Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Dried. storage life is rarely more than a week. soups and stews. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. and in those derived from them. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less http://www. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. Leaves are often chopped. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. Italian. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. or by the sprig. Persian.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. fresh thyme is often available year-round. Greek. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. In some Levantine countries. It can be propagated by seed. It tolerates drought well. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. cuttings. the whole sprig may be used (e. and Turkish cuisines. In French cuisine. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. in a bouquet garni). A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). Thyme. assume that it means fresh. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. Lebanese. Albanian. tomatoes and eggs. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. While summer-seasonal. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. . It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. Portuguese.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. As a rule of thumb. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial.g. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer).crazychefs. Syrian. and of herbes de Provence. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. which is due to its content of thymol. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried.a little less if it is ground. Libyan. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Depending on how it is used in a dish. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. while flavourful.

and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. The dried equivalent is 1:3.[6] Thymol. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. All thyme species are nectar sources. but wild thyme covers large areas of .) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. an antiseptic. Because it is antiseptic.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It also has medicinal uses. tisane. pulegioides × T.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. but is grown as a ground cover.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. hybrid T. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. salve. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed].[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. etc. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and http://www.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture.[5] As with bay. it was used to medicate bandages.crazychefs.

including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.Variegated lemon http://www. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used .crazychefs.

neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.crazychefs.

European. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.1 mg 6.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) http://www.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .0 mg Phosphorus 58.1 mg Folate (Vit.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0. B1) 0.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.9 g .0 mg Vitamin K 1640. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. although parsley has a milder flavor. B2) 0.3 g 0.0 μg Calcium 138.crazychefs.8 g 3.0 mg Iron 6.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.Dietary fiber 3. It is common in Middle Eastern. and American cooking. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb. often used as spice.Sugars 0.1 mg recommendations for adults.2 mg Magnesium 50. B3) .

The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Although little known in Britain and the United States. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. which then tend to protect plants nearby. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. reducing pest attraction.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian.crazychefs. it is not related to real turnips. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root . One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. not blooming until its second year. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. tuberosum). The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. For example.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic http://www. it attracts predatory insects. which helps accommodate the long taproot.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. However. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. While parsley is biennial. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. used in soups and stews. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). neapolitanum). even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. or flat leaf (P. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. Like many other umbellifers. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day.

com/npc/parsley." West Virginia University Extension Service. with fish. and sauces. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins.aspx?id=1075&s=4. http://www. root. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). parsley is part of bouquet garni. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Parsley as an oil. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato) . garlic. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. References 1. [1]) in oxalic acid. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. Ossobuco alla milanese. a mixture of". green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). soups.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. In Southern and Central Europe. 2007. or 4900. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). and lemon zest. ^ "Parsley information on lamb or goose. Last retrieved April 26. In addition. 2. http://www. "Parsley on plucodes. leaf. e.drugs. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. Jett.[3] Parsley is high (1.g.crazychefs. 4.[4] The produce code for parsley is". Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French http://www. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines.plucodes. fried chicken. ^ a b c John W. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks.70% by mass.. steaks. "That Devilish Parsley. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew.

com .crazychefs.Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum . vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.crazychefs.

Spanish and in Italian cuisine. as well as cultivars.crazychefs. of the mint family. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. and to add a nice. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. each with distinct flavours. Together with basil. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. spicy flavor. It is the leaves that are used in cooking.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. and lovage leaves. native to Europe.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . fried vegetables. e.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. Unlike most Italian herbs. which is popular in southern Italy. Oregano is an important culinary herb. capers. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. It is particularly widely used in Turkish.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. produced in erect http://www. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. Oregano growing in a field. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. O vulgare . O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). and grilled meat.g. The flowers are purple. It is a perennial herb. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. growing to 20-80 cm tall. Greek. 3-4 mm long.

In Turkish Cuisine. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. useful for relieving children's coughs. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is http://www. warm and slightly bitter taste. however. In the Philippines. it can be usually found on table. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. The influence of climate. Oregano growing in a pot. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. especially for mutton and lambs meat. heracleoticum (Italy. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. West Asia) have similar flavors. Asia Minor) and O. The related species Origanum onites (Greece.crazychefs. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. salt and pepper. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. which. It has an aromatic. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. It varies in intensity.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity.[5][6] Additionally. differs significantly in taste. Balkan peninsula. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. In barbecue and kebab . together with paprika. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles.

cholagogue. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol especially in the United States. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. ^ http://www. mild fevers. but is usually stronger. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum.html. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". and caryophyllene. influenza. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. In the Philippines. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language.[8] Hippocrates. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano.Main constituents include carvacrol. http://www. Coleus aromaticus). Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of . stomach upsets. Aqueous extracts.crazychefs. fungal infections. Used topically. carminative. diaphoretic. thymol. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. ^ Organic Gardening 2. also called Cuban oregano. expectorant. antispasmodic.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). stimulant. Plectranthus amboinicus. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. this substitution would not work the other way round. emmenagogue. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". the father of medicine.uni-graz. enteric parasites. A Cretan oregano (O. including Poliomintha longiflora. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses.[12] References 1. stomachic and mildly tonic.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. useful for relieving children's coughs. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. capsules. oregano. pinene. Lippia berlandieri. limonene. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. ocimene. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[7] and painful menstruation.

Food Chem. Draft revision for "oregano". ^ Epikouria Magazine. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. 11. .co. PMID 16218659. ^ [" vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. doi:10. Fall/Winter 2007 10. 6. June 2008. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". ^ Epikouria Leonor.dmannose. (Cav. 53 (21): 8162–8168.". 28. Fall/Spring 2007 5. 133 (5): 1286– http://www. Medical News Today. (01 May 2003). J. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. March 2009. ^ Dragland.2008.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. Retrieved 2008-11-26.uwe. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F.medicalnewstoday. ^ a b Faleiro.1021/jf0510079. http://www.10.php. (2005). PMID 12730411. et al.crazychefs. http://jn.asp?item=1374&year=2008. Retrieved 200811-26. J Nutr. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. University of the West of England.) and Origanum vulgare L. 24 November 2008. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". 12. draft revision for "organum". Steinar. et al. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". draft revision for "origanum".ac. http://www. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. umbelliferous herb. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. Ferula communis. recorded in the 10th century. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. meaning "hay". Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. it was from the giant fennel.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel").net/ . Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. Also. perennial. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. In Ancient Greek. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly.[2] In Greek mythology. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. It is a hardy. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. it seems. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).crazychefs.

B2) 0.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.29 g 0. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels.20 g 1. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill. but thinner. with hollow stems. B1) 0.01 mg 7.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates .73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. .232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. about 0. half as wide or less. glaucous green. It is erect. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike).Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial http://www.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. they are finely dissected. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0. and grooved.5 m. B3) 0.047 mg Folate (Vit.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.crazychefs.Dietary fiber 3.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. and grows to heights of up to 2.5 mm wide.

by the late 19th century. It is of cultivated origin. for its edible.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. the United States.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. and in other open sites in many regions. F.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. including northern Europe. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. In North American supermarkets. both in its native range and elsewhere. "bronze-leaved" fennel.[6] and has a mild anise-like . notably the Italian name http://www. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. but is more aromatic and sweeter.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. both raw and cooked.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. it is often mislabelled as "anise". and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs.20 mg Manganese 0. though usually not as strong. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. in pastures. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. It propagates well by seed. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. syn. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type.crazychefs. vulgare var.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). which is also known by several other names.

net/ . both raw and cooked. or eaten raw. and risottos. grilled. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. fish. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. though http://www. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. pastas. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. which are very similar in taste and appearance. where bulbs and fronds are used. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. Many egg. salads. braised.crazychefs. It may be blanched or marinated. often tossed with chicory and avocado. green seeds are optimal. For cooking. The bulb is a crisp. sompu in Telugu. or cooked in risotto. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. stewed. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). but also the most expensive. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds.Fennel. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. foliage. in side dishes.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. mouri in Bengali. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. anise-flavoured spice. variyali in Gujarati. brown or green in colour when fresh. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. badesoppu in Kannada.

[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. or its http://www. as it is said to improve eyesight.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. act as phytoestrogens. Fennel tea.[12] For adults.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. although not supported by direct evidence. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. This use. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. used to ease flatulence in infants. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. sometimes with some sweetener.crazychefs. also employed as a carminative.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains .

followed by . and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. fennel and coriander.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[17] However. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.crazychefs.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely http://www. which promote growth of breast tissue.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. badian (star anise).

[2] In Marathi. it is called "Darchini" ( ). it is known as "DalChini ( )". Chakka meaning bark or wood. itself ultimately from Phoenician.[5] In Malayalam. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. the "real' cassia. cinnamon is known as kurundu. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫.[3] In Sri Lanka. in the original Sinhala. .[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā.C.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. it is called Dalchina Chakka. In Telugu. it is called darchin (‫. native to Sri Lanka. In Bengali.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. and in Gujarati taj. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera.crazychefs. Ceylon. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. In Urdu. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. synonym C. In Farsi (Persian). which are often called cinnamon http://www.

[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. a song describing the beauty of his beloved.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. cinnamon is native to Sri . Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt.crazychefs. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew .[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. in Proverbs. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. aloe and cinnamon. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. and in Song of Solomon. where the lover's bed is perfumed with http://www. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world.

was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. have a greenish color.Ages. although in the first century. 7–18 cm (2. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. p. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium." (Braudel 1984.1 inches) long. tea.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. a Dutch captain reported. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. which are arranged in panicles. sugar. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. in a letter of about 1292. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. took control of the factories by 1640. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. "The shores of the island are full of it". and coffee. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers.crazychefs.8– http://www. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks.75–7. and used them to construct their . and have a distinct odor. However. They established a trading post in 1638.2 feet) tall. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. The flowers. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers.

and Vietnam. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. Only the thin (0. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. Brazil. Zanzibar.5 mm) inner bark is used. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. Java. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. the West Indies. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. verum). the outer woody portion is removed. Bangladesh. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. Sumatra. India. eg. Vietnam. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. The next year. According to the International Herald Tribune.[15] According to the .com http://www. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. and Egypt. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. followed by China. These shoots are then stripped of their bark.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. which is left to dry. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon.crazychefs. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chips are trimmings of quills. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. Madagascar. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying.

hard and woody in texture. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. is generally a medium to light reddish . Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . as all of the layers of bark are used. or "Indonesian cinnamon". using only the thin inner bark. "Vietnamese cinnamon".[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". and is considered to be less strong than cassia.crazychefs. less dense. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. the related species. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon.[16] Ceylon cinnamon. has a finer. However. for example. zeylanicum). many websites. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. and thicker (2–3 mm thick).Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. and more crumbly texture.

which is the main importer of true cinnamon. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. used in a variety of thick soups. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. when whole. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct.crazychefs. hot cocoa. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. ‫. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. macerating it in seawater. bread-based dishes.5% to 1% of its composition. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. whereas cassia sticks are much . Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. The two barks. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. and sweets. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. True cinnamon. and liqueurs. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. It is of a golden-yellow color. In the United States. especially in Mexico.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. especially apples. are easily distinguished. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. and fruits. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. a deep-blue tint is produced. and then quickly distilling the whole. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. drinks. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. rather than http://www. but when cassia is present. such as apple pie. In the Middle East. tea. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia.

cassia.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. The Cinnamon Challenge. although it remains untested.and a very hot aromatic taste. 2008. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits).crazychefs. beta-caryophyllene. cinnamaldehyde." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. eugenol.0. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. linalool. love. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. luck.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. Encyclopaedia Britannica. and anethole. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. and Myanmar (Burma). few seem able to succeed.[34] Notes 1.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). cinnamyl acetate.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. who failed. ^ a b "Cinnamon". In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. Despite thousands of video-documented http://www. However.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. and money.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito . it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). In Hoodoo.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations.

co. ^ Shan B.0. 8. PMID 16104824.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". 23.2. ^ "Cassia. Henry.html. Col. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger.htm 20.crazychefs. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. retrieved 2008-07-15 12.nii. Emily. 437). ^ http://www. Cathay and the Way Thither. Account of the Island of Ceylon. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. ^ López P. ^ [2] ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent . http://www.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14.stm 3. The History of Food. Van-Koiij A. Sánchez C. Encyclopedia of Spices. ^ 17. Robert. ^ http://findarticles. Batlle R. p. Cinnamon. ^ http://links.php?storyId=6672644." remarks Maguelonne 22.en. J. http://lakdiva. http://www. Cozzolino FF. Torres RP (December 1998). Anthea Bell. ^ Felter. Agric. doi:10. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". retrieved 200705-01 13. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. ^ Yule. 4. retrieved 2008-07-15 11. 437f.thespicehouse. Nerín C (August 2005).org/sici?sici=00754358(1970)60%3C222%3ATSTOTR%3E2.1021/jf050709v. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ Knox. " Cinnamomum. Agric. 10. PMID 16190627. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. Sir James Emerson. PMID 10077878. Cai YZ. ^ http://www. Breyne) extracts". ^ http://news. 53 (17): 6939–46. http://www. ^ "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. revised ed. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. ^ [1] 16. 9.—Cinnamon. p.437. Harvey.CO%3B2-N 53 (20): 7749–59. 2009. ^ Mancini-Filho J. p. ^ Harris. ^ Toussaint-Samat _of_life/html/1. thespicehouse. Food Chem. retrieved 200807-15 6.iol.theepicentre.fao. Mancini DA. ^ The Epicentre. tr. Food Chem. doi:10.1021/jf051513y. 437 7.henriettesherbal. Corke H (October 2005). Sun M. An Historical Relation Of The Island

Muhammad et al.3215. Retrieved 200805-11. Eugen J. doi:10.sciencedaily. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. The Perspective of the World. 26.2217/14750708. ^ George Mateljan ^ Vanschoonbeek.htm. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".113.. http://eprints.whfoods.pdf. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 28.futuremedicine. doi:10.utm. Eleventh Edition. 27. Akram et al. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. doi:10. ^ Beck. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. ^ [3].3.24. PMID s_have_been/index. http://jn. retrieved 200705-01 25. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". Khattak KN. Kristof et al. http://www.crazychefs.sciencedaily.1016/00219673(88)90035-0. Agricultural Research ^ Khan A.php? ^ Yronwode. retrieved 200705-01 32. (2005). doi:10. Medicinal Seasonings. Retrieved 2008-05-11. ^ Safdar M. 34. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".com/releases/2004/07/040716081706. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. Alan W. http://www. Charles (1998).net/ . References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. New York: Kodansha International. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism.3. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". http://www. 33. ^ Verspohl. Retrieved 2008-05-11. retrieved 2007-12-12 31.1002/ptr.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). 30..2217/14750708. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000).2337/diacare. Anderson RA (December 2003). Cinnamon. http://www. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206.1. et al. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215– a publication now in the public domain. Research: Thalido.1. Corn.26.lesliebeck. Archer (1988). The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. http://www. Cat.1643.nutrition.redorbit.. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography".12. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". July 2000.. Retrieved 2007-12-17. http://www. Fernand (1984).html?source=r_health. ^ Ranjbar. www. http://care. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". 29. Retrieved 200808-05. Ali Khan MM. ground.

frozen. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. They are now available in fresh. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. Onions can be used. powdered. They are known by the common name "onion" but. pickled. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber.Department of Export Agriculture.crazychefs. canned. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved."[3] Uses Onions. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. Fritsch & Matin from Iran.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. and dehydrated forms. chopped. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it usually refers to Allium . used without qualifiers. one of the oldest vegetables.M. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. which it is not. and Allium asarense http://www.

traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 . In Bronze Age settlements. tangy and pungent or mild and http://www. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. However. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood.crazychefs. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. coughs.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. recent evidence has shown that dogs. spicy. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. In ancient Greece. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles.chopped or sliced. cats. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. and also to relieve headaches. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. an onion can be sharp. transported and stored. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life.[5] However. snakebite and hair loss. Depending on the variety. due to toxicity during digestion.[5] The onion is easily propagated.

net/ .5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit. B3) 0.polyunsaturated 0.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.042 g .129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.1 g 89.027 mg 2% Niacin ( http://www.013 g .Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. B1) 0. 0 μg 9.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.saturated 0.4 mg Vitamin E 0.crazychefs. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.24 g .7 g Fat . Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 g 1.02 mg Vitamin K 0.monounsaturated 0.Sugars 4.21 mg Magnesium 0.34 g 0.Dietary fiber 1. B2) 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.

Empire Sweet.crazychefs. followed by Western Yellow.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). Empire Sweet. Northern Red. Mexico. anticancer. onions are used to heal blisters and . Western White. In general. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. pungent yellow (New York Bold). Peruvian Sweet. diabetes. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). In the United States. Mexico. Peruvian Sweet. anticholesterol. For all varieties of onions. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. Western White. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers.[10] In many parts of the world. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. Texas 1015. Mexico.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. Texas 1015.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. and Vidalia. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. If you are allergic to onions. Empire http://www. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. Shallots have the most phenols. However. Peruvian Sweet.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. Imperial Valley Sweet. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. and other diseases. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. eleven times the amount found in Western White. osteoporosis. Western Yellow. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. Northern Red. Texas 1015. and Vidalia. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Imperial Valley Sweet. Imperial Valley Sweet. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth.

net/ . and bananas. and the irritation effect. shallots. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. all present in garlic. garden lilies. As onions are sliced or eaten. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. creating a stinging sensation. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. ginger. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water.include reactions to onions. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. The volume of sulfenic acids released. cells are broken. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last).crazychefs. allylmercaptan and allicin. On January 31. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. differs among Allium species. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. diarrhea. nausea. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to http://www. garlic. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. mouth and throat ulcerations.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. allylpropyldisulfide. chives.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2008. breathing difficulties.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. where it binds to sensory neurons. it can lead to an allergic reaction. Eye irritation can. leeks. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. limiting the amount of gas generated. therefore.

Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. from sets started from seed the previous year. more commonly today. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. "short-day" http://www. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. which have been developed in more recent times. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. the Welsh . Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species.crazychefs. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which can be planted directly in the ground. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. Allium fistulosum. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. Finally.

such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.637 Japan Egypt http://www. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest. Vale. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.302 1. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.750 South Korea 1.Produce bulblets in the flower head. Oregon (USA). a hybrid of Allium cepas.500 China United States 3. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.220 Turkey 1.346 2.793 India 5.764 Pakistan 1.149 Spain World Total 64. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet . Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.crazychefs.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). each of which forms a bulb. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .758 Russia 1.

Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. It remains in effect as of 2009. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.The Onion Futures Act. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. passed in 1958. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced .com http://www.

commonly known as http://www. Its close relatives include the onion.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. shallot. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] A bulb of garlic. It has a characteristic pungent. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. leek. from William Woodville. and chive. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Allium sativum. known as garlic. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called . Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. 1793. Medical Botany. the most commonly used part of the plant.

Garlic is grown globally.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. stems (scape). "crow garlic". Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. and for medicinal purposes. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. leaving enough room for the bulbs to http://www. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic.Yunnan province of China. accounting for over 77% of world output.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. according to Zohary and Hopf. The leaves. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. the so-called elephant garlic. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. They can suffer from pink root. Garlic plants can be grown close together. with approximately 10."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. In North America. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. In cold climates. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. are common weeds in fields. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. India (4. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. The papery. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. and Allium oleraceum. Allium vineale.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. for consumption (raw or cooked).[5] The "wild garlic". and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. with Russia ( . a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. The cloves are used as seed.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". respectively. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis.

C = calculated figure. the Middle East. including eastern Asia. south Asia. or ginger. California.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.400 140. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. F = FAO estimate. southern Europe.000 325. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. It is often paired with onion. A = aggregate (may include official.000 128. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. P = official figure.4%).810 168.000 142. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.Alaska) in fifth place ( http://www. or estimates).net/ . northern Africa.000 125.000 221. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tomato. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12.crazychefs. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". and parts of South and Central America.088.000 645. semiofficial. Southeast Asia.000 254.000 15.686. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.

or "tops". breads and pasta. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. In eastern Europe. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. If used as a substitute for fresh http://www.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. bruschetta. They are also known as "garlic spears". Immature scapes are tender and edible. crostini and canapé. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. almond. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. cleaned. meats. Blending garlic. and then stir-fried with eggs. the resulting product. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. called black garlic. and spices. In Japan and Korea. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. and roast them in an oven. The leaves are cut. or vegetables. salt. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer.crazychefs. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. United Kingdom and Australia. and is now being sold in the United States. garlic toast. "stems". meat. oil. . In some cuisine. oil. and a chunky base produce skordalia. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. is sweet and syrupy.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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garlic. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. and vampires. shallots. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. all present in garlic.[48] Due to its strong odor. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. and release of AMS several hours more. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. allylpropyldisulfide. usually enjoy these sensations. and bananas. The herb is.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. including onions. Since digestion takes several cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. therefore. however. http://www. where it is . Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. or leeks. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread.[50] In Europe. such as pistou. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. garlic could be worn. garden lilies. chives. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. shallots. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. forming allyl methyl sulfide. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose".[51] To ward off vampires. Humans. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). ginger. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. However. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours.crazychefs. When eaten in quantity. hung in windows. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. However. Among the members of the onion family. werewolves. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. thus mellowing its spiciness.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. leeks. deterring animals like birds. allylmercaptan and allicin. and worms from eating the plant. making garlic much more potent than onions. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. insects. included in many garlic recipes. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons.

[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. at worst. Garlic can thin the blood. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. minimal risks to normal individuals. if any exist. saquinavir.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Editing help is available. are largely unknown. antiparasitic value of garlic. calcium channel blockers. sweating. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. similar to the effect of aspirin. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. You can help by converting this article to prose.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. if appropriate. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi".[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the . garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. However. as well as other medications. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. bleeding. nausea. and diarrhea. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. antiplatelets. dizziness. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. and hypoglycemic drugs. emesis.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. allergic reactions.In Daoism mythology. and menstrual irregularities. antihypertensives. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath).crazychefs. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. http://www. indicated Muhammad.

^ http://www. Notes . p.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes.htm.html. ^ McGee p. et 9. http://www. split. Domestication of plants in the Old World. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable.nj.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. Retrieved 5 June 2009. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). bigger. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. 397 G.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. 3. J. garlick)". "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. In particular. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. one the bulbs will grow peeled.crazychefs. ^ a b c d Tabor. 2000). ^ a b A bulb of garlic. (2005).[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. (2004). Retrieved 5 June. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://hdl. Ethiopia". is discouraged.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves.html 8. 4. 112 7. http://www. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. 197 5. Retrieved 2007-08-28. including burns to children. et al. ^ http://www. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container.unigraz. third edition (Oxford: University Press. topical use of raw garlic. http://www.

005. PMID 17123684. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). J. F. 5:109–115. PMID PMID 17325291.325. Acad.346. 22. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store.167. ^ a b Steiner M." Int.2004.ama-assn. PMID 17325296.1001/archinte. Daryn (2003). PMID 15218732. Herald Publishing Co. 21. Ferraresi. Capasso R. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral 54 | P a g e http://www. 167 (4): 325–6. doi:10. ^ Kojuri J. http://archinte. doi:10. McFerren M (February 2007). http://personalpages. Aytaç B. doi:10. 33.crazychefs. ^ Durak I. 19. 26. Natl.. 5. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. Sartoratto. Med.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. doi:10. 11. J. 17.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". Chao WJ (March 2007).1073/pnas. Garlic. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. 104 (46): 17977–82.01. and Mary U. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". 16. 31. Kavutcu M. Facts.200700072. Sova P (May 2004). ^ Gardner CD. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". Med. 2006. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". July 1. Dent.10. Biochem.). 15 (6): 373–7. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32.4. ^ Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. PMID 17918162.C. and Empiricism" (PDF). Akrami M (March 2007).A. 167 (4): 346–53. 29. R. ^ Benavides GA. Arch. 2005 ^ Groppo. . Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). Yin MC. "Tropes. Hyg. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. ^ Mader FH (October 1990).1002/mnfr.1016/j. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. 14. et al (June 2004). doi:10. P. PMID 2291748. Accessed: December 18. 32. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 24. Olcay E.0705710104. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. doi:10. Izzo AA (November 2007).lehoux/Tropes. N.jnutbio. ^ Borrelli F. 18.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. Intern. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. Vosoughi AR.manchester. Sci. Güven C (2002).167. 30. ^ Durak I. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". Paul B.200700058. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. 28.ama-assn. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. et al (November 2007). U. (Mrs. Motta. ^ Chan KC. Maud. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345.A 400 Year History. (p. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. PMID 17951430. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic .. Intern. Oztürk HS. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". 27. Block E.pdf. et al (February 2007). 23. 34. A Modern Herbal.. Arch. PMID 17328819.4. Mills RW.1162/106361403773062678. 13. doi:10. 20. PMID 15157944. Lawson LD. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". PMID 9641475. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". [2] ^ Hamel. Lin RS (June 1998). Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. 25. Squadrito PMID 15277094. doi:10. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. 35. Better Nutrition. Sylva. Proc. Nutr.1002/mnfr. 15. A. Ramacciato. doi:10. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". ^ Charlson M.1001/archinte. http://archinte. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -.S.1186/1476-511X-6-5. J. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health .

com/a/Garlic. ^ Macpherson et al. 58. garlic advisory 63. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. ^ Bukhari.1099/mic. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. PMC: 538912. UK Medicines Information. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". http://aac. Engl. Houghton Mifflin. ^ Garlic . http://mic. H.2005. National Health Service.economicexpert. p. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats". 43. (2001).28095-0.. ^ Kodera Y. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50.go. 310–311 47. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. 41.pdf. Steckelberg 211.".1. ^ Macpherson et al. Ronen M (November 2001). 49. PMID 16207909. Volume 7.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.unito. W. 38. 85 (3): 157–64. ^ Shuford JA. http://linkinghub. ^ http://washokufood. PMID 8644128. Nishino H.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59.) 62. Patel R (January 2005).Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-0707. PMID 15616341.asm.html 54. Bordia T. "Garlic burns". Yoshida S. Lau B. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Agents Chemother. Pickering p. 120. ^ http://www. ^ Oi Y.html 46. Jennifer (2002-12-13). ^ a b Mayo 52. 4 . Retrieved 2009-01-30. Teel ^ http://www. Sanders N. Aon MA. 53. ^ Fareed G.. PMID 8441577. Imafuku M.nhs. Retrieved December 7. 65. Fuwa T. 66. NLM Gateway. Castro C.Vol 9 No. Nishimura S. Jordan W. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. Yoffe B. http://joi. ^ McGee p.sgmjournals. ^ Pickering. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. Long D. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. ^ http://lem. ^ Lemar KM. ^ Baruchin Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. Kominato Y. PMID 11481410. 1988. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet.html Sterling Publishing. ^ McNally p. on mutagenesis. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter.htm 44.ukmi. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Sagi A. In Search of Dracula.". 211 51. Itakura Y. 40. 049 . 64. p. Slattery M. ISBN 0-30436561-0. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Shishido C. Toxicol.Garlic-in-Oil 61.. 2007.1128/ et al (October 2005). ^ a b c d Hogg. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. "Garlic burns".org/cgi/content/full/151/10/ section "Conclusion" 48. (1989-01-30). Lett.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list& Thomson M. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases http://www. Passa O. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". Book 65 57. http://www. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. http://linkinghub. Scolaro M. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). 42. Summer 2005 . "Effect of allixin. 49 (1): 473. James. 2007. ^ a b McNally. ^ John David (2003).. doi:10.36. Raymond T (1994). Antimicrob. Complementary Medicines Summary. 122. "Allixin. (1991-08-01). Iwai K. Chesson C. 39. Ali M (June 1996). Microbiology ( . a stress compound from garlic. 37.January 29. PMID 11600262. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Matuura H. ^ Health Canada ..crazychefs. Sumida T. Retrieved December 7..

Z. Kamenetsky. L. D. D. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. 405-407 (2002). Am. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Retrieved 1 May 2005. Kozue Ogasawara. Bull. R. Makoto Ichikawa. J. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. PMID 8441577. L. Garlic.. P. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. Rabinowitch (2004). (1992).. (2004). L. R. Simmons DL. PMID 8506890. D. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–[青森県産]. Andy (2004). Hamilton. L. Zemah. . E..ahajournals. E.. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". http://circ. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. Naoki Kashimoto. Williams & Wilkens. 50. D. Shan. 354-363 (2002). G. L. A. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. 94 (6): 632–5. C. Soc. Lemar. and H. A. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. M.. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono.References Japanese garlic. [4] Lawson. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". Sci. Kraemer. Boudoulas H. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Susumu Yoshida. Shafir. Ling M. Hile. Vol. Gotzkowsky S. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. E. Garty BZ (March 1993). Zhang. Chem. Kiazand. 'Kyolic'. Lawson. Chem. (2000). D. ISBN 0-683-18147-5.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Selfsufficientish . Yukihiro Kodera. Naoto Uda.. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts.Garlic. Efendy JL. http://linkinghub. Campbell GR. Z. 129: 144–151. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". R.-Z. Pharm. Jain AK. P. E. "The effect of the aged garlic extract.elsevier. Block.. Lawson.. "Garlic burns". Am.. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Balise. J. Block.P. A. Vol. Breithaupt-Grögler K. New York: Avery.. Wang. (1985). A. K. I. M. Block. (2001). Masanori Ayabe. The chemistry of garlic and onions. Koch. 50. S. C. H. Balch. and Related Species (Second Edition). D. Isao Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). http://www. Block. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. H. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Turner. Med. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Barzilay..crazychefs. Jiro Yoshida. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. J. Campbell JH (July 1997). Lloyd. McMahon FG (June 1993).. 3rd ed. PMID 9247357. Pharm. H. (1996). Belz GG (October 1997). PMID 9355906. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. Vargas R. Gardner.

1. http://www. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study" Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Veena Viswanath.1128/AAC. et al. Michael Bandell. Yeh. H.Lindsey J. Geierstanger. Scribner.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. In: Ohigashi. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". Agents Chemother.. Bernhard H.wkhealth. Antimicrob. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Abstract. PMID 8169881.asm. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. J.12. Harold (2004). J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Cardiovasc. McGee.. Salunkhe. Macpherson. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. Marcel Dekker. (1999). Neil A (1994). "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin".. et al. Eid. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. (eds). Leeks". (1997). 31 (6): 904–8. Garlic. Samer R. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.crazychefs. Kadam. PMID 15616341. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. Steiner M. Yeh. Steckelberg JM. http://aac. PMC: 538912. Patel R (January 2005). Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid . 49 (1): 473. http://meta. PMID 9641475. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". S. (1998). and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). "The Onion Family: Onions. pp. Y-Y. 310–3. Silagy C. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Y-Y. et al. D.S. PMID 2291748. Shuford SunWook Hwang.2005. Mader FH (October 1990). Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Lin RS (June 1998). doi:10..49.

and Sri Lanka. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. syn. it is called đinh hương. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. when they are ready for collecting. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. Zanzibar. . Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. Cloves are harvested when 1.crazychefs. and consist of a long http://www.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia.5-2 cm long. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. terminating in four spreading sepals. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. after which they develop into a bright red.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. Pakistan. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. In Vietnam.

Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. but as they are extremely strong. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. along with other spices. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. entering the kidney. spleen and stomach meridians. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. During Christmas. In south Indian cuisine.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. they are used sparingly. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. often in combination with cumin.crazychefs. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). but with the addition of other spices). it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. cloves are often used to season pho broth. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. warm and aromatic.000 tonnes). In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. Cloves are used in cheeses. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. Cloves are used as a carminative. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many . especially for digestive problems. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground http://www. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. it is used in almost all dishes. In Vietnamese cuisine.[1] In north Indian cuisine. which sells Djarum Black.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed.

and Tidore. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. including Bacan. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach . Brazil.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. Moti. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe.P. most of the West Indies. including for multiple sclerosis.[7] Nevertheless. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. This is also found in Tibetan medicine.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million stomach qi downward. RH (AHG). In the late fifteenth century. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). mainly from the Maluku Islands. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. It is also used in severe burns.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus).[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. Ternate.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770.crazychefs. vomiting and diarrhea. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli.[7] Cloves. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. Khalsa. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. pimples etc. Subsequently. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean.[6] History Until modern times. Makian. were highly prized in Roman times. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction.[5] In West Africa. including cloves. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic http://www. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. and Zanzibar. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). Ayurvedic herbalist K. along with nutmeg and pepper.

Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. Karen. Medicine Plus. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. Special Diets for Illness 6. 3. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. kaempferol. pg. crategolic acid.[8] Notes and references 1. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. Spice: The History of a Temptation. 3rd ed. Erich Stoger. ^ a b Turner. Andrew and Page. stigmasterol and campesterol. ^ http://oneearthherbs. 8.squarespace. 2. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7.html http://www. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. and Andrew Gamble. methyl salicylate (painkiller). ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. tannins.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". comprising 72-90%. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www.html National Institutes of . beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. and eugenitin.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ©2003.. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4.. Alan.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. xv. Vintage Books. ©2000. Third Edition by Dan Bensky.nih. Phyllis and Balch.crazychefs. the flavonoids eugenin. ^ http://www. 94. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol.tibetmed. Steven Clavey. and several sesquiterpenes. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Steven Clavey. Erich Stoger.nlm. 5. gallotannic acid. pp. James. Jack (2004). "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". ^ Dorenburg. Avery Publishing. ^ "TibetMed .org/questions/ ^ Balch. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. due to the high price of importing them. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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"Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods.htm?csnumber =4844. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. 6.2005.iso. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. f. ^ International Organization for Standardization. while Lederer et al. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. (2005). http://www. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. Vaishali C. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". . (2006). Retrieved 10 November.crazychefs.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. doi:10.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice".atypon-link.) -. ^ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. 5. ^ International Organization for Standardization. 3. 4.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species.3. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook.Specification".1542/ specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . Retrieved 8 June 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2009.2004-0058. ^ Lederer.703. http://www. PMID 15492355. doi:10.iso.Botanical nomenclature". http://www. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". f. et al.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise".chinaios. http://www. ^ Louisa Lim. 18 May 2009 2. Ines et al. Retrieved 8 June 2009. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum

ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.crazychefs. native from the east Mediterranean to East http://www. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.

in Turkey. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. in northwestern China. maduru. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu).[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. and yellow-brown in colour. the story goes. being oblong in shape. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian . in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin".com http://www. Kerman. including kamūnu in Akkadian. In Northern India and Nepal. locally called "Kermun". parsley and dill. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. cumin is known as zireh. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. longitudinally ridged. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. cumin is known as kimyon. cumin is known as ziran (孜然).crazychefs.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Arabic.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. in Iran and Central Asia. a member of the parsley family.

Uzbekistan. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. Seeds.crazychefs. Syria. Egypt. and Chile. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. today it is mostly grown in Iran. Morocco. have been dated to the second millennium BC. In South Asia. Mexico. Tajikistan. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. excavated at the Syrian site Tell http://www. when added to hot milk and consumed. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23).History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. In Sri Lanka. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. and this practice continues in Morocco. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today).[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean . 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Turkey. India.

Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. and is found in achiote blends. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. enchiladas. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. Today. and in some traditional breads from France. containing a single seed. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. Northern Mexican cuisines. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. It is traditionally added to chili. Pakistani. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance.crazychefs. North African. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. Indian. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. Contrary to popular belief in the US. adobos. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). thread-like leaflets. either ground or as whole . and borne in umbels. and other Middle-Eastern. tacos. Cuban. but are smaller and darker in colour. Cuban and Mexican-style foods.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. pinnate or bipinnate. sofrito. Middle Eastern. white or http://www.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. It is an herbaceous annual plant. and bahaarat. Sri Lankan. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. The flowers are small. popular in Indian. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. garam masala. curries. curry powder.

4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66. it is drought-tolerant.very common in Mexican cuisine.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.Sugars 2.5 g Fat . B3) 4. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. 64 μg 44.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.crazychefs. sown in spring. hot summer of 3–4 months.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. well-drained soil. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates .579 mg Vitamin B6 0. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).33 mg Vitamin K http://www. However. and needs fertile. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish.25 g .7 mg Vitamin E 3. Cultivation of cumin requires a long. B2) 0.27 g 17.24 g 22.Dietary fiber 10.435 mg Folate (Vit.saturated 1. It is grown from . Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.81 g 8.

caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. For example. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. from the Swedish word "spisa".8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.v. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek http://www. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. to eat. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. as in 'kot' .Zinc 4. However. a chemical found in turmeric.crazychefs.a small cat).a cat and 'kotek' . In Swedish. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). lighter in colour.).net/ .[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). In Polish the difference is even less significant. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". Not related to curcumin.

pl?12617. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. doi:10. third edition (Oxford: University Press.ars-grin.1302.crazychefs." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). 9.1016/j. Rong. ^ http://www.html 6.77. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi 7. Essential Oils". doi:10. ^ "Kamūnu. ^ a b Iacobellis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61.arsgrin. ^ Growingtaste. . (2005). 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 .1021/jf0487351." Domestication of plants in the Old World. 2. (2009). Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 .05. 2000. 206 5.313. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.1002/ffj.aca. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". ^ a b c Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). 2000). from China". ^ a b Wang.". Lu et al. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references ^ "KMN. 8. p. 4. Nicola S. www. et al. 3. Retrieved 2008-03-13.030.

com . Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.

Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). or spice. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. sedative. West Africa and the Caribbean. In laboratory animals.crazychefs. and citral) have also been identified. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. cineol. and galangal. medicine.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a . It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. shogaols and gingerols. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. cardamom. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells.

Ginger has a sialagogue action. which makes swallowing easier. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. Ginger is also made into http://www. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. in Tamil Nadu. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. For . The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. particularly gingerols and shogaols. crackers and cake. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. and sugar. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. enchi in Malayalam. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. Inji in Tamil.crazychefs. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. stimulating the production of saliva. Alay in Marathi. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. especially in the Tanjore belt. or frozen for longer term storage. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. cookies. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. Allam ( ) in Telugu. and Aduwa in Nepali. [edit] Regional use In India. nuts. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. and ginger beer. and tender green chili peppers.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. Adrak. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. ginger ale. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. in Gujarati. Additionally. to which honey is often added. In South India.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. salt. ghee.

which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. gingerbread. parkin and ginger biscuits. In Arabic. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting http://www.crazychefs. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. In the Ivory Coast. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. In the Caribbean. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. and making drinks such as sorrel. In Western cuisine. is made. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as . France. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. Greece. In the traditional Korean kimchi. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. a type of ginger beer. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. during their occupation of the islands. On the island of Corfu. However. and a variety of nuts and seeds. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. In Vietnam. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. In China. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. In Japan. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. ginger snaps. ginger is called gyin. In Burma. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee.

Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. though it does interact with some medications. which several scientific studies support. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart . and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. including warfarin. though studies been inconsistent. cough and cold. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11].[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. morning sickness and chemotherapy.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea.crazychefs. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.

and individuals who have had ulcers.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. In Burma. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. In the United States. bloating. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. people use ginger for making tea. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In India. clotting. In Indonesia. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. In China. belching and nausea.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. it is considered good for a sore throat. particularly if taken in powdered form. in food . which is considered a panacea. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold.crazychefs. ginger can cause heartburn.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. reducing "winds" in the blood. and heart rhythms.[14] In Congo. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh http://www. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. and although it's generally recognized as safe. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. gas.

7%). replacing China. Scalding. produces black ginger. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. Nepal(~11. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. which has slipped to the second position (~20. it is immediately scalded. washing and scraping gives white ginger.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). applied generally to the older and poorer roots. now leads in global production of http://www. the root is gathered when the stalk withers.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical .000 158. with over 30% of the global share. Traditionally. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. but this generally reduces its value. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. Production trends India.000 F 177. or washed and scraped. followed by Indonesia(~12.5%).000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff.crazychefs.

pl?42254. http://www. F = FAO estimate. A = Aggregate(may include official. Galangal is also called Thai 1.000 57. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine.000 8. is also known as "wild ginger".contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . The plant also contains aristolochic acid.000 28. a carcinogenic compound. is used in cooking and medicine. Also referred to as galangal. Retrieved 2008-03-03.000 34.000 42. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. but it is not related to true ginger. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. galangal.arsgrin. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. semiofficial or estimates). fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/ http://www. and its root has similar aromatic .crazychefs. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".ars-grin. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. www.contains ginger material References 1. the flower buds are the part eaten.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. Asarum canadense.387. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family.

MD. ^ Jakes. Shih-Lu Wu. (2006). This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. ^ Al-Achi.1021/jf071460f. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". MD. Li-Jiau Huang. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006).cambridge.2. ^ McGee. Ali Taghizadeh et al. David Kiefer. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. MD. Jaw-Chyun. Antoine. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by 12.html.).net/ . British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. (01 Mar 2000).ucla.1016/j. ^ Ernst.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. New York: Scribner pp. 3.foodchem. doi:10. 6. PMID 9821826.crazychefs. http://www. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". et al. http://unitproj.amaassn. Kim Farrell. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). & MSt. Retrieved 2007-08-02. M.2006. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. Zainab M. http://www. Retrieved 2007-08-06.1001/archfami.. Retrieved 2007-0808. http://bja. http://journals.umm. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". Susan (2007-01-15). doi:10.013. http://www. "Ginger".6. ^ MD O' Hara. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. doi:10. PMID 10793599. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. 13. Retrieved Sheng-Chu Kuo. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. ^ Al-Amin. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Retrieved 2006-09-06. http://timeblog. 9.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. Harold (2004). "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". MPH (1998). Tin-Yun Ho. 7. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). 15. ^ Chen. Retrieved 2007-08-02. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.01. Mary. doi:10. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367– plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats" 425-426.H.523. 4. Kathi Kemper.html. (2007). & Pittler.cfm?displayID=15. http://www. 10. ^ Afshari. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. "Beverage of Champions". Retrieved 5 November.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF).edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch.

[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. Plants are gathered annually for their http://www. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. slightly bitter. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season.crazychefs. In medieval Europe. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. For these . since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. and to impart color to mustard condiments. Erode. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Zingiberaceae. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. for dyeing. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed].

crazychefs. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. powdered form. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. Although usually used in its dried. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. Turmeric City. orange juice. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. etc. cereals. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. gelatins. but also in masak http://www. popcorn color. biscuits.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine.Yellow City. ice cream. Over-coloring. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products.[citation needed] Sangli. In non-South Asian recipes. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. dairy products. turmeric is also used fresh. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in . sweets. much like ginger. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. or Textile City. such as in pickles. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. and mustard. yogurt. cake icings. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. rendang. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. not only in curry. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. and many more.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. sauces. relishes. yellow cakes. custardlike yellow color.

Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. burns and bruises. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. are spiced with turmeric. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory . Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate http://www. is also treated with turmeric powder. and other digestive disorders. Indians. Within one week of using turmeric. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. an uncurable and debilitating disease. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan.In combination with annatto (E160b). dry mixes. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease.[4] cancer. Japan.crazychefs.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. salad dressings. It is unknown why it works. winter butter and margarine. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. a traditional dish in South Asia. yogurt. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day.

According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. and http://www. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the U. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Bangladesh.crazychefs. improves the absorption of turmeric. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. Alzheimer's. Snake Bite Anti venin. which supports nerve growth. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. found in black pepper. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. Bangalore. research activity into curcumin is exploding. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. and colorectal cancer. or BDNF. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. multiple myeloma. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. In 1998 researchers at St. John‘s Medical College.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. with no adverse effects. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world .

Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. as a part of the marriage ritual. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. part of the Bengali wedding. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. In southern India. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like http://www. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. However. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. such as saris. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. jaggery. but anecdotal evidence suggests it . and it is used for power and purification rites. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. This happens in economically lower situations.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). and coconut and cooked in steam. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony.crazychefs. Also. During the south Indian festival Pongal.

^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN".2008.07. 2.thieme-connect.W.5-dione. AOL Health. or Natural Yellow 3. www. et al.ars-grin.172. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.stm 5.ars-grin.C. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".de/DOI/DOI?10. Rajendran Shoba "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". Notes 1. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. http://www. ^ Chan. http://www. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. The systematic chemical name is (1E. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. Majeed http://www. ^ http://news. keto and enol.1016/j. Joseph ^ http://www.1055/s-2006-957450 . Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 .6-heptadiene3.aolhealth. Retrieved June 2009. a (2009). It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. 75300. | accessyear = 2009}} 3.090. ^ [|Ketteler. 1998 May. Joy D. 64(4):353-6.foodchem. 6.I. Judy] (June 2009). Planta Med.6E)-1. Srinivas PS. Retrieved 2008-03-04.

4–6 centimetres (1. 10–20 centimetres (3.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage.) Willd. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. Euphorbiaceae. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana).com http://www. Kemiri. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. Indian walnut.crazychefs. The nut is round. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. hence its name. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. also known as Candleberry. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil .4 in) in diameter.9–7. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6–2. simple and ovate.9 in) long. which allows its use as a candle (see below). flowers. with an acute apex. The leaves are pale green.

In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. On the island of Java in Indonesia. is quite different.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. including: leis from the shells. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. fevers. The flavor. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. pounded seeds. In Malaya.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. a varnish with the oil. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. are applied around the navel for costiveness. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. In Sumatra. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. named kukui were burned to provide light. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. In Hawaiʻi. ulcers. swollen joints. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. In Java.crazychefs. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. the nuts.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. Outside of Southeast Asia. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and . they are mildly toxic when raw. leaves and flowers. as the candlenut is much more bitter. giving them greater underwater visibility. however. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. This led to their use as a measure of time. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. and gonorrhea. lit one end. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. burned with charcoal. http://books. ISBN 9781573061377. 122. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. http://books.html. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. Lilinoe Andrews. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome "Chapter 4: Canoes". Bess Press. Finally. the god of . ^ Scott. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. Craig Thomas (2000). Plants in Hawaiian Culture. 5.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. p. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). ^ Krauss. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. One of the legends told of a woman who. Julie Stewart Williams (2002).google. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. 26. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. 2. ^ Dunford. ^ "Kukui". http://canoeplants. Beatrice H. ISBN 9780824822514. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets).[citation needed] References 1. despite her best efforts to please her husband.).com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. was routinely beaten. p. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui University of Hawaii Press. still nowadays. protection and peace. Mikiala Ayau. Betty. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. University of Hawaii Press. and the husband was eventually killed. Susan. (1993). Retrieved Liana I. Being a kind and just woman.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. she was given new life. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. In plantations. This larva is eaten by some people. Honda. ripe nuts. http://books. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with http://www. pp.[5] In Tonga. tukilamulamu. used as soap or shampoo. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. white pepper. dark red when fully mature. cultivated for its fruit. . Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. Peppercorns. green pepper. red pepper (as in bell or chile). Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. Kannada:meNasu.crazychefs. unrelated plants. The terms pink peppercorns. The fruit. and very often simply pepper. known as a peppercorn when dried. Konkani:miriya konu.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. Telugu:miriyam. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family http://www. which is usually dried and used as a spice and . nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. . However. containing a single seed. may be described as black pepper. Malayalam:kurumulaku. . . 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. wrinkled black layer. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. in the early 20th . It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. and other similar forms. including decortication. and the naked seed is dried.crazychefs. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. the spice is called black http://www. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. White pepper consists of the seed only.S. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out.[4] In the U.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. this was shortened to pep. French poivre.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant.. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. chemical or biological methods. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. often alongside table salt. Once dried. with the skin of the pepper removed. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. Dutch peper. In the 16th century.

Pickled peppercorns. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". also green. from Bangka Island. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. is made from the unripe berries. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. the Peruvian pepper tree.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. made from the largest. Fresh.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or . unpreserved green pepper berries.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. largely unknown in the West. which is mostly no longer an issue. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. particularly Thai cuisine. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. like black. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. are used in some Asian cuisines. Schinus molle. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper.crazychefs. green.Black. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. with a bright aroma. Schinus terebinthifolius.

the berries lose pungency. but when full grown and still hard.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. if allowed to ripen.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free .[11] Black pepper is native to India. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. and before the fruit is mature. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. well-drained and rich in organic matter. The cuttings are usually cultivars. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. Competing plants are cleared away. and ultimately fall off and are lost. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. moist. entire. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. The flowers are small. poles. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. The leaves are alternate.crazychefs. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. It is a spreading http://www. or trellises. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark.

it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in what is now the state of Kerala.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric http://www.crazychefs. Chile peppers. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade . were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. particularly the Malabar Coast. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper".[14] J. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. its most important source was India. In fact. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE.

net/ . By the 16th century. this trade advantage. Malaysia.Until well after the Middle Ages. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. Sunda. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. growing in the north-western part of India. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. nor how it reached the Nile from India. Long pepper.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Trade routes of the time were by land. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. the Middle East. but these areas traded mainly with http://www. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. changed the course of world history. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. pepper was also being grown in Java. Returning from India. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Sumatra. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. or used the pepper locally. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. along with other spices from India and lands farther east.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. Black pepper. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. barged to Alexandria. Madagascar. probably made black pepper less popular at the time.

14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. first the Persians and then the Arabs. clad in a wrinkled cover. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. 12. if expensive. while that of white pepper is seven. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. After the fall of Rome. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. it is sometimes their sweetness. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or http://www. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. the banquets of kings. pepper was a luxury item. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. I wonder. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. and of black. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. I season delicacies." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. and the luxuries of the table.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. affordable only to the wealthy...crazychefs. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". seeing that in other substances which we use." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into .H. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. Apicius' De re coquinaria. especially Venice and Genoa. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. There is no evidence to support this claim. Edward Gibbon wrote. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. and the prices reflected it. whereas. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". But you will find in me no quality of any worth. Similarly. seasoning in the Roman Empire.[22] In addition. four. who travelled east to India. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. Once into the Mediterranean. is fifteen denarii per pound. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat.

has some antimicrobial properties. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. Pepper. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa.crazychefs. his representative replied. A depiction of Calicut. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. and salt-cured meats were common fare. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. as well as around Africa. In the 17th century. However. Pepper harvested for the European trader.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. "we seek Christians and spices. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe . and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. the effect is small.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. especially in winter. Today. In 1498. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats.

black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese http://www. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. liver problems.. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. Like many eastern spices.000 pounds (4. insomnia. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. gangrene. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". diarrhea. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. hernia. Long pepper.. but if this estimated 10. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. hoarseness.crazychefs. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". insect bites. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. indigestion. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. joint pain. Note the cook's pepper mill. was often the preferred medication. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). oral abscesses. lung disease. but both were used. including long pepper. being stronger. as well as she could for sneezing.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. each load being equal to 223 lbs. either long or black.[25] In the 3rd century CE.[26] By the 12th century. heart disease. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in . earache. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. however.

sunburn. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. limonene. milligram-for-milligram. causing the sneezing. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation . it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. Refined piperine.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole.[31] Also. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. tooth decay.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a mildly carcinogenic compound.crazychefs. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. The outer fruit layer. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. sabinene. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. Some sources say that piperine. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. chapter five. left on black pepper. and linalool. which give citrusy. vitamin B.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. and toothaches. Few. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. if any. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper.[31] As a medicine.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. caryophyllene. and floral notes. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. which is stripped of the fruit layer. woody. irritates the nostrils. a substance present in black http://www.

Brazil (13%).[35] By weight. As of 2008. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. India (19%).[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. the most widely traded spice in the world.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002.000 t (299. India.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. Thailand (4%). which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. by monetary http://www. The price of pepper can be volatile. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. for example. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. Sri Lanka (6%).000 t (391.000 short tons).net/ . are used for this. Malaysia (8%).crazychefs. sometimes instead of pepper shakers.[33] Once ground. and China (6%). but has fallen to just over 271. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light.

The Spice Trade. Innes Retrieved 2009-01-29. using almost none of its production domestically.ars-grin. ^ Peppercorns. 88. ISBN 0375407219.da. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". 2006-1120.amjbot. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages.crazychefs. ^ Ochef. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. 1969). ^ Innes Miller. 2. http://www. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". 20. from Penzey's http://www. 83 21. PMID 11302858. Spice. 17. p.000 t ( 14. Alejandra (2001). The Hindu Business line. Black pepper is marica. Vietnam dominates the export market. 6. Warrior. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. 3. ^ a b Jaramillo. Retrieved 12 August 2006. Compass Point Books.pd f. disease and weather.efloras. Text online. http://www. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 11. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. and Builder. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Gernot (2006). Egyptian Pharaoh. 12. Retrieved 6 November 2005.htm. Random House. 80 16. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. http://books. doi:10. Flora of China. p 94. 4. Pepper. ^ J. ^ Translation from Turner. The riddle's answer is of course pepper.M1. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". p. ISBN 075653836X. 13. Retrieved 6 November 2005. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. Retrieved 17 October 2006. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 Using fresh green 9.poor crop ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24.thehindubusinessline. http://www. short tons). ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN".2307/2657072. ^ Katzer. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 19. 93. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Ramses II. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. http://www. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). 5. Retrieved 13 November 2005. ^ Dalby p. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. M. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 8. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). 10.[36] Notes .

Full text at Blackwell website. 31. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. D.pdf. 428.2000. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF).. 29. Prosper (2001). Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". Cambridge University Press. Andrew (2002). The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han.1046/ . 27. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. 2005. 2. Duke (1993-08-16). 74–75. ISBN 0520236742. table 2. ds/IndiaSpices. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. Retrieved 2009-01-29. References Dalby. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". ISBN 9781580084178. ISBN http://www. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. 26. Buddhist Monastic Code II. 32. ^ U. ^ Turner p. Dorman and S. "Mill". Berkeley: University of California Press. ^ Montagne. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. ISBN 0600-60235-4. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 160. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 30." 24. 25.ch05. ISBN Outlook Report Pepper". An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). Vol. ^ Dalby pp. 12. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. 395. http://www. p. 28. ^ Turner p. "Spices. http://siteresources. Retrieved November 12. 23. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). ^ a b McGee p. 204. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. ^ Dalby p.1365-2672. Dangerous Tastes. G. also Turner pp. purchase required. http://www. 726.html. ^ H. doi:10. 77. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. 2008-05-15. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. Steven (2004).x. p. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. Jaffee. Larousse Gastronomique. http://books.22. 36.S. 34. CRC Press. 156. TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. Karvy Comtrade Limited. http://books.pdf.00969.worldbank. Dover. Deans (2000). 108– s_20080515_01. ^ Jaffee p. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. ^ Dalby p. Davidson. ^ a b James A. 33. Alan (2002). ^ Jaffee p. Hamlyn. Retrieved 2008-01-29.

yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition).net/ .com http://www. OCLC 56590708. Turner.McGee. 427–429. pp. Scribner. Spice: The History of a Temptation. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Jack (2004). "Black Pepper and Relatives". OCLC 61213802.crazychefs. ISBN 0375707050. Harold (2004). 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. London: Vintage Books. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red.

17 g 0. Peppers are native to Mexico. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. including red.64 g 0. Today. B3) 0.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine ( http://www.057 mg 4.Dietary fiber 1. sweet. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. B2) 0. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Central America and northern South America.Sugars 2.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0. .40 g . Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. B1) 0.Pepper.crazychefs. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.224 mg Folate (Vit. green and orange. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".

Across Europe. or "piment. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". were a highly prized condiment. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. In Norway. It is eaten with fried noodles. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. "red pepper". In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. "groene paprika". Bell peppers are botanically fruits. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). In France it is called "poivron". green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. an unrelated plant. regardless of their color. g. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. like pasta. With the similar meaning. meaning pepper-fruit. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. Indiana. and Pennsylvania. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers.crazychefs. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). When cut off. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this . the fruit of Piper nigrum. Grilled. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. meaning Big pepper. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.. respectively). It's widely used in a variety of dishes. the term "paprika". "Miris" is Chilli. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. instead of using as a spice. In parts of Ohio. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. in Dutch. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. the word ピーマン ("pîman. Sweden. they are called "capsicum". "gele paprika"." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). In the United States and Canada. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". Malaysia and New Zealand. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". such as Australia. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. which has its roots in the word for pepper.g. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. At that time peppercorns. which are green and yellow. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. meaning Bulgarian pepper. "green pepper"). In British English. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. " In http://www. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. India.

crazychefs. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. in salads. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. It is eaten as a raw snack. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. orange and. pink. black and brown. white. aqua. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. Varieties The color can be green. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. rainbow. red. yellow. blue. yellow or orange peppers. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. more rarely. . yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in various soups and stews. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". maroon. http://www.

net/ . [1]) is a hybrid mint. The plant.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. also known as M. balsamea Willd. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).crazychefs. It is found wild occasionally with its parent http://www. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint .Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References Peppermint (Mentha × piperita. indigenous to Europe. ^ http://www.

72. 84.20 in) diameter. it is usually sterile. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. forming thick. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. including stream sides and drainage ditches. it can grow anywhere. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with 2n counts of 66. Flowering is from mid to late summer.31 in) long.6–3.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. and bare fibrous roots. square in cross section. with smooth stems.crazychefs. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. with a few exceptions.24– 0. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. Being a hybrid.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. fleshy. dark green with reddish veins. spreading by its rhizomes. noted since 1843[8].5–4 cm (0. he treated it as a species.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. The chromosome number is variable. blunt spikes. The leaves are from 4–9 cm ( . The flowers are http://www. and 120 recorded. 6–8 mm (0. If placed. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins.5 in) long and 1.6 in) cm broad. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.59–1.

[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl http://www.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. and toothpaste. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. ice cream.crazychefs. particularly menthyl acetate. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. chewing gum. thus promoting belching. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. confectionery.[10] Similarly.1.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. and is often used as a flavouring in . Freeze-dried leaves In 2007.

com http://www.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. Stems reddish. Foliage lime-scented. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. [16]. [21]. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. In addition to that. It needs a good water supply. as a natural insecticide. A mild. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. Leaves wrinkled. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide . and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. the Galápagos Islands. hairless. it is advisable to plant it in a container. which they then call "after-dinner mints. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. Eau De Cologne Mint). New Zealand. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint.[13] and in the United States. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20].[12] Outside of its native range.crazychefs. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. Leaves aromatic. and it is considered invasive in Australia. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. [18]. If you choose to grow peppermint. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint.

Thomson Healthcare. http://whqlibdoc. ^ Harley.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. 2. A. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". 4th Edition.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . ^ a b Blamey. (1975). M. Mentha L. ^ Linnaeus.dld. (2007). 9.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. http://www. 7. M. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. doi:10.who.glu.02. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. page 640. (1989). ISBN 978-1563636783 10.1016/j. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". ^ a b Huxley. C.. Retrieved 3 June 2009. & Flora of Britain and Northern Europe.006. a popular confection. G. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. ^ Cappello. . New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. In: Stace..pdf. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. Mehmet (2004).. 5.2007. 11. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2".crazychefs. (1992). Macmillan ISBN http://www. A. C. et al. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. ed. Flowers open from bottom up. R. ^ World Health Organization. (1753). Retrieved 2009-02-07. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. C. ^ a b Akdogan. specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice".E. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .org/books/629/629_21. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. on kidney tissue in rats". 17. 24. and Mentha spicata L. ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ International Organization for Standardization. http://tih. 22. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . doi:10.257. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev.122. ^ Akdogan. S.. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". ^ Bienvenu (1999). http://www.D.htm?csnumber=4844.2740311104. Retrieved 7 June 2009. ^ a b c Jullien. 21. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)".org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.1151.E.1002/ http://www.1023/A:1006185103897. Valerie Howland (2006). Retrieved 7 June 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2009. 25. Retrieved 3 June. 23.224. Bienvenu (1998). http://www3. J. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . ^ Edwards. http://het.1071/ 27.. Retrieved 3 June.10): 119 .wiley.. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita Mehmet (2003). ^ Adamovic. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 26. populations. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". D.htm. Australia".org/books/249/249_8.interscience.28. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". http://www. Retrieved 6 June 2009. V. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. Ambika et al. 18.htm?csnumber=32041. Zheljazkov. et al.159. Retrieved 3 June. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . 20. http://www.219. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide.Specification".)". http://www. Mehmet et al.actahort. doi:10.16. http://www.. (2004). doi:10.iso.sagepub. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L.htm?csnumber=11633. ^ Farley.iso.actahort. (2007). Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . paraquat. Retrieved 3 June. Derek R.)" . Plant Cell.htm. ^ Akdogan. ^ International Organization for Standardization. http://het. F. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 . Retrieved 8 June 2009. Frédéric et al. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. 19.

crazychefs. ampeloprasum var. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum http://www.) J. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. Two related .). along with the onion and garlic.Gay The leek. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. porrum (L. is a vegetable which belongs. porrum (L. although different in their uses as food. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to the Alliaceae family. also sometimes known as Allium porrum. Allium ampeloprasum var. the elephant garlic and kurrat.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.

and they have few pest or disease problems.crazychefs. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. intended for harvest in the season when planted. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering . Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. leeks are hardy. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. and overwintering leeks. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended http://www. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. to be planted out as weather permits. Once established in the garden. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways.

the vegetable is crunchy and firm. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). which turns it soft and mild in taste. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. due to the layered structure of the leek. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. carrots and potatoes and different meats. although less bitter than scallion. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. In its raw http://www. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. Lamb is the most popular. along with leek soup. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. Raw. The onion-like layers form around a core. It has a fresh smell similar to . The tender core may be eaten. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise.crazychefs. Fried. which can be used in salads. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. as the leek ages. but. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Cuisine Leeks for sale. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine.

9 g .‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.004 g . as well as wall carvings and drawings.polyunsaturated 0.E. B2) 0. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" http://www.C.Sugars 3. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.E.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit. as well as other recipes with leeks.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.15 g 0. onwards. B1) 0.233 mg Folate (Vit.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.C. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.saturated 0.3 g 1. 83 μg 14.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .net/ . In her book. B3) 0. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.monounsaturated 0.8 g Fat .Dietary fiber 1.04 g . led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.crazychefs. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. who consumed it most often in soup.

but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. In the play. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. good countryman. David‘s Day. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V.12 mg recommendations for adults. Shakespeare. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. you know. representing . for example. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed http://www.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. According to one legend.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.crazychefs.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh.Vitamin E 0.

2000). . French Women Don't Get Fat. third edition (Oxford: University Press.Notes 1. ^ Jane Grigson. 1978. Domestication of plants in the Old World. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. 3. ^ Guiliano. (Penguin Books.crazychefs. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Knopf. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.6 g Fat Protein Water 0. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.Sugars 2 g 3g .net/ .(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. Celery. dulce) or celeriac ( http://www. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .Dietary fibre 1.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. with fewer than 100 individuals left.2 g 0. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.crazychefs.

these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. 30 AD. and in Old Bay Seasoning. as celery salt. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. such as chicken noodle soup.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. http://www. Celery is a staple in many soups. squirrels. Actually very small fruit. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails).In temperate countries. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They also contain an organic compound called . celery is also grown for its seeds. and small rodents. on the Chicago-style hot dog. horses.crazychefs. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. birds. Celery. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. often used as a base for sauces and soups. onions. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. Celery. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. dogs. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib.

Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso.crazychefs. have to be clearly marked as such.[8] In the European Union. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. M. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to http://www. father of the Cabeiri. Lemnos and Thebes. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. at . foods that contain or may contain celery.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. Celery contains androstenone. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. In Homer's Iliad. for people with celery allergy. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. even in trace amounts. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. making avoiding such foods difficult. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. However. they note "since A.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. however.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted.

splits.crazychefs. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. 1. apium Italicum. In North America. many of which differ little from the wild species. the whole plant having a coarse. and a distinctive smell. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. In the past. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery.5–2 mm long and wide. due to extremely uniform crop growth. white and red.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. as the Grace of the whole Board". mainly in having stouter leaf stems. but the leaves may be used in salads. Under optimal conditions. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. insect damage and rot). on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. earthy taste.. straightness and thickness of petiole. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. 2–3 mm diameter. and the most crisp and tender. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. borrowed from Greek. The flowers are creamy-white. to last from the beginning of September to late in April.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie.[14] With cultivation and blanching. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. shape. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. sweetish. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. fields are harvested only once. from the Latin selinon. produced in dense compound umbels. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. and its seeds are those sold as a spice.. By the 19th century the season for celery had been http://www. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. and Praetors feasts. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. at our Great Mens tables. cracks. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine).[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. They are ranged under two classes. seleri. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. The plants are raised from . sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year.

"Celery". Hopf. 2000) p. 11. 1920).com/edible.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). Post-harvest technology research and information center. Ko SN. et al.nsf/pages/smallage. M. (2002-06-10).v. C (1753). Natural History XIX. http://www. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to ^ Bublin M. gentle handling. ^ "Smallage". ^ William Robinson and W. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). 2003. 16. Lee LG. Radauer C. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. 10. ^ OED. http://postharvest. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. ^ Teng CM. Retrieved 2008-03-04. Scheiner O. Suslow. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo.17:1697-1699. 3.L.. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. T. 15. Thomson. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 227. ^ R. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Thayer translation [1] 4. Kraft D. ^ D. Heiner DC. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. ^ Calcium sources 7. (3rd ed. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". 9. de Medicina. ^ snopes. . Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia.202. ^ Celsus.46. s. M. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. Western Journal of Medicine 158.shtml. ^ Celestin J. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus.[16] References 1. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". 14. ^ Pliny. 12. p. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. (2005). Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis".ucdavis. 13. Wilson IBH. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. 8. Zohary and M. ^ Cantwell. 2. ^ a b Fragiska.. West J. P. (Laurentii Salvii). Domestication of Plants in the Old World.practicallyedible.6 (June 1993): Celery and Negative Calories 6. and proper sanitation.

showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. see Sugar (disambiguation).03 g Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.Sugars http://www.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.91 g .5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .21 g . Magnification of grains of sugar.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. (Discuss) For other uses.98 g 0g 0g 0.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose. Sugar.Sugars 96.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars. For the common table sugar. see sucrose.

mainly sucrose.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. and fructose. and in many other sources.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions. sugar maple (in maple syrup). lactose.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption. B3) 0.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. but also appears in fruit.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. sorghum.026 mg Folate ( .Water 1.crazychefs. obesity and tooth http://www. It forms the main ingredient in candy.77 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0. B2) 0. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. honey.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit.

alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. molasses or treacle. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara.) The Greek word for "sugar". Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Scientific Scientifically. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "fructose". Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of http://www. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6.) will likely denote a sugar. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). Generically known as "syrups". and texture) of beverages and food. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. Spanish and/or Italian. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. the Italian word zucchero. such as glucose. In a list of . etc. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. Etymology In the case of sugar. the Spanish word azúcar.crazychefs. preservation. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). (Compare the OED. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. means "pebble". Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. "dextrose".[4] It came to English by way of French. including palm sugar and fructose. In this informal sense. zahari.Popular In non-scientific use.

This includes all the sugars referred to above. A notable exception. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . 2. has a "missing" oxygen atom. Sugars include monosaccharides. important molecules in the body. making the sugars reactive. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 . and 4 or more monosaccharide units http://www. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. cook or consumer. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. deoxyribose.Culinary sugars Grainier. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). raw sugar. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. 3. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. disaccharides. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Natural sugars come in fruit. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. syrups and fruit juices. as its name suggests.containing 1. plus sugars naturally present in honey. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer.

As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. glucose. including NADH and ATP. with less than 0. or DNA. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . lactose (milk sugar . which is made of glucose. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. Note for example glycoproteins. In these closed-chain forms. After digestion and absorption. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. producing invert sugar. which has the formula . This resulting syrup. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. which form part of nucleic acids. sugar will burn with a blue flame.made from one glucose and one fructose). or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. Monosaccharides include fructose.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. sweeter than the original sucrose.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. proteins connected to one or more http://www. and galactose.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. galactose and mannose. fructose.water (H2O) per bond. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. If combined with fine ash. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis.

Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. ^ scientificpsychic.illovosugar. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. 4. Sugarcane. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan.htm .com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6.webmd. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty." Powder and Bulk References http://www. 5. James. OCLC 44493265. 1996. Glyn (2004).56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0.80 g/ml Notes 1. OCLC 51837990 84251137.crazychefs.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. Temple University Press. ^ Wuebben.Bulk Density Chart. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary." http://men.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. A C Hannah. Michael (January 2001). Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. ^ "Engineering Resources . The International Sugar Trade. Joseph and Mike oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. ISBN 1566398320.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. History of Science and Technology in 2. Cambridge: Woodhead. ISBN 063205476X. Blackwell Publishing. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Sugar Blues.

The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses.g. for light brown sugar. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. Although in some areas. sugar beet molasses is used. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. Products for industrial use (e. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. Brown sugar contains from . The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft.crazychefs.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. It is.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane.35 http://www.25% of the total volume). without mixing them separately. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. however. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. especially in the Netherlands. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals.

substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more . the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. much like adding molasses would do. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. Nutritionally.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. In other applications. History In the late 1800s. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories.[1] However. apart from pure carbohydrate. The effort was so successful that by 1900. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. White and Deadly" .[2] John Yudkin. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. in his studies (cited in "Pure.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). as opposed to white sugar.crazychefs. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by http://www. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect.

^ New Scientist. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. where sugar cane was grown. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. http://www.wildernessfamilynaturals. centrifuged. 3. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals.1. giving it a higher mineral content. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). or Demerara sugar. http://www.wholesomesweeteners. Retrieved 2008-09-20. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. but most is now produced in Mauritius. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. Demerara is another unrefined.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. 2.". largecrystalled. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". 32-33 5. http://www. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. an island off ^ Levenstein.crazychefs.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. Harvey. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. which is then damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. light brown. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. 6. References 1.html. cane sugar. 2003.htm#bm07. Retrieved 2008-09-20.3 fao. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. which is heated and evaporated to a thick . 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". light 7. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. resulting in the characteristic large. crystals. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. Muscovado.fao. 4. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. Retrieved binado_Sugar.php? http://www.

com http://www. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). the two major components of salt. but toxic to most land plants. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). pale pink or light gray in color. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. which some use to prevent caking. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. including high blood . Chloride and sodium ions. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. It is a crystalline solid.crazychefs. white. refined salt (table salt). Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. including humans. and iodized salt.[citation needed] Conversely. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice.

In 1960.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this http://www. in the millennia before .[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. especially for meat. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire.crazychefs. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. as were salted birds and salt fish. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. salt provided the best-known food preservative. and the dye Tyrian purple.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. however. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). the caravans still transported some 15. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. glass.000 tons of salt.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Salzburg. the Hallstatt Celts. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space.also gave us Gaul. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. water. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error.[1] It is widely. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. In religion According to Strong's http://www. (Judges 9:45. though incorrectly. and Egyptian.[citation needed] The root hal(l). who had heretofore mined for salt. God sent down four blessings from the sky . and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. began open pan salt making. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. a root for salt found in Celtic.crazychefs. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. the Roman exonym for the Celts. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. In many Pagan religions esp.) In the Sermon on the Mount. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city"." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. Hallstatt. as it avoided paying the "salt tax"." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. which was illegal under British rule.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". taking their names from hal(l)-. salz. During the first millennium BC. Greek. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your . Halych in Ukraine. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria.

Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. In Aztec mythology. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.crazychefs.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. such as in Sumo Wrestling. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. .com http://www.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt.

com http://www. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. Today. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. Purification usually involves recrystallization.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt . and the making of soaps and detergents.Different natural salts have different mineralities. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight.5% of salt production. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics.crazychefs. which is most widely used presently.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. Fleur de sel. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[12] However. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. giving each one a unique flavor. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. One example are bath salts. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. Refined salt.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. Injected water dissolves the salt. After the raw salt is obtained. which are kiln-dried. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. In recrystallization. food uses account for 17. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. and thus is rarely eaten. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. natural sea salt harvested by hand. is mainly sodium chloride.

[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. Single-serving salt packets. calcium or magnesium carbonates. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. calcium silicate. Table salt Table salt is refined salt.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. and calcium aluminosilicate.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. however.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment.[29] However. Table salt has a particle density of 2. silicon dioxide. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. magnesium oxide.165 g/cm3.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. sodium .crazychefs. and a bulk density (dry. Some people also add a desiccant. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] .[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. fatty acid salts (acid salts). Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. condiments such as soy sauce.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.154 g/ http://www. but was determined to be unnecessary. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use.

All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. cretinism in children. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. or sodium iodate. In France. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. which can cause goitre. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. In the United States. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced.[32] Another additive. and myxedema in adults. especially important for pregnant women. iodized salt is more common in the United States. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Canada. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. iodized salt contains 46-77 . while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 http://www.crazychefs. or even an electrolyte disturbance. which gives the table salt a yellow color. magnesium. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. dizziness.[33] Drinking too much water. fluorinated table salt is available.[31] Today. which can cause severe. The reason for this is unclear. sodium iodide. specifically endemic goiter. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). potassium. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. neurological problems. with insufficient salt intake. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). even fatal. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps.

[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. p18) However. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are http://www. salt consumption is higher. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. can cause hypernatremia. such as in treatment of dysautonomia. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium." ([44]. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults." ([41].[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility." ([41]." ([41] p3). or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. It can exacerbate renal disease.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical .[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. in Japan.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). forced salt intake. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions.crazychefs. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention).[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. since salt was quite valuable).[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. combined with an inadequate intake of water.[38] heartburn. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. independently of blood pressure effects.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.

Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. A salt mill for sea salt. However.[50]. SACN states."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. but achievable population goals. for a typical adult. have been found to consume little salt.6 g or 70 mmol sodium).[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New .crazychefs. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. Some isolated http://www. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. such as the Yanomami in South America. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors.

8 g salt) per day.g.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. One manufacturer. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium.300 mg of sodium (= 2.5g salt per 100g (or 0.[57] In March 2007.6g sodium).[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. calories. LoSalt.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. Low is 0.3 g sodium = 5. "low". Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. which will increase potassium intake.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1.crazychefs." In the UK.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). Amber (Medium).1g sodium). or Green (Low). etc. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it".com http://www. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day.). These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. Those who have kidney failure. When other health claims are made about a food (e.[51] In the United States.'[55] Campaigns In .3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. Australia. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. low in fat. then that is a medium level of salt. without recourse to salt substitutes.

4th edition". Costs can reach staggering .prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. 6. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English http://www. 1913. India ( Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. 7. 5. Catholic Encyclopedia. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other.answers.7).com/salary. and Hall in Austria. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. In 2002. called halite. New York: Robert Appleton Company. such as brine wells and salt lakes.3). China (32.3 million tonnes).in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. Eplerenone and Inspra. Dytac. Triamterene.crazychefs. Germany (17. http://www. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Notes 1. 2. 3. ^ "Salt". total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. the top five producers being the United States (40. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). Retrieved 2008-12-14. and by mining rock salt. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. 4. and Canada (12. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction.5). Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application.9). Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone).wikisource. 8. Answers.

10. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. Salt Institute. Retrieved 2008-07-29. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. 28. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. Ask a Scientist. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. ISBN 9780309056663.roskill. ^ a b http://news.afssa. J.9% sodium chloride 25. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.htm 19. 14 August 1998. ^ David A. Victoria) Salt 34.wiley. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt .pdf 33. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. Retrieved 200907-08. ^ Table 27. 898 . ^ Gary salt uses. ^ Iodized Salt 32. sodium. Epikouria http://www. salt manufacture. ^ http://www. 12.saltsense. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. Vol. http://www3. Fall/Winter 2006 10.anl. ^ References on food salt & health salt history.interscience. ^ What is Salt?. p. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. salt uses. ^ B. Retrieved 2009-0708.crazychefs. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. Mason (2006-12-19). ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sodium. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30.907 ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. http://books. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium Kuemmel (1994). ^ Salt made the world go round 17.9. salt history. salt manufacture. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. ^ HE-620 24. Science.stm 38. 281.Weather Curriculum 18. 2008 ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. 11.9% sodium by weight which equals ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. Transportation Research serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. 14. ^ Iodized Salt 31. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032.newton.htm 15. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". "The (Political) Science of Salt". ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". http://www. ^ Nauticus . Salt Institute.

(accessed13 January 2007) 49. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. 7. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. New York: W. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. D. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). ^ Understanding labels 55.334(7599):885. The Story of Salt. Erwin Koops. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about Putnam's Sons. 61. http://www. OCLC 48573453. The Mummies of Ürümchi. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). ^ U. Legal Medicine 2005.pub2 References Kurlansky.healthandwellbeing. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51.1002/0471238961. 28 January 2008. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43.005 48. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50.1915040902051820. Mark. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44.legalmed.crazychefs. 2006..hyp. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. Schindler.1016/j. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. ^ Susan R. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls . 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. John Wiley & Sons. New York: Walker & Co. ISBN 0802713734. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". Inc. Mark (2002). ^ Salt TV ads 59. NY: G. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. http://www. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. Cutler JA.a01. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. S.W. Sodium chloride. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54.06. ISBN Sodium 52. Further reading Kurlansky. http://www.P. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58.2004. 47-50.40. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. ^ Salt Matters 60. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. Obarzanek E et al. 2007. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. BMJ. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". ^ Cook NR. Salt: A World History. and S. Norton & Co. Feldman. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. Published online 2005. Friedrich Schulz. New Barber. OCLC 48426519.

Salt: Grain of Life. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above.crazychefs. Arts and traditions of the table. . New York: Columbia University Press. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. The Stationery Office. Department of by Dr Trevor Beard. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Pierre.Laszlo.

which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum http://www. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: .crazychefs. mainly Kerala. such as Cambodia. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. phrik thai. Vietnam. Malaysia. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. the Philippines and Singapore. phrik khi nu( . as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. It can also be found in India. found commonly in Thailand. Indonesia. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. as well as in neighbouring countries. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ .000 on the Scoville pungency scale. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50.000 to 100. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Big things come in small packages. Although small in size compared to other types of chili." which can best be described by the English equivalent. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red.crazychefs." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main http://www. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones.

v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars http://www. Thai hot. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet . Siling Labuyo (Filipino). Ladâ. The more decorative. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. orange. and among the group of capsicum annuum. but slightly less pungent" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.wikipedia.As well as the Malay word. Thai). Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. has peppers that point upward on the plant. and then red. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). phrik khii nuu ( . These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan.crazychefs. and go from green to yellow. creating a rainbow effect. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name).

net/ . and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. gratins and baked dishes. usually mashed. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. Celeriac has a celery http://www. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. it can also be used on its own.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. which store a large amount of starch.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. or used in casseroles. furrowed. It is a kind of celery. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. Unlike other root vegetables. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. It has a tough. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. about the size of a large potato.crazychefs.

and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables.3 g 1. Celeriac soup. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000.2 g . rinsed. Celeriac. 'Diamant'. especially in Europe.6 g 9.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates .crazychefs.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths.Sugars 1.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. 'Ibis'.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Dietary fiber 1. Among them are 'Prinz'. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the http://www. raw Nutritional value per 100 g ( . There are a number of cultivars available. and 'Kojak'.

it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. or brinjal (Solanum melongena).Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum.crazychefs. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. It bears a fruit of the same name. The stem is often spiny. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. aubergine. and see text The eggplant. The flowers are white to http://www. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. As a . It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir.

net/ . Australia.crazychefs. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. which is used in British English. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". New Zealand. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah).com http://www. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. The fruit is fleshy. 1500 CE. soft seeds. from Arabic al-badinjan. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. In the Caribbean Trinidad.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. which are edible. In Indian and South African English. but much larger in cultivated forms. The name aubergine. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety." Aubergine and brinjal.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. flower The plant is native to India. History Solanum melongena. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. and contains numerous small. The name eggplant. used in the United States. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects.

while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. and Tycoon. shape and color.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. whiteskinned. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. There are even orange varieties. Traditional. or white. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ichiban. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna . A much wider range of shapes. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. Black Magic. in white skin Dourga. Burpee Hybrid. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. green.crazychefs. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. Dusky. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. Classic. and Black Beauty. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. especially purple. Pingtung Long. slightly pendulous cucumber. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a http://www. Some cultivars have a color gradient. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black.

it is widely used in Indian cuisine. for example in sambhar. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. chutney. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. for example. In http://www. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. and garlic. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. rice. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. battered. As a native plant. as in the French ratatouille. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. along with the fish Hilsa. It can be sliced. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. complex flavor. curries. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary.crazychefs. tahini. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. so that peeling is not required. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). It is often stewed. tomatoes. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. and deep-fried. In one . it is called Begun ( ). the Arabian moussaka. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. and achaar. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. as in the related tomato. The fruit flesh is smooth. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. The thin skin is also edible. In some parts of India. It. or tamarind. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Iranian cuisine. allowing for very rich dishes. In the Caucasus. peanuts. or Eggplant Parmesan. as they are far less bitter. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. tahini. and masala and then cooked in oil. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. Melanzane alla Parmigiana.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. or other fillings and then baked. braised (紅燒茄子).

and spider mites. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. containing both female and male structures. http://www. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. showing the inside. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. For this reason. depending on .) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. the most serious of which is Verticillium. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. flea beetle. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. and potato. are also troublesome to eggplants. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. such as tomato. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). (Adults can be removed by hand. This is called Beguni ( ). Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed.) between plants. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in.crazychefs. Egypt. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. Flowers are complete.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used.) to 60 cm (24 in. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. pepper (capsicum).) between rows. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%).

raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. New Jersey is the largest producing state.Dietary fiber 3. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include http://www. F = FAO estimate.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.19 g 1.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .net/ .crazychefs.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.043. P = official figure. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. semi-official or estimates).35 g . B2) 0.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.(2.039 mg 5.Sugars 2.[5] In the United States.7 g 0. B1) 0. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.

would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. while 1.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. Brazil.084 mg Folate (Vit. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to .[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a http://www. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant. B3) 0.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking.01 mg/100g).[8] On average.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. However.Niacin (Vit. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.crazychefs. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.16 mg Manganese 0.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.

violaceum and viride. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. multifidum.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. globosi. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. inerme and subinerme at that time.-Lag. brownii. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. rumphii. esculentum. stenoleucum.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. Solanum longum Roxb. http://www. On the other hand. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. that of Blanco to S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. mainly by Dikii. inerme. edule. aethiopicum. There is an actual S. racemiflorum. Solanum oviferum Salisb. subrepandum. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). luteum. insanum. violaceum. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S.crazychefs. S.F. oblongo-cylindricum. ovigera.C. H. esculentum. aethiopicum. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. album. Similarly. an unrelated plant described by Ortega.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants.Varieties Solanum melongena var. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. which used to include Dunal's S. racemosum. divaricatum. and (invalidly) by Sweet. variegatum. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. leucoum. capsicoides). trongum. ovigerum and S. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena . The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. ruber. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. tongdongense. But this is not correct. such as agreste. Names for various eggplant types. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. lasiocarpum. Dunal. Scopoli's S. sinuatorepandum.

Footnotes 1. CRC Press. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. and Engineering by Yiu H. 2. Hui (2006). Technology. ^ Doijode.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. Handbook of Food http://www. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". . S. (2001).crazychefs. ISBN 1574445510. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). D. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

pdf. 11. 7. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. 2008 10. ^ Gerth van Wijk R.Aubergine 8. . P. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). ^ The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. Arq Bras Cardiol. ^ Kabashima K. Harish Babu * .* YP Venkatesh. ^ Edward F. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. ^ Solanum melongena var. FAO. 6. Dieges PH. Erich Hornbach. Tsenge Demana.3. The New England Journal of Medicine. Mahesh † and . N. Andréa Thomaz. Domino. 273-6. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. 202 4. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1993 Number 6 9. ^ SN Pramod. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf).caes. ^ "FAOSTAT". 18(1): 59-62 13.133(42):2081-3 12. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. pp. A. Retrieved 2009-07-01. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. http://pubs. P. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. ^ Health24. Miyachi Y. Ebury http://www. Toorenenbergen AW. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. Bruno Caramelli. http://faostat. 2008-11-11.uga. Retrieved 2007-04-24.crazychefs.) reveals female predominance. ^ B. volume 82 (nº 3).fao. Robert (2008-11-14). Vol. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. Volume 329:437 August 5.

both the stem and leaves are densely http://www. syn. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. odd pinnate. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. and have a weak.crazychefs. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) . woody stem that often vines over other plants. It is a perennial. yellow. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. with a serrated margin. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru.8 in) across. see section Fruit or vegetable below). The tomato is native to South America. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long.4–0.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Solanum lycopersicum. One species. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L.

in certain areas of Italy. likely to be the original salsa recipe. meaning plump thing with a navel.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. lumpy tomato. such as Florence. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. according to Smith. The specific name. They also took it to the Philippines. lycopersicum.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South http://www. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. golden apple. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. cerasiforme. However.[4] The large. smaller vegetable . the other by currant tomatoes. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. ancestor of L. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. who named it pomo d‘ . an Italian physician and botanist. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination.crazychefs. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed].was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. a mutation from a smoother. tomatl. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. and cultivation began in the 1540s. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. However. means "wolf-peach". Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus.[6] Gerard's Herbal. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. now Mexico City in 1521. was the first European to take back the tomato. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. The exact date of domestication is not known. earlier in 1493. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. a barber-surgeon. corn and salt. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language.

The University of California.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. who ate tomatoes in Paris. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. The Spanish tomato dish. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. Gerard's views were influential.[6] But by the mid-1700s. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. In Victorian times. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. sent some seeds back to America. Charles M.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. The C. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato.M. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. 1799 – c. and in general. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. broths. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. Over the past 15 years. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. but the fruit is safe). Thomas Jefferson. tomatoes were widely eaten in http://www. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. most famously in Worthing. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. British consul in Aleppo c. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. California.crazychefs. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum).net/ . they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. and before the end of that century. Paella. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. and as a garnish. particularly Florida and California. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. Rick. By the mid-18th century.largely plagiarized from continental sources. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant).[6] Nonetheless. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. ―within the last forty years. Currently.

com http://www. black. orange. and have a lower water content. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. purple.4–0. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. China. the largest producer.0–2. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. production and 35% of world production.S.6–2. California accounts for 90% of U. or white fruit are also available. followed by United States and . they are known as plum tomatoes. It may be deleted after Friday. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.0 in) diameter.4 in) diameter range.8 in) size as the wild tomato.[12] According to FAOSTAT. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. about 5mm in diameter. 18 September 2009.crazychefs. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. but a number of cultivars with yellow. Most cultivars produce red fruit. pink. For processing tomatoes. through cherry tomatoes. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. green.

Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial . plum tomatoes. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. along with zucchini.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. as well as heirloom tomatoes. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and are shaped like large strawberries.crazychefs. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes.[18] and productivity. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. based mostly on shape and size.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. As in most sectors of agriculture. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. but unlike commercial hybrids.

Black Krim (lower left corner).[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. but are smaller than plum tomato. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. low acidity. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time.produce fruit in colors other than red. but must be bought as seed. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. . or bush. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. brown. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. often via mail-order. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. which usually discourages fruit set. et cetera. white. pink. multiple colors (Hillbilly. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. including yellow. ivory. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. they are often good choices for container growing. Burracker's Favorite. and purple. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. some tomato cultivars . Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by http://www. Red Boar). including Brandywine (biggest red). disease and pest resistance. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. or home growers interested in canning. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. Determinate.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. etc. and lack of mealiness. Green Zebra (top right). there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate".especially heirlooms . Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. A variety of specific cultivars. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. Lucky Cross). As an intermediate form. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. although some determinate heirlooms exist.cherry tomatoes are small and round. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. orange.

too. which interrupts the lifecycle. flea beetles. As a floral device to reduce selfing. F . The stamens were. tomatoes required cross-pollination. and A . In the wild. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms.fusarium wilt strain I & II. carried by the beet leafhopper. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. N nematodes. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. A fertilizer with the ratio http://www. their traditional pollinators. cabbage loopers. and remain. but manure or compost work well. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. cutworms. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. T . entirely within the closed corolla. red spider mite. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. slugs. As the name implies.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping.tobacco mosaic virus. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. FF . whiteflies. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop.verticillium wilt. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic . (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. The most common letters are: V .alternaria.crazychefs. original state. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. tomato fruitworms. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. aphids.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day.fusarium wilt strain I.

Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. They may be recognized by their color. or more often today. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. This is not the same as . In an outside setting. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. by cultured http://www. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. depending on variety. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. In more temperate climates. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as with most species. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. However.crazychefs. Unripe tomatoes are firm.

a subset of fruit. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). or paste.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene).Sugars 2. as tomato sauce. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). They contain lycopene.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato http://www. Though it is botanically a berry. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. carotene.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . In some studies lycopene.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. in . there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable.Recently.6 g 4g . especially in cooked tomatoes. and other antioxidants. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). anthocyanin. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. The tomato is acidic. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight.crazychefs. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Most tomato plants have compound leaves.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. vines. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. Spain.[28] In October 1965. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). annually celebrates La Tomatina. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. such as rugose leaves. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. They are bred to continue . meaning covered with fine short hairs. lateral buds take over and grow into other. fully functional. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature.5 °F). Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. it will not continue to ripen. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. These hairs facilitate the vining process. often by sun. When that tip eventually stops growing. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. generally three feet tall or shorter. Embracing it for this protest connotation. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. although erect bush varieties have been bred.5 °C (54. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Of regular leaves.make http://www. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. Known for its tomato growth and production.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. or pickled. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. Tomato plants are dicots. The fruit is also preserved by drying. initially decumbent. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. there are variations. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. and grow as a series of branching stems. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). Determinate types are annual in all climates. whether because of pruning or flowering.

[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing.) H. genetic evidence (e. 'lyco'. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. moths. Despite this. making the Linnaean name correct. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. plus 'persicum'. butterflies. according to type. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. tobacco.e. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (derivation. "wolf-peach"). Similarly. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. Technically. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. while paste tomatoes have very http://www. However. wolf. Other species in that family are potatoes. called locular cavities. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. have the anthers fused along the edges. chili peppers. As a true fruit.g. Therefore. These vary. or other external forces that present in the Americas. peach. among cultivated species. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. i. very small . The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. appearing on the apical meristem.. other insects. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). with both names found in the literature.deeply grooved.[31] Their flowers. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). would be more correct. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum.. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). variegated. However. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. and be dried/fermented before germination. This is because they are native to the Americas. which frequently used it and still do).[32] while others are pollinated by flies. angora leaves. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules.Karst.

Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. Livingston. color.crazychefs. New York. disease tolerance. from a culinary standpoint. North Carolina. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. and numerous other traits.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project.S. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. U. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. U. Ohio. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. flavor. universities. Oregon.S. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. A. and organizations. Corporations including Heinz. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. http://www. As noted above. 304)). BHNSeed.S. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. In 1887. as are vegetables. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. of Reynoldsburg. In 2006. pest tolerance.W. a tomato is the ovary. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal.S. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. However.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. nutritional value. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. Hedden (149 U. Bejoseed. 1883. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. cucumbers. The U. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. University breeding programs are active in Florida. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. etc. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. have breeding programs that attempt to improve . and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. corporations. However. together with its seeds. AVRDC. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. shape. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. size. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law.

Georgia. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. Pennsylvania. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . New Hampshire. Maine.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock.[36] The affected states included Arkansas."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. Minnesota. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. 2006. The fresh fruit is.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). which is toxic to humans and animals. Tennessee. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth.crazychefs. stems. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. Vermont and Wisconsin. harmless. the U. Speakers from the British Isles. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. North Carolina. contain the poison Solanine. Ohio. Rhode Island. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant.S. Virginia. however. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. http://www. Kentucky. Michigan. Connecticut. On October 30. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). Indiana.

[38] As of July 8. and fresh cilantro. with 49.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. fresh serrano pepper. in 2000. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far. Yong Huang. UK.S. Epcot's manager of agricultural science.1 reported cases per million.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the U.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.crazychefs. with a harvest of more than 32. fresh jalapeño pepper.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh http://www. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States.000 kilograms (250. Lancashire.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. it caused at least one death. of the cultivar 'Delicious'.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. one would arrive at an estimated 40. the District of Columbia. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. 40.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115. and Arizona (49). The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. respectively. Lake Buena Vista. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. As of July 2008. On August 30.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista.84 pounds (522 kg). China. and Canada. 2008. Oklahoma in 1986. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. New Mexico (98). 2007. Florida. 2008. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. from April 10. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases).7 and 16.273 illnesses from this outbreak. Illinois (100).151.8 m (65 ft) length. such as raw tomato. French and .6:1).

[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. Derived from Cherokee Purple. indeterminate. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U.S. Fusarium. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the . indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W.S. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small.crazychefs. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Young tomato . various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. pickling.crazychefs. Tomato plants in the garden. Tomato http://www. in Korea. Tomato fruit. Tomato Flower. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. good for Tomatoes on a vine.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. .Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

and Triguera are nested within Solanum.five tons to the acre.easthamptonstar.html. ^ a b Hartz.html". Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L.smithsonianmag.universityofcalifornia. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. University of Illinois Press. The tomato in America: early history. p. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo .M. During the three months of the local harvest. 519 [1] 9." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Easthamptonstar. (2001).. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html". Retrieved 2009-04-02.smithsonianmag. Andrew F. ^ "http://www. A. and cookery. The Tomato in America. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). ISBN 1-57003000-6. Subsection Lycopersicon).The East Hampton Star . Horticulture: Principles and Practices. Retrieved 2009-04-02." 15.html. 11. & http://www. 2. 2008.ucdavis. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87.C. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". Tgrc. it handles more than 1. ^ Acquaah. p. ^ http://faostat. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ^ Tomato history 4.Food & Wine". Appleton and (2002). bid/6280/Default. ^ a b Smith. http://tgrc. F.17. D. USA: University of South Carolina Press. Yourarchives. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans." See: Natural History Museum. October 26. (2002-0508)". webpage: books-google-TTp17.ucdavis. page 57: ".smithsonianmag. and 7. 13. 12. 223 10. et al. http://www. 1994. 3.nationalarchives. T.Smith. culture. ^ "UC Newsroom. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus ^ "http://www.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. ^ The Friend. 5. Retrieved December 11 2009. (1994). S.Your Archives". 8.aspx?PageID=567 14. Wettst. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. section Lycopersicon Mill.. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . 2002-05-08. Footnotes 1. Processing Tomato Production in Universityofcalifornia. M. G.smithsonianmag. Culture. Columbia. Retrieved 2009-04-02. I. Appletons' journal Published by . E. 1881. http://www.fao.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep ISBN 0252-07009-7. ^ "C. Andrew F (1994). p. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. Retrieved December 11 2009. http://yourarchives. Cyphomandra. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon.crazychefs. Peralta.

http://www. 31. ^ http://www. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian Retrieved The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only ^ "http://www.plants. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa".com/science-nature/ 33. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'". In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian Plb. Retrieved 2009-04-02. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt.gardenweb. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27.osu. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".eurekalert. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home".smithsonianmag." 18. http://www. 24. 2006. Retrieved December 11 2009. Retrieved June 30. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention". ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes".com/All-About-Tomatoes_a6fd3933f91c4. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. http://www. http://www. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". 28. Retrieved 2008-10-27. which are carried in the page 57: "The plants are still growing. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www.umn. Retrieved 2008-10-27. HYG-5532-93".Tomato". Ohioline. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague.html. 30. fungi such as fusarium and ^ "".com/science-nature/passion-fortomatoes. 25.html".am/wiki/Tomato#Early_tomatoes 21. ^ "http://www. Retrieved July 14. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. ^ " ^ http://www. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips.html. http://wwwplb. 27. ^ or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or 2006. 26.smithsonianmag.smithsonianmag. Retrieved December 11 2009. "Tomato genome project gets $1. http://ohioline.html" http://www. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes.html. http://www. ^ "Crop Profiles . Retrieved 2008-10-27." 20.php?tname=foodspice& Faq. Retrieved 200705-24. http://www.sinaloa. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian Retrieved December 11 2009. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007) Retrieved 2007-05-24. 29. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look http://news. Retrieved 32. News. Sinaloa.html"." 19. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease 22.

uchicago.1086/381578. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak.crazychefs. ISBN 1879906546. Dennis Retrieved 39. Tomato Recipe". http://www. Nationalpost. United http://www. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".html. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". 38. 40. 36. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States".uk. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. 37.cdc. California Master Gardener Retrieved Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.CBS News".gov. ANR Publications. Vegparadise. Foodsafetynetwork.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419& ^ a b http://www. ^ "August 8. http://www. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 38:S3. Cbsnews. Retrieved 2009-0402. Itn.nationalpost. ^ http://www. Retrieved 2009-0721. 42. p. 41. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". Tomato Retrieved 2008-10-27.shtml. by state". (2004-04-15).cdc. ^ "ITN. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. Retrieved 200904-02. http://www.html?id=585498.foodsafetynetwork. et al. Retrieved 2008-10-27. . http://www. http://itn. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". 2007-08-30. 643. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce .cbsnews.vegparadise. (2002). http://www.

This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. the fruit is also made into jam. fragrans products. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. In Indonesia.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. called selei buah pala. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. both are used as adulterants of M. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. a state in the south part of http://www. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. It also grows in Kerala. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". argentea from New . cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). especially in Grenada. Species About 100 species. nutmeg and mace.6 to 0. and Bombay Nutmeg M. malabarica from India. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. or sliced finely. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. or Spice Islands. called Jaiphal in Hindi. including essential oils.crazychefs.7 in) wide. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree.4 oz) dried. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0.2 and 0. extracted oleoresins. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. and nutmeg butter (see below).

Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. saffronlike hue it imparts. cauliflower. In European cuisine. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. and baked goods. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate . http://www. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. sauces. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. In the Caribbean. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and eggnog. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. "Lau Hau Peng".crazychefs. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. In Arabic. In Penang cuisine. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. and string beans. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. and Barbados rum punch. Painkiller. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. mulled wine. they are also used in soups. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. In Indian cuisine.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker.

net/ . which can be turned into myristic acid. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. reddish brown in colour. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups.crazychefs. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. preserving agents. medicines. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. 758 – ca. although this is disputed. for instance. and sweets. The oil is colourless or light yellow. beverages. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. used as flavourings. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa http://www. syrups. It is semi-solid. in toothpaste. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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or molasses. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer.crazychefs.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. sugar cane. sugar beets. yeast extract. soy extracts. being an amino acid. About 1. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over http://www. steak sauce. hydrolyzed yeast. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. with 4% annual growth expected. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. Canned. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. particularly processed foods. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. and were not observed when MSG was given with food." However. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. not reproducible. it also said that.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. based on anecdotal reports. autolyzed yeast. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. However. and protein isolate.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. frozen. Fermented products such as soy sauce. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of .

Foster. For this reason. even in large amounts." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. (2) synthesis.g.. Drugs. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. followed by either the name of the food additive. New York: Wiley. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food.celiac. acidification.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. and converted to its monosodium salt. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. pp. MSG. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate.".).4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. References 1. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. dextrose or citrate). In 1993. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. and mineral ions and growth factors. and (3) microbial fermentation. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. flavour enhancer).net/ . the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. In the 2004 version of his book. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. and[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1..7% women).g. ^ http://www.html 2. [monosodium glutamate]. Steven (August 2003). http://www. In the hydrolysis method.crazychefs. 373-375. "Monosodium Glutamate". Albert Y. purified. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. ^ Leung. age 40–59 years. 621. On Food and Cooking. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. such as hydrolyzed protein.2. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea.

"The significance of excursions above the ADI.38. Pharmacol. Linda.pdf 9.html. http://jn. Shizuko (2005).nih.530060410. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". http://www. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.. doi:10. Kimber L. PMID 10597625.nytimes. Sano. PMID 16999713. Encyclopedia of Amino New York Times. Martha L.a16 711.1337. 15.4. Daviglus. Dyer. http://www. Case study: monosodium glutamate".nutrition. PMID 18497735.1016/02786915(93)90012-N.crazychefs.2005. Anjimoto Co.ajinomoto. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Inc.1111/ PMID 8282275. ^ a b Geha RS. MSG.1002/14356007. Toxicol. ^ Walker R (October 1999).5. Jeremiah (August 2008).co.nlm. Regul.jstor. Tetsuya.ncbi. 7. Ka. Yangfeng. http://www. ^ http://www. doi:10. Masahiro. Shigeru.F. ^ a b Tarasoff L.1006/ .html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Toxicol.ajinomoto.html 4. Chiaki. 13. Beiser A. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". Van Horn. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp. Guo. the Secret Behind the Savor". Yamaguchi. Shioya.00160. doi:10. (1993). Ren C. 11.. doi:10. Armstrong. Food Chem. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Takehara. 8. ^ Sand. Daniel W (1994). Zhu.html 12. 1875–1880. 16.2008. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". "A Short History of MSG".fda. Wu. 14. Chirality 6 (4): pp. Daniel. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. Dongshuang.cfsan. ^ "Production process".gov/~lrd/msg. Zhao. "Yes.1525/gfc. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S– 277– 5. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. ^ a b Rundlett. Jordan (2005). http://www. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. Alan R.274. Liancheng. Kelly M. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Garside. doi:10. et al. Nutr. doi:10.1002/chir. 6. (April 2000).fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. ^ Kawakita. Stamler. Julia (2008-03-05). Linguang.3.2006. 38–49. (October 2006). "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". ^ He.x. "Monosodium Glutamate". ^ http://www.celiac. ^ http://www. Zhou. ^ http://vm.1999.1038/oby. ^ Freeman M. ^ Moskin. PMID 10736382.

醬油 . 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 酱油 2. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 荳油 3. 豆油 3.crazychefs. 豉油 Simplified Chinese http://www.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce.

net/ .Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). water. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. [4] By the mid-19th century.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. Soy sauce was invented in China. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. In its various forms. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. and salt. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.500 years.[3] In the 18th century. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. where it has been used as a condiment for close to http://www. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West.crazychefs.

Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味.crazychefs. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial . Today. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sojae) and other related microorganisms. literally "delicious taste"). Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD ( http://www. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. such as in giant urns and under the sun. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. Although there are many types of soy sauce. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap.

crazychefs. but it also adds flavour. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. Korean. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. slightly sweeter. Thai. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). It has a richer. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. opaque. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. In traditional Chinese cooking. with relatively low amounts of other grains. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. fragrance and saltiness. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. Since it is lighter in color. http://www.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. Another type. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. traditional Chinese: 醬油. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. like extra virgin olive oil. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or a mixture of both. lighter brown soy sauce. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. ): A thin (nonviscous). The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Touchōu is sold at a premium . This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. An additional classification of light soy sauce. and Chinese cuisine. Despite their rather similar appearance. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu.3-DCP (1. pinyin: jiàngyóu. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. shuānghuáng (雙璜). since it is saltier. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. one of the two types. or 酱清 "jiàng qing".

tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. or 醤油). "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient.crazychefs. Usukuchi (淡口?. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. Technically. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. that is used in its production. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not . It is the "original" Japanese soy http://www. for example sashimi. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. It contains little or no wheat. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. Shiro (白?. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. where it is known as "shōyu". as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat.

1 litre bottles. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?.net/ . not pasteurized. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard http://www.crazychefs. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. Consequently. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman.Saishikomi (再仕込?. Amakuchi (甘口?. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product.

It is a unique variety. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. in a pinch. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. In Indonesia. usually implies limited quantity.Tokusen (特選?) Premium http://www. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. powder. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. which has a thick. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. which is very similar to Chinese light soy . but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring.

the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. O'Long(黑龍). "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire http://www. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). Joseon ganjang. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. is made entirely of soy and brine. Malaysia.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油.crazychefs. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. 조선간장. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). Founded in 1909.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Later. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). WanJaShan(萬家香).4% of soy sauce purchases. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). lit. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. (called Joseon ganjang. thin and dark brown in color. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭).

it is also a table condiment. and caramel.[6] . the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). salt. pronounced SOO-kah).3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. wheat. China.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. It can also be very salty. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or sometimes simply tương. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine.3-DCP (1. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called http://www.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14].[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. nước tương.crazychefs.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts.

gmp.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD.tcoc.000 to http://www." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. .[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. Golden ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". ^ Jung. http://www. ^ Tanaka. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. Pearl River Retrieved 200801-07. Tung Chun and Wanjasham.htm. Celiac 4. Retrieved 2008-01-07. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits.[1] Notes 1. XXVII. Kimlan. an increase over 23 to 5. King Imperial. p. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. ^ http://www. Golden Mark. marinades and other types of sauces. 2. No. 3. Vol. 6.Kong and Taiwan. 2nd edition. 6. Isaac. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. ^ ^ http://www. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. Lee Kum Kee. 7.) In March 2008. Jammy Chai. p.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce.[citation needed] In Vietnam. 8. Soon Teck• and Kang. p.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ ^ http://www. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). the leaflet does include oyster sauce. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. (1781). ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. 7. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan.317 2. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. 2 (January 2000).asp?id=7598 10.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 9. including six samples with up to 11.crazychefs. OCLC 9752305 5. Despite these being small in number in the UK. Sinsin.miyajimasoy. http://www. ^ Tanaka. Seong-Gook (2002).smartfood. ^ Titsingh. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. Individuals with a wheat allergy. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). Press release.

2323/jgam. et al. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. 14. fermentation and micro-organisms. chemical veggies -. PMID 16198255. Edition 2. Somboon (2002-06-18).144. Marian (2003). "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD".google. ISBN 0632059877. ^ Toxic soy sauce. ^ Tanasupawat. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals.100. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. ^ Daniells.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. Food. Retrieved 2008-01-07. Naczk.crazychefs. p. Florence. http://books. Charles W (2005).com. PMID 12469319. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17.48. ISBN . ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. nutraingredients. Makio (2005-04-18). "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". ^ Hoboken. ^ 15. ^ Bamford. Kentucky: CRC Press. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. 103. Fereidoon. scares hit Vietnam 20. doi:10. Stephen (2006-06-06). 13. 16.201. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. 18. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151.11. 12.1263/jbb.nutraingredients. p. http://www. 186. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce".

4677–1.5–5.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.3–3.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index .5% Linoleic acid: 3.5–20.9150–0.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.5–21.5 °C) 84 cP 1.0–83.crazychefs.8% Behenic acid: <0.3% Myristic acid: <0.0% Arachidic acid: <0.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.0% Palmitoleic acid: 211 | P a g e http://www.9180 (@ 15.0% Stearic acid: 0.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.

Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production.[3] Of the European production. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. family Oleaceae).6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. Italy and Greece. in France. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. and Moraiolo. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Japan and China.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone.crazychefs. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. but especially in the Mediterranean. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. pharmaceuticals. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. Koroneiki. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). principally Italy. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. oil from olives that are slightly http://www.000 tons of olive oil annually. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. Olive oil is used throughout the world. Alberquina. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. In 2006. 93% comes from Spain.6 (refined and pomace) 0. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. Hojiblanca. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. North Africa and the Near East.4680–1. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. which produce approximately 350.6 million tonnes. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. as well as in Crete. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. cosmetics. World production in 2002 was 2. . Leccino Pendolino. in Greece. and Manzanilla de Jaén. Picholine. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world.

[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest.000 US gallons (181. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 m3) came from Italy. Spain. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. a private trade group. The US imported 47. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. In North America. and Turkey. The USDA uses a different system. called . and by its flavor.800. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. Galega.California. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. still contains a small quantity of oil. in Portugal. Oblica and Leccino. with 23 member states.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. by its chemistry. After extraction the remnant solid substance. Spain. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil) http://www. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. Mission. of which 34. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). in Croatia. often in "prestige" packaging. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). Spain. The California Olive Oil Council. defining quality standards. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. with production increasing to meet demand. and monitoring authenticity.000 US gallons (131. IOOC terminology is precise.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production.600.

and for genuine Italian producers to compete.[12] In some cases.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. but safe.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print.[15] Under EU rules. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. mostly hexane. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.[16] In April 2008. both in Italy and abroad. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). it is believed. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. is extremely lax and corrupt. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. defined as the percent. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. and by heat. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. for blended oils. of free oleic acid it contains. measured by weight. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids).net/ . as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity.[14] In March 2008. Almost 700 people http://www. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. EU officials took issue with the new law. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. but there are no guarantees. however. product as superior olive oil. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. particularly in Italy." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment.[14] In February 2008. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. 25.crazychefs. This practice makes it difficult for high quality.

Used on salads. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. absence of defects. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized.S. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure.8% acidity. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. expressed as oleic acid. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. It is fit for consumption. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. but may not be described simply as olive oil. These grades were established in 1948. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a http://www. of no more than 1. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level.the oil degrades. It has a free acidity. Pure olive oil. The U. has an acidity less than 2%. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. contains no more than 0. of not more than 0.crazychefs. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. and are based on acidity. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping.3 grams per 100 grams (0. another cause of rancidity. The US is not a . Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. In order to classify it by taste. and is judged to have a superior taste. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product.5% acidity. This is also called its organoleptic quality. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. and is judged to have a good taste.

which may be as low as 10-15 °C. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. Grade A or U.0% and is "fairly free from defects". Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. First of all.S.S. U.S.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.crazychefs. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed".S. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.S.S. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. Grade D or U.S.5% and is "reasonably free from defects". Grade B or U. This is incorrect.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. Grade C or U.S. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. U.4% and is "free from defects". "cold" does not define any precise temperature. (34 kJ/ml).S. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. U. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not . Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. with less flavour. Grade C".com http://www.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning.

crazychefs. over 26 liters per http://www. around 0.62 12. Spain and Italy.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.7 l. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. around 14 l.1 0. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide.1 1.pressed". The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.7 11. around 8 l. so the term "first press" is meaningless.35 23. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13.2 7 1. Portugal and Lebanon.8 7. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin . Tunisia.

thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. 4. 1. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. This is done in specialised chemical plants. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. After grinding. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. After grinding. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. suggesting a different taste. 2. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the . 3. which is much faster and more accurate.crazychefs. then placed into the press. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. which are stacked on top of each other in a http://www. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). not in the oil mills. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. no or very little organoleptic defects). The paste is then pressed by centrifugation.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. Green olives produce bitter oil.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. If ground with mill stones.34 1.

Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). time of harvest.5 g .[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. region.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g ( http://www. along with traces of squalene (up to . (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.crazychefs. In the United States.7%) and sterols (about 0.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. most notably oleic acid.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. To achieve this possible benefit. including oleocanthal and fat <1. and extraction process.monounsaturated 73 g . producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp.polyunsaturated 11 g .5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . The composition varies by cultivar. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. fat 3.

olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis.crazychefs.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. at least in part. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. 2004. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This could. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. During the first stage. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. The study was conducted in two stages. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. This way. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated http://www.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. in the long term. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. antithrombotic.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. For example. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. During the second phase. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. and oleuropein.This decision was announced November 1. It is theorized that. rather than its fatty acid profile. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive . the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants).

For http://www. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. blenders. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed].Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. not for foods to be eaten cold. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. as available in an oil producing .crazychefs. cookware. oils deteriorate and become stale. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods.[citation needed]. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. In time. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. etc. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. Also. A very fresh oil. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. Used cold. like salads. Also. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference.

It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. It is also good for the management of pain. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. It does have demulcent properties. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. and mild laxative properties.crazychefs. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. acting as a stool softener. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM).com http://www. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan.

as a fuel in oil http://www. olive oil. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. Besides food. huile)." In ancient Greece.N. drawn and engraved by J. Homer called it "liquid gold. from Gk. 1175.Fr. and O. Amman in the Sixteenth Century.crazychefs. oleum "oil.Fr. magical. from L. It.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. from Anglo-Fr. and skin care application. from O. elaion "olive tree".[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". Mod. olive oil" (cf. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . olie. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. olio). oile (12c. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. medicines.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman.. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. soap-making.

Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. In the centuries that followed. Bodrum. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 .com http://www.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. olive presses became common. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region.crazychefs. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen.

According to the historian Pliny. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. during the 13th century BC. together with naked appearance of athletes. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. when the oil had risen to the top. drained the water from the bottom. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine.[citation needed]. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. stored in special containers.[46] Until 1500 BC. allowing more time for more oil to be made. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from . olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt.000 and 3.. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete.000 tons of olive oil per season. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. Sinuhe. and area consisting of present day Palestine. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff).[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). wrote of abundant olive trees. oil containers are preferred. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. "the best in the Mediterranean". and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. Lebanon. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea.[dubious – discuss] During this time.over 4. he maintained. According to legend. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil http://www. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and.crazychefs. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. where it is thought to have represented wealth. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron).[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. the fertile crescent. and Israel.

"Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). "Agricultural Statistics 2005".com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047".PDF. and the Mount of Sinai. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. ANR Publications. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. http://www. Retrieved 2007-05-25. ^ USDA. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. Olive Production Manual. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. Retrieved 2007-05-25. and. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. the float is carefully pressed down into the . The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". 2. ^ " http://www. light upon light. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. neither Eastern nor Western.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. traditionally. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. http://www. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil.crazychefs. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. p. ^ International Olive Oil Council. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. 158.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. "The Olive Tree. originating from King David. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. ^ USDA. ^ G." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. its oil almost glows. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation.internationaloliveoil. 5. in the consecration of altars and churches. Retrieved 2008-07-04."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. and this secure city.imitate the original Menorah. 4. 3. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. To douse the flame.usda. Steven Sibbett. http://findarticles. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. In even without fire touching it.html. References" He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). Margaret Lindstrand (2005).com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047. the tourch is in a glass bulb. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. Louise Ferguson. http://www. Joann L Coviello.

info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. 25. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. Retrieved 2008-11-16. http://aje. and Maurizio La Guardia. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". http://www. S. Tabacchi. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27.Scotsman. Retrieved 2008-11-09. Alan (1989-05-21). Dennis.nytimes. D. ^ " "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". 124 (6): 903–". ^ Riding. PMID 3776973. ^ "www. Menotti . "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. http://www.southafrica. Karvonen MJ.oxfordjournals. PMID J.telegraph. 12. (December 1986).html. 19 CFR 134. Tom. M. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. http://oliveoilonly.eubusiness. 21. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud .org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/ 13. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. US Customs Department. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" ^ " Epidemiol.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. http://www. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site ^ Mueller. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. Tripoli. 11. 55 (3): 175–86. Raymond & Co. Retrieved 2008-11-16.scotsman.). ^ "www.html". 14.2007.southafrica. Am. Pharmacol. ^ a b "Telegraph article". Slippery Business The New Yorker.crazychefs. http://www. 7. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis. http://www. Res. 19. 18.xml.Telegraph". 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889.010. The New York Times (H.htm. http://www.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. et al. 2004. http://www. United States Department of Agriculture. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10.internationaloliveoil. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. ^ Durant. ^ New York Times. 17.phrs. November 2.4005000.usda. http://query. 23. J. Giammanco. 20.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam .htm". ^ Covas MI (March 2007). ^ Keys".com/gst/fullpage. Di Majo.1016/j. ^ a b McGee. Giammanco. http://news. Nutrition Research Reviews 18.01.ams. G.1079/NRR200495 16. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil" News".23/. John.

Alonso 36. Poulsen HE. 1S45-50. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. Raimondi AS. 23.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". ^ Mayo Clinic. Dello Russo A." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. ^ [2] Ichihashi. p. 21. 2000. 19. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. ^ "Quite Interesting . Vargas J. 35. ^ Turner R. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". 31. Masamitsu Ichihashi. doi:10. 44. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Pagnol. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. Suppl. Toshihiko Osawa. PMID 10737284. 2085-2090." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. Guida L. s.html.1021/jf0630217. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842.videojug. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. N U : . Osamu Nikaido. T : Ueda. Israel". ^ Romero C. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. (27 March 2000).1024/0300-9831. J Agric Food Chem.tchain. ^ http://www. Toshinori Bito. T. PMID 17263460. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". 19 November 2007 30. pp.tchain. but cites no source.. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. M : Ahmed. p. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. et al. 37. (January 2007).06-6328com. 1: Prevent Cancer. PMID 17110467.ama-assn. "New Year's Resolution No. (January 2005).1096/fj. d'Episcopo L. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms".com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. De Castro A (February 2007). 21 (1): 45–52." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. s. et al. Carcinogenesis. doi:10. 19. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". Nov. Mar.crazychefs. ^ Rosenblum. Brenes M. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. Nazim U. Olives 41. PMID 15830923. JDermatol-Sci. 55 (3): 680–6. 45. Catherine Breton. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. ". 10.61.75. Marotta T. doi:10. 34. André Bervillé. A : Wu. p.1. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. An Wu.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. ^ a b Davidson.v. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". http://www. ^ "www.xml. ssp. ^ Ehud Galili et al. 29. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?.v. Vol. 43. No. Use Olive Oil. M : Osawa. http://www. 2000.28. ^ Ferrara LA. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). Vol. Faseb J. Olea europaea L. "[10 INSERT TITLE]".Telegraph".telegraph.". Masato Ueda. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. Etienne N. "olive" and "oil" 40. Medina E. ^ Machowetz A.html".com http://www. A : Bito. Gruendel S. ^ Pagnol..

In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in http://www.46. ed. ^ Thomas F. ^ "www. ^ Nigel M. 2001. Verstraete and V. http://www. Riley. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pp119–33 50. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil".crazychefs. Provencal. Harrington Park Press.htm. Scanlon. ^ F.reshafim. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". Processing methods.htm".net/ .R. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. 47. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed.youngmuslims. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.).youngmuslims. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) http://www. 2005 49.

[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. each the distal end of a carpel. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus).net/ .Saffron Saffron crocus C. crocin. A C. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. sativus flower bears three stigmas. Saffron has further medicinal applications. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight.crazychefs.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. ən] / [ˈsæf.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia.or hay-like fragrance. Saffron.

[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Only in . sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild.98–1. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. broken http://www. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ).[11] Upon flowering. as was once generally believed.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ).[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. In autumn. which means "yellow. A corm survives for one season. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. in Central Asia. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. purple buds appear.2 in) in length. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. must be dug up. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. and replanted. It is a sterile triploid form.5 centimetres (1. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. Being sterile.crazychefs.

[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content.500 mm (39–59 in). saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. Greek. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. rats. where hot. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms.9 in) deep.[16] Furthermore. Moroccan. flowers quickly wilt as the day . leaf http://www. maximizing sun exposure. they fare poorly in shady conditions. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. loose. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. and birds. well-watered. Nematodes. Planting depth and corm spacing. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage.crazychefs. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. where annual rainfall averages 1. low-density.000–1. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight.e. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. and corm rot pose other threats. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. are critical factors affecting yields. in concert with climate.035 oz) of dry saffron threads.8–5. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. http://www.0. and various α. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.11 gr) of dried saffron. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes. However. lycopene. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.[19] many of which are .46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0. including zeaxanthin.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass.and β-carotenes.8-carotenoic acid). It also has many nonvolatile active components. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). and thus oil-soluble. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8. a product results that is itself water-soluble.2 oz of dried saffron).[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.[19] Meanwhile.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.8-diapo-8.

0 9.0–13.0 3.0 6.0 8.0–1.5 10.0 10.0 6.crazychefs.0–14.0 1.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 1.0 6.0–7.0 1.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0–8.0 0.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0–15.0 4.0 .0 12.0 2.0 http://www.5 40.0 6.

[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. the heat. the scent of which has been described as "saffron. When saffron is dried after its . a volatile oil.[18] Safranal. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. p. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.Fiber (crude) 5.0 Source: Goyns 1999. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels.6. Santorini.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to http://www. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.6. dried hay like". picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents.crazychefs. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is.6. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. combined with enzymatic action. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. Significantly. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma.3-diene-1. incidentally.4.

net/ . where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. Since then. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.[33] potpourris. In late Hellenistic Egypt.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. townspeople in Rhodes. cartwrightianus. and medical treatments. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. and scabies.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal http://www. Thus. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. a sterile mutant form of C. physicians in Gaza. colic.000 years.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. There. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus. C. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. and in the mithridatium.crazychefs. divine offerings. cough. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. mascaras.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos. sativus.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. ointments.[28][29] Later.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.

[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of http://www. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. Isfahan. At such sites. or jackfruit.[43] Thus. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. a Chinese medical expert.[39][40] Later. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC.[53] On the other hand. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC.[44] From there. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict.[44] During his Asian campaigns. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. dating to 978–993 AD. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. For example.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. a less expensive dye.[42] ritually offered to divinities.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. rice. Wan Zhen.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena.Asia The 17. and used in dyes.crazychefs.[51] However. saffron threads were woven into textiles. medicines.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. perfumes. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. and body washes.

The Essex town of Saffron Walden. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain.[59][60] Only in southern France.saffron is in Kashmir.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. especially Norfolk and Suffolk.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. coffee. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. and Spain."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. It can be used to aromatise wine.[62] By 1730. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour.[58] Soon after. named for its new specialty . and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. under which saffron adulterators were fined. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. In Europe. and then the saffron is obtained.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. tea. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". and executed.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. http://www. imprisoned. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. France.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. and Italy. Italy. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. However. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. which grew prosperous." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. did significant cultivation endure. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center.

Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. noodles. and Cornish cuisines. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. immunomodulating.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. Arab. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus http://www. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter.crazychefs.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. and in perfumery. Turkish.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). and chicken or trout dishes.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. European. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow . and antioxidantlike properties. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Central Asian. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). particularly in China and India. Medicinally. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). Pennsylvania. Indian.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.000 flowers. England. in decreasing order of production. the United States.000 threads.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150.[2] A pound comprises between 70.000 flowers. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. Greece. the average retail price is $1.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. http://www. Aside from these. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. elasticity. India. flavour. For example.000 per pound (US$ .100/€1. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. Spain.500 per kilogram. and Italy. Vivid crimson colouring. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad.000–75.550 per kilogram). France. Spain's varieties.500/€7.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). they are graded by government-imposed standards.[5] Iran. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east.000 and 200.200/£1. Switzerland. slight moistness.crazychefs. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.000-170. and other countries. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. Morocco. are the major producers of saffron. In Western countries. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. Azerbaijan. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. and aroma. are generally mellower in colour. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand.100–11.

Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus').com http://www. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. In the U. for quality and quantity. shape. blights.some organically grown. and safranal content. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour.S. and safranal (fragrance) content. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also .crazychefs. Repeated droughts. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. combined with an Indian export ban. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. picrocrocin. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. and crop failures in Kashmir. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. aroma.. among the world's darkest. is in San Gavino Monreale. it also has very high crocin.79 in). saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production).[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). near L'Aquila. picrocrocin (taste). unusually pungent aroma. Sardinia. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. and colourative effect. contribute to its high prices. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. There.

national standards bodies. and I (finest quality). Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. II. pomegranate fibers. paprika.crazychefs.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in India. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times.[77] However. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. with turmeric. III. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest).net/ . high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). pliability. However. red-dyed silk fibers. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). and other powders used as diluting http://www.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. and thus a greater colourative intensity. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. many growers. aroma.[80] Thus. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. traders. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores.

www. 6. 9. 12. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. 18. 422. ^ Grigg 1974. http://www. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). 1. ^ a b c d Deo 2003.".Saffron reproductive biology 11. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. ^ a b c Hill 2004. 3. ^ Harper 2001. 2–3.cababstractsplus. 1. 3. ^ DPIWE 2005. 3. Kansai. 21. 14. 3. 19. ^ a b Deo 2003. 4. crocin and safranal. p. 16. p. p. ^ Rau 1969. Retrieved 2007-12-01. ^ Willard 2001. 7. stigma extracts and their p. 2. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. p. p. p. p. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. pp. 20. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ McGee 2004. 24. 8. pp. 1.cababstractsplus. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. 53. ^ a b McGee 2004.asp?AcNo=20043148643. 103. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. 2. 423. in . 17. pp. http://books. ^ Kumar V (2006). 5. Honshū. ^ Dharmananda 2005. ^ Willard 2001. 22. 13. Retrieved 2008-03-02. p. 4. 23. Grilli Caiola . The Secret Benefits of Spices and 3–4. 15. 4. p. ^ a b Deo 2003. ^ Deo 2003. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. p. 287. Sterling. http://www. ^ M. 272.

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2006. F (2005).cfm?chemic al_id=140>. SR (1969).htm>.html>.com/classification. <http://www. <http://www. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus).com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). Retrieved on January 10. New Scientist. Retrieved on January 10. H (2004). Tarvand Saffron Company.newscientist.crazychefs. <http://www. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen.>.html>. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". 2006.McGann. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). 2006. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Cancer Letters 57 (2).google. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". K (2003).tarvandsaffron. PMID 2025883 Tarvand Saffron Company. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3.usda. McGee. "Saffron". Retrieved on January 10. USDA Phytochemical Database. Willard. Nair. Tarvand (2005b). Reconstructing History. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. <http://books. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. 2006. Beacon Press.htm>. The Cooking of India.000. < http://www. Rau. "What is Saffron?".pl.barc. Retrieved on January <http://books.". . Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. P (2001). Retrieved on January 10. Time Life Education. 2006. "Grading and Classification". 2006[dead link]. JB (2005).com/irish/saffron.

19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. Dead Sea. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea http://www. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.

olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. It is short and squat.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. Asia and parts of Africa. referring to their wooden http://www. along with cheese-making and . Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. are borne generally on the last year's wood. olives. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. Theophrastus. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry.5 cm long. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide."[7] indeed. endives. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down.(XVII. the olive.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive).The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. Its fruit. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. In Homer's Odyssey. by a spring.[1] and in the Iliad.[9]. ca 170 AD. The small white flowers. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. which he describes as very simple: "As for me.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the olive suckers readily from the stump. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. called xoana.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. two stamens and bifid stigma."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods.crazychefs.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. from Lebanon.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. Though. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. they were reverently preserved for centuries.

As far back as 3000 BC. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. but he makes clear (in 1.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. wild-type olives. in On the Nature of Plants.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. As emblems of benediction and purification.[12] After the 16th century. wisdom.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. and one of the most significant. The olive tree itself. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. Over the years. olives were grown commercially in Crete. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. spread far and wide by birds. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. and its cultivation began in Mexico. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. The Book of Jacob 5. for which the Greeks had a separate name.The leafy branches of the olive tree .crazychefs. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. kotinos.16. Peru. the olive has been the symbol of peace. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. play an important role in the Bible. Chile and . It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. the pits give rise to thorny. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. power and pureness. glory. in both the New and Old Testaments. For example. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. glory and peace . The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. fertility. as well as olive oil and olives. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. Today. Theophrastus. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. and then in the 18th century in California. indeed.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health.

the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. Montenegro. and can live for very long. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. which is made into top quality olive http://www. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. The age of an olive tree in . The older an olive tree is. Istria in Croatia. disease. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. claimed to be over 2. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult.and fire-resistant.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. named "Plato's Olive Tree". One olive tree in Bar. has been calculated to be about 1. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year).000 years old.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar.600 years old.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. drought-. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca.

1600-2000 years old. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. All seven trees continue to produce olives. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. Modern experience does not always confirm this.400 years ago. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. a few other millenary trees can be admired.2. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. both in Galilee region. According to a recent scientific . Italy. and the olive fruit.crazychefs. called the "Peisistratos Tree". two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. In the same natural garden. fine wood. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. and. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. olive leaf. see Olive (fruit). A supposedly even older tree. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it.6 km) as the limit. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel http://www. though showing a preference for the coast. Specifically. have been determined to be over 3000 years old.

Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. Chile. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. the Mediterranean Basin. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Australia. northwest Africa) where winters are http://www. Sudan. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants.crazychefs. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea . particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. Olive plantation in Andalucia. Argentina. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. Israel. laperrinei (Algeria. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. such as South Africa.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. Niger. .Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive .

in southern Spain. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. with purple-green http://www. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. often after being pitted. In recent times. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. a large. Seville. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. 'Manzanilla'. A prolific bearer. which consists of 1. 'Bosana'. anchovies. Rich taste and thick pulp. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. It is used mostly for oils. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa.crazychefs. but only a few are grown to a large extent. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil . Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. originating in Dos Hermanas.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. grown around the world. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. The olive grove of Amfissa. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so.200. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. stuffed (with pickled pimento. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive.Cailletier cultivar.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. rounded-oval fruit. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

originating in the province of Córdoba. and elongated. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. 'Empeltre'. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. It has a strong but sweet flavour. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. They are black and generally used for table consumption. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. 'Kalamata'. 'Cornicabra'. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. a small. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. disease-resistant. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). Spain. They grow in any light soil. Their flavour is mild and nutty. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. It is green. 'Nabali'. even on clay if well drained. The flavour is mild and nutty. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. medium size.crazychefs. originating in the south of France (Aude département). originating in Toledo. It is used both for oil and for table olives. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). and coastal climate conditions. 'Souri'. This small olive. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. Greece. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. originating in the south of France. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. Moreover. They are green. originating from the southern Peloponese. It is mainly used for oil. good for eating and for oil. 'Hojiblanca'.com http://www.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. round. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. used as a table olive. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. 'Arbequina'. and elongated. named after the city of Kalamata. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. Due to their highly valued flavour. though difficult to cultivate.[21] 'Koroneiki'. another modern Israeli.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. Spain. which. large. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. a .[23] 'Barnea'. 'Picual'. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. Spain. The olive is medium sized. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. good for eating and for oil. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. brown olive grown in Catalonia.

the oliviera. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil.) Olives like hot weather. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. but the time varies in each country. They tolerate drought well. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. removing fruit from the tree. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. it is valued by woodworkers. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. Olives grow very slowly. A. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. In Italy. soon vegetate. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. In Greece. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's . P. up to several centuries. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline http://www. However. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. to facilitate germination. Olives are propagated in various ways. being very hard and close-grained. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. Occasionally. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. This method is used for olives used for oil.crazychefs. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. the trees are regularly pruned.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. embryonic buds. and can remain productive for as long. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. Another method uses an electric tool. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. 114). harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. More specifically. as in Languedoc and Provence. which form small swellings on the stems. In some places in Italy and Greece. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and with the season and the cultivar. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. In southern Europe. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall.poorer soil. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November.

Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. which is why they taste milder than green olives.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container.g. Olives can be used green. through to full purple black ripeness. large fruit (e. the fruit is not http://www. Typical yields are 1. which can be eaten fresh. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. which leads to a superior finished product. The method also involves sawing off branches. After some weeks. which is healthy for future production. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.. As a . Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process.5-2. a bitter carbohydrate. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. Fresh are often sold at markets. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. then drained. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. or green with hints of colour). The olives are soaked in water to wash.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. the creation of lactic acid. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive.2 kg of oil per tree per year. which is a natural preservative. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar.

The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. feta. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. diseases.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. induces tumour growth in the shoots. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. lemon zest. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. Cycloconium oleaginum. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. of which the water is changed daily. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. their main predators are wasps. olives suffer occasionally from frost. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing.6 to 8. vinegar. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. Popular flavourings are herbs. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. spices. oleae[27].5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. chili. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. an unnatural method. garlic cloves.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. and weather A fungus. but can be left to cure for up to three months. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good http://www. The gases of fermentation should be able to .salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. olive oil. Pests. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. or removing the pit and stuffing them. juniper berries and anchovies. A species of bacterium. wine. Lye-curing. The ten largest producing countries. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. In France and north-central Italy. capsicum (pimento). Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more.crazychefs. Sometimes. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. can infect the trees for several successive seasons.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. lemon juice. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. causing great damage to plantations. especially to young trees. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. salt-curing. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. leaving sawtooth damage. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization.

which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.000 430.597.8 16. and to cultivate . 4.1 25.000 280..000 250. 2.988 500.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication. p.500.4 30. 1).064 2.14. 1.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.000 550. 1 ).3 20. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.000 318.000 49.5. 4.149. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 5. 81. book 5".5 63.9 6.160. 27. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.000 594. On the Causes of Plants.800. 7.000 498. Bibliotheke. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. 38.6 31. Ancient Greek Agriculture. Odyssey. 3. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.13." (Herodotus. ^ ". ^ Theophrastus. most notably South Australia. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees.830 2.5 http://www.000 8.0 3." (Diodorus Siculus. Description of Greece 1..981 1. ^ Pausanias.000 1. 82. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.000 1.140.089 6.3 8. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation. 3.7 27.crazychefs.000 20.400.685 765. 6. ^ Homer.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17. and was the first to instruct men in these matters. 1992. 5.. 4. An introduction.339 300.000 998.000 275. to make bee-hives.317.[31] References 1.000 470.888 178..1).100 3.

M Bauza & http://www. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. J. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. 1982. and Storage life of Minoan olive . ^ Gooch.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". & Parker. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. ^ O. ^ Lumaret. 105. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. rev.. Tabak & O. http://www. R. Masuelli. http://www. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. Rackham. Fall/Spring (2005) 12.279 18. Juárez.htm.. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. pp 110–113. Apps3. 29 nom. EspasaCalpe S.cit. Madrid. Y. Syst. ^ Lewington.. ^ Burr. 35. me cichorea levesque malvae. D. ^ a b M. Volume 15. Australian Olives." Horace. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. Number 4). R. op. Leshonenu (Hebrew). 27. (1999) Ancient Trees.fao. Cavagnaro P.aspx?PageID=151. J. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. & Ouazzani.15. N. ca 30 BC 9. p. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils.zatoun. ^ "Old Olive Tree". reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 25. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. John Hutton. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil".8. Elena "Unusual Olives". Processing methods. http://apps3. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives".org/wiews/olive/intro. nov. E. 1779. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 17. Retrieved 2007-03-10. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. 28. 32:166–169. Simhoni. 1981. Odes 1. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Balfour. Moody. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. ^ [1] 21. ^ "FAO.A. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. Riley (2002). Epikouria Magazine. http://www.. vol. Spring/Summer 2006 26. 69.pasoroblesolivefestival. Epikouria Magazine. 30. ^ Fotiadi. Volume 18:27-35 20. J.jsp. Brijuni National Park. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. p. 1996.31. 4th edition. 13. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 2004". Ellen. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. ^ Riley. A. (September 2002). 23. Available through Google Books 11. ^ Muncipality Bar.crazychefs. Kislew. M.fao.springerlink. Int. 1999.. cited in F. J. 24. 29. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Zatoun. 2001. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". ^ http://www. ^ the Old Bar in Tombi. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. ^ Belaj et Bacteriol.

) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall.crazychefs.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. however.R. with an entire margin. with slender branched stems." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. (French tarragon. The leaves are lanceolate. and south to northern Mexico. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus .com http://www. glossy green. L. western North America. seldom produces flowers. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. Corresponding to its species name. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L.31.

Persian and Russian word for . which is the Armenian. but cannot be grown from seed. A perennial. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. due to the presence of estragole.[1] Russian tarragon (A. Spreading plant can be divided easily. Georgia and. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. and particularly suitable for .com http://www. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. sunny spot. dracunculoides L.crazychefs. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin.[1] It likes a hot. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. It is normally purchased as a plant. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. by extension. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. Russia and Ukraine.[1] However. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. fish and egg dishes. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. it normally goes dormant in winter. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. Fresh. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). without excessive watering.

Maggie (2002). http://www. Rose Marie Nichols. The Bountiful . Properties and Uses. ^ Gatfield IL. 2. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Wiley-VCH. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 9783527607891. Workman Publishing.crazychefs. pp.Cis-Pellitorin. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring.[3] In Slovenia. Stuckey. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. ^ Surburg. Johannes Panten (2006). 3. Horst. Machinek A. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Foerstner J. ^ a b c d McGee. Krammer G. References 1. Ley JP. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste.

The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. In the United States. Kitchen sage. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. In Western cooking. In French http://www. Broadleaf sage. In the Balkans and the Middle East. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. Dalmatian sage. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Culinary sage.Salvia officinalis ( . Purple sage. and some drinks. Common sage. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. and blue to purplish flowers. though other species. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. cheeses (Sage Derby). Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. It is a member of the mint family. sage has a slight peppery flavor. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. it is used when roasting mutton. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). Britain and Flanders. Lamiaceae. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. grayish leaves. Garden sage. with woody stems. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe.

crazychefs. salvia. The underside of a sage leaf . ursolic acid. antispasmodic.more trichomes are visible on this http://www. antibiotic. The Latin name for sage. and estrogenic substances.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. hypoglycemic. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. antifungal. caffeic acid. borneol. . cornsole. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic.[1] In a double blind. flavonoid glycosides. cornsolic acid. ursonic acid. chlorogenic acid. niacin. which contains cineole. means ―to heal". fumaric acid.trichomes are visible. estrogenic. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. astringent.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . randomized and placebo-controlled trial. oleic acid. flavones.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and tonic. and thujone. Sage leaf contains tannic acid.

1365-2710. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. hemostatic. and for other uses. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. and tonic. a white-flowered cultivar. 2.00463. especially in sunny dry environments. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. 'Extrakta'. http://www. Noroozian M. Pliny. yellow and green variegated leaves. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. Retrieved 2008-02-04. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. increasing women's fertility.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars.x. OBeWise Nutriceutica. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. a local anesthetic for the skin. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". emmenagogue. and for low ground cover. 'Berggarten'. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. a purple-leafed cultivar. Khani M.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 'Icterina'.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. Dioscorides. 'Tricolor'. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. doi:10. PMID 12605619. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. Ohadinia S. Applied Health. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar.[4] It was sometimes called S. ^ a b c "Sage". ^ Akhondzadeh S.php. Mohammadi M. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant.crazychefs. References 1. a cultivar with white. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. Jamshidi AH. a wild undershrub he called http://www. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs.1046/j. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). and used as a diuretic.2003. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages.appliedhealth. 'Lavandulaefolia'. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. snakebites. 'Alba'. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. a styptic. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. a small leaved cultivar. and . (2003). a cultivar with large leaves.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages.

ISBN 9789058230058. ^ a b Kintzios. p. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (2000). CRC Press. Deni Bown (New York: DK. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" http://www. Spiridon E. . 10-11. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. 4. Sage: The Genus Salvia.3.

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