes).net/ . since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. but unlike commercial hybrids. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. and are shaped like large strawberries. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. along with zucchini.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre.[18] and productivity. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. plum tomatoes. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. As in most sectors of agriculture. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance.

or bush. and lack of mealiness. they are often good choices for container growing. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. and purple. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. Black Krim (lower left corner). low acidity. but must be bought as seed. et cetera. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. brown. Burracker's Favorite. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. although some determinate heirlooms exist. pink. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. but are smaller than plum tomato. Green Zebra (top right). campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. As an intermediate form. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. or home growers interested in canning. Lucky Cross). there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. ivory. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.produce fruit in colors other than red. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. including Brandywine (biggest red). some tomato cultivars . A variety of specific cultivars. often via http://www. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. orange. black. white.cherry tomatoes are small and round.especially heirlooms . which usually discourages fruit set. Determinate.crazychefs. Red Boar). etc. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. multiple colors (Hillbilly. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. including . Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. disease and pest resistance.

tomato hornworms and tobacco . cabbage loopers. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day.verticillium wilt. F . although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. too. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus.alternaria. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. which interrupts the http://www. original state. As the name implies. cutworms.fusarium wilt strain I & II. T . A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. slugs. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. red spider mite. carried by the beet leafhopper.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. whiteflies. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. As a floral device to reduce selfing. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening.fusarium wilt strain I. tomatoes required cross-pollination. but manure or compost work well.crazychefs. and remain. flea beetles. tomato fruitworms. In the wild. N nematodes. their traditional pollinators. and A . ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. entirely within the closed corolla.tobacco mosaic virus.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. The stamens were.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. The most common letters are: V . The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. aphids. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. FF . Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas.

Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. They may be recognized by their color. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). Unripe tomatoes are http://www. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. by cultured bumblebees. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. In an outside setting. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. or more often today. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. In more temperate climates. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. depending on variety. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. However. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside . as with most species. This is not the same as self-pollination. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997.

or paste. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. The tomato is acidic. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine".Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. a subset of fruit. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. especially in cooked tomatoes. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. as tomato sauce.6 g 4g . Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. Though it is botanically a berry. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried.Sugars 2.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below).2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. anthocyanin. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. They contain lycopene. in http://www. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium).Recently.crazychefs. and other . high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). In some studies lycopene. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. carotene.

and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. Cultural impact The town of Buñ . such as rugose leaves. Most tomato plants have compound leaves.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. vines. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. whether because of pruning or flowering. These hairs facilitate the vining process. The fruit is also preserved by drying. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Of regular leaves. Embracing it for this protest connotation. although erect bush varieties have been bred. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). initially decumbent. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. annually celebrates La Tomatina. They are bred to continue ripening. often by sun.[28] In October 1965. generally three feet tall or shorter. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. meaning covered with fine short hairs.5 °C (54. Determinate types are annual in all climates. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. When that tip eventually stops growing.5 °F). lateral buds take over and grow into other. there are variations. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Known for its tomato growth and production. and grow as a series of branching stems. it will not continue to ripen.make salsa. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. or pickled.crazychefs. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its http://www. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). Spain. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. fully functional. Tomato plants are dicots. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin.

'lyco'. angora leaves. wolf. butterflies. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Some smaller varieties have two cavities.crazychefs. Despite this. However. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. making the Linnaean name correct. other insects. "wolf-peach").com http://www. which frequently used it and still do). Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera.Karst. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. tobacco. called locular cavities. according to type. with both names found in the literature. This is because they are native to the Americas. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. or other external forces that present in the Americas. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. These vary. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. (derivation. Therefore. would be more correct. peach. very small cavities.deeply grooved. variegated. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. moths.. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five.e. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing.) H. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). among cultivated species. appearing on the apical meristem. As a true fruit. However. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls.[31] Their flowers. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller . genetic evidence (e. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). Other species in that family are potatoes. while paste tomatoes have very few. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. and be dried/fermented before germination. plus 'persicum'. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. chili peppers.g. Similarly. have the anthers fused along the edges. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. i. Technically..

Monsanto. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. as are vegetables. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. The U. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. North Carolina. and organizations. Ohio. Corporations including Heinz. Livingston. In 1887. shape. 1883. nutritional value. U. color. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require.S. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. universities. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. from a culinary standpoint.S. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. of Reynoldsburg. However. size. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. corporations. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. A. University breeding programs are active in Florida. BHNSeed. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern . Oregon. New York.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. and numerous other traits. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. Bejoseed. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose.S. cucumbers. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2].com http://www. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it.S. In 2006. AVRDC. U. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts.W. a tomato is the ovary. 304)). Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. etc. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. pest tolerance. together with its seeds. Hedden (149 U. However. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. As noted above. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. flavor. disease tolerance.

Pennsylvania. contain the poison Solanine.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. The fresh fruit is. the U. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth.crazychefs. Connecticut. Massachusetts. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Minnesota. Georgia.[36] The affected states included Arkansas.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tennessee. Indiana. New Hampshire. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. Speakers from the British Isles. Rhode Island. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 http://www. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). 2006. stems. which is toxic to humans and . Vermont and Wisconsin. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Kentucky. Virginia. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant.S. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. Ohio. however. harmless. Michigan. North Carolina. Maine. On October 30.

with a harvest of more than 32. New Mexico (98). 2008.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). with 49." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far. 2007. and Arizona (49). As of July 2008. 40. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.crazychefs. China. Illinois (100). On August 30. from April 10. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. one would arrive at an estimated 40. the U. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. and fresh cilantro. fresh serrano pepper.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. the District of Columbia. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. Lancashire.84 pounds (522 kg). It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot.273 illnesses from this outbreak.1 reported cases per million.S.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it caused at least one death. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. Oklahoma in 1986.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. 2008. and Canada. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases).000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival.7 and 16. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine.8 m (65 ft) length. such as raw tomato.6:1).[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional .000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. in 2000.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot.[38] As of July 8.151.000 kilograms (250. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the http://www. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. Lake Buena Vista.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. respectively. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. Yong Huang. French and Germans.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. UK. fresh jalapeño pepper. Florida.

as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. Fusarium. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. indeterminate. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown . but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by http://www.S. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France.S.crazychefs. Derived from Cherokee Purple. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink.

Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. good for Tomatoes on a vine. in Korea. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Tomato Flower. Tomato plants in the garden.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red . Young tomato plant. Tomato fruit. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.crazychefs. pickling. Tomato slices.

net/ .Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

17.ucdavis. http://www. it handles more than 1. Subsection Lycopersicon). UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. Tgrc. http://www. Appletons' journal Published by D. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. October UC Vegetable Research and Information F. Retrieved December 11 2009.Food & Wine". 7. D. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. During the three months of the local harvest. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum.easthamptonstar.smithsonianmag. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. p. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2009-04-02. S. Andrew F (1994). ^ "http://www. & Spooner. E. USA: University of South Carolina Press. I. (2002-0508)". 1994.smithsonianmag. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. 2." See: Natural History Museum. A. ^ The Friend. and Cookery. The Tomato in America. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.html. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. Processing Tomato Production in California. T. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . 223 10.ucdavis. ^ "http://www.M. 12.C. 2002-05-08. ISBN 1-57003000-6. Retrieved 2009-04-02. webpage: books-google-TTp17. Retrieved 2008-10-27.Smith. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ "UC Newsroom.. p. 13. http://www. et al.nationalarchives.aspx?PageID=567 Wettst. ^ a b In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. (1994). ^ a b Smith. Normania. Andrew F.fao. ^ Acquaah.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour.html". Retrieved December 11 ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . http://yourarchives. 1876." 15.The East Hampton Star . culture. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online).smithsonianmag. http://www. http://www. and cookery.crazychefs. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". (2002). University of Illinois Press.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. p. Easthamptonstar. page 57: ". ^ "C.html. ISBN 0252-07009-7.Your Archives"..aspx. (2001). section Lycopersicon Mill. ^ http://faostat. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.universityofcalifornia. The tomato in America: early history.smithsonianmag.five tons to the acre. 2009-01-26. ^ Tomato history 4. 519 [1] 9. Appleton and Co. Peralta. Footnotes 1. . 3. Yourarchives. G. M. Horticulture: Principles and Practices.html". http://tgrc. New Jersey: Prentice bid/6280/Default. 5.nationalarchives.

In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato" . ^ "Selecting. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007). http://wwwplb. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". 29. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease 30. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. 24. ^ " the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips. Retrieved June 30. 28. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine". Retrieved December 11 2009. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium.16. Retrieved December 11 2009.html".kr.gob." 19. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. "Tomato genome project gets $1.umn.ncsu. http://www.umn. http://www. which are carried in the wind. Smithsonianmag.html. Sinaloa. http://news. Ncsu. Retrieved July 14. 32. http://www.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2007-05-24. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html".uk/2/hi/health/ ^ In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ "Crop Profiles . ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted 21.html 23.Tomato".news. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. ^ http://www.plants.smithsonianmag. 2006. Retrieved or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.smithsonianmag. page 57: "The plants are still Retrieved 200810-27. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention".html. http://www. HYG-5532-93".html. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague.stm." 22. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". Retrieved 17.gardenweb.gardenweb. News. Retrieved 2009-04-02.cornell. Retrieved December 11 2009. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once. 33. Retrieved 2008-10-27.ucdavis. 2006. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or". 26. ^ " ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'". http://www. 25. ^ http://www. Faq. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 200705-24. http://faq. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home".smithsonianmag.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. 27." 18.ucdavis. Ohioline. http://www. ^ "http://www.smithsonianmag. 39. Cbsnews. California Master Gardener Handbook. 2007-08-30. http://www.foodsafetynetwork. Vegparadise. Nationalpost. 643.1086/381578. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".google. ^ "ITN. http://www. ANR Publications. ^ a b http://www.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953.cbsnews. Retrieved 2009-0721. Retrieved ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus".34. ^ "August 8.uchicago. Tomato Nutrition. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella http://www.nationalpost. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". 36. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". Retrieved 2008-10-27.crazychefs. http://www. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 42. et al. Dennis R. http://www. http://www.cdc. 38. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato ISBN 1879906546. Retrieved Tomato Recipe". http://www. Itn. 41.journals. by state". Retrieved 2008-10-27. United States. http://itn.cdc.CBS News".gov/salmonella/saintpaul/map. (2004-04-15).html? http://www. (2002). Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . Retrieved . 9781879906549. Clinical Infectious Diseases. ^ Voetsch. 38:S3. Cdc.

fragrans products. called Jaiphal in Hindi.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0.4 oz) dried. called selei buah pala.7 in) wide. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or sliced finely.2 and 0. argentea from New Guinea. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. both are used as adulterants of M. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. a state in the south part of India. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. It also grows in Kerala. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets").net/ . extracted oleoresins. and Bombay Nutmeg M. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. or Spice Islands. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice".[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree.6 to 0. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. including essential oils. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. especially in Grenada. In Indonesia. malabarica from India. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. Species About 100 species. the fruit is also made into jam. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source.crazychefs. nutmeg and mace. and nutmeg butter (see below).com http://www.

Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. and string beans. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. and Barbados rum punch.crazychefs. they are also used in soups. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. In Indian cuisine. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. "Lau Hau Peng". In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste http://www. sauces. green. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Penang cuisine. mulled wine. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. saffronlike hue it imparts. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. and baked goods. In the Caribbean. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. In European cuisine. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater).net/ . nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. and eggnog. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. cauliflower. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. In Arabic. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. Painkiller. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products.

It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. which can be turned into myristic acid. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. It is semi-solid. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. beverages. although this is disputed. and sweets. reddish brown in . In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. in toothpaste. The oil is colourless or light yellow. preserving agents.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical http://www. medicines. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. for instance.crazychefs. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. 758 – ca. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. used as flavourings. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. syrups. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. yeast extract. not reproducible. However. or molasses. About 1. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. frozen. sugar cane. soy extracts.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. Fermented products such as soy sauce. steak sauce. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. Canned. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail." However.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99.crazychefs. it also said that. based on anecdotal reports.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. being an amino acid.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. hydrolyzed yeast.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. and protein http://www. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. sugar beets. particularly processed foods. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured . with 4% annual growth expected. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. autolyzed yeast.

In the 2004 version of his book.. even in large . the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. 621. Albert Y. and mineral ions and growth factors. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. pp. For this reason. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. 373-375. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. ^ Leung. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies].7% women). [monosodium glutamate]. such as hydrolyzed protein. "Monosodium Glutamate".celiac.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. http://www. References 1.2. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. MSG. (2) synthesis. and converted to its monosodium salt.. ^ http://www. and (3) microbial fermentation. Steven (August 2003). Drugs.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. followed by either the name of the food additive. On Food and Cooking.". In 1993. In the hydrolysis method. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. and crystallization. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. Foster. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. New York: Wiley.g.). acidification. dextrose or citrate).g.html 2. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. age 40–59 years. flavour enhancer). concentration. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product.

1038/oby. (1993).ca/Articles/Fall1990-1. 7. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.530060410. doi:10.jstor. doi:10. doi:10.. 13. Kelly M. "The significance of excursions above the ADI.2005. Masahiro. ^ Walker R (October 1999). 8.1337. http://www. Kimber L. Case study: monosodium glutamate". 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. PMID 16999713. Daviglus. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids.nutrition. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Garside. "A Short History of MSG".17457599. J. Jordan (2005). 14. 11. Chirality 6 (4): pp. the Secret Behind the Savor". Daniel W (1994) ^ a b Geha RS. PMID 8282275.cfsan. ^ "Production process".4. PMID 10736382. 38–49. ^ Freeman M. Dyer.pdf 9. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Tetsuya.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. Armstrong.38. ^ He. Linguang. doi:10. doi:10. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. 1875–1880. Beiser .x.a16 711. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". Shioya.html 12. PMID 10597625. 16. Pharmacol. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study".celiac.1002/chir. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.nih.00160. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp. ^ http://vm. ^ Moskin. Toxicol. Inc. http://jn. Jeremiah (August 2008). Chiaki. ^ Kawakita.1006/rtph. (April 2000). Daniel.F.3. doi:10. Nutr. Ren C. Yamaguchi. 10. http://www. ^ a b Tarasoff L.crazychefs. (October 2006).. "Yes. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study".274. Julia (2008-03-05). doi:10. ^ http://www.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. ^ http://www. New York Times. "Monosodium Glutamate". ^ a b Rundlett. Linda.1111/j.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Alan R. Shigeru.2008. Sano.nlm. PMID 18497735. Van Horn. 6. Food Chem.1525/ Zhao. Yangfeng. 277–282.fda. Martha L. Shizuko (2005). Liancheng.html. 15.1002/14356007. ^ http://www.ncbi. Zhou. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". http://www. et al. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dongshuang. 5. Anjimoto Co. Regul. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". ^ http://www.html 4. Guo. Beifan. Toxicol.

豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . 豆油 3. 酱油 2. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 醬油 2. 荳油 3.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy http://www.

History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast http://www. water. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. [4] By the mid-19th century.[3] In the 18th century. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. and . In its various forms. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands.crazychefs.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.500 years. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. Soy sauce was invented in China.

The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China.crazychefs. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD ( http://www. such as in giant urns and under the sun. literally "delicious taste"). They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. sojae) and other related microorganisms. Although there are many types of soy sauce. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. Today. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the .2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments.

Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. shuānghuáng (雙璜). soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. Since it is lighter in color. In traditional Chinese cooking. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. like extra virgin olive oil. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. opaque. Korean. but it also adds flavour. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. Thai. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and .3-DCP (1. or a mixture of both. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. one of the two types. with relatively low amounts of other grains. pinyin: jiàngyóu. since it is saltier. It has a richer. Another type. slightly sweeter. traditional Chinese: 醬油. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). consistency. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. An additional classification of light soy sauce. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the http://www.crazychefs. and Chinese cuisine. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). fragrance and saltiness. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. ): A thin (nonviscous). Despite their rather similar appearance. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. lighter brown soy sauce.

its usage eventually spread all over Japan. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. It contains little or no wheat. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of .[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ.com http://www. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). due to the addition of alcohol in the product. Shiro (白?.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. for example sashimi. where it is known as "shōyu". The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". "white") A very light colored soy sauce. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. or 醤油). 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. Usukuchi (淡口?. Technically. that is used in its production. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China.

not pasteurized. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except http://www. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. Amakuchi (甘口?. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Consequently. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process.Saishikomi (再仕込?. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized.crazychefs. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. 1 litre . since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality.

Tokusen (特選?) Premium . In Indonesia. usually implies limited quantity. which has a thick. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. powder. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. in a pinch. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. It is a unique variety. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived.crazychefs. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in http://www. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet.

According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清).[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). (called Joseon ganjang. O'Long(黑龍). Later. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. WanJaShan(萬家香). TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce.4% of soy sauce http://www. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). Joseon ganjang. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. lit.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. Malaysia. 조선간장. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce.crazychefs. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. is made entirely of soy and brine. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. Founded in 1909. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. thin and dark brown in color. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than .

[6] Furthermore. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. salt. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh).[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic http://www.crazychefs. and caramel. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油.3-DCP (1. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. It can also be very salty. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. China. nước tương. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. it is also a table condiment. pronounced SOO-kah). The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from .3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. wheat. or sometimes simply tương.

tcoc. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. Golden along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. http://www. ^ p. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). Golden Swan. 6. ^ ^ Tanaka. (1781). Soon Teck• and Kang. King Imperial. http://www. Despite these being small in number in the UK. 9. No.000 to 18. ^ Tanaka.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. Kimlan.) In March 2008.[citation needed] In Vietnam."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. the leaflet does include oyster http://www. Retrieved 2008-01-07. Celiac disease. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. marinades and other types of sauces.[1] Notes 1. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. Lee Kum Kee.smartfood. ^ http://www. Individuals with a wheat allergy. 7. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20).miyajimasoy. Isaac. 7. 3. p.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce.crazychefs. Retrieved 200801-07. XXVII. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. 4. OCLC 9752305 5. 2." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol.asp?id=7598 10. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". 6. Jammy Chai. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. 2 (January 2000). and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed".aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 8. . Tung Chun and Wanjasham. ^ Tanaka. Pearl River Bridge. ^ Titsingh. Seong-Gook (2002). Press release.317 2. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan.htm. Sinsin. an increase over 23 to 5. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. 2nd edition. ^ Jung. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce").[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. including six samples with up to 11.Kong and Taiwan.

Somboon (2002-06-18).201.1263/ http://www. Kentucky: CRC Press. 13. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. ^ Bamford. http://www.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. Naczk. PMID 12469319. Marian (2003).com/news/ng. fermentation and nutraingredients. Fereidoon. doi:10. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". 103. ^ Tanasupawat. 16.48. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. 14. scares hit Vietnam 20. ^ Shahidi.100. p. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. Florence.nutraingredients. Hoboken. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology.crazychefs. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. ^ Kobayashi. ISBN 1587161389. Stephen (2006-06-06). ^ Toxic soy sauce. chemical veggies -. 12. Makio (2005-04-18). Food. et al. doi:10.144. Charles W (2005). 18. PMID p. ISBN .com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15.11. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". ^ Daniells. Edition 2. http://books. Retrieved 2008-01-07.2323/jgam. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.5–5.0% Arachidic acid: < 211 | P a g e http://www.3–3.8% Behenic acid: < .5–21.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.crazychefs.5 °C) 84 cP 1.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.5% Linoleic acid: 3.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.3% Myristic acid: <0.9180 (@ 15.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9150–0.4677–1.0% Stearic acid: 0.0–83.5–20.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.

family Oleaceae). Koroneiki. but especially in the .4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki.4680–1. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. cosmetics. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Moraiolo. 93% comes from Spain. Hojiblanca. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. as well as in Crete. Leccino http://www.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia.[3] Of the European production.6 million tonnes. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. World production in 2002 was 2. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production.6 (refined and pomace) 0. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. Alberquina. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. Olive oil is used throughout the world. pharmaceuticals. and Manzanilla de Jaén. Australia. North Africa and the Near East. in France. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone.crazychefs. Picholine.000 tons of olive oil annually. principally Italy. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. Italy and Greece. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. Japan and China. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. which produce approximately 350. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. In 2006. in Greece.

and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil).com http://www.600.California.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. by its chemistry. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known.000 m3) came from Italy. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. in Portugal. a private trade group. IOOC terminology is precise. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. The USDA uses a different system.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. with 23 member states. still contains a small quantity of oil. Spain. In North America. of which 34. called pomace. defining quality standards.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. Mission. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). often in "prestige" packaging.800. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life).net/ . The US imported 47. Oblica and Leccino. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. After extraction the remnant solid substance. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. Spain. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste.000 US gallons (131.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998.crazychefs. Galega. and by its flavor. The California Olive Oil Council. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. with production increasing to meet demand. in Croatia. Spain. and Turkey. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy.000 US gallons (181. and monitoring authenticity. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed.

[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. EU officials took issue with the new law. product as superior olive oil. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. but safe.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). particularly in Italy. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant.[14] In March 2008.[15] Under EU rules. and by heat. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.crazychefs. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation.[14] In February 2008. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. it is believed. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. for blended oils.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. is extremely lax and corrupt. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. however. measured by . as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. but there are no guarantees.[12] In some cases. of free oleic acid it contains. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. and for genuine Italian producers to compete." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. mostly hexane. Almost 700 people died. 25. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[16] In April 2008. both in Italy and abroad.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small http://www. defined as the percent. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market.

In order to classify it by taste. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. of not more than 0. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps.crazychefs.5% acidity. expressed as oleic acid.the oil degrades. Pure olive http://www. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. This is also called its organoleptic quality. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical . An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. has an acidity less than 2%. It is fit for consumption. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. another cause of rancidity. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. These grades were established in 1948. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. but may not be described simply as olive oil. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. contains no more than 0. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. It has a free acidity. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market.3 grams per 100 grams (0. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. of no more than 1. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard.8% acidity. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. The US is not a member. and are based on acidity. and is judged to have a good taste.S. The U. absence of defects. Used on salads. and is judged to have a superior taste.

Grade C or U. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". This is incorrect.S. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis. U.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. Grade C". Grade B or U. First of all.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. with less flavour. Grade A or U.U.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. "cold" does not define any precise temperature.4% and is "free from defects". which may be as low as 10-15 °C. All olive oil has 120 kcal/ http://www. (34 kJ/ml). U.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.crazychefs.0% and is "fairly free from defects".S. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3.S.S. Grade D or . It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used.S.S.5% and is "reasonably free from defects". The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.S. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. U.S.S.

Portugal and Lebanon.62 12. Tunisia. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. over 26 liters per year.8 7.crazychefs. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.7 11.pressed". Northern Europe and North America consume far less. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. around 14 l. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. so the term "first press" is meaningless. Spain and Italy. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide.7 l. around 8 l.56 Cooking Ingredients/ .1 http://www.1 0.2 7 1. around 0. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.35 23.

The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. suggesting a different . the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. If ground with mill stones. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. not in the oil mills. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. 1. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. 2. which is much faster and more accurate. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. no or very little organoleptic defects). First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. 4.crazychefs. 3. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. After grinding. This is done in specialised chemical plants.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical http://www. After grinding. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation.34 1. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. then placed into the press. Green olives produce bitter oil. which are stacked on top of each other in a column.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction.

monounsaturated 73 g . region.polyunsaturated 11 g .2% phytosterol and tocosterols).net/ . In the United States. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. The composition varies by cultivar.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g . most notably oleic acid. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. altitude.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty fat 3.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat .5 g .omega-3 fat <1. time of harvest.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3. including oleocanthal and oleuropein.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats.crazychefs. To achieve this possible benefit.7%) and sterols (about 0.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. and extraction http://www. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.

while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL . in the long term. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. The study was conducted in two stages.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. antithrombotic. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. During the first http://www. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. 2004. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. It is theorized that.This decision was announced November 1. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. at least in part.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. During the second phase.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. rather than its fatty acid profile. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. For example. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. and oleuropein. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. This way. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. This could. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols.

it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. Also. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed].com http://www.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.[citation needed]. like salads. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. In time. A very fresh oil. as available in an oil producing region. cookware. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. Also. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. oils deteriorate and become stale. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. etc.crazychefs. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. For . Used cold. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. blenders. not for foods to be eaten cold. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste.

crazychefs. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal http://www. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. and mild laxative properties.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. It is also good for the management of . It does have demulcent properties.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. acting as a stool softener. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil.

223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.." In ancient Greece. olive oil" (cf. magical. Besides food. oile (12c. Mod. olio). Amman in the Sixteenth Century. from L. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. from O.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". drawn and engraved by http://www.Fr. as a fuel in oil lamps. soap-making. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. from Gk. It. and O. oleum "oil.Fr.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. Homer called it "liquid gold.crazychefs. from Anglo-Fr. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. medicines. elaion "olive tree". and skin care . olive oil. olie. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. 1175. huile).N.

[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater http://www.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.crazychefs. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. In the centuries that followed. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Bodrum. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). olive presses became common.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern .[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey.

According to the historian Pliny.[citation needed].[46] Until 1500 BC.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. and Israel. oil containers are preferred. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. Lebanon. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. together with naked appearance of athletes. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. allowing more time for more oil to be made. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. during the 13th century BC. "the best in the Mediterranean". preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. the fertile crescent.000 and 3. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. wrote of abundant olive trees. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil.. Sinuhe. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. he . Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. where it is thought to have represented wealth.[dubious – discuss] During this time. when the oil had risen to the top. According to legend. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. drained the water from the bottom.000 tons of olive oil per season. From its beginnings early in the seventh century http://www. and area consisting of present day Palestine. stored in special containers. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron).crazychefs. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan.over 4. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests.

The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. References 1. 3. Louise Ferguson.imitate the original Menorah. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF).jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. ANR Publications. 4. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit).com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047".net/ . An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". ^ "findarticles. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. ^ G. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. 158.gourmetretailer. neither Eastern nor Western. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. 2. http://findarticles.internationaloliveoil. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. Retrieved 2007-05-25. Margaret Lindstrand (2005).com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047. http://www. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. http://www. light upon light.usda. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. traditionally.html. p. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). and. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. Steven Sibbett. Retrieved 2007-05-25. Retrieved 2008-07-04.PDF." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. and this secure city. even without fire touching it. originating from King David. To douse the flame. its oil almost glows. In Islam. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. and the Mount of Sinai. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special ^ USDA. 5. Joann L in the consecration of altars and churches. ^ International Olive Oil Council. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. http://www. the tourch is in a glass bulb. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of ^ USDA. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. "The Olive Tree. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. Olive Production Manual. at which point the rest of the cotton burns http://www.

nytimes. ^ a b "Telegraph article". US Customs Department.htm".".html. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April http://www. Alan (1989-05-21). ^ a b McGee. Raymond & Co. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)".ams. Tripoli.southafrica. Giammanco.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. G. Tabacchi.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260.xml. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council" S. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. ^ "www. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study".oxfordjournals. J. Di Majo. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure.crazychefs. 10.internationaloliveoil. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). ^ "Eubusiness. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. et al. PMID biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. . 2004.4005000. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site ^ Mueller. Giammanco. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 55 (3): 175–86. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. 25. Epidemiol. ^ Keys A. 20. Retrieved The New York Times ( 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 2007-08-13. Dennis. Am. Pharmacol. http://www.Telegraph".co. ^ "EUbusiness. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. 19. Slippery Business The New News". 23. ^ New York Times.46. ^ "www. 124 (6): 903–15. 17.Scotsman. http://www.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. 21. 15. M. and Maurizio La Guardia. PMID 17321749. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . D. Karvonen MJ. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". United States Department of "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".com/news-eu/1204304521. http://news.html". http://www.23/. http://query. ^ Riding. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. Tom. http://www. November 2. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. http://www. 19 CFR Retrieved 2008-11-16. doi:10. J. (December 1986). ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam .jp.eubusiness. 14. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". John.23/.010.01. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. 7. Res.htm.xml. 11. ^ Durant. http://www. http://oliveoilonly.htm. Menotti A.usda. 12. http://www.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07.

45. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. 38. 55 (3): 680–6. ^ Turner R. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". Faseb J. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". 1S45-50. 31.1096/fj. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". Mar.tchain. et al. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. Israel". 2085-2090. 19. ^ Machowetz A. ^ [2] Ichihashi. d'Episcopo L. ^ Romero http://www. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842.v. ". ^ http://www.html. PMID . Osamu Nikaido.1.. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. Olives 41. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. T.v. Etienne N. Ahmed. 2000.xml. ^ "www.videojug. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. doi:10. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. (January 2005).com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. JDermatol-Sci. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". 34.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. PMID 15830923.06-6328com. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Mayo Clinic. 35. ^ "Quite Interesting . Masamitsu Ichihashi. 29. Suppl. Catherine Breton. Use Olive Oil. Vol. 21 (1): 45–52. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. doi:10. A : Bito. Marotta T. pp. but cites no source. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. Masato ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). s. "New Year's Resolution No. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé.telegraph. Pagnol. ssp. No. An Wu. ^ Rosenblum. (January 2007). Guida L.1024/0300-9831.. Brenes M.html". "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics".Telegraph". M : Ahmed. De Castro A (February 2007). 23." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". http://www. 43. Toshinori Bito. ^ Pagnol. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. André Bervillé. PMID 10737284. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?.61. M : Osawa.28. Raimondi AS. A : Wu. J Agric Food Chem. ^ Ehud Galili et al. Gruendel S. N U : Budiyanto. Olea europaea L. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. s. PMID 17263460. p. http://www. 19 November 2007 30. p. Vargas J. 1: Prevent Cancer. Poulsen HE. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. 39. Vol. Toshihiko Osawa.1021/jf0630217. ^ Ferrara LA. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. Dello Russo A. Nov. Carcinogenesis. 37. Medina E. "olive" and "oil" 40. T : Ueda. Alonso 36. 19.ama-assn. Nazim U. 21. 44. 2000.75." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33.". p. (27 March 2000). "[19 INSERT TITLE]". et al. doi:10. ^ a b Davidson.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis".

"Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal ( . B. ^ "www. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". http://www.R. 2005 49. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". Harrington Park In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Provencal.youngmuslims. Verstraete and V. ^ Nigel M. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.). pp119–33 50. http://www. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. Processing methods. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil".youngmuslims.htm".crazychefs. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. Riley. Scanlon.reshafim. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ F. C. ^ Thomas F. http://www.46. 2001.htm.

[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. ən] / [ˈsæf. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. A C. Saffron has further medicinal applications. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. each the distal end of a carpel.or hay-like http://www.crazychefs. sativus flower bears three stigmas. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus).net/ . for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. Saffron. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.Saffron Saffron crocus C. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. crocin.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae.

Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers.5 centimetres (1.2 in) in length. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. Being sterile. purple buds appear. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. In autumn. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated . each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). after most other flowering plants have released their seeds.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran.98–1. and replanted. which means "yellow.crazychefs. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. must be dug up. in Central Asia. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. A corm survives for one season. as was once generally http://www. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. broken apart. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not.[11] Upon flowering.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). Only in October. It is a sterile triploid form. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.

Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. where hot. maximizing sun exposure. rats. Planting depth and corm spacing. Nematodes. Greek. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits.035 oz) of dry saffron threads.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. loose. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. are critical factors affecting yields. and birds.9 in) deep. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far http://www.[16] Furthermore. in concert with climate. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. and corm rot pose other threats. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. Moroccan. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. where annual rainfall averages 1.000–1. they fare poorly in shady conditions.500 mm (39–59 in).[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0.e. low-density. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. well-watered. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture.crazychefs. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands.. leaf rusts. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir.8–5. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested).net/ . rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal.

[19] Meanwhile. a product results that is itself water-soluble. including zeaxanthin.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).crazychefs.11 gr) of dried saffron. It also has many nonvolatile active components. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8.2 oz of dried saffron).0.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.and β-carotenes. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin. and various α.8-diapo-8. lycopene.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes. .8-carotenoic acid). and thus oil-soluble.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass.[19] many of which are carotenoids. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams ( http://www.

0–7.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 http://www.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 9.0 2.5 40.0–15.0 12.0 8.0 .0 10.crazychefs.0–14.0 0.0–1.0 1.0–13.5 10.0 3.0 12.0 1.0 6.0 11.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0–8.

Fiber (crude) 5. a volatile oil. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.[18] Safranal. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma.6. the heat. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. p.3-diene-1.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. the scent of which has been described as "saffron. . When saffron is dried after its harvest. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri.6-trimethyl-2.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1.crazychefs. Significantly.4.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.0 Source: Goyns 1999.6.5-cyclohexadien-1-one.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. combined with enzymatic action. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal.6. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Santorini. dried hay like".com http://www.

[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. and in the mithridatium. Since then. and medical treatments. and http://www. There.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. a sterile mutant form of C. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. physicians in Gaza. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. cough. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.000 years.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic .[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. In late Hellenistic Egypt. mascaras.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. sativus.[33] potpourris. divine offerings. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. cartwrightianus. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. ointments.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. townspeople in Rhodes.crazychefs.[28][29] Later. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. colic.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3. Thus. C.

Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.[39][40] Later.[53] On the other hand.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. and body washes.[51] However. For example. saffron threads were woven into textiles.[46][47][48] Meanwhile.[42] ritually offered to divinities. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric.[44] During his Asian campaigns. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. Isfahan. a less expensive dye.[43] Thus. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. medicines. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. or jackfruit. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. At such sites. dating to 978–993 AD. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir.[44] From there. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death.Asia The 17.crazychefs. rice. and used in dyes. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC http://www. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. perfumes. Wan Zhen. a Chinese medical .

when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. Italy. did significant cultivation endure. In Europe. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain.[59][60] Only in southern France. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. and executed. imprisoned. and Spain." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. indeed. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. It can be used to aromatise wine. under which saffron adulterators were fined. coffee. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. which grew prosperous.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg.[58] Soon http://www. France. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center.saffron is in Kashmir. named for its new specialty crop. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. However. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. . and Italy. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. The Essex town of Saffron Walden."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. and then the saffron is obtained.[62] By 1730. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War".

Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian).[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly in China and India. . Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. and in perfumery.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. and chicken or trout dishes. Arab. Medicinally. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. Turkish.crazychefs. immunomodulating. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). Central Asian. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat http://www. noodles.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Indian. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. and Cornish cuisines.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. Pennsylvania. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. and antioxidantlike properties.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes.

Azerbaijan. and other countries.crazychefs. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. elasticity. are generally mellower in colour.500/€7. For example. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. Switzerland. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. Spain's varieties.550 per kilogram). India.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$ http://www. In Western countries. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110. flavour.500 per kilogram.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2.000 threads. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. Greece.[2] A pound comprises between 70. in decreasing order of production.000 per pound (US$1.100–11. and Italy. are the major producers of saffron. and . the United States. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. France.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). the average retail price is $1.[5] Iran. Aside from these. England. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.000-170. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide.000 and 200.000 flowers. slight moistness. they are graded by government-imposed standards.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. Spain. Vivid crimson colouring. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. Morocco.200/£1.000–75.100/€1.000 flowers. Annually.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.

The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. aroma. There. Sardinia.some organically grown. picrocrocin. for quality and quantity. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. and safranal (fragrance) content. picrocrocin (taste). among the world's darkest. unusually pungent aroma. and safranal http://www. shape. and crop failures in Kashmir. blights. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. contribute to its high prices.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization.. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key.crazychefs. near L'Aquila. it also has very high crocin. and colourative effect. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. Repeated droughts.79 in). saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue.S. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. In the U. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. is in San Gavino . and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. combined with an Indian export ban.

Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. and I (finest quality). Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. pomegranate fibers. III.crazychefs. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide.national standards bodies.[77] However. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. red-dyed silk fibers. and thus a greater colourative intensity. paprika. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. However. traders. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. many growers.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. with turmeric. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). pliability. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine .com http://www. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. and other powders used as diluting fillers. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest).[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation.[80] Thus. aroma. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. in India. II.

8. p. 6. pp. p. 1. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. ^ a b Leffingwell 5. 7. pp. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. 423. ^ Willard 2001. in mice. 13. p. 422. ^ a b Deo 2003. ^ Grigg 1974. 20. 3. 4. Kansai. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Deo 2003. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 19. ^ a b c d Deo 2003.Saffron reproductive biology 11. ^ Dharmananda 2005. p. 4. ^ a b McGee 2004. 4. 14. 3. 287. ^ Willard 2001. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 23. 21. 103. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. ^ Kumar V (2006). ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. p. ^ a b Deo 2003. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. pp.asp?AcNo=20043148643. 16. 17. Retrieved 2007-12-01. p. 272. .org. Sterling. 18. 3. p. ^ a b c Hill http://www. http://books. 53. 24. 3. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. ^ Harper 2001. 3–4.cababstractsplus. 2. Honshū. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. p. ^ McGee 2004. 2. p. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 12.".org/google/abstract. crocin and safranal. p. ^ DPIWE 2005. www. Grilli Caiola . 1. ^ M. p. p. http://www.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). 15. 1. ^ Willard 2001. 2–3. stigma extracts and their constituents. 9.cababstractsplus. 22. ^ Rau 1969.crazychefs.

61. p. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. ^ Rau 1969. 65. ^ Willard 2001. 60. ^ Hill 2004. ^ Humphries 1998. ^ Willard 2001. de Medicina. ^ a b Dalby 2002. 44.crazychefs. ^ Willard 2001. p. 33. 39. 59. transl. 224. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. 103–104. p. p. p. 31. 138. 35. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Celsus. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Honan 2004. Random House. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. Kuo & Wang 1964. ^ Dalby 2003.pdf 70. 47. pp. 45. 29. ^ Ferrence 2004. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. 58. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ http://www. 2. ^ McGee 2004. Loeb Classical Library Edition. 28. 54. . 70. 143. 138. 55. 30. ^ Willard 2001. 40. ^ a b Willard 2001. 95. 49. ^ Willard 2001. 59. 11. p. 51. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. p. p. Victoria (30 December 2002). ^ Willard 2001. ^ Fletcher 2005. 2–3.25. p. pp. ^ Deo 2003. 36. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Honan 2004. p. http://www. 43. 63. pp. ^ Dalby 2002. p. 37. ^ http://vision. 27. 69. p. ^ Willard 2001. 20. 73. p. ^ Willard 2001. 1. 41.iovs. 72. p. ^ Hayes 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 52. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Goyns 1999. p. 41. 2. p. 12. pp. p. p. 63. p. 68. 64. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. ca. p. 422. pp. 50. 133. 32. 48. 256. 34. 55. 56. 62. ^ Chang. 34–35. 6. p. 132–133. 30 AD. ^ a b Willard 2001. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. ^ p. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1. p. 17–18. 1935 [1] 38. pp. p. pp. 67. 273. 46. 54–55. 42.pdf 71. p. 1. p. ^ Lak 1998b. pp. 58. ^ a b Willard 2001. 117. 1. 142–146. 99. 26. ^ a b c Willard 2001. 138–139. ^ Finlay. ^ Willard 2001. p. p. p. 66.

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Retrieved on January 10.crazychefs. Tarvand Saffron Company. Beacon Press. Pearce. <http://books.html>.newscientist. McGee. <http://www. Reconstructing History. 2006[dead link]. Retrieved on January 10. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005).com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. 2006. 2006. Willard.". < http://www. "What is Saffron?". On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. <http://www.cfm?chemic al_id=140>. Retrieved on January 10. Time Life Education. The Cooking of India. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). Retrieved on January 10.tarvandsaffron. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive . 2006.McGann. Retrieved on January 10.htm>. Retrieved on January 10. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. JB (2005). PMID 2025883>. Cancer Letters 57 (2). H (2004). Tarvand (2005b). "Grading and Classification". <http://www.tarvandsaffron.reconstructinghistory. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 2006. SC. Scribner. SR (1969). K (2003) "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). Retrieved on January 10.htm>. New Scientist. <http://books. 2006.html>.com/channel/earth/mg18524831.usda. Tarvand Saffron Company. Rau. Nair. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". F (2005). P (2001).com/saffron. <http://www. USDA Phytochemical Database. "Saffron".

Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O. Dead . europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape.( http://www."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. called xoana.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. Though. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. referring to their wooden material. Theophrastus. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. ca 170 AD. and smooth mallows provide sustenance.[9].crazychefs. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. from Lebanon. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. are borne generally on the last year's wood. two stamens and bifid stigma.5 cm long. according to the 4th-century BC father of .53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). In Homer's Odyssey. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the olive suckers readily from the stump. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. endives.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. they were reverently preserved for centuries. the olive."[7] indeed. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. by a spring.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. Asia and parts of Africa.[1] and in the Iliad. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. olives. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. Its fruit. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. The small white flowers. It is short and squat. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet.

indeed. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. The Book of Jacob 5. glory and peace . and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. and one of the most . the pits give rise to thorny. fertility. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. Chile and Argentina. the olive has been the symbol of peace. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. spread far and wide by birds. olives were grown commercially in Crete. glory.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively http://www.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. for which the Greeks had a separate name.crazychefs. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. power and pureness.[12] After the 16th century. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. as well as olive oil and olives. and then in the 18th century in California. As emblems of benediction and purification. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. Theophrastus.The leafy branches of the olive tree . and its cultivation began in Mexico. in both the New and Old Testaments.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. For example. wisdom. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. kotinos. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. play an important role in the Bible. in On the Nature of Plants. As far back as 3000 BC.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. Over the years. wild-type olives.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. Peru.16. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. The olive tree itself. Today. but he makes clear (in 1. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times.

crazychefs. One olive tree in Bar.and . Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. Istria in Croatia. has been calculated to be about 1. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis.000 years old. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. claimed to be over 2. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. Montenegro.[16] An olive tree in west Athens.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). named "Plato's Olive Tree". The older an olive tree is. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. The age of an olive tree in Crete. drought-. disease.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar.600 years old. which is made into top quality olive oil. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). and can live for very long.

Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6 km) as the limit. olive leaf. A supposedly even older tree. and. In the same natural garden. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir .com http://www. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. Modern experience does not always confirm this.2. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest.400 years ago. Specifically. According to a recent scientific survey.crazychefs. fine wood. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. a few other millenary trees can be admired. see Olive (fruit). is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. Italy. and the olive fruit. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. though showing a preference for the coast. All seven trees continue to produce olives. both in Galilee region. 1600-2000 years old. called the "Peisistratos Tree". An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic.[17] from even before the rise of Islam.

Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. such as South Africa. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). Chile. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. northwest Africa) where winters are mild.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. Australia. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy . India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate.crazychefs. the Mediterranean Basin. Argentina. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original http://www. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Olive plantation in Andalucia. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. Israel. Sudan. Niger. laperrinei (Algeria. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp.

net/ .com http://www.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

crazychefs.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.

Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so.Cailletier cultivar. A prolific bearer. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . originating in Dos Hermanas. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. stuffed (with pickled pimento. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. 'Manzanilla'. a large. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. the most common olive grown on Sardinia.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. In recent times. but only a few are grown to a large extent. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. which consists of 1. with purple-green skin. grown around the world. Seville. Rich taste and thick pulp. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction.200. It is used mostly for oils. rounded-oval fruit. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The olive grove of Amfissa. anchovies. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. often after being http://www. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. 'Bosana'. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions.crazychefs. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'.net/ . in southern Spain. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa.

'Empeltre'.crazychefs. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. though difficult to cultivate. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). a large. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. They are green. 'Kalamata'. This small olive. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. even on clay if well drained. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. They grow in any light soil. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. another modern Israeli. They are black and generally used for table consumption. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. 'Nabali'. good for eating and for oil. Spain. Spain. and elongated. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. The olive is medium http://www. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. named after the city of Kalamata. originating in the south of France. originating in the province of Córdoba. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. 'Hojiblanca'. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant.[citation needed] 'Lucques'.[23] 'Barnea'. Greece. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. It is mainly used for oil. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. originating from the southern Peloponese. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. Their flavour is mild and nutty. a small. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. 'Cornicabra'. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. It is green. good for eating and for oil. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. and elongated. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. used as a table olive. Due to their highly valued flavour. 'Arbequina'.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. medium size. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. large. brown olive grown in Catalonia. It is used both for oil and for table olives. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California.[21] 'Koroneiki'. originating in Toledo. Spain. 'Souri'. Moreover. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. The flavour is mild and nutty. . originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). which. round. and coastal climate conditions. It has a strong but sweet flavour. 'Picual'. originating in the south of France (Aude département). These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'.

The spaces between the trees are regularly http://www. embryonic buds. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. In Greece. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but the time varies in each country. A. the oliviera. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. the trees are regularly pruned.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. as in Languedoc and Provence. and with the season and the cultivar. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. They tolerate drought well. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. and can remain productive for as long. it is valued by woodworkers. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut . removing fruit from the tree. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface.crazychefs. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. In some places in Italy and Greece. soon vegetate. However. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. In Italy. being very hard and close-grained. In southern Europe. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. which form small swellings on the stems. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest.poorer soil. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. Olives are propagated in various ways. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. up to several centuries. Another method uses an electric tool. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. Occasionally. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. to facilitate germination. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. Olives grow very slowly. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. 114). This method is used for olives used for oil. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. P. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. More specifically. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November.) Olives like hot weather. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit.

which can be eaten fresh. the fruit is not bruised.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. the creation of lactic acid. After some weeks. As a result. Fresh are often sold at markets. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. The olives are soaked in water to wash. large fruit (e. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar.. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein.g. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. Olives can be used green. a bitter http://www. which is a natural preservative. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. through to full purple black ripeness.crazychefs. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if . The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. then drained. Typical yields are 1. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. or green with hints of colour). 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. which is why they taste milder than green olives.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. which is healthy for future production. which leads to a superior finished product. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. The method also involves sawing off branches. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable.2 kg of oil per tree per year. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil.5-2. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds.

the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. causing great damage to plantations. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. The ten largest producing countries. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. induces tumour growth in the shoots. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. Sometimes. In France and north-central Italy.6 to http://www. A species of bacterium. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. lemon juice. diseases. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. Lye-curing. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. Pests. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. but can be left to cure for up to three months. Popular flavourings are herbs. salt-curing. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. chili. especially to young trees. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. vinegar. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. juniper berries and anchovies.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. their main predators are wasps. and weather A fungus.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. olives suffer occasionally from frost. oleae[27]. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. lemon zest. olive oil. an unnatural method.crazychefs. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. feta. Cycloconium oleaginum. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. leaving sawtooth damage. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. capsicum (pimento). wine. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good . garlic cloves. spices. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. or removing the pit and stuffing them. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. of which the water is changed daily.

160. book 5". ^ Theophrastus. An introduction.140. Odyssey. 3.5 63." (Herodotus. p.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.5 6.3 8. 4. 5.500.000 498.. 1 ).317. and to cultivate olive-trees." (Diodorus Siculus. 38.685 765. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 27.crazychefs.000 1.981 1.0 3.888 178.9 6.300. .000 550.000 998.[31] References 1. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.14.6 31. On the Causes of Plants. 81. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.4 30. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.000 250.000 280.000 20.800.000 470.000 318. 4..5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.830 2... 7. Ancient Greek Agriculture.000 430. http://www.13. ^ ".which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus. most notably South Australia. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees.988 500. 1992. Description of Greece 1. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves. 4.000 594. 82.7 27.064 2.1). ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures. 6. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.089 6. 1. 5. to make bee-hives.000 49.1 25.100 3. ^ Homer.597.149.339 300. ^ Pausanias.400. 1).000 275. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.5. 3.8 16. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.000 1.3 20.000 8.

"10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". 28. J. cited in F. 25. R. Madrid. John A. (1999) Ancient Trees. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. pp 110–113. & Ouazzani. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. http://www. 1982. Spring/Summer 2006 26. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 29 April. ^ "Old Olive Tree". Retrieved 2007-08-31. http://apps3. D. Tabak & O. Bacteriol. Leshonenu (Hebrew).brijuni. 2004". nov. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. ^ http://www. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) ^ [1] 21. http://www.279 18. Retrieved 2009-05-18. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22.. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. Kislew. M.W. Simhoni. Moody. ^ Belaj et al. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. R. Brijuni National Park. ^ Lewington.. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. EspasaCalpe S. ^ Balfour. Epikouria Magazine. .zatoun. ^ Muncipality Bar. Available through Google Books 11. J.A. Zatoun. ^ O. M Bauza & R. Juárez. ^ Gooch. Processing methods. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. London: Collins & Brown Ltd.aspx?PageID=151. Volume 18:27-35 20. 1999. Volume 15.springerlink. ^ "FAO." Horace. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. AGRISCIENTA.pasoroblesolivefestival. ^ Riley. 29.15. Elena "Unusual Olives". ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. op. Masuelli. 24. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992.crazychefs. 35. (September 2002).com http://www. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. me cichorea levesque malvae.fao.8. Retrieved 2007-08-31. J. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope.cit.. & ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. Rackham. Odes 1. ^ Lumaret. 1779. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old Riley (2002). Number 4). Epikouria Magazine. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. Cavagnaro P. ^ Janse. p. 1996.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". Australian Olives.31. 4th edition. p. 30.Near the Old Bar in Tombi.fao. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils.. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. N. Y. 32:166–169. 2001. ^ a b M. nom. 1981.jsp. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. ^ Fotiadi.. E. Int. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". 69. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. rev. J. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. 27. vol. 23. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. 105.htm. Syst. ^ Burr. Ellen. http://www. ca 30 BC 9.

with an entire margin.crazychefs. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. western North America. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. Corresponding to its species name. seldom produces flowers.R. (French tarragon. with slender branched stems. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. glossy green. and south to northern Mexico. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. The leaves are lanceolate. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ ." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow http://www. L. however. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L.31.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood.

) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. sunny spot. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. Russia and Ukraine. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. it normally goes dormant in winter.crazychefs. due to the presence of estragole. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans.[1] It likes a hot. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. without excessive watering. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food.[1] However. Fresh. by extension. It is normally purchased as a . Georgia and.[1] Russian tarragon (A. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. Spreading plant can be divided easily. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). A perennial. and particularly suitable for http://www. Persian and Russian word for . dracunculoides L. but cannot be grown from seed. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. fish and egg dishes. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. which is the Armenian. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia.

^ Gatfield IL. Foerstner J. Machinek A. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. 233. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. Krammer G. Rose Marie Nichols. Horst.crazychefs. 2. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent http://www. Maggie (2002). Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Wiley-VCH. ^ Surburg.[3] In Slovenia. Workman Publishing. Johannes Panten (2006).net/ . pp. Stuckey. ^ a b c d McGee. Ley JP. The Bountiful Container. ISBN 9783527607891. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. References 1. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Properties and Uses.Cis-Pellitorin. 3. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Common . sage has a slight peppery flavor. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. Culinary sage. with woody stems. It is a member of the mint family. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). grayish leaves. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). and some drinks. cheeses (Sage Derby). It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant.Salvia officinalis (Sage. In the United States. it is used when roasting mutton. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. and blue to purplish flowers. Dalmatian http://www. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Garden sage. though other species. In the Balkans and the Middle East. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. Kitchen sage. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. Purple sage. In Western cooking. In French cuisine. Broadleaf sage. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it.crazychefs. Lamiaceae. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. Britain and Flanders.

antispasmodic. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. antifungal. flavonoid glycosides. chlorogenic acid.[1] In a double blind. The underside of a sage leaf . it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. niacin.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf .net/ .crazychefs. and thujone. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. caffeic acid. means ―to heal". flavones. ursolic acid.more trichomes are visible on this side. cornsole. borneol. which contains cineole. antibiotic. cornsolic acid. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. and estrogenic substances. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. fumaric acid. nicotinamide. http://www. estrogenic.trichomes are visible. salvia. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. and tonic. ursonic acid. hypoglycemic. oleic acid.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Latin name for sage.

History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. and more.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. a cultivar with white. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. Ohadinia S. a purple-leafed cultivar. snakebites. 'Berggarten'. and for other uses. 2.appliedhealth. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. Applied Health. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. a small leaved cultivar. Dioscorides. a styptic. 'Lavandulaefolia'. Noroozian M. yellow and green variegated leaves. ^ a b c "Sage". with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. emmenagogue. Pliny. 'Alba'. Mohammadi M.[4] It was sometimes called S. 'Icterina'. 'Tricolor'.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). and for low ground cover. and used as a diuretic. Khani M. increasing women's fertility. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. a white-flowered cultivar. a local anesthetic for the skin.00463. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague.1046/j.1365-2710. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. hemostatic. especially in sunny dry . PMID 12605619. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. doi:10. and tonic. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine.x. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". a wild undershrub he called sphakos.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. ^ Akhondzadeh S. (2003). and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. monastery gardens were cultivating the http://www. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. OBeWise Nutriceutica. References 1.crazychefs. http://www. Jamshidi AH. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. 'Extrakta'. Retrieved 2008-02-04. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. a cultivar with large leaves.2003. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. has leaves with higher oil

2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3. Deni Bown (New York: DK. http://www. Sage: The Genus Salvia.crazychefs. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. ^ a b . Spiridon E. ISBN 9789058230058. 4. (2000). 10-11. CRC Press. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. pp.

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