Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. which is due to its content of thymol. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. tomatoes and eggs. soups and stews. Depending on how it is used in a dish.crazychefs. in a bouquet garni). when it specifies spoons it means the leaves.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Lebanese. Greek. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. As a rule of thumb. Albanian. Thyme. Libyan. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. While summer-seasonal. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. storage life is rarely more than a week. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. It tolerates drought well. assume that it means fresh.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil.g. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer).net/ . and Turkish http://www.a little less if it is ground. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. and in those derived from them. In French cuisine.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In some Levantine countries. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. Dried. Spanish. It can be propagated by seed. and of herbes de Provence. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. while flavourful. Leaves are often chopped. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. the whole sprig may be used (e. Portuguese. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. cuttings. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. or by the sprig. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. Syrian. Persian. fresh thyme is often available year-round. Italian. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb.

crazychefs. All thyme species are nectar sources.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. It also has medicinal uses. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. salve. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US.[5] As with bay. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. The dried equivalent is 1:3. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. pulegioides × T. it was used to medicate bandages. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. hybrid T.[6] Thymol. tisane. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. an antiseptic.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. Because it is antiseptic. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. but is grown as a ground cover. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. http://www. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed].[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full .

There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme.Variegated lemon http://www. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times .

Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.

10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2 mg 13% Niacin ( . B3) 1.9 g . B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.8 g 3.0 mg Phosphorus 58. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).1 mg Folate (Vit.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.Sugars 0.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.0 μg Calcium 138. European.1 mg 6.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates . often used as spice.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1. B1) 0.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.0 mg Iron http://www.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.2 mg Magnesium 50. It is common in Middle Eastern.1 mg recommendations for adults.0 mg Vitamin K 1640. and American cooking.3 g 0. although parsley has a milder flavor.crazychefs.Dietary fiber 3. B2) 0.

Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius).com http://www. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. it is not related to real turnips. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. used in soups and .[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. tuberosum). The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. neapolitanum). parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley.crazychefs. While parsley is biennial. which then tend to protect plants nearby. reducing pest attraction. which helps accommodate the long taproot. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. it attracts predatory insects. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. Although little known in Britain and the United States. not blooming until its second year. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. For example. However. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. Like many other umbellifers. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. or flat leaf (P. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian.

and lemon zest. Last retrieved April 26.70% by mass. Jett. In Southern and Central Europe. [1]) in oxalic acid. leaf. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women.crazychefs. "Parsley on plucodes. 2. lamb or goose. "That Devilish Parsley. and sauces. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath.. References 1. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. Parsley as an oil. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato).g. garlic.html. green salads or salads like Salade http://www. Ossobuco alla milanese. steaks.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. 4. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. a mixture of parsley.drugs. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins." West Virginia University Extension Service. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles.aspx?id=1075&s=4. 2007. In addition. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. e. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient". Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup.plucodes. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. or 4900. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. parsley is part of bouquet garni. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French". http://www. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. . with fish. Goulash or Chicken paprikash).[3] Parsley is high ( root. soups. ^ a b c John W. fried chicken. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ .com http://www.Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .crazychefs.

Together with basil. Greek.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). Varieties There are a number of subspecies. which is popular in southern Italy. Unlike most Italian herbs.crazychefs. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. The flowers are purple. Oregano growing in a field. as well as cultivars. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. O vulgare gracile. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. and lovage leaves. It is a perennial herb.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. growing to 20-80 cm tall. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. native to Europe. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .g. produced in erect spikes. e. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. Oregano is an important culinary herb. of the mint family. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. and grilled meat. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. fried vegetables. 3-4 mm long. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. spicy flavor. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. and to add a http://www.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. each with distinct flavours. capers.

useful for relieving children's coughs. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. In Turkish Cuisine. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. which. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. heracleoticum (Italy. Asia Minor) and O. Balkan peninsula.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. differs significantly in http://www. West Asia) have similar flavors. In the Philippines. It has an aromatic. Oregano growing in a pot. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. warm and slightly bitter taste. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. especially for mutton and lambs meat.crazychefs. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. The influence of climate. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant.[5][6] Additionally. . together with paprika. salt and pepper. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. it can be usually found on table. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. It varies in intensity.

indigestion. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. Lippia berlandieri. but is usually stronger. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. also called Cuban dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat.html.[12] References . or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. emmenagogue. stimulant. Aqueous extracts. In the Philippines. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. expectorant. limonene. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. ^ Organic Gardening 2.uni-graz. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". stomach upsets. mild fevers. which simply referred to "an acrid herb".Main constituents include carvacrol.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. fungal infections. thymol. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. useful for relieving children's coughs. including Poliomintha longiflora. capsules. Plectranthus amboinicus. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. cholagogue. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. and caryophyllene. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. ocimene. the father of medicine. oregano. Used topically. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. diaphoretic. enteric parasites. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. carminative. influenza. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic.crazychefs. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. this substitution would not work the other way round. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. pinene.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses.[7] and painful menstruation. Coleus aromaticus). stomachic and mildly tonic.[8] Hippocrates. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. ^ http://www. antispasmodic. especially in the United States. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. A Cretan oregano ( http://www.

^ a b Faleiro.2008. http://www. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L.uwe.dmannose. 24 November 2008.". ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". vulgare Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. (2005).) and Origanum vulgare et al. Retrieved 2008-11-26. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. ^ Dragland. http://jn.10. (01 May 2003). ^ [" University of the West of England.3. 6. Medical News Today. 7. March 2009. 53 (21): 8162–8168. doi:10. Fall/Winter 2007 10. ^ Epikouria Magazine.1021/jf0510079. Retrieved 200811-26. PMID 16218659. et al. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. draft revision for "organum". June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum . J. Draft revision for "oregano". Agric. http://info.asp?item=1374&year=2008. draft revision for "origanum". Food Chem. 12. J 28.nutrition. (Cav. Fall/Spring 2007 ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. 11. PMID 12730411. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project".php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. 133 (5): 1286–1290. June 2008. ^ Epikouria Magazine.

com http://www. recorded in the 10th century. it was from the giant fennel.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". it seems. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. perennial.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). This came from the Old English fenol or finol. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). the diminutive of fenum or faenum. It is a hardy. and is pronounced finocchio in .crazychefs. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. meaning "hay". Ferula communis. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. Also. In Ancient Greek. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. however. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον).[2] In Greek mythology. umbelliferous herb.

1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. (Its leaves are similar to those of .[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.5 http://www.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. glaucous green.20 g 1.047 mg Folate (Vit. and grows to heights of up to 2. B1) 0.Dietary fiber 3. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. B2) 0.crazychefs. but thinner. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.5 mm wide. about 0.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B3) 0.01 mg 7.29 g 0.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). and grooved. It is erect.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . half as wide or less. bulb. with hollow stems. they are finely dissected.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.

syn. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). "bronze-leaved" fennel. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. and its taste and aroma are similar to . and in other open sites in many regions.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel.crazychefs. both in its native range and elsewhere. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. It is of cultivated origin. both raw and cooked.20 mg Manganese 0. which is also known by several other names.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. but is more aromatic and sweeter. notably the Italian name finocchio.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. for its edible. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. F. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. including northern Europe. In North American supermarkets. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. in pastures. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is often mislabelled as "anise".Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. by the late 19th century. vulgare var. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. though usually not as strong. the United States.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. It propagates well by seed. southern Canada and in much of Asia and http://www.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

salads. mouri in Bengali. grilled. or eaten raw. sompu in Telugu. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. foliage. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. Many egg.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. green seeds are . pastas. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. variyali in Gujarati. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. anise-flavoured spice. The bulb is a crisp. where bulbs and fronds are used. For http://www. stewed. though smaller. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. brown or green in colour when fresh. It may be blanched or marinated. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. which are very similar in taste and appearance. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. often tossed with chicory and avocado. braised. or cooked in risotto.Fennel. in side dishes. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. but also the most expensive. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. both raw and cooked. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders.crazychefs. fish. and risottos. badesoppu in Kannada. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads.

act as phytoestrogens. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. also employed as a carminative. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. or its polymers. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. Fennel tea.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www. as it is said to improve eyesight.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration.crazychefs.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye.[12] For adults. sometimes with some sweetener. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. used to ease flatulence in infants. although not supported by direct evidence. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. This use.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue.

com http://www.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. fennel and coriander. badian (star anise).crazychefs. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. which promote growth of breast tissue. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens.[17] . followed by India. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas.

it is called Dalchina Chakka. In Telugu. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. native to Sri Lanka.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chakka meaning bark or wood. cinnamon is known as kurundu.C.[2] In Marathi. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. In Bengali.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. in the original Sinhala. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name.crazychefs. which are often called cinnamon too.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. it is known as "DalChini ( )".[3] In Sri Lanka. In Farsi (Persian).[5] In Malayalam. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. it is called darchin (‫. Ceylon. synonym C. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. itself ultimately from Phoenician. In Urdu. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. Hindi. and in Gujarati taj.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. it is called "Darchini" ( ). and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni .com http://www. the "real' cassia. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā.net/ .

[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers.crazychefs. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. and in Song of Solomon.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a song describing the beauty of his beloved.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in . the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (.com http://www. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. aloe and cinnamon. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. in Proverbs.

"The shores of the island are full of it". a Dutch captain reported.1 inches) long. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. and have a distinct odor. The flowers. have a greenish color. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. 7–18 cm (2.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis.75–7. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East http://www.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. and used them to construct their nests. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. which are arranged in panicles. However. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. p.crazychefs.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. although in the first century. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers." (Braudel 1984. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market.Ages. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. tea. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. and coffee. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. took control of the factories by 1640. in a letter of about 1292. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. They established a trading post in 1638. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.8–49. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already .2 feet) tall. sugar. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt.

in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. followed by China. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. Chips are trimmings of quills.5 mm) inner bark is used.[15] According to the FAO. which is left to dry. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. the outer woody portion is removed. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. verum). there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. eg. Zanzibar. Only the thin (0. Java. According to the International Herald Tribune. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. Bangladesh. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. The next year. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. http://www. and Egypt. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. India. and Vietnam.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing . Vietnam.crazychefs. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. the West Indies. Brazil. Madagascar. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special.

and is considered to be less strong than cassia. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . the related species.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of http://www. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. many websites. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. is generally a medium to light reddish brown. has a finer.[16] Ceylon cinnamon. using only the thin inner bark. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as .[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). and more crumbly texture. "Vietnamese cinnamon". sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". zeylanicum). hard and woody in texture. However. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. less dense. as all of the layers of bark are used. for example.crazychefs. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. or "Indonesian cinnamon".

Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch).crazychefs. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. a deep-blue tint is produced.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. The two barks. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. In the Middle East. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. ‫. In the United . it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. and fruits.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder.5% to 1% of its composition. are easily distinguished. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. True cinnamon. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. rather than cassia. used in a variety of thick soups. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. especially in Mexico. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. but when cassia is present. tea. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. when whole. macerating it in seawater. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi).)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. and then quickly distilling the whole. It is of a golden-yellow color. especially apples. bread-based dishes. hot cocoa. and sweets. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. such as apple http://www. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. and liqueurs. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. drinks.

few seem able to succeed. cassia. and methyl chavicol[citation needed].[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. The Cinnamon Challenge. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. However.[34] Notes 1. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. linalool. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. cinnamaldehyde.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). eugenol. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India.0. who failed. love.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties.crazychefs. Encyclopaedia Britannica. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. In Hoodoo." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. beta-caryophyllene.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain . it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. ^ a b "Cinnamon". it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. and money. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct http://www. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. cinnamyl acetate.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. although it remains untested. and Myanmar (Burma). 2008. and anethole. Sri Lanka (Ceylon).and a very hot aromatic taste. luck. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). by the absorption of oxygen as it ages.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate.

retrieved 200705-01 ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Batlle R. 437).com 17. ^ http://www. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID 16104824. ^ http://www. Breyne) extracts". "Solid. ^ Yule. ^ López P. Food ^ http://links. ^ Harris.crazychefs. ^ Felter. Anthea Bell.437.html. ^ Knox. http://www. ^ Shan B. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009.iol." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. ^ [1] 16. Cathay and the Way Thither. J. Van-Koiij A. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. http://dsr. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. thespicehouse. Sánchez C.thespicehouse. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger.—Cinnamon. Robert. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. 437f. ^ http://news. retrieved 2008-07-15 11. Cozzolino FF. 8.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains" 22. Sun M. http://www. Mancini DA. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Harvey.en. Corke H (October 2005). ^ http://www. Food Chem. retrieved 200807-15 6. Nerín C (August 2005). Cai YZ. Sir James Emerson. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. 53 (20): 7749– _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/ p.htm 20.fao. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. ^ http://findarticles.theepicentre. 2009.html#pg598.1021/jf051513y.0.php?storyId=6672644. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. 9. p. doi:10. . p. Col. Agric. Cinnamon.jstor.stm 3. Account of the Island of Ceylon.html. ^ [2] 18. Agric. 4. Encyclopedia of _of_life/html/1. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. PMID 15. http://www. http://lakdiva. ^ "Cassia. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. 437 7.. J. revised ed. doi:10.npr. ^ Tennent. Torres RP (December 1998). also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour. 13. 53 (17): 6939– Cinnamomum.htm. ^ The Epicentre. The History of Food. ^ Mancini-Filho J. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents".ac. PMID 16190627.

doi:10. Alan W. PMID 14633804. Agricultural Research magazine. Retrieved 200808-05.113. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". http://www.redorbit. 30. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography" s_have_been/index. ^ Vanschoonbeek. Khattak KN. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. retrieved 200705-01 25. Charles (1998).org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/977. 33. The Perspective of the World.1002/ptr. http://eprints. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. ^ Yronwode.. 34.. New York: Kodansha International. Muhammad et al.crazychefs.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. Cat.luckymojo. 27. 26. 28. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. retrieved 200705-01 32. Medicinal Seasonings. (2005).com/doi/abs/10.sciencedaily. ^ Taher.htm. http://www.2217/14750708. Retrieved 2008-05-11. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). a publication now in the public domain. July 2000.12. ^ Beck. et Leslie.pdf.1. Eleventh Edition. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276.whfoods. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. http://www. Eugen J.php?featured_food=80. Fernand (1984). doi:10. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food.nutrition. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study".com/ingredient_index.. . http://www.sciencedaily. doi:10. Retrieved 2007-12-17. http://jn. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ [3]. Archer (1988). Ali Khan MM. Anderson RA (December 2003). Safdar M. Akram et al. ^ Ranjbar.diabetesjournals. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". Braudel. ^ Khan A. Retrieved 2008-05-11.113. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". Corn.futuremedicine. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".2337/diacare.3. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. Research: Thalido.1016/00219673(88)90035-0.lesliebeck. ^ Verspohl. Cinnamon. http://www.2217/14750708. http://www.3. Retrieved 200805-11. ^ George Mateljan Foundation.html?source=r_health. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF).24. http://care.1643.1. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007) Kristof et al. www.

com http://www. one of the oldest vegetables. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. pickled. chopped.crazychefs. They are now available in fresh.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia.M. used without qualifiers. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Onions can be used. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage."[3] Uses . leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. it usually refers to Allium cepa. frozen. which it is not. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. and dehydrated forms. and Allium asarense R.Department of Export Agriculture. canned. They are known by the common name "onion" but. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. powdered.

recent evidence has shown that dogs. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. and also to relieve headaches. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it.[5] The onion is easily propagated. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in . snakebite and hair loss. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine.chopped or sliced. http://www. In Bronze Age settlements. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. due to toxicity during digestion.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. cats.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. an onion can be sharp. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. In ancient Greece. spicy. transported and stored. Depending on the variety. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish.[5] However. However.

5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .monounsaturated 0.Dietary fiber 1.21 mg Magnesium 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .polyunsaturated 0.042 g . B2) 0.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.1 g 1.1 g 89.24 g .129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc http://www. 0 μg 9. B3) 0.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Sugars 4.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.saturated 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.34 g 0.013 g .Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.crazychefs.7 g Fat .046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.4 mg Vitamin E 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.02 mg Vitamin K 0.

the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. Western White. In the United http://www. pungent yellow (New York Bold). anticholesterol. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. Texas 1015. Peruvian Sweet.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. Mexico. eleven times the amount found in Western White. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. Empire Sweet.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. Shallots also have the most antioxidant . the variety with the lowest phenolic content. Mexico. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. Empire Sweet. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. diabetes.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. and Vidalia. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Western Yellow. Northern Red. followed by Western Yellow. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. Mexico. anticancer.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. For all varieties of onions. and Vidalia. If you are allergic to onions. Empire Sweet.[10] In many parts of the world. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. Imperial Valley Sweet. Western White. osteoporosis. Shallots have the most phenols. Peruvian Sweet. Imperial Valley Sweet. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). However. Imperial Valley Sweet. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. Northern Red. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. In general.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. Peruvian Sweet. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). Texas 1015. and other diseases. Texas 1015. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat.crazychefs.

creating a stinging sensation. 2008. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. garden lilies. limiting the amount of gas generated. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. The volume of sulfenic acids . garlic. allylpropyldisulfide. ginger. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. Eye irritation can. allylmercaptan and allicin. where it binds to sensory neurons. shallots. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. and bananas. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). therefore. all present in garlic. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling.crazychefs.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. On January 31. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. nausea. As onions are sliced or eaten. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. cells are broken. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. and the irritation effect.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. breathing difficulties.include reactions to onions. diarrhea. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. leeks. chives. mouth and throat ulcerations. differs among Allium species. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. it can lead to an allergic reaction. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to http://www. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology.

"short-day" onions. the Welsh http://www. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds.crazychefs. Allium fistulosum. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb . which is said not to produce dry bulbs.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. Finally. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. which can be planted directly in the ground. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. more commonly today. which have been developed in more recent times. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. from sets started from seed the previous year. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year.

Tree onion or Egyptian onion . Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion. The second type is often referred to as a Potato . Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9. a hybrid of Allium cepas.764 Pakistan 1.637 Japan Egypt 1.302 1.346 2.500 China United States 3.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Oregon (USA). Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.793 India 5.crazychefs. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots. Vale.220 Turkey 1. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.750 South Korea 1.758 Russia 1. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.149 Spain World Total 64. each of which forms a bulb. although these onions may refer to any green onion http://www.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).Produce bulblets in the flower head.

The Onion Futures Act. It remains in effect as of 2009.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile http://www. passed in 1958. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.crazychefs.

It has a characteristic pungent. commonly known as garlic. Allium sativum. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. shallot. 1793. Medical Botany. and chive.[1] A bulb of garlic. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum . Its close relatives include the onion. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. leek. the most commonly used part of the plant. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. from William Woodville.crazychefs. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. known as garlic.

and for medicinal purposes. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. The cloves are used as seed. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. respectively. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. "crow garlic". They can suffer from pink root.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth.Yunnan province of China. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. with approximately 10. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the http://www. In North America. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates.crazychefs. accounting for over 77% of world output. Garlic plants can be grown close together. are common weeds in fields. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. with Russia (1. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. stems (scape).5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. The leaves. the so-called elephant garlic. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. and Allium oleraceum. Garlic is grown globally. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". In cold climates. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. The papery. according to Zohary and Hopf.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005.[5] The "wild garlic".net/ . India (4. for consumption (raw or cooked). Allium vineale.

* = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure. and parts of South and Central America. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form.000 645.000 254. including eastern Asia. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.000 221. A = aggregate (may include official.810 168. or ginger.000 142. or estimates). It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. P = official figure.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. F = FAO estimate.088. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 15. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world".000 125. southern Europe.crazychefs. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. California. the Middle East.4%). semiofficial. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. It is often paired with onion.686. south Asia. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking . Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. Southeast Asia. tomato.000 128. northern http://www.Alaska) in fifth place (1.000 325. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. C = calculated figure.400 140.

They are also known as "garlic spears". and spices. In some cuisine. and a chunky base produce skordalia. In eastern Europe. crostini and canapé.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. "stems". or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. Immature scapes are tender and edible. meat. and then stir-fried with eggs. is sweet and syrupy. or vegetables. almond. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. meats. oil. or "tops". the shoots are pickled and eaten as an . These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. and is now being sold in the United States. and roast them in an oven. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. breads and pasta. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. http://www. oil. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. garlic toast. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. called black garlic. the resulting product. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. Blending garlic. salt.crazychefs. The leaves are cut. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. In Japan and Korea. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. cleaned. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. United Kingdom and Australia. Garlic. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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garlic could be worn. ginger. Humans. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. however. shallots. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. Since digestion takes several hours. When eaten in quantity. therefore. allylmercaptan and allicin. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae).[50] In Europe. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. persillade. garden lilies. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic.[51] To ward off vampires. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". making garlic much more potent than onions. where it is excreted. included in many garlic recipes. The herb is. garlic. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. Among the members of the onion family. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. shallots. deterring animals like birds. and bananas.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. and vampires.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. and release of AMS several hours more. forming allyl methyl sulfide. usually enjoy these sensations. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. However. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. and worms from eating the plant. insects. or leeks. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. werewolves. such as pistou. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. hung in windows. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. chives. leeks. thus mellowing its . allylpropyldisulfide. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism.[48] Due to its strong odor.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against http://www. all present in garlic. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. including onions.crazychefs.

indigestion. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque".[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. sweating.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath).[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for . at worst.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. emesis. Garlic can thin the blood. antihypertensives. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. and diarrhea. are largely unknown. antiparasitic value of garlic. You can help by converting this article to prose. nausea. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. and hypoglycemic drugs.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. similar to the effect of aspirin. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. and menstrual irregularities. minimal risks to normal individuals. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. if any exist.In Daoism mythology. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. saquinavir. indicated Muhammad. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. as well as other medications. allergic reactions.crazychefs. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. In connection with the odor associated with garlic.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. However. bleeding. if appropriate. http://www. dizziness. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi".[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. calcium channel blockers. Editing help is available. and no FDA-approved study has been performed.

topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. G. 397 6. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.unigraz.jhortscib. ^ a b Lee. including burns to children. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. 112 7.html. 4. Ethiopia".) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. ^ ^ a b c d Tabor.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. Retrieved 5 June 2009. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). third edition (Oxford: University Press. 2000). et al. Domestication of plants in the Old World.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. Retrieved 5 .nj. et al. (2004). as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. (2005). one the bulbs will grow peeled. p. bigger.crazychefs. http://www. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. http://www. garlick)". http://www. 197 5.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic.natural-holistic-health.html 8. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. Notes 1. http://hdl. ^ McGee p. ^ http://www. topical use of raw garlic.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or cultivars at Debre 9. is discouraged. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. In particular. J. A bulb of garlic. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. Retrieved 2007-08-28.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came.

Lawson LD. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. J.1002/mnfr. Izzo AA (November 2007). 32. A. Accessed: December 18. 24. Daryn (2003). ^ Chan KC. Dent. PMID 9641475.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . 167 (4): 325–6. ^ Kojuri J. Sylva. 16. 2006. doi:10. ^ Borrelli F. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". Squadrito GL. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32.4. Lin RS (June 1998). ( 54 | P a g e http://www. Proc. 30.pdf.167. Nutr. 35. McFerren M (February 2007). ^ Goodbye. PMID 17123684. [2] ^ Hamel. PMID 15157944. Olcay E. Med. Arch... Güven C (2002). 29. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. 34.ama-assn..Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. et al (November 2007). PMID 17325296. Better Nutrition. 26. et al (February 2007). 104 (46): 17977–82. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. .jnutbio. 20. and Mary U. Mills RW. PMID 15277094. Aytaç B. Kavutcu M. ^ Benavides GA..325. doi:10. ^ Mader FH (October 1990). Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). Sova P (May 2004). doi:10.167. (p.S.2004. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know".10.0705710104. http://archinte. Capasso R.005. 5:109–115. 15 (6): 373–7.1162/106361403773062678. 167 (4): 346–53. July 1. R. 21. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. PMID 17966136. Paul B. 28.lehoux/Tropes. 5. http://personalpages.A 400 Year History. ^ a b Steiner M. 17.1186/1476-511X-6-5. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. Intern.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. PMID 17918162. Biochem. Ferraresi. PMID 17951430. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. ^ Gardner CD. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. N. 13. PMID 2291748. ^ Durak I. Facts. 22. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". et al (June 2004). Herald Publishing Co. 31.4. doi:10. 27. 33. Natl. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M.C. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L.200700072. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci." Int. 15. Acad. J. Med..ama-assn. doi:10. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats".): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans".crazychefs. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". Sartoratto.1002/mnfr. Chao WJ (March 2007).01. 11. 12. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition.A.1001/archinte. doi:10. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7.1001/archinte.346. "Tropes. 2005 ^ Groppo. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Yin MC. ^ Durak I. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". doi:10. P. "Garlic (Allium sativum L.1016/j. PMID 17328819. 25. Intern. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. Hyg. PMID 15218732. 19. 23. Block E. PMID 17325291. U. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado.). J.manchester. Ramacciato. and Empiricism" (PDF). Motta. Akrami M (March 2007). "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic".1073/pnas. http://archinte. Vosoughi AR.200700058. Garlic. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). A Modern Herbal. Sci. ^ Charlson M. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". Oztürk HS. Arch. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. F.

com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390. Pickering p. 58. Yoshida S. p. In Search of 62. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF).473. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. http://www. ^ John S. a stress compound from garlic. ^ a b McNally. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. Aon MA.0. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS Book 65 57. Sagi A.. 2007. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. Castro C.Vol 9 No. Nishimura S. ^ McGee p. Ali M (June 1996). Raymond T (1994). ^ Garlic . Matuura H. doi:10. 64.blogspot. 120. ^ Kodera Y. "Allixin. Iwai K. Slattery M.html 46.. Bordia T. ^ Macpherson et al. 1988. National Health Service. PMID 16207909. Sumida T. UK Medicines Information. Kominato Y.html 54. 66. 65.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65. ^ a b c d Hogg. Lau B. Jennifer (2002-12-13). p. Shishido C. Ronen M (November 2001). 40. 53. ^ Health Canada . David (2003).pdf.2005.. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". Long D.htm 44. ^ http://lem.elsevier. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea.nhs. http://aac. PMID 11600262. ^ a b c Yamasaki T.go. "Garlic burns".JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. Retrieved 2009-01-30. ^ Pickering. 4 . Passa O.. ^ Baruchin AM. Engl. Itakura Y. Agents Chemother.ukmi.1.asm.49. 310–311 47. Retrieved 2007-0707. PMID ^ a b Mayo Clinic. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. (1991-08-01).com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582. 049 . Toxicol. Thomson M. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. Yoffe B. Retrieved December 7. W. ^ http://washokufood. 49. Imafuku M. Teel R.unito. ^ Shuford JA. 43.goldbamboo.elsevier.go. 39. (1989-01-30). 85 (3): 157–64.html 45. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".". Volume 7. 37. 211 Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. http://linkinghub. Retrieved December ^ Macpherson et al. NLM Gateway.36. 41. PMID 11481410. Summer 2005 . ^ McNally p. (2001). PMC: Jordan W. ISBN 0-30436561-0. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. Chesson Fuwa T. garlic advisory 63. H.jst. "Garlic burns". ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter.. http://linkinghub. 38. on mutagenesis. http://www.1128/AAC. http://joi. ^ http://www.". ^ Bukhari. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". James. Steckelberg JM. Scolaro M.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. Patel R (January 2005). section "Conclusion" 48. Antimicrob.1099/mic. ^ http://www. Sanders N. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. 52. 49 (1): 473. 42.Garlic-in-Oil 61. http://joi. Lett. http://mic. ^ Fareed G. ^ Lemar KM.economicexpert. Nishino H. ^ Oi "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".January 29. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein . Houghton Mifflin. Microbiology (Reading. ^ Mosquito Repellents ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). Complementary Medicines Summary. 122. 2007. et al (October 2005). Sterling Publishing. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56.jst. PMID Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID 15616341. "Effect of allixin.

Campbell JH (July 1997).com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6. Selfsufficientish . Yukihiro Kodera. R. A.. Am. Block. Barzilay. M. Kozue Ogasawara.. Soc. Gardner. Ling M. J. D. 3rd ed. E.. S. (2001). G. Bull. Wang. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Chatterjee. ISBN http://www. Jain AK. Sci.References Japanese garlic. L. Block. Hamilton.. I. R. Z. Kraemer. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Lawson. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. L. Zemah.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. (1985). A. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. Balise. Simmons DL. http://linkinghub. Chem.. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. C.P. Belz GG (October 1997). Block. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". D. Z. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts.. Shan. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. Lemar. P. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". Med. (2004). A. Retrieved 1 May 2005. Am. E.. . J. D. McMahon FG (June 1993). Garlic. http://circ. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID 9247357. Williams &[青森県産]. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Isao Sumioka. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono... Masanori Ayabe.. 50. 405-407 (2002). P. Bull. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. PMID 8506890.. Vol. Breithaupt-Grögler K. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. K. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Jiro Yoshida. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42.-Z. A. R. M. H. L. Zhang. Naoto Uda. Chem. The chemistry of garlic and onions. E.. Naoki Kashimoto. Lloyd. Turner.elsevier. Block. D. Pharm. PMID 8441577. Koch. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. (1992). Hile. [3] Yukihiro 50. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. H. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent.M. Garty BZ (March 1993). Pharm. D. L. E. H. 354-363 (2002). Campbell GR. (2000). Kiazand. Gotzkowsky S. PMID 9355906. 94 (6): 632–5. Boudoulas H. 'Kyolic'. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9.Garlic. Susumu Yoshida. Hort. and H. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Makoto Ichikawa. 129: 144–151. Vol. (1996). "Garlic burns". New York: Avery.. Balch. [4] Lawson. and Related Species (Second Edition). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. J. Shafir.ahajournals.. Efendy JL. C.crazychefs.. Rabinowitch (2004). Kamenetsky. Vargas R. L. Lawson. Andy (2004).

Eid.2005. D. et al.. Marcel Dekker. Abstract. Lin RS (June 1998).com http://www. http://meta. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. PMC: 538912. PMID 15616341. SunWook Hwang. J. Kadam. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". Scribner. (eds).. PMID 8169881. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (1999). Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Antimicrob. (1997).1128/AAC. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Bernhard H. Macpherson. Shuford JA. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.1. Michael Bandell. In: Ohigashi. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". http://aac. Veena Viswanath. Agents Chemother. "The Onion Family: Onions. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". 31 (6): 904–8.49. Patel R (January 2005). Steiner M. Leeks". . Garlic.. Silagy C. 310–3.crazychefs. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". McGee. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45.Lindsey J.. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. PMID 2291748. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention.K. Steckelberg Samer R. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. Yeh. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Yeh.12. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Harold (2004). Cardiovasc. et al. S. et al. (1998). Y-Y. 49 (1): 473. Neil A (1994). Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34.asm. Mader FH (October 1990). and Ardem Patapoutian (2005).473. PMID 9641475. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. doi:10. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.S. pp. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. Geierstanger.wkhealth. Pharmacol. Y-Y.

Cloves are harvested when 1. it is called đinh hương. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. http://www. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S.5-2 cm long. when they are ready for collecting.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. terminating in four spreading sepals. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. and consist of a long calyx. Pakistan.crazychefs. and Sri Lanka. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. Zanzibar. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Vietnam. Madagascar. after which they develop into a bright .

The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. which sells Djarum Black. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. Cloves are used in cheeses. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf.crazychefs. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. but with the addition of other spices). Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. often in combination with http://www. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. it is used in almost all dishes. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. they are used sparingly.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. warm and aromatic. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. entering the kidney. In Vietnamese cuisine. along with other spices. Cloves are used as a carminative. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form.000 tonnes). it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. During Christmas. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. spleen and stomach meridians. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. but as they are extremely strong. cloves are often used to season pho broth. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered . Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands.[1] In north Indian cuisine. especially for digestive problems. In south Indian cuisine.

including cloves. Subsequently. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). most of the West Indies. vomiting and diarrhea. It is also used in severe burns.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. Brazil. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. In the late fifteenth century. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. and Tidore. were highly prized in Roman times. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. Makian. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. including stomach qi downward. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. and Zanzibar. pimples etc.[7] . Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. Ayurvedic herbalist K. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). mainly from the Maluku Islands. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. Khalsa. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. including for multiple sclerosis." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan).The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness.[5] In West Africa. RH (AHG).com http://www.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson.[6] History Until modern times.[7] Cloves. along with nutmeg and pepper. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne.P. Moti. Ternate. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese.

pg. methyl salicylate (painkiller).html Tilotson. Andrew and Page. kaempferol. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. ^ Balch. Steven Clavey. Jack (2004). ^ a b Turner. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. and eugenitin. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. James. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. ^ http://www. ^ Dorenburg. crategolic acid. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7.nlm. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and several sesquiterpenes. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". Vintage Books. Erich tannins. Erich Stoger.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". 8. stigmasterol and campesterol. ©2000. 2. rhamnetin. comprising 72-90%. xv. due to the high price of importing them. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. ©2003. Third Edition by Dan . 3. gallotannic acid. 5. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. ^ http://oneearthherbs. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.crazychefs. Avery http://www. Special Diets for Illness 6.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. Third Edition by Dan Bensky.[8] Notes and references 1. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. Karen... Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. Alan.nih.tibetmed. http://www. triterpenoids like oleanolic pp. the flavonoids eugenin. John Wiley and Sons Inc.htm.squarespace.html National Institutes of Health. Steven Clavey. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Spice: The History of a Temptation. 3rd ed. Medicine Plus. and Andrew Gamble.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ^ "TibetMed . Phyllis and Balch.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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while Lederer et al. 5. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. Vaishali C. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. http://www. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. Retrieved 8 June 2009. ^ International Organization for Standardization. f.atypon-link. 6.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise".crazychefs. (2005). http://www.2005. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Ines et al. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -.) -.703. Retrieved 8 June doi:10.5555/jaoi. PMID http://www. http://www.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al.htm?csnumber=19183.htm?csnumber =4844. et al. ^ Louisa Lim. (2006).1542/peds. . NPR.3.Botanical nomenclature".2004-0058. f.iso.chinaios. ^ Joshi. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". ^ Lederer.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1.88. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 4.1021/jf058156b.Specification". "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". ^ International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 8 June 18 May 2009 2. Retrieved 10 November. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. http://www.

[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. native from the east Mediterranean to East India.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum http://www.crazychefs. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.net/ . cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.

The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. the story goes. maduru. being oblong in shape. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. Kerman. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. in Iran and Central Asia. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. longitudinally . In Arabic. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . including kamūnu in Akkadian. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. cumin is known as kimyon. cumin is known as zireh. locally called "Kermun". The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. parsley and dill. in Turkey.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages.crazychefs. in northwestern China. a member of the parsley family. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Northern India and Nepal.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. and yellow-brown in colour. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian http://www.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. cumin is known as ziran (孜然).

cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23).com http://www. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. In South Asia. India. Morocco. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. In Sri Lanka. Tajikistan. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. have been dated to the second millennium . 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. Uzbekistan. and Chile. today it is mostly grown in Iran. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. when added to hot milk and consumed. Seeds. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. and this practice continues in Morocco.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. Turkey. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today).crazychefs. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. Syria. Egypt. Mexico. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony.

and bahaarat. It is an herbaceous annual plant. Pakistani. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. Indian. but are smaller and darker in colour. popular in Indian. Cuban. enchiladas. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. and borne in umbels. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. sofrito. pinnate or bipinnate. North African. and is found in achiote blends. The flowers are small. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. Northern Mexican cuisines. containing a single seed. and in some traditional breads from http://www.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. thread-like leaflets. Sri Lankan.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. Today. white or pink. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. Middle Eastern. curries. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. It is traditionally added to chili. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. either ground or as whole seeds. tacos. adobos. curry powder. garam masala.crazychefs. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. Contrary to popular belief in the US. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde).net/ . and other Middle-Eastern. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. Cuban and Mexican-style foods.

579 mg Vitamin B6 http://www. It is grown from seed.crazychefs.435 mg Folate (Vit.24 g 22. it is drought-tolerant.7 mg Vitamin E 3.Sugars 2. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. hot summer of 3–4 months.Dietary fiber 10.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates .25 g .saturated 1.5 g Fat . It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well. B2) 0. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.very common in Mexican cuisine. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. However. Cultivation of cumin requires a long. well-drained soil.33 mg Vitamin K 5.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.81 g 8. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. and needs . B3) 4. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.27 g 17. sown in spring. 64 μg 44. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.

v. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per . caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". as in 'kot' . Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. In Swedish.crazychefs.). to eat.a cat and 'kotek' . In Polish the difference is even less significant. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi).8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. For example. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. Not related to curcumin.a small cat). from the Swedish word "spisa". However. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). a chemical found in turmeric.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. lighter in colour. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the http://www. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it.Zinc 4.

www. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. ^ "KMN.1302. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). 3. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.arsgrin. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. Lu et al. ^ Growingtaste. Nicola S. and Carum carvi L.aca. 2. ^ "Kamū ^ a b Wang.05.2009. .gov. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. Essential Oils".com/html/fcumin. (2005). Domestication of plants in the Old (2009).foodreference. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L.313. 206 5. doi:10. ^ a b Iacobellis. Retrieved 2008-03-13. http://www. et al. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". ^ http://www." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition).crazychefs. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. p.1002/ffj. ^ a b c Li.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. doi:10. third edition (Oxford: University Press.77. 7.1016/j. 2000). doi:10." premiumwanadoo. 2000.030.1021/jf0487351.".html 6. from China". 9.

Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal .

Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). and galangal. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic.crazychefs. medicine. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. cardamom. and citral) have also been identified. West Africa and the Caribbean. antipyretic and antibacterial properties.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh http://www. cineol. shogaols and gingerols. or spice.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. In laboratory animals. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. sedative.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are .

It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. and Aduwa in Nepali. Additionally. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. and ginger beer. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. ginger ale. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1.crazychefs. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in http://www. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. Inji in Tamil. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. particularly gingerols and shogaols. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Ginger has a sialagogue action. Allam ( ) in Telugu. to which honey is often added.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. and tender green chili peppers. enchi in Malayalam. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. Adrak. which makes swallowing easier. For storage. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. In South India. [edit] Regional use In India. in Tamil Nadu. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. stimulating the production of saliva. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many . or frozen for longer term storage. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. ghee. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. crackers and cake. cookies. especially in the Tanjore belt. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and sugar. Alay in Marathi. nuts. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. Ginger is also made into candy. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. in Gujarati. salt. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka.

In the Ivory Coast. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). ginger is ground and mixed with orange. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. http://www. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. In the Caribbean. a type of ginger beer. In Vietnam. In China. In the traditional Korean kimchi. ginger snaps. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. In Japan. during their occupation of the islands. parkin and ginger biscuits. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. and making drinks such as sorrel. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. ginger is called gyin. is made. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. and a variety of nuts and seeds. In Burma. In Arabic. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped . Greece.crazychefs. However. In Western cuisine. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. gingerbread. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. On the island of Corfu.

[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. including warfarin. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. which several scientific studies support.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica . morning sickness and chemotherapy. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. though studies been inconsistent. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. cough and http://www.crazychefs. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. though it does interact with some medications.

people use ginger for making tea.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. and although it's generally recognized as safe.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. In China. clotting. belching and nausea. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement.[14] In Congo. In Indonesia. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. ginger can cause heartburn. In India. and individuals who have had ulcers. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. particularly if taken in powdered form. reducing "winds" in the blood. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding . In the United States. In Burma. in food etc. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. which is considered a panacea. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. bloating. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. http://www.crazychefs.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. and heart rhythms. it is considered good for a sore throat. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger.

Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or washed and scraped. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. Nepal(~11. it is immediately scalded. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming.7%).000 F 177. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff.crazychefs. produces black ginger.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). followed by Indonesia(~12.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow http://www. Scalding. which has slipped to the second position (~20. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. Traditionally. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes.5%). in order to kill it and prevent sprouting.000 158. now leads in global production of ginger. replacing . Production trends India.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. but this generally reduces its value. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. washing and scraping gives white ginger. with over 30% of the global share.

net/ . semiofficial or estimates). and its root has similar aromatic Galangal is also called Thai is also known as "wild ginger".ars-grin. Also referred to as galangal.270 http://www. Retrieved 2008-03-03. Asarum canadense.arsgrin.000 8. a carcinogenic compound. www.crazychefs.000 28. is used in cooking and medicine. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".000 57. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). http://www. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan .000 34. F = FAO estimate.contains ginger material References 1. A = Aggregate(may include official.000 42.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. but it is not related to true ginger. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . The plant also contains aristolochic acid. the flower buds are the part eaten. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138.

13.uspharmacist. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. http://www. PMID Retrieved 2007-08-02.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ ^ Chen.01. Harold (2004). 8.1016/j.cambridge. ^ http://www. 5. http://unitproj. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. Kim Farrell. 3.2006. (2006). Kathi Kemper. http://bja. doi:10. 9. Ali Taghizadeh et al. David Kiefer. "Ginger". Sheng-Chu Kuo. Retrieved 2007-0808.umm. http://timeblog. 7. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397.013. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger".). 4. MD. Susan (2007-01-15). ^ Al-Amin.1021/jf071460f.523. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. & MSt. Tin-Yun Ho. M.mayoclinic. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. 11. Shih-Lu Wu. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666.7.2. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://archfami. New York: Scribner pp. Retrieved 5 November.html. "Beverage of Champions". ^ Al-Achi. Li-Jiau plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". MD. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-08-02. http://journals. Retrieved 2007-08-06. MPH (1998). Jaw-Chyun.. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006).6. Retrieved 2007-08-02.cfm?displayID=15. (2007). "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".amaassn. PMID .H. ^ Jakes. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. 425-426.foodchem.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). ^ McGee.ucla. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). 14. & Pittler. 15. MD. http://www.html.1001/archfami.oxfordjournals. Zainab M. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. et al. http://www. E.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats".crazychefs. Retrieved 2007-08-02. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". ^ Afshari. 10. (01 Mar 2000). 12. Retrieved 2006-09-06. doi:10. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. ^ MD O' Hara.

The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. Zingiberaceae. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. and to impart color to mustard condiments. slightly bitter. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Erode. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. In medieval Europe. for dyeing. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. For these .

such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). cereals. yellow cakes. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. custardlike yellow color. ice . etc. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. and mustard. such as in pickles.crazychefs. In non-South Asian recipes. Although usually used in its dried. powdered form. yogurt. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. but also in masak lemak. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. cake icings. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. popcorn color. orange juice. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. Turmeric City. and many http://www. or Textile City. Over-coloring. turmeric is also used fresh.[citation needed] Sangli. sauces. much like ginger. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. not only in curry. relishes. biscuits. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia.Yellow City. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. rendang. dairy products. gelatins. sweets. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. Japan. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. http://www. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. winter butter and margarine. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. Within one week of using turmeric.In combination with annatto (E160b). salad dressings.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties.crazychefs. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. are spiced with turmeric. is also treated with turmeric powder. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). and other digestive disorders. burns and bruises. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. yogurt. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. dry mixes. It is unknown why it works. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices.[4] cancer. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. a traditional dish in South . and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. an uncurable and debilitating disease.

Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. Snake Bite Anti venin. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. John‘s Medical College.S. multiple myeloma.crazychefs. Bangalore. found in black pepper. and colorectal cancer. improves the absorption of turmeric. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. and the U. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. and Pakistan. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. Alzheimer's. Bangladesh. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. research activity into curcumin is exploding. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. with no adverse effects. which supports nerve growth. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. In 1998 researchers at St.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake .Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th http://www. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. or BDNF. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine.

In southern India. such as saris. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. This happens in economically lower situations. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. Also. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. and it is used for power and purification rites. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. and coconut and cooked in steam. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. However. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. part of the Bengali wedding.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. but anecdotal evidence suggests it http://www. as a part of the marriage ritual. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants.crazychefs. During the south Indian festival Pongal.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure).[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. jaggery. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like .

07.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) . ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". | accessyear = 2009}} 3. Retrieved ^ Chan. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . Joy D. Majeed M. http://www. ^ http://www. (2009). Rajendran ^ http://news.6E) et al.C. http://www.172. www.1016/j. keto and enol. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as Judy] (June 2009). Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. a polyphenol. Planta Med. ^ [|Ketteler.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect.foodchem.090.2008. The systematic chemical name is (1E.crazychefs.ars-grin.W. Notes 1. or Natural Yellow 3.stm 5. 64(4):353-6. 6. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1998 Srinivas 2. E. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution.5-dione. Retrieved June 2009. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".de Shoba http://www. 75300.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.ars-grin. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain" Joseph T. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance.6-heptadiene3. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. doi:10. AOL Health.

The nut is round. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana ( . hence its name. 10–20 centimetres (3.6–2.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) http://www. also known as Candleberry.9–7. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). which allows its use as a candle (see below). the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. with an acute apex. Indian walnut.9 in) long. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. simple and ovate.4 in) in diameter.crazychefs. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Kemiri. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. Euphorbiaceae. flowers. 4–6 centimetres (1. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). The leaves are pale green.) Willd. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics.

In Sumatra. In Malaya. giving them greater underwater visibility. swollen joints. In Hawaiʻi. is quite different. pounded seeds. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. the nuts. The flavor. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. burned with charcoal. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. Outside of Southeast Asia.crazychefs. are applied around the navel for costiveness. On the island of Java in . darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. fevers. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. a varnish with the oil. as the candlenut is much more bitter. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. ulcers. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻ http://www.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. lit one end. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. including: leis from the shells. and gonorrhea. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. In Java. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. leaves and flowers. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. they are mildly toxic when raw.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. This led to their use as a measure of time. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. however. named kukui were burned to provide light. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light.

ripe nuts. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. University of Hawaii Press. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of 2.[5] In Tonga. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. http://books. 4. Retrieved 2009-03-06. and the husband was eventually killed.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). p. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. the god of agriculture. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. Beatrice H. ISBN 9781573061377. 26. 50-51. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. Lilinoe Andrews. tukilamulamu. Liana I. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. ISBN 9780824822514. Being a kind and just Bess Press. http://canoeplants. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade.). .used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of p.[citation needed] References 1. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. ^ Dunford. "Chapter 4: Canoes". http://books. ^ Scott. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 5. Julie Stewart Williams (2002).com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a. she was given new life. One of the legends told of a woman who. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. University of Hawaii Press. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. 122. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. Betty. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. used as soap or shampoo. despite her best efforts to please her husband. Mikiala Ayau. Susan. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. protection and peace. pp. Craig Thomas (2000). Finally.crazychefs. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. This larva is eaten by some people. ^ "Kukui". was routinely http://www. still In plantations. (1993). A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. ^ Honda.html.

Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Kannada:meNasu. Peppercorns. Telugu:miriyam. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. known as a peppercorn when dried. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. containing a single seed. . . However. . cultivated for its fruit. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. . Konkani:miriya konu. red pepper (as in bell or chile).crazychefs. The terms pink peppercorns. unrelated plants. may be described as black pepper. dark red when fully . The fruit. Malayalam:kurumulaku. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. and very often simply http://www. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. white pepper. green pepper.

having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. including decortication. the spice is called black peppercorn. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. French poivre. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the http://www. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper . the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical.[4] In the U. In the 16th century. with the skin of the pepper removed. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water.S. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. wrinkled black layer. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting.. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. Once dried. this was shortened to pep. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper.crazychefs. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. in the early 20th century. and other similar forms. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. White pepper consists of the seed only. chemical or biological methods. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. Dutch peper. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. and the naked seed is dried. often alongside table salt. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer.

such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. Fresh. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. with a bright aroma.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which are the fruits of a plant from a different . Schinus molle. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. from Bangka Island. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. also green. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product.Black. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. is made from the unripe berries. the Peruvian pepper tree. Pickled peppercorns. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. made from the largest. unpreserved green pepper berries. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. green. are used in some Asian cuisines.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. Schinus terebinthifolius. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. largely unknown in the West.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. which is mostly no longer an issue.crazychefs. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. particularly Thai cuisine. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius).[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". like black. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour.

trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. or trellises.crazychefs.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. The cuttings are usually cultivars. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. poles.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. The leaves are alternate. and before the fruit is mature.[11] Black pepper is native to India. moist.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. but when full grown and still hard. It is a spreading vine. and ultimately fall off and are lost. the berries lose pungency. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. The flowers are small. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. entire. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year.[12][13] Within the genus . Competing plants are cleared away. then the peppercorns are stripped off the http://www. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. well-drained and rich in organic matter. if allowed to ripen. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation.

The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long . Chile peppers.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good.crazychefs. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. In fact. its most important source was India. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. particularly the Malabar Coast. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. in what is now the state of Kerala. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times.[14] J. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money.

Sumatra. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Black pepper. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. Sunda.Until well after the Middle Ages.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. Malaysia. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. Madagascar. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. barged to Alexandria. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. growing in the north-western part of http://www. By the 16th century. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but these areas traded mainly with China. this trade advantage. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. Long pepper. changed the course of world history. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. probably made black pepper less popular at the . or used the pepper locally.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. nor how it reached the Nile from India. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. Trade routes of the time were by land. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas.crazychefs. pepper was also being grown in Java. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. Returning from India. the Middle East.

sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . who travelled east to India. is fifteen denarii per pound. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. four. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. seeing that in other substances which we use. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. clad in a wrinkled cover. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million http://www. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes.. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. pepper was a luxury item. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. it is sometimes their sweetness. if expensive. especially Venice and Genoa.[22] In addition.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. After the fall of Rome. Edward Gibbon wrote. Yet within I bear a burning marrow.. and of . and the luxuries of the table. 12.H. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. seasoning in the Roman Empire. the banquets of kings. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. I season delicacies.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. Apicius' De re coquinaria. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. while that of white pepper is seven. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. affordable only to the wealthy. first the Persians and then the Arabs. whereas. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. Once into the Mediterranean.crazychefs. Similarly. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. There is no evidence to support this claim.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. and the prices reflected it. I wonder. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N.

In the 17th century. Pepper harvested for the European trader. A depiction of Calicut. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. the effect is small. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. has some antimicrobial properties. In 1498. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. his representative replied. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. as well as around Africa. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. Pepper. and salt-cured meats were common fare.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. especially in winter. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice http://www. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. "we seek Christians and spices." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. However. Today. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats.

black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. joint pain. but if this estimated 10. as well as she could for sneezing. was often the preferred medication... indigestion. gangrene. Note the cook's pepper . but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper.[26] By the 12th century. Like many eastern spices. oral abscesses.000 pounds (4. lung disease. including long pepper. hoarseness. earache. however.[25] In the 3rd century CE. Long pepper. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. heart disease. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". being stronger.crazychefs. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. hernia. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". each load being equal to 223 lbs."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. insomnia. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). insect bites. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. but both were used. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. diarrhea. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. either long or black. liver problems. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine.

beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. sabinene. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. Refined piperine. limonene.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. chapter five. irritates the nostrils. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Some sources say that piperine. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. Few. causing the sneezing. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. The outer fruit layer.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. and toothaches. a mildly carcinogenic compound. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. which is stripped of the fruit layer.[31] Also. tooth decay.[29] Pepper is known to cause . There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. a substance present in black pepper. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. vitamin http://www. milligram-for-milligram. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. and floral notes.sunburn. which give citrusy. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. woody. and linalool. caryophyllene. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole.[31] As a medicine. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. left on black pepper. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. if any.

com http://www. As of 2008. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. The price of pepper can be volatile. Thailand (4%). India. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are.[35] By weight. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. are used for this. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders").[33] Once ground. Malaysia (8%). so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness .000 t (299. the most widely traded spice in the world. India (19%).000 short tons). but has fallen to just over 271.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 t (391. Brazil (13%). Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). and China (6%). Sri Lanka (6%). most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998.crazychefs. for example. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. by monetary value. dispensers of pre-ground pepper.

Retrieved 6 November ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. 10. http://www.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. from Penzey's Spices. p 94. 13. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Compass Point Books. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN".da. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 17. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either.htm. Retrieved 13 November 2005. ^ Dalby Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. 2. Retrieved 2008-01-29. ^ Translation from Turner. 93. Retrieved 17 October 2006. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. disease and weather. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's . Vietnam dominates the export market. 5. PMID 11302858. ISBN 075653836X. 1969).000 t (99. Text online. 19. ^ Ochef. Using fresh green peppercorns. http://www. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). Egyptian Pharaoh.ars-grin. 83 21.poor crop http://books. 18. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90.efloras. M. Retrieved 12 August 2006.crazychefs. www. 7. 3. p. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus".pd Alejandra (2001). 4. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). ISBN 0375407219. http://www. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". 6. 2006-1120. doi:10. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. Warrior. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. The Hindu Business line. The Spice Trade. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. http://www. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-03-02. Black pepper is marica. Gernot (2006). p. http://www. Spice. 11. ^ a b ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep.amjbot. 80 16.2307/2657072.000 short tons). Flora of 88. using almost none of its production domestically. 9. 200803-27. ^ Katzer. ^ Innes Miller.[36] Notes 1. ^ Peppercorns. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 8. and Builder. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). 12.M1. ^ J.thehindubusinessline. Random House. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9& http://www. Ramses II. Innes Miller.

ISBN 0600-60235-4. ISBN 9781580084178. 428.worldbank. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash s_20080515_01. 32. also Turner pp. 31. Alan (2002).com http://www. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. Dangerous Tastes. http://books.1046/j. p. 156. Duke (1993-08-16).karvycomtrade. ^ U. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires.S. ^ a b James A. 2005.pdf. ds/IndiaSpices.2000. "Mill". 34. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". Hamlyn. ^ Dalby p. OCLC 47231315 50747863 Steven (2004). ^ a b McGee p. Jaffee." 24. 74–75. 2008-05-15. Retrieved November 12. http://siteresources. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). ISBN 0520236742.html. "Spices. pp. Andrew (2002).accesstoinsight. 23. ^ Jaffee p. Davidson. G. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. 36. ^ Jaffee p. 171..crazychefs. 33.x. p. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. 35. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . 726. 12. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Cambridge University TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. Deans (2000). 30. table 2. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". ^ H. References Dalby. Karvy Comtrade Limited. Prosper (2001) .org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2/bmc2. 26. D. Buddhist Monastic Code II. Larousse Gastronomique. 10. 29. 2.22. http://books. 204. 77. 160. Dover. Retrieved 108–109. ISBN 0849336201. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Why does pepper make you sneeze?.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". ^ Turner p. 25. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). 27. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. ^ Dalby p. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. Berkeley: University of California Press. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. doi:10. 395. Dorman and S. ^ Montagne. purchase required.pdf. J. ^ Turner p.00969. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). http://www. ^ Dalby pp. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. Retrieved 2008-01-29. ISBN 0521367085. CRC Press. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. Full text at Blackwell website. Vol.

pp. ISBN 0375707050. "Black Pepper and Relatives". 427–429. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. London: Vintage Books. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Turner. Harold (2004).crazychefs.McGee. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum http://www. Spice: The History of a . Scribner. Jack (2004). OCLC 61213802. OCLC 56590708.

green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B1) 0.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.Sugars 2.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.40 g . including red. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". sweet.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80.Dietary fiber 1.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0. B2) 0. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.64 g 0.17 g 0.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.224 mg Folate (Vit. B3) 0.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. Peppers are native to .057 mg 4. yellow. Central America and northern South America. green and orange.Pepper. Today.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian http://www. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.

although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions.g. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. or "piment. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. in Dutch. like pasta. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the word ピーマン ("pîman." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). Indiana. Sweden. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. Malaysia and New Zealand. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. "groene paprika". were a highly prized condiment. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. It is eaten with fried noodles. and Pennsylvania. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. "gele paprika". but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. respectively). meaning Bulgarian pepper. such as Australia..Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. With the similar meaning. Across Europe. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. " In Japan. http://www. the term "paprika". " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). When cut off. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. "green pepper"). which has its roots in the word for pepper. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. meaning Big pepper.crazychefs. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". In Norway. regardless of their color. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". "red pepper". hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. they are called "capsicum". In British English. instead of using as a spice. At that time peppercorns. In the United States and Canada. meaning pepper-fruit. "Miris" is Chilli. an unrelated plant. which are green and yellow. In parts of Ohio. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. the fruit of Piper nigrum. India. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. In France it is called "poivron". Bell peppers are botanically fruits. . In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable.

The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. yellow or orange peppers. violet. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". in http://www. more rarely. red. white. maroon. aqua. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. It is eaten as a raw snack. in various soups and stews. orange and. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. rainbow. pink. black and brown. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. . depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. blue. yellow. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. Varieties The color can be green.

[1]) is a hybrid mint.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2].com http://www. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita. balsamea Willd.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. The .[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ indigenous to Europe. ^ http://www.crazychefs. also known as M.

6 in) cm . producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. fleshy. 72.59–1. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins.31 in) long.5–4 cm (0. it can grow anywhere. he treated it as a species.24– 0. it is usually sterile. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. and bare fibrous roots. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. blunt spikes. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. noted since 1843[8]. with a few exceptions. 6–8 mm (0. dark green with reddish veins. 84.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. square in cross section. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. Flowering is from mid to late summer.20 in) diameter. including stream sides and drainage ditches. spreading by its rhizomes. The flowers are purple. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. The rhizomes are wide-spreading.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. forming thick. with smooth stems.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. If placed.5 in) long and 1. Being a hybrid. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. with 2n counts of 66.6–3. and 120 recorded. The chromosome number is variable.

thus promoting belching. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. and toothpaste.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around http://www. chewing gum. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. confectionery. and is often used as a flavouring in tea.1.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.net/ . which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. ice cream. particularly menthyl acetate. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery.crazychefs.[10] Similarly.

Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. [18]. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content.[12] Outside of its native range. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. the Galápagos Islands. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. Leaves wrinkled. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. Eau De Cologne Mint). Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. which they then call "after-dinner mints. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. In addition to that. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20].taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. it is advisable to plant it in a container. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases.[13] and in the United States. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. Stems reddish. A mild. hairless. It needs a good water supply. [16]. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. [21].[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground http://www. If you choose to grow peppermint. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. New Zealand. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. Leaves aromatic. Foliage lime-scented. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden.crazychefs. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. and it is considered invasive in Australia. as a natural insecticide." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily.

(1975).2007. et al. page 640. ^ Cappello. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 .[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . http://whqlibdoc. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. Retrieved 3 June 2009. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4.. ed. 6. M. http://www. Flowers open from bottom up. ^ Harley. Mentha L. G. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. A.006..who. ISBN 978-1563636783 10. M. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". (1992). ^ ed. doi:10. 5. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines.02.glu. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. C.1016/j. C. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. (1753). A. ^ World Health Organization.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. In: Stace. (2007). Mehmet (2004). 4th Edition.crazychefs. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ ^ a b Akdogan. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. a popular confection. 9. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530– http://www. ^ a b Blamey. 2. (1989).ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. Retrieved 2009-02-07. R. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". ^ a b Huxley. & Grey-Wilson. Thomson Healthcare.dld. ISBN 0-34040170-2 . C.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. 11.. 7. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.

Valerie Howland (2006). Bienvenu (1999).257.D.224. F. 19.. Retrieved 3 June. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide.. 17. 25. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ 27. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 .org/books/629/629_21. Retrieved 7 June 2009.E. Derek R.1071/AP99036. S. and Mentha spicata L.1023/A:1006185103897. http://www.sagepub.219. ^ Adamovic. Plant Cell. ^ International Organization for .sagepub.28. http://tih. 23. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". ^ Akdogan. doi:10. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . http://www. Bienvenu (1998).16. Retrieved 6 June 2009. 18. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)".sagepub. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . on kidney tissue in rats". http://het.iso. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita". Retrieved 3 June. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita (2007). "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. http://www. Retrieved 8 June 2009.. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". ^ Farley. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev. F. 21.actahort. paraquat.S.actahort. ^ International Organization for Standardization. http://www.. Zheljazkov.)".2740311104. Retrieved 3 June. ^ Akdogan. ^ Sharma. J. doi:10.htm?csnumber=11633.iso.159. Frédéric et al.iso. ^ a b c Jullien. Retrieved 6 June 2009. Mehmet (2003).crazychefs. Retrieved 3 June. Mehmet et al. 24.1151. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 . http://www. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint".com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats".interscience.1002/jsfa. doi:10.htm?csnumber=4844. D. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". Ambika et al. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 . (2004).htm?csnumber=32041. et al. 26. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita 20. Australia". http://www3.htm. ^ International Organization for Standardization.wiley. Retrieved 7 June 2009.10): 119 . Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . V. ^ Edwards.Specification".

to the Alliaceae family. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. also sometimes known as Allium porrum. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. the elephant garlic and kurrat.Gay The leek. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum http://www.) J. Allium ampeloprasum var. Two related vegetables.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.).crazychefs. porrum ( . are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is a vegetable which belongs. although different in their uses as food. ampeloprasum var. porrum (L. along with the onion and garlic.

overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored.crazychefs. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn . and overwintering leeks. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. intended for harvest in the season when planted. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. to be planted out as weather permits. Once established in the garden. leeks are hardy. Hilling leeks can produce better http://www. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. and they have few pest or disease problems.

which turns it soft and mild in taste. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. but. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. Raw. due to the layered structure of the leek. The tender core may be eaten. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and . In its raw state. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick.Cuisine Leeks for sale. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. which can be used in salads. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. as the leek ages. Lamb is the most popular. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. although less bitter than scallion. carrots and potatoes and different meats. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. Fried. The onion-like layers form around a core. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. along with leek soup. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). the vegetable is crunchy and firm. It has a fresh smell similar to http://www. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk.crazychefs. Leek has a mild onion-like taste.

C. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.233 mg Folate ( .Sugars 3.E. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.9 g . B1) 0. B3) 0. as well as other recipes with leeks.E.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.8 g Fat .3 g 1.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.saturated 0. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.C.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.Dietary fiber 1.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor http://www. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.crazychefs.04 g . B2) 0.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. 83 μg 14. In her book.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.polyunsaturated 0. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B. as well as wall carvings and drawings. who consumed it most often in soup.15 g 0.monounsaturated 0. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.004 g . onwards.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.

for example.12 mg recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. you .com http://www. David‘s Day. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. According to one legend. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton.crazychefs. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. representing Wales. good countryman. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the play.Vitamin E 0. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. Shakespeare.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2.

com http://www. Domestication of plants in the Old World. 2000). ^ Guiliano.. 1978.Notes 1. (Penguin Books. . ^ Jane Grigson. French Women Don't Get Fat. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. third edition (Oxford: University Press. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.p. 3.crazychefs. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. Knopf.

Celery.Sugars 2 g 3g . dulce) or celeriac (var.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2 g 0. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates . with fewer than 100 individuals http://www.Dietary fibre 1. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable.6 g Fat Protein Water 0.

onions. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. as celery salt. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). Celery. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. and small rodents. Celery is a staple in many soups. Celery. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun . and in Old Bay Seasoning. 30 AD.In temperate countries. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. squirrels. Actually very small http://www. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. often used as a base for sauces and soups. onions. horses. dogs. celery is also grown for its seeds.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. birds. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. on the Chicago-style hot dog. such as chicken noodle soup. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries.crazychefs.

Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. for people with celery allergy. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. even in trace amounts. Celery contains androstenone. However. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. however. have to be clearly marked as such.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. foods that contain or may contain celery. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. M. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be . father of the Cabeiri.[8] In the European Union. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. Lemnos and Thebes. In Homer's Iliad. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. at Kastanas. they note "since A.crazychefs. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to http://www. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). making avoiding such foods difficult.

and its seeds are those sold as a spice. and the most crisp and tender.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria.5–2 mm long and wide. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose.. borrowed from Greek. many of which differ little from the wild species. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. the whole plant having a coarse. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. cracks. sweetish. apium Italicum.[14] With cultivation and blanching. 2–3 mm diameter. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. seleri. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by http://www. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. but the leaves may be used in salads. 1. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. earthy taste. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. due to extremely uniform crop growth. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. In North America. at our Great Mens tables. produced in dense compound umbels. insect damage and rot). from the Latin selinon. straightness and thickness of petiole. Under optimal conditions. . on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. The plants are raised from seed. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). and Praetors feasts. white and red.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. They are ranged under two classes. as the Grace of the whole Board". celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.. In the past. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. and a distinctive smell. fields are harvested only once. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. splits.crazychefs. The flowers are creamy-white.

(Laurentii Salvii).17:1697-1699. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.shtml. ^ Bublin M.ucdavis. ^ OED. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". http://www. Domestication of Plants in the Old World.. http://www. gentle handling. Western Journal of Medicine 158. Heiner DC. ^ Cantwell. 15. Holmiae. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia.L.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). ^ D. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. 16. 2.crazychefs. 227. p. s. Retrieved 2008-03-04. M. Ko SN.. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". Thayer translation [1] 4. Retrieved Celery and Negative Calories 6. ^ Celestin J. (3rd ed. West J. 10. . ^ William Robinson and W. 13.46. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). Scheiner O. and proper sanitation.. ^ a b Fragiska. ^ R. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. P. (2005). Post-harvest technology research and information center. C (1753). Kraft D. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. ^ "Smallage". Thomson. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. Natural History XIX.[16] References 1. et al. 11. "Celery".com/edible.nsf/pages/smallage. http://postharvest. 14.practicallyedible. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. de Medicina. 9. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality".edu/Produce/ProduceFacts/Veg/celery. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. Lee LG. Hopf. Zohary and M. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. ^ Calcium sources 7. 12. ^ snopes. ^ Pliny. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. Species Plantarum: Tomus I.v. ^ Celsus. 1920).202. 3. (2002-06-10). T. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. 2000) p.6 (June 1993): 610-611. ^ Teng CM. Suslow. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. Wilson IBH. 8. Radauer C.

21 g . granulated Nutritional value per 100 g ( http://www.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars. see sucrose.crazychefs.91 g .98 g 0g 0g 0. (Discuss) For other uses. Sugar. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.Sugars 96. B2) 0. For the common table sugar. Magnification of grains of sugar.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.Sugars 99.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0. see Sugar (disambiguation).01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .net/ .

Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. sorghum. and in many other sources. honey.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. It forms the main ingredient in . mainly sucrose.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. B3) 0. B2) 0. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.77 g Thiamine (Vit.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.Water 1. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet.082 mg Vitamin B6 0.026 mg Folate (Vit.crazychefs. but also appears in fruit. B1) http://www. obesity and tooth decay.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sugar maple (in maple syrup). lactose. and fructose.

A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. Scientific http://www.) The Greek word for "sugar". the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. and texture) of beverages and food. "dextrose". generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. In a list of ingredients. Spanish and/or Italian. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey".[4] It came to English by way of French. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. In this informal sense. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity.) will likely denote a sugar. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). means "pebble". 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. zahari. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). (Compare the OED.crazychefs. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. Generically known as "syrups". Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". molasses or treacle. Etymology In the case of . Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. such as glucose. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. the Spanish word azúcar. etc. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). "fructose".Popular In non-scientific use. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. including palm sugar and fructose. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. the Italian word zucchero. preservation. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions).

3. plus sugars naturally present in honey. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. raw sugar. Sugars include monosaccharides. important molecules in the body. Natural sugars come in fruit. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. making the sugars reactive. has a "missing" oxygen atom. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form.containing 1. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all.Culinary sugars Grainier. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. A notable exception. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . as its name .com http://www. deoxyribose. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively.crazychefs. cook or consumer. syrups and fruit juices. 2. This includes all the sugars referred to above. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. disaccharides. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption.

so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. producing invert sugar. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. proteins connected to one or more sugars. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. with less than 0. including NADH and ATP.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. In these closed-chain forms. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. fructose. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. After digestion and absorption. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. sweeter than the original sucrose. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose.water (H2O) per bond.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. or DNA. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. glucose. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . If combined with fine . creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. Note for example glycoproteins. which has the formula C6H12O6. which form part of nucleic acids. and galactose. This resulting syrup.made from one glucose and one fructose). Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. which uses deoxyribose as a http://www. sugar will burn with a blue flame. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. lactose (milk sugar . 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Monosaccharides include fructose.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). which is made of glucose. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. galactose and mannose.

Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. Cambridge: Woodhead. Joseph and Mike Carlson. ^ International sugar statistics http://www. ^ scientificpsychic. ISBN 1566398320. Glyn (2004). Sugar link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. OCLC 51837990 84251137.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. 1996. James. The International Sugar Trade." Powder and Bulk References Adas.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. ISBN 063205476X. 5.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. Blackwell Publishing. OCLC 44493265. Sugarcane.illovosugar.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology .The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6.Bulk Density Chart. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. A C Hannah. g/ml Beet Sugar 0.crazychefs. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan." http://men. ^ "Engineering Resources .70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. History of Science and Technology in Islam. Temple University Press. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.htm 3. Michael (January 2001). ^ Wuebben.webmd.80 g/ml Notes 2.

The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. Products for industrial use (e. especially in the Netherlands. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. without mixing them separately. Brown sugar contains from 3. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of . This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. sugar beet molasses is used. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. http://www.crazychefs. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. Although in some areas. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. It is. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. for light brown sugar.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.35 mm." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6.25% of the total volume). This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses.

apart from pure carbohydrate. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. History In the late 1800s. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. Nutritionally. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar.crazychefs. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown http://www. as opposed to white sugar.[2] John Yudkin.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. much like adding molasses would do. In other applications. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 . which did not have full control over brown sugar production."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The effort was so successful that by 1900.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. in his studies (cited in "Pure. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar.[1] However.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). White and Deadly" .

6. Demerara is another unrefined.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. 4.crazychefs.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. References 1. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado . Retrieved 2008-09-20. crystals. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". http://www. ^ New Scientist. light brown. giving it a higher mineral content. where sugar cane was grown. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an ^ Levenstein. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made.csrwire. which is heated and evaporated to a thick http://www.wholesomesweeteners.".html. centrifuged.htm#bm07. but most is now produced in Mauritius. Harvey. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar.wildernessfamilynaturals. Retrieved 2008-09-20.fao. 2003. cane sugar.php?id=3026. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar".3 fao. 3. Retrieved 2008-09-20. light brown. http://www. Some Demerara is still produced in South America.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. largecrystalled. an island off Africa. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. Muscovado. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California which is then crystallized. 2. 7. 32-33 5. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals.htm#sugarmade. or Demerara sugar.1. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. resulting in the characteristic on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes.

including humans. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but toxic to most land plants. It is a crystalline solid. Chloride and sodium ions. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong.[citation needed] Conversely. which some use to prevent caking. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. and iodized salt.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. the two major components of . Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. pale pink or light gray in color. white. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. refined salt (table salt).crazychefs. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. including high blood pressure. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride http://www. . the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. in the millennia before then. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. as were salted birds and salt fish. especially for meat. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). salt provided the best-known food preservative.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.crazychefs.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. the caravans still transported some 15. In 1960. however. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. and the dye Tyrian purple.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi.000 tons of salt.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.

Hallstatt. God sent down four blessings from the sky . (Judges 9:45.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. though incorrectly. taking their names from hal(l)-." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error.Salzburg. a root for salt found in Celtic.crazychefs. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. the Hallstatt Celts. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). Greek. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. and Egyptian. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". water.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha".[1] It is widely. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. Halych in Ukraine.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. who had heretofore mined for salt.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted.[citation needed] The root hal(l).fire. In many Pagan religions esp.also gave us Gaul. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. began open pan salt making. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. During the first millennium BC. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". as it avoided paying the "salt tax". the Roman exonym for the Celts. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. salz. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn . both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it.) In the Sermon on the http://www. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. which was illegal under British rule. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". the earliest being the story of Lot's wife.

crazychefs. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. In Aztec http://www. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. such as in Sumo Wrestling.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian . Halite.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt.

completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. natural sea salt harvested by hand.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products.crazychefs. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. which are kiln-dried. which is most widely used presently.[12] However. Today. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In recrystallization. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. and the making of soaps and detergents. and thus is rarely http://www. food uses account for 17. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. and is now often called sea salt or solar . Injected water dissolves the salt. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. One example are bath salts. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. Purification usually involves recrystallization. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics.5% of salt production. Refined salt. giving each one a unique flavor.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts).[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. After the raw salt is obtained.Different natural salts have different mineralities. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. is mainly sodium chloride. Fleur de sel.

calcium silicate. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. Some people also add a desiccant.154 g/cm3. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate.[29] However. and calcium aluminosilicate.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. and a bulk density (dry. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] .165 g/cm3. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. calcium or magnesium carbonates. sodium aluminosilicate. Single-serving salt packets.crazychefs.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb .[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. condiments such as soy sauce. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. however. fatty acid salts (acid salts).[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. but was determined to be unnecessary. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. magnesium oxide. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. Table salt has a particle density of 2. silicon dioxide. . which gives the table salt a yellow color. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. specifically endemic goiter. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. In France. The reason for this is unclear. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. fluorinated table salt is available. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. even fatal.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. and myxedema in adults. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). sodium iodide. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. with insufficient salt intake. In Canada. magnesium. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. especially important for pregnant women. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. which can cause severe. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. or sodium iodate. In the United States. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. potassium. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. or even an electrolyte disturbance. which can cause goitre. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. cretinism in http://www.[31] Today.[32] Another additive. iodized salt is more common in the United States. neurological problems. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body.[33] Drinking too much water. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm.

Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. since salt was quite valuable).[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. forced salt intake. the risks have been exaggerated for most people.[38] heartburn." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy." ([41] p3). Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. p18) However.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] .person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia).[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK." ([41]." ([41]. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. salt consumption is higher.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. It can exacerbate renal disease. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. can cause hypernatremia. combined with an inadequate intake of water.crazychefs. such as in treatment of dysautonomia. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real. in Japan.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. independently of blood pressure effects." ([44]. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be http://www. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. for a typical adult. but achievable population goals. such as the Yanomami in South America. have been found to consume little salt. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day ( http://www.[50].net/ . Some isolated cultures.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy.crazychefs. A salt mill for sea salt. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. SACN states. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium.6 g or 70 mmol sodium).[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns.

). which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. LoSalt.8 g salt) per day. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. When other health claims are made about a food (e.g. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High).300 mg of sodium (= 2. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium.5g salt per 100g (or 0. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute.[51] In the United States. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. One manufacturer.3 g sodium = 5.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. without recourse to salt substitutes. which will increase potassium intake. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. Low is 0.[57] In March 2007. calories.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. "low". etc.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet." In the UK.'[55] Campaigns In 2004. Those who have kidney failure.6g sodium). Australia. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. Amber (Medium). These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. low in fat. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.1g sodium).The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI).3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a . then that is a medium level of salt. or Green (Low).com http://www.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia.

Germany (17. and Hall in Austria. http://www. 1913. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium http://www. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. and Canada (12. 4th edition".com.9). such as brine wells and salt lakes.7).5). ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. Costs can reach staggering amounts. 4. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. Triamterene. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). called halite. China (32. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Catholic Encyclopedia. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 5. 3.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. 7. http://en.3 million tonnes).3).[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. 6. Eplerenone and Inspra. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. In 2002. ^ "Salt". India (14. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/ their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. Notes 1. Answers. 2.answers. and by mining rock salt. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. Dytac. the top five producers being the United States (40. Retrieved 2008-12-14. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone).

^ References on food salt & health issues. ^ HE-620 16. 5379.crazychefs. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. Science. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". ^ a b http://news. http://www. ^ Iodized Salt 31. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. Fall/Winter 2006 10. 14. salt manufacture. Retrieved Curriculum 18. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. Ask a Scientist. . ^ Salt made the world go round 17. ^ Iodized Salt 32. ^ Table 27.wiley. ^ B.pdf 33. J. Vol. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia.9% sodium chloride 25. Mason (2006-12-19).htm. ^ Roskill Information Services ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1.afssa. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet Transportation Research Board. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". Kuemmel (1994).5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt salt uses. 898 .htm 19.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. http://www. 14 August 1998. salt history. 2008 29. pp. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. Epikouria Magazine.newton. ^ David A. Salt Institute. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.907 37. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. salt history. no. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans".co. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. 281. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. 28. Victoria) Salt Retrieved "The (Political) Science of Salt".interscience. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.stm 38. 12. ^ ^ What is Salt?. ^ Nauticus . salt manufacture. sodium. Salt Institute.htm 15. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. http://books.saltsense. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. Managing roadway snow and ice control ^ Gary Taubes. 10. salt uses. ISBN 9780309056663. Retrieved 2009-0708.

. 47-50. ^ U. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. Further reading Kurlansky. OCLC 48573453.legalmed. The Mummies of Ürümchi.005 48.1002/0471238961.healthandwellbeing. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. http://www. Sodium 52. doi:10. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. New York: Walker & Co. ISBN 0393320197.1016/j. ISBN 0802713734. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. Schindler. D. BMJ. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. Mark (2002). Mark. Salt: A World History. NY: G. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44.P. (accessed13 January 2007) 49.1915040902051820. ^ Understanding labels 55. Published online 2005. 28 January 2008. OCLC 62. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). 2007. Sodium chloride. ^ Salt Matters 60. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. Friedrich Schulz.334(7599):885. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. New York. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. Inc. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. ^ Salt TV ads 59. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk.. Erwin Koops. John Wiley & Sons. Barber. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". New York: W. ^ Cook NR. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. 7. Putnam's Sons.crazychefs.hyp. Obarzanek E et al. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57.40.06. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia.pub2 References Kurlansky. 2006. The Story of Salt. Norton & Co. Feldman. Legal Medicine 2005. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. ^ Susan R. and S.W. Victoria) Fluid retention .guardian. doi:10. 61. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. Cutler

Department of Health. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . http://www. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Pierre. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch.crazychefs.Laszlo. Arts and traditions of the table. Salt: Grain of Life. The Stationery Office. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . New York: Columbia University Press. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters .talk by Dr Trevor Beard.

as well as in neighbouring countries. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. mainly Kerala.crazychefs. Vietnam. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It can also be found in India. phrik khi nu(lit. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. Malaysia. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: .com . Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. phrik thai. such as Cambodia. the Philippines and Singapore. found commonly in Thailand. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). Indonesia. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes.

but are more frequently seen in Thailand and . "Big things come in small packages.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine.000 on the Scoville pungency scale." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies.000 to 100. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant." which can best be described by the English equivalent. the chili padi is relatively strong at http://www. Although small in size compared to other types of chili.crazychefs.

net/ . It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. Thai hot.As well as the Malay word. orange. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. phrik khii nuu ( . African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. and among the group of capsicum annuum. has peppers that point upward on the plant. Thai). Ladâ. and then" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'.wikipedia. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). The more decorative. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). and go from green to http://www. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. but slightly less pungent variety. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en.crazychefs. creating a rainbow effect.

Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. usually mashed. Unlike other root vegetables. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. gratins and baked dishes. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to http://www. it can also be used on its own. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. which store a large amount of starch. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or used in casseroles. It has a tough. furrowed.crazychefs. Celeriac has a celery flavour. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. It is a kind of . about the size of a large potato.

Sugars 1. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in http://www. rinsed.Dietary fiber 1.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out.3 g 1. Celeriac.2 g . Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and 'Kojak'. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw . 'Diamant'. There are a number of cultivars available. 'Ibis'. Celeriac soup.6 g 9.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.crazychefs.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. especially in Europe. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Among them are 'Prinz'.

aubergine. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. and see text The eggplant. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India.crazychefs. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus .Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. The stem is often spiny. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). As a http://www. The flowers are white to purple. It bears a fruit of the same name. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

1500 . flower The plant is native to India. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). but much larger in cultivated forms. and contains numerous small. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. In Indian and South African English. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. In the Caribbean http://www. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. The fruit is fleshy. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. derive from Persian and Sanskrit.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia." Aubergine and brinjal. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. The name aubergine. History Solanum melongena. The name eggplant. which is used in British English. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids.crazychefs.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. from Arabic al-badinjan. New Zealand. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. soft seeds. used in the United States. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. Australia. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. which are edible. the fruit is known as a "brinjal.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE.

Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di . Burpee Hybrid.crazychefs. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. in white skin Dourga. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. and Tycoon. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. or white. http://www. Ichiban. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. There are even orange varieties. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. whiteskinned. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. shape and color. Black Magic. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. and Black Beauty. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. Classic. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Some cultivars have a color gradient. slightly pendulous cucumber. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. A much wider range of shapes. especially purple. green. Pingtung Long. Dusky.

as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. complex flavor. It can be sliced. and deep-fried. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. as in the French ratatouille. or Eggplant Parmesan. In Bangladesh. tahini. the Arabian moussaka. and masala and then cooked in oil. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. The fruit flesh is smooth. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. allowing for very rich dishes. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. battered. In some parts of India. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. and garlic. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. In one dish. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. so that peeling is not required. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. tomatoes. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as . as in the related tomato. or tamarind. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. it is called Begun ( ). but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. along with the fish Hilsa. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. and achaar. for example. peanuts. tahini. curries. http://www. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. as they are far less bitter. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. braised (紅燒茄子). In the Caucasus. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. In Iranian cuisine. As a native plant. It is often stewed. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. It. The thin skin is also edible. for example in sambhar.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. rice. or other fillings and then baked.

and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. For this reason. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). flea beetle. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. containing both female and male structures. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. and potato. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. and spider mites. the most serious of which is Verticillium. Flowers are complete. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. aphids. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. showing the inside. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. Egypt. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing.) between plants.crazychefs.) between rows. depending on cultivar. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. This is called Beguni ( ).) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. such as tomato. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being http://www. are also troublesome to eggplants. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. pepper (capsicum). with 85 percent of output coming from three countries.) to 60 cm (24 in. (Adults can be removed by .covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated.

B2) 0.35 g .Dietary fiber 3. New Jersey is the largest producing state.7 g 0. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.crazychefs.19 g 1. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data. P = official figure.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.039 mg 5.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.043. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.Sugars . semi-official or estimates). B1) 0.[5] In the United States.( http://www. F = FAO estimate.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .

but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.crazychefs.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.[8] On average. B3) 0. However. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant.16 mg Manganese 0.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed].[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been . B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. while 1. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.084 mg Folate (Vit. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0.01 mg/100g). A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential http://www.Niacin (Vit.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Brazil. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.

album. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. aethiopicum. Names for various eggplant types. ruber. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. Solanum oviferum Salisb.C. trongum. variegatum. Dunal. that of Blanco to S. giganteum. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. Solanum longum Roxb.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. stenoleucum. racemosum. ovigera. There is an actual S. edule. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. On the other hand. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. luteum.crazychefs. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S.F. insanum.Varieties Solanum melongena . oblongo-cylindricum. Similarly. esculentum. which used to include Dunal's S. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. leucoum. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. such as agreste. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. and (invalidly) by Sweet.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. globosi. divaricatum. subrepandum. S. H. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. violaceum. rumphii. racemiflorum. ovigerum and S. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. mainly by Dikii. violaceum and viride. brownii. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. inerme and subinerme at that time. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. http://www. Scopoli's S. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St.-Lag. aethiopicum. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. capsicoides). inerme. esculentum. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. But this is not correct.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. lasiocarpum. multifidum. tongdongense.

^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". ISBN 1574445510. common.crazychefs. Technology. S. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Handbook of Food Science. Footnotes 1. and Engineering by Yiu H. CRC Press. Hui (2006). . (2001).Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). ^ Doijode. 2.

Tsenge Demana. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables.* YP Venkatesh. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). Harish Babu * . Vol. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. Erich Hornbach. http://pubs. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". 18(1): 59-62 .org/site/567/DesktopDefault. Robert (2008-11-14). [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. Arq Bras http://www. Bruno Caramelli. 7. P. ^ Gerth van Wijk R.50(2):101-102 11.pdf. 6. ^ Kabashima K.caes. A. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2004. P. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. N. Retrieved 2009-07-01. FAO.) reveals female predominance. ^ Health24.fao. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. ^ "FAOSTAT". Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. ^ Solanum melongena var. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). volume 82 (nº 3).Aubergine 8. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. Domino. Volume 329:437 August 5. 273-6.uga. Toorenenbergen AW. ^ SN Pramod. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. pp. 2008 10.crazychefs. ^ Westerfield. http://faostat. 1993 Number 6 9.133(42):2081-3 12. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 5. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. Mahesh † and Y. ^ Edward F. Andréa Thomaz. ^ B. Ebury Press. Miyachi Y. Dieges PH. 202 4.

[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. The tomato is native to South America. with a serrated margin.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height.crazychefs. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. One species. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. and have a weak. It is a . Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. yellow. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S.8 in) across. woody stem that often vines over other plants. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. see section Fruit or vegetable below). they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together.4–0. syn. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. odd pinnate. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum http://www. Solanum lycopersicum.

The exact date of domestication is not known.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. ancestor of L. and cultivation began in the 1540s. means "wolf-peach". Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. such as Florence. a mutation from a smoother. However. lumpy tomato. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. lycopersicum. in certain areas of Italy. cerasiforme.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. an Italian physician and botanist. likely to be the original salsa recipe. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. was the first European to take back the tomato. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. smaller vegetable . Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. The specific name. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. a http://www. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas.crazychefs. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by . though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. who named it pomo d‘oro. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. the other by currant tomatoes. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. corn and salt. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. now Mexico City in 1521. meaning plump thing with a navel.[6] Gerard's Herbal. However. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tomatl.[4] The large. according to Smith. They also took it to the Philippines. golden apple. earlier in 1493.

The Spanish tomato dish. California. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. In Victorian times. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. The C.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. and as a garnish. Gerard's views were influential. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. By the mid-18th century. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. Paella. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop.[6] .[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. British consul in Aleppo c. and to the market gardens south of Chichester.crazychefs. Over the past 15 years. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. but the fruit is safe). Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and in general. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. sent some seeds back to America. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. Thomas Jefferson. broths. who ate tomatoes in Paris. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. and before the end of that http://www.M. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. particularly Florida and California. Charles M. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets.[6] But by the mid-1700s. The University of California. Currently. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. ―within the last forty years.largely plagiarized from continental sources. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. most famously in Worthing. Rick. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. 1799 – c. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups.

4 in) diameter range. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. China. about 5mm in diameter. green. through cherry tomatoes. they are known as plum tomatoes.[12] According to FAOSTAT. pink. Most cultivars produce red fruit. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions.4–0. black. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. the largest producer.crazychefs. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible .6–2. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. purple.0–2. It may be deleted after Friday. For processing tomatoes. orange.S. production and 35% of world production. or white fruit are also available. but a number of cultivars with yellow.8 in) size as the wild tomato. accounted for about one quarter of the global http://www. and have a lower water content. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. followed by United States and Turkey. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. 18 September 2009. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0.0 in) diameter. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. California accounts for 90% of U.

their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. plum tomatoes.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and.[18] and productivity. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications .[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. and are shaped like large strawberries.[19] Hybrid plants remain http://www. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various . as well as heirloom tomatoes. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. As in most sectors of agriculture.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. but unlike commercial hybrids. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste.crazychefs. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. along with zucchini. based mostly on shape and size.

some tomato cultivars . There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. brown. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate".[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. http://www. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. and purple.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. including yellow.produce fruit in colors other than red. which usually discourages fruit set.cherry tomatoes are small and round. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. Black Krim (lower left corner). hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. often via mail-order. Red Boar). but must be bought as seed.especially heirlooms . these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. and lack of mealiness. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. they are often good choices for container growing. Determinate. Green Zebra (top right). While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. ivory. or home growers interested in canning. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. disease and pest resistance. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. As an intermediate form. low acidity. etc. et cetera. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. Lucky Cross). Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. white. A variety of specific .crazychefs. including Brandywine (biggest red). or bush. pink. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. Burracker's Favorite. although some determinate heirlooms exist. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. multiple colors (Hillbilly. but are smaller than plum tomato. black.

One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants.tobacco mosaic virus. whiteflies. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. aphids. but manure or compost work well. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. N nematodes. In the wild. original state. F .crazychefs. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. tomato fruitworms. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. too. slugs. cabbage loopers. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance.fusarium wilt strain I & II.verticillium wilt. flea beetles. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. cutworms. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. As the name implies. FF . carried by the beet leafhopper. entirely within the closed corolla. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. The stamens were. red spider mite. As a floral device to reduce selfing. T . tomatoes required cross-pollination. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. which interrupts the lifecycle. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. and remain.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs.alternaria.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. The most common letters are: V . their traditional pollinators. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes.fusarium wilt strain I. and A .com http://www.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions.

wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. as with most species. In an outside setting. This is not the same as self-pollination. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. However. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. Unripe tomatoes are firm. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. depending on variety. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so.crazychefs. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. by cultured bumblebees. or more often today. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They may be recognized by their color. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future .became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. In more temperate climates. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the http://www.

They contain lycopene.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. carotene.crazychefs. anthocyanin. as tomato http://www. Though it is botanically a berry. especially in cooked tomatoes. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars.6 g 4g . there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. in pieces. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. In some studies lycopene. or paste.Sugars 2. a subset of fruit. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue).2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. and other antioxidants. The tomato is acidic. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich).net/ . and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried.Recently. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

annually celebrates La Tomatina. These hairs facilitate the vining process. Embracing it for this protest connotation. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if . When that tip eventually stops growing. lateral buds take over and grow into other.make salsa. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[28] In October 1965.5 °F). But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). Tomato plants are dicots. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. fully functional. Determinate types are annual in all climates. The fruit is also preserved by drying. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. it will not continue to ripen.crazychefs. meaning covered with fine short hairs. initially decumbent. whether because of pruning or flowering.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. Spain. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. generally three feet tall or shorter.5 °C (54. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. although erect bush varieties have been bred. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. often by sun. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some http://www. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. and grow as a series of branching stems. Known for its tomato growth and production. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. or pickled. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. Most tomato plants have compound leaves.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. They are bred to continue ripening. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. Of regular leaves. there are variations. vines.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. such as rugose leaves.

i.Karst. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. other insects. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. 'lyco'. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. However.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by . angora leaves. This is because they are native to the Americas. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum.. moths. Therefore. according to type. tobacco. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. peach. Technically.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. and be dried/fermented before germination. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato).deeply grooved. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. chili peppers. Similarly. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. with both names found in the literature. making the Linnaean name correct. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. would be more correct.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. plus 'persicum'. or other external forces that present in the Americas. very small cavities. Other species in that family are potatoes.) H. As a true fruit. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. Some smaller varieties have two http://www. (derivation. butterflies. among cultivated species. Despite this. called locular cavities. which frequently used it and still do). wolf. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. These vary. variegated. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. However. "wolf-peach"). appearing on the apical meristem. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum).crazychefs. genetic evidence (e.[31] Their flowers. have the anthers fused along the edges. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry.. while paste tomatoes have very few. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities.e. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls.g. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five.

pest tolerance. However. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. The U. corporations. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. North Carolina. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. As noted above. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. Corporations including Heinz. shape. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. Hedden (149 U. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. universities. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. University breeding programs are active in Florida.S.S. U. Bejoseed. etc. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. BHNSeed. together with its seeds. http://www. and numerous other traits. cucumbers. color. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. In 2006. as are vegetables. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. Livingston.S. a tomato is the ovary. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. from a culinary standpoint. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v.W.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. flavor. U. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. Ohio. 304)). Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. Oregon. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. size. of Reynoldsburg. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. However. In 1887. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. Monsanto. AVRDC. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern . based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. New York. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. nutritional value. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. 1883. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. disease tolerance. and organizations. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s.S.crazychefs. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose.

On October 30. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. Vermont and Wisconsin. New .crazychefs. Connecticut. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. contain the poison Solanine. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). Maine. Virginia. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. which is toxic to humans and animals.S. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Tennessee. Rhode Island. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). Pennsylvania. Michigan. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . Kentucky.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. however.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. Speakers from the British Isles. Minnesota. Georgia. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. North Carolina. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. The fresh fruit is. Massachusetts. 2006. harmless.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. Indiana. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. the U. http://www. stems.

[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. UK.000 kilograms (250. 2008. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). French and Germans.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. with a harvest of more than 32. in 2000. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. respectively. with 49. New Mexico (98). Florida. 2008. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa.[38] As of July 8. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38.1 reported cases per million. one would arrive at an estimated 40. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.84 pounds (522 kg). Lancashire.crazychefs. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far. of the cultivar 'Delicious'.6:1). such as raw . the District of Columbia.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. the U.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. and Arizona (49).com http://www.S. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and fresh cilantro.7 and 16. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. it caused at least one death. Oklahoma in 1986. Yong Huang. fresh serrano pepper. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. China. fresh jalapeño pepper.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.8 m (65 ft) length. and Canada. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. Illinois (100). It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. from April 10. 40. 2007. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.273 illnesses from this outbreak. On August 30. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz).151.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. Lake Buena Vista. As of July 2008. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death.

Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. indeterminate.crazychefs. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry.S. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small.S. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. Fusarium.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to http://www. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. Derived from Cherokee . http://www. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato fruit. Tomato slices. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Young tomato plant. Tomato Flower.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de . in Korea. Tomato plants in the garden. pickling. good for Tomatoes on a vine. .Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Yourarchives. et al. Footnotes 1. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. http://www. I.nationalarchives. webpage: books-google-TTp17. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History.aspx?PageID=567 14. The tomato in America: early history. Universityofcalifornia.The East Hampton Star . section Lycopersicon Mill. p. Archives". p. Retrieved Tgrc. http://yourarchives.smithsonianmag. ^ Acquaah.universityofcalifornia.smithsonianmag. 13. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Appletons' journal Published by D. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. 519 [1] 9.fao. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. ^ "Killer Tomatoes ..smithsonianmag. 1881. ^ "http://www. 6. D. Retrieved 2009-04-02.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. 7. ^ " Retrieved 2009-04-02. During the three months of the local harvest. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". ^ "UC Newsroom. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. culture. & Spooner. 8. ^ a b Hartz. Andrew F (1994)" See: Natural History Museum. ^ a b bid/6280/Default. Subsection Lycopersicon).com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. http://tgrc. Cyphomandra. Easthamptonstar. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Columbia.html". 2009-01-26. Retrieved December 11 2009. it handles more than 1. Peralta.. Processing Tomato Production in California. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). ^ "http://www. http://www. E. M. 223 10. 2002-05-08.crazychefs.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. Appleton and Co. (1994) . page 57: ". T.. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. 2. and Cookery. USA: University of South Carolina Press. http://www. University of Illinois Press. Andrew F." 15. The Tomato in America.Food & Wine".C. (2002). ^ http://faostat.M. 1876. S. New Jersey: Prentice http://www. October 26. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Normania. ^ The Friend. http://www. ^ Tomato history 4. 5. (2001). ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo .html. Smith. (2002-0508)".html". and cookery. ISBN 0252-07009-7. A. and Triguera are nested within Wettst. Retrieved December 11 2009. 11. ISBN 1-57003000-6.five tons to the acre.17.nationalarchives. Culture.

Retrieved 2009-04-02. http://www. Sinaloa. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa".smithsonianmag.Tomato". Retrieved http://www.html. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. http://wwwplb. http://www.smithsonianmag. Ohioline. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome. Smithsonianmag.gardenweb. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. HYG-5532-93". Retrieved July 14.eurekalert.html.html.html".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.smithsonianmag. http://faq. ^ "Crop Profiles . 2006. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. 30. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. fungi such as fusarium and . Retrieved ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine". Retrieved 2008-10-27.html. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips.html 23. 25. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre.gob.crazychefs. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?" which are carried in the wind.whfoods. Retrieved Storing and Serving Ohio". Retrieved June ^ "http://www. 2006. ^ http://www. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. Retrieved 200810-27. http://www. page 57: "The plants are still growing. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian 21.cornell.ufseeds.plants.cornell. Faq. Retrieved Retrieved December 11 2009. ^ ^ "Selecting." http://www. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". http://www. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. "Tomato genome project gets $1. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention".osu. ^ "http://www. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.html". 28. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. ^ http://www.stm.8M". ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".umn. Retrieved 2007-05-24. of which there are many: beetles and 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.sinaloa." 19.gob. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension.html. Retrieved December 11 Retrieved December 11 2009. 29. http://www.ncsu. Plb. 17.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44." 18. 33.ucdavis.osu. http://ohioline. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ " 22.

co. Cbsnews. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. 2004. (2004-04-15). p. Tomato Nutrition. by state". Tomato Recipe". http://www. http://www. http://www. Retrieved United States. 40. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005". Itn. http://www. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. et al. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . http://www. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". http://www. 9781879906549.html. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. Retrieved 2008-1027. ^ Voetsch. 37. Dennis R.crazychefs. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul.vegparadise. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"" California Master Gardener Handbook. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus".html?id=585498.nationalpost. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2007-08-30. ANR ^ a b Pittenger.1086/ News".html. 38:S3. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC".journals. http://www. http://itn. ^ " ^ "August 8. Cdc. (2002). ISBN 1879906546. Retrieved 2009-0721.cdc. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Foodsafetynetwork. Retrieved . http://www.shtml. Retrieved 200904-02. Retrieved 2009-0402.

Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. argentea from New Guinea. including essential oils.2 and 0. malabarica from India.6 to 0. It also grows in Kerala. both are used as adulterants of M. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). called Jaiphal in Hindi. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. called selei buah pala. In Indonesia.7 in) wide. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. a state in the south part of India. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the . and nutmeg butter (see below). native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. nutmeg and mace. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. fragrans products. and Bombay Nutmeg M. Species About 100 species. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the http://www. or Spice Islands. extracted oleoresins. or sliced finely. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit.4 oz) dried. the fruit is also made into jam. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. especially in Grenada.

Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. In Indian cuisine. and string beans. they are also used in soups. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient.crazychefs. nutmeg is called Jawzt . mulled http://www. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. "Lau Hau Peng". Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. In Arabic. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. In the Caribbean. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. Painkiller. cauliflower. and Barbados rum punch. In Penang cuisine. and eggnog. In European cuisine. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. and baked goods. saffronlike hue it imparts. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. green. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. sauces.

can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. The oil is colourless or light http://www. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. preserving agents. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. beverages. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. and sweets. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. medicines. which can be turned into myristic acid. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. and has applications as an industrial lubricant.crazychefs. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. used as flavourings. although this is disputed. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. 758 – ca. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. in toothpaste. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. It is semi-solid. for instance. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. syrups. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. reddish brown in .

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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being an amino acid.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. yeast extract.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. frozen. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. However. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. and protein isolate. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. it also said that.crazychefs. autolyzed yeast. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. hydrolyzed yeast.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing." However. particularly processed foods. based on anecdotal reports. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured . sugar beets. sugar cane.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. soy extracts. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. steak sauce. or molasses.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. About 1. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. not reproducible. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. with 4% annual growth expected. Canned. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. Fermented products such as soy sauce. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings.

7% women). References 1.g.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. (2) synthesis. For this reason. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). MSG. ^ Leung. and Cosmetics (2nd ed.". and converted to its monosodium salt.). 373-375. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. even in large amounts. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. In the hydrolysis method. concentration. and (3) microbial fermentation. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. followed by either the name of the food age 40–59 years. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food.html 2. such as hydrolyzed protein.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients.crazychefs. Drugs. Foster. and mineral ions and growth factors.2. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the 2004 version of his book. ^ http://www. On Food and . flavour enhancer). "Monosodium Glutamate". This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the http://www. acidification. [monosodium glutamate]. purified.. and crystallization.. Steven (August 2003). Albert Y.celiac. pp.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. In 1993. New York: Wiley.g. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. dextrose or citrate). 621. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Guo.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. ^ ^ "Production process".1002/chir. http://www.nutrition. ^ Walker R (October 1999). ^ a b Rundlett.html 12. Daniel W (1994). Kelly M. 10. Food Chem.17457599. Jordan (2005). http://www. ^ a b Tarasoff L. (October 2006).1038/oby. 6. Chirality 6 (4): pp. Jeremiah (August 2008).com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute. ^ http://vm. Linguang. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". "Monosodium Glutamate". Inc.ajinomoto. http://www.2005. ^ a b Geha RS. Alan R. Takehara.1006/rtph.1337. 31 (12): 1019–1035. 14. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. 8.crazychefs. PMID 18497735. Toxicol. Armstrong. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.cfsan. PMID 10736382. PMID 10597625. doi:10. (April 2000). PMID 16999713. ^ http://www. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. Beiser A. doi:10.1999.38.1525/gfc.00160.. Tetsuya.1111/j. Zhou.ncbi.. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ 1875–1880. ^ Freeman M. Nutr. et 277–282. New York Times.2006. doi:10. the Secret Behind the Savor".x. Martha L.ajinomoto. ^ http://www. Van Horn. Dongshuang. Zhao. 11. "A Short History of MSG".1002/14356007.2008.F. Zhu.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. J. Pharmacol. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". doi:10. PMID 8282275. Beifan. http://www.html 4. Dyer. http://jn.nih. doi:10. ^ He. Linda.celiac.a16 711. Shizuko (2005).pdf 9. Yangfeng. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". Kimber L. Wu. Case study: monosodium glutamate". 38–49.274.fda. doi:10. Garside. Regul. Ka. . Masahiro. 15. ^ 5. Julia (2008-03-05). Shioya. Sano. Daviglus. Yamaguchi.4. ^ http://www. Toxicol.html. ^ Moskin. Shigeru.5. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". MSG. Ren C. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. Anjimoto Co. "Yes. Chiaki.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.nytimes. (1993). Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Liancheng.nlm.jstor. "The significance of excursions above the ADI.3.

Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 豉油 Simplified Chinese . 荳油 http://www. 醬油 2. 酱油 2. 豆油 3. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. Soy sauce was invented in China. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West.500 years. water. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima.[3] In the 18th century. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. and http://www. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version.crazychefs.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). In its various forms. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. [4] By the mid-19th century.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands.

Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and . Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. such as in giant urns and under the sun.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sojae) and other related microorganisms. Although there are many types of soy sauce. http://www. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. literally "delicious taste").crazychefs. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed].

slightly sweeter. Since it is lighter in color.crazychefs. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. fragrance and saltiness. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the http://www. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". These latter two more delicate types are usually for . lighter brown soy sauce. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. consistency. one of the two types. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. In traditional Chinese cooking. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. with relatively low amounts of other grains. opaque. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. or a mixture of both. traditional Chinese: 醬油. ): A thin (nonviscous). pinyin: jiàngyóu.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). but it also adds flavour. shuānghuáng (雙璜). since it is saltier. An additional classification of light soy sauce. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. Despite their rather similar appearance. Another type. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. Korean.3-DCP (1. like extra virgin olive oil. and Chinese cuisine. It has a richer. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. Thai. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour.

"strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. It contains little or no wheat. for example . The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. Usukuchi (淡口?. that is used in its production. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). or 醤油). The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. a sweet liquid made from fermented http://www. Shiro (白?. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. Technically. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. where it is known as "shōyu".crazychefs. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

it is much darker and more strongly flavored. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the . Consequently. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except http://www. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. not pasteurized. 1 litre bottles.Saishikomi (再仕込?. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. Amakuchi (甘口?. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu".

which has a thick. powder. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy . almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced http://www. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce.crazychefs. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. It is a unique variety. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. In Indonesia. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. usually implies limited quantity. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. in a pinch. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality.

President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1.4% of soy sauce purchases. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. Malaysia. Later. (called Joseon ganjang. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. lit. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊).crazychefs. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). 조선간장. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). Founded in 1909. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. is made entirely of soy and brine. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). WanJaShan(萬家香). Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장).net/ . in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. Joseon ganjang. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire http://www. thin and dark brown in color. O'Long(黑龍). and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis.

[12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14].Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. It can also be very salty. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. salt. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. China.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. it is also a table condiment. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime).[6] Furthermore.crazychefs. wheat.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. and caramel. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine.3-DCP ( . The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. or sometimes simply tương. pronounced SOO-kah). much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. nước tương. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium http://www.

2 (January 2000). 2nd edition. http://www. http://www. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. ^ http://www.Kong and Taiwan. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. Seong-Gook (2002). ^ Tanaka. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Norio. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce").uk/news/pressreleases/2001/jun/soysaucerecall. ^ Titsingh. 4. Sinsin. ^ http://www.gmp. Celiac disease.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. p. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. .co."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare.317 2. Soon Teck• and Kang. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. Despite these being small in number in the UK.miyajimasoy.tcoc. 6. an increase over 23 to 5. (1781). Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). Golden pp. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). Press release.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat.000 times more 3-MPCD than Lee Kum Kee.[citation needed] In Vietnam. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. XXVII. III. Vol. marinades and other types of sauces. ^ Tanaka. 3. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. Golden Mark.000 to 18. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. No. ^ Jung. 2. ^ http://www. 7. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce.crazychefs. Jammy Chai. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. Kimlan. 6. Individuals with a wheat 9. that affected the brands Golden Mountain.[1] Notes 1.asp?id=7598 10." The Japan Foundation Newsletter 7. ^ In March http://www. King Imperial. including six samples with up to 11. OCLC 9752305 5. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. Retrieved 2008-01-07. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. Retrieved 200801-07. Isaac. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. Pearl River Bridge. p.

p. Makio (2005-04-18). ISBN 0632059877. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". Retrieved . Hoboken. Fereidoon. doi:10. ^ 15. scares hit Vietnam 20. PMID 16198255. et al. ^ Daniells. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". fermentation and micro-organisms. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. Florence. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 14. 103. Food. 18. Kentucky: CRC Press.1263/jbb. http://www.crazychefs.48. nutraingredients. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. 12. Charles W (2005). Edition 2. 13.144. chemical veggies -. ISBN http://books. 16. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. ^ Shahidi.11. ^ Toxic soy sauce. Marian (2003).com http://www. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. ^ Stephen (2006-06-06). 186. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. Somboon (2002-06-18). ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones.2323/jgam. PMID 12469319. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.100. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. Naczk. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". ^ Kobayashi.

5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 211 | P a g e http://www.4677–1.0–83.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.5 °C) 84 cP 1.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.8% Behenic acid: <0.5–21.3% Myristic acid: <0.5% Linoleic acid: 3.0% Palmitoleic acid: .0% Stearic acid: 0.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.0% Arachidic acid: <0.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.3–3.5–5.5–20.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.9180 (@ 15.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9150–0.crazychefs.

000 tons of olive oil annually. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. principally Italy.6 million tonnes. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Japan and China. Olive oil is used throughout the world. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. Leccino Pendolino. cosmetics. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. pharmaceuticals. In 2006. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. Picholine. Olives are grown for oil in Greece.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. family Oleaceae). in Greece. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. Alberquina. Hojiblanca. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. in France. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms).[1] It is commonly used in cooking.crazychefs. World production in 2002 was 2. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. and Moraiolo.[3] Of the European production. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. Koroneiki.4680–1. North Africa and the Near East. which produce approximately 350. as well as in Crete. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. and Manzanilla de Jaén. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern .6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. 93% comes from Spain. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. but especially in the Mediterranean. Italy and Greece.6 (refined and pomace) 0. Australia. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: http://www.

and Turkey. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. The USDA uses a different system. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. still contains a small quantity of oil. IOOC terminology is precise. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. a private trade group. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. by its chemistry.000 m3) came from Italy. with 23 member states. and monitoring authenticity. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. The US imported 47. http://www. often in "prestige" packaging. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). in Portugal.000 US gallons (131. of which 34.crazychefs. in Croatia. Spain.000 US gallons (181.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. After extraction the remnant solid substance.800. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). Mission. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. and by its flavor. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. Oblica and Leccino. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. Spain.California. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. with production increasing to meet demand. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy.[7] The United States is not a member of the . In North America. The California Olive Oil Council. called pomace. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil).000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest.600.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. defining quality standards. Galega.

particularly in Italy. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation.[14] In March 2008. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. both in Italy and abroad. it is believed.crazychefs. however.[14] In February 2008. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. defined as the percent. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. for blended oils. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids).[15] Under EU rules. of free oleic acid it contains. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print.[12] In some cases.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive . stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. product as superior olive http://www. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior.[16] In April 2008.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. but safe. is extremely lax and corrupt. and by heat. 25. measured by weight. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. EU officials took issue with the new law. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. but there are no guarantees. mostly hexane. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. Almost 700 people died. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation.

Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. In order to classify it by taste. This is also called its organoleptic quality. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. The U.crazychefs. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a http://www. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. These grades were established in 1948. It is fit for consumption. contains no more than 0. has an acidity less than 2%. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides.8% acidity. another cause of rancidity. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. and is judged to have a superior taste. Pure olive oil. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. expressed as oleic acid. of no more than 1. and are based on acidity.the oil degrades. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants.S. The US is not a member.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing . It has a free acidity. of not more than 0. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. Used on salads. and is judged to have a good taste.3 grams per 100 grams (0. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. but may not be described simply as olive oil.5% acidity. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. absence of defects.

Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.S.0% and is "fairly free from defects".5% and is "reasonably free from defects". These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.S. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. which may be as low as 10-15 °C. Grade D or U.S. Grade B or . Grade C". "cold" does not define any precise temperature.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. Grade C or U. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.crazychefs.S.4% and is "free from defects".S. (34 kJ/ml). U.S. U. First of all. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning.S. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. with less flavour.S. This is incorrect.S.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. U. Grade A or http://www.U.

it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13.pressed". The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. around 0. Portugal and Lebanon. around 8 .crazychefs. Spain and Italy.1 1. over 26 liters per year.1 0. Northern Europe and North America consume far less. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label.35 23. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced http://www.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide.7 11.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. so the term "first press" is meaningless.2 7 1.62 12. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. Tunisia.8 7.7 l. around 14 l.

the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). which is much faster and more accurate. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). 1. not in the oil mills. and overripe olives produce rancid oil.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. then placed into the press. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. After grinding. Green olives produce bitter oil. suggesting a different taste. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. After grinding.34 1. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. If ground with mill stones. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. 3. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. 4. The paste is then pressed by http://www. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. 2. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents.crazychefs. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. This is done in specialised chemical plants. which are stacked on top of each other in a . Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. no or very little organoleptic defects). Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity.

region.monounsaturated 73 g .net/ . most notably oleic acid.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). The composition varies by cultivar. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.5 g . including oleocanthal and http://www.7%) and sterols (about fat 3. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.polyunsaturated 11 g .5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat .Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. In the United States.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3. altitude.crazychefs.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. To achieve this possible fat <1. and extraction process. time of harvest.

During the first stage.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. This way. For example. at least in part. It is theorized that.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 . a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. and oleuropein. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. The study was conducted in two stages. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. During the second phase. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. This could. antithrombotic.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. 2004. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. in the long term. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.This decision was announced November 1.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily http://www. rather than its fatty acid profile. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke.crazychefs.

net/ .Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean http://www. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Also. For example. In time. as available in an oil producing region. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. etc.[citation needed].crazychefs. blenders. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. oils deteriorate and become stale. A very fresh oil. Also. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. Used cold. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. like salads. not for foods to be eaten cold. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. cookware. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils.

acting as a stool softener. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the http://www. It does have demulcent properties.crazychefs. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin .Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. It is also good for the management of pain.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. and mild laxative properties. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil.

olive oil. and O. from L. drawn and engraved by J. elaion "olive tree". Homer called it "liquid gold.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. Mod. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. from Anglo-Fr. olive oil" (cf. It. olio).Fr. from Gk. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. soap-making.N. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oile (12c. olive oil has been used for religious rituals.Fr.. from . magical. oleum "oil.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. Besides food.Fr. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". medicines. huile). athletes ritually rubbed it all over their http://www. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. as a fuel in oil lamps. olie.crazychefs. and skin care application." In ancient Greece. 1175.

[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium . Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times).[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.crazychefs.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. olive presses became common. In the centuries that followed. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. Bodrum.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC).[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 http://www.

Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization.000 and 3. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. he maintained.[citation needed]. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. allowing more time for more oil to be made. According to the historian Pliny. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine.000 tons of olive oil per season. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. oil containers are preferred. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy.. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. Lebanon. stored in special containers. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. together with naked appearance of athletes. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. According to legend. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male http://www. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. the fertile crescent. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states.over 4. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. wrote of abundant olive trees. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. "the best in the Mediterranean". and Israel. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. where it is thought to have represented wealth. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. during the 13th century BC. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. Sinuhe. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD.[46] Until 1500 BC. Although candles can be used to light the .[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. and area consisting of present day Palestine. when the oil had risen to the top. drained the water from the bottom.crazychefs.[dubious – discuss] During this time. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia.

Margaret Lindstrand (2005). Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. the tourch is in a glass bulb. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth.usda.crazychefs.imitate the original Menorah. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. light upon http://www. http://www. ^ USDA. and. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick).gov/nass/pubs/agr05/ Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. 3. 5. Retrieved 2007-05-25. In Islam. its oil almost glows." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. and this secure city. ^ USDA. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the . ^ International Olive Oil Council. in the consecration of altars and churches. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. 2. Olive Production Manual. "The Olive Tree. Retrieved 2008-07-04." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). References 1. p. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism.internationaloliveoil. http://findarticles. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. 4.gourmetretailer. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. traditionally. Louise".com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. http://www. neither Eastern nor Western. ^ "findarticles. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. Retrieved 2007-05-25. ^ G. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). even without fire touching it. Joann L Coviello. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. Steven Sibbett. and the Mount of Sinai. http://www. originating from King David. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash.html.PDF. To douse the flame. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. ANR Publications. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath.

http://www. 124 (6): 903–15.telegraph. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-11-16. http://aje. Tabacchi. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. 55 (3): 175–86.internationaloliveoil.phrs. ^ Riding. and Maurizio La Guardia. 18. 21. ^ Mueller.usda. Pharmacol. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.23/. 2004. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. ^ "www.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 12.1016/j. Tripoli. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/".co. ^ a b McGee. S. 7. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). ^ Keys A. 16. (December 1986).com".uk/news/main. John. Menotti A. ^ "www. Di Majo. PMID 3776973. et al.ams. Retrieved 2008-11-09. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud 24. 11. Retrieved 2008-11-16. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. http://www.htm". Res. M.eubusiness.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam .Telegraph".oxfordjournals. D. 17. 19 CFR 134. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. ^ Durant. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. http://www. J. 2007-08-13. ^ "EUbusiness. ^ a b "Telegraph article". 19. November 2. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil".uk/news/main. Dennis. J.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/". Alan (1989-05-21). 25.scotsman. News". Giammanco. http://www. doi:10. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10.southafrica. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". http://query. Epidemiol.010. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26.internationaloliveoil. 15. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. 13.). . ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. ^ New York Times. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". ^ "Eubusiness.23/. http://www. The New York Times (H. 10.html. Tom.xml.2007. http://oliveoilonly. 23.xml. Slippery Business The New Yorker. PMID 17321749.6. http://www. US Customs Department. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. Raymond & Co.4005000. http://news. Karvonen MJ.01. 20.

" ScienceDaily 14 August 2007.Telegraph". 55 (3): 680–6. Gruendel S. De Castro A (February 2007). s. 2085-2090. PMID 15830923. Toshinori Bito. Israel".com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36. Dello Russo A. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. ^ "www. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. 21 (1): 45–52. 38. 11. ^ Romero C.. M : Osawa. ^ Rosenblum. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. (January 2007).crazychefs. A : Wu. 39. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. 19. et al. Osamu Nikaido.61. Vol. Faseb J. p. Masato Ueda.telegraph. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. PMID 17263460. Ahmed. Guida L. Etienne N.xml. doi:10. André Bervillé. ^ Mayo Clinic 32.html". 44.1096/fj. Olea europaea L. 19 November 2007 30. Poulsen HE. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. p. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. 29. Masamitsu Ichihashi. ^ Ferrara LA.html. T : Ueda. Use Olive Oil. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). doi:10. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. No. 45. J Agric Food Chem. 34. "[10 INSERT TITLE]".tchain. M : Ahmed. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). ^ http://www. PMID 17110467. 1S45-50. 2000. Catherine Breton. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms".com http://www. Brenes M. 2000. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. 1: Prevent Cancer.ama-assn. 23. http://www. ^ Mayo Clinic. p.1021/jf0630217. Marotta T.".co. Alonso MG. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. Suppl. Toshihiko Osawa.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. ^ Pagnol. doi:10. et al. 43. Vol.. ^ Turner R. pp. but cites no source.06-6328com. s. "olive" and "oil" 40.v. Nazim 31. Mar. 19. Carcinogenesis.v. 35. ^ [2] Ichihashi. Nov. PMID 10737284." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics".net/ . ssp. ^ Ehud Galili et al. (27 March 2000). "[19 INSERT TITLE]". Medina E. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. 10.1024/0300-9831. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori".) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". Pagnol. "New Year's Resolution No. T. ^ "Quite Interesting .uk/portal/main.videojug. N U : Budiyanto. d'Episcopo L. (January 2005)." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. ^ Machowetz A. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. A : Bito. An Wu.tchain. ". Vargas J. 37.28. ^ a b Davidson. http://www. 21. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". ^ Guillaume Besnarda. Raimondi AS. Olives

"The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece".com http://www. pp119–33 50.reshafim. ^ F.youngmuslims. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Riley. ed. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48.46. 2001. 2005 49. Harrington Park Press. C. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. Provencal. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.). ^ Nigel M.htm. . ^ " Processing methods. Kennell. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. ^ Thomas F. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe".ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95.htm".org. 47. B.youngmuslims. http://www.crazychefs. Scanlon. Verstraete and V.R.

or hay-like fragrance. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. Saffron. ən] / [ˈsæf. Saffron has further medicinal applications. each the distal end of a carpel. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight.Saffron Saffron crocus C. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and .crazychefs. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). crocin.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. A C.[4][5] A carotenoid http://www. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. sativus flower bears three stigmas.

reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. Only in October.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0.98–1.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. purple buds appear. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. broken apart. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in http://www.2 in) in length. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. A corm survives for one season.[11] Upon flowering. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. In autumn. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms.crazychefs." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. in Central Asia. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in . possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. It is a sterile triploid form. must be dug up.5 centimetres (1. which means "yellow. Being sterile.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. as was once generally believed. and replanted.

south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. Greek. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at . are critical factors affecting yields. they fare poorly in shady conditions. and birds. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron.e. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. Planting depth and corm spacing. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields.9 in) deep. well-watered. Nematodes. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). loose. and corm rot pose other threats.[16] Furthermore.8–5. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal.000–1. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted..9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. in concert with climate.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. low-density. Moroccan. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable.500 mm (39–59 in). where hot. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes.crazychefs. rats. where annual rainfall averages 1.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir.035 oz) of dry saffron http://www. leaf rusts. maximizing sun exposure.

The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.8-diapo-8.2 oz of dried saffron).com http://www. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0. However. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds.[19] Meanwhile.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.8-carotenoic acid). lycopene. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin. and thus oil-soluble. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes. and various α. It also has many nonvolatile active components. including zeaxanthin.crazychefs.[19] many of which are carotenoids.11 gr) of dried saffron.and β-carotenes. a product results that is itself water-soluble.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: .

0 11.0 1.0 8.0 12.0–7.5 10.0 6.0 1.0– http://www.0 9.0 6.0–1.0 12.0 6.0 0.0 .0 6.0 4.0–13.0–15.5 40.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 10.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0 1.0 3.crazychefs.0–8.

6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. incidentally. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects. the heat.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.0 Source: Goyns 1999.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal.6. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.3-diene-1.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri. p.[18] Safranal.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. dried hay like". It has insecticidal and pesticidal http://www.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7.Fiber (crude) 5. the scent of which has been described as "saffron. combined with enzymatic action. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. Santorini.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.6-trimethyl-2.4. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal.6.crazychefs.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. When saffron is dried after its harvest.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. a volatile oil.6. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. .

000 years. Since then. mascaras. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. cartwrightianus. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. townspeople in Rhodes.[33] potpourris.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from . and in the mithridatium.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. physicians in Gaza. sativus.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron http://www. C. In late Hellenistic Egypt. and medical treatments. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. divine offerings.[28][29] Later. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. Thus. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. cough. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. There. and scabies. a sterile mutant form of C.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. colic.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. ointments. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.

[46][47][48] Meanwhile. dating to 978–993 AD.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.[42] ritually offered to divinities. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. and used in dyes.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. Isfahan.[51] However. saffron threads were woven into textiles. and baths as a curative for battle wounds.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. perfumes. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his http://www. and body washes. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong.Asia The 17. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.[53] On the other hand. medicines. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC.[43] Thus.crazychefs.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. a Chinese medical expert. Wan Zhen. a less expensive dye. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara.[44] During his Asian campaigns. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. rice. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance.[44] From there. or jackfruit.[39][40] Later. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. For example. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to . NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. At such sites.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50.

saffron cultivation spread throughout England. tea.[59][60] Only in southern France."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern .crazychefs. and executed.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code.[58] Soon after. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. and then the saffron is obtained. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. and Italy. Italy. It can be used to aromatise wine. imprisoned.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. In Europe. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. under which saffron adulterators were fined.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. http://www.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. named for its new specialty crop. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. France. However. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.[62] By 1730. indeed." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days.saffron is in Kashmir. did significant cultivation endure.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. which grew prosperous. and Spain.

[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. noodles.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). Arab. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. particularly in China and India. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus http://www. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa).[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. and in perfumery. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing).grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Pennsylvania. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. Indian. Central Asian. European. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods.crazychefs. and chicken or trout dishes. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. Medicinally.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. .[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). and antioxidantlike properties. and Cornish cuisines. immunomodulating.

Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. Spain.200/£1.000–75. France.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. the United States. slight moistness. flavour. India. . the average retail price is $1.crazychefs. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110. are the major producers of saffron.000 per pound (US$1. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5. http://www.000 flowers.500/€7. Aside from these.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150.[2] A pound comprises between 70.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). elasticity.100/€1.000-170. and Italy. Azerbaijan.000 flowers.000 threads. Vivid crimson colouring. they are graded by government-imposed standards. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. For example. Spain's varieties.[5] Iran. In Western countries. England. Switzerland.100–11.000 and 200. Morocco.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.550 per kilogram). and other countries.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide.500 per kilogram. in decreasing order of production. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. and aroma. are generally mellower in colour. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.

Repeated droughts. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. Sardinia. picrocrocin (taste). In the http://www. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. shape. and safranal (fragrance) content.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization.some organically . and crop failures in Kashmir. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. There. unusually pungent aroma. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). blights.S. for quality and quantity. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour.79 in). combined with an Indian export ban.crazychefs. is in San Gavino Monreale. it also has very high crocin. and colourative effect. near L'Aquila. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. picrocrocin. aroma. contribute to its high prices. among the world's darkest.. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. and safranal content. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

with turmeric.[80] Thus. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. aroma. red-dyed silk fibers. pliability. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest).crazychefs. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. and I (finest quality). The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. in India.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. pomegranate fibers. traders. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. and thus a greater colourative . these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. paprika.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0.national standards bodies.[77] However. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. III. many growers. and other powders used as diluting fillers. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for http://www. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. II. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. However. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron.

The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments.asp?AcNo=20043148643. 272. p. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 20. Grilli Caiola . 2. ^ Willard 2001. 422. Retrieved 2007-12-01. pp. Kansai. 16. Sterling. 103. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Deo 2003. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. p. 3. p. p. ^ a b Deo 2003. ^ p. ^ Grigg 1974. p. ^ Kumar V (2006). pp. p. stigma extracts and their constituents. 1. www. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Rau 1969. . 12. 8. 287. http://books. 23.cababstractsplus. 13. p. pp. http://www. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 22. 1.Saffron reproductive biology 11.cababstractsplus. 2. 3. p. 7.". 14. in mice. 3. 5. ^ Dharmananda 2005. crocin and 2–3.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. p. 18. 1. ^ a b c Hill 2004. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 3–4. 4. 24. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ DPIWE 2005.crazychefs. ^ a b McGee 2004. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. 53. 4. 17. 4. ^ Deo 2003. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. http://www. 19. p. p. 423. Honshū. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ McGee 2004. 9. 15. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. ^ Harper 2001.

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Tarvand Saffron Company. Tarvand Saffron Company. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/>.pl.000. Scribner. <http://www. P (2001).usda. New Scientist.htm>.gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b. <http://www. 2006. Reconstructing History.cfm?chemic al_id=140>.barc. McGee. 2006[dead link]. Retrieved on January 10.tarvandsaffron. 2006.McGann. SC. 2006. Retrieved on January 10. < <http://www. Pearce. Beacon Press. USDA Phytochemical Database.". ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). Retrieved on January 10. Nair.newscientist. Retrieved on January 10.htm>.com/irish/saffron.crazychefs. <http://books. Tarvand (2005b).html>.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>.com/classification. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. <http://www. JB (2005). "Grading and Classification". 2006. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). <http://www. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". Retrieved on January 10. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. "What is Saffron?".html>.reconstructinghistory. 2006. H (2004). Retrieved on January 10. Willard. Retrieved on January 10. PMID 2025883 Park. "Saffron". F (2005). Time Life Education. SR (1969). Cancer Letters 57 (2). The Cooking of .com/channel/earth/mg18524831. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity".com http://www. K (2003). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. 2006.

Dead Sea.Olive Olive Tree Olea http://www. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.

Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive).com http://www. the olive. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years.[1] and in the Iliad. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. olives.[9]. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. are borne generally on the last year's wood. Theophrastus. referring to their wooden material. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. two stamens and bifid stigma. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. from Lebanon. The small white flowers. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. by a spring. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. In Homer's Odyssey. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. called xoana. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. they were reverently preserved for .[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. and smooth mallows provide sustenance.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures.crazychefs. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. endives."[7] indeed. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. Asia and parts of Africa. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. the olive suckers readily from the stump.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. ca 170 AD. which he describes as very simple: "As for me.(XVII. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Though. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. It is short and squat. Its fruit.5 cm long. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars.

they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated.crazychefs.[12] After the 16th . they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. kotinos. fertility. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. the pits give rise to thorny. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. and its cultivation began in Mexico. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. in On the Nature of Plants. wild-type olives. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. glory. olives were grown commercially in Crete. indeed. As far back as 3000 BC. glory and peace . For example. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.The leafy branches of the olive tree .[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. Today. and then in the 18th century in California. as well as olive oil and olives. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. The olive tree http://www. The Book of Jacob 5. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. As emblems of benediction and purification. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. Peru. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. spread far and wide by birds.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. for which the Greeks had a separate name. Over the years. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. but he makes clear (in 1. it is still used in many religious ceremonies.16. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. and one of the most significant. play an important role in the Bible.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. in both the New and Old Testaments. the olive has been the symbol of peace. Chile and Argentina. wisdom. power and pureness.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. Theophrastus. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece.

the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. which is made into top quality olive oil. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14].[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. Istria in Croatia. named "Plato's Olive Tree". The older an olive tree is.000 years old. Montenegro. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). has been determined on the basis of tree ring http://www. One olive tree in Bar. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very . Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. disease. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus.crazychefs.and fire-resistant. drought-.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. and can live for very long. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. The age of an olive tree in Crete. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. claimed to be over 2. has been calculated to be about 1. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed.600 years old. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern . Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. called the "Peisistratos Tree".com http://www. In the same natural garden. and the olive fruit.crazychefs.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. Italy. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. 1600-2000 years old. a few other millenary trees can be admired.6 km) as the limit. Modern experience does not always confirm this. and. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. fine wood. A supposedly even older tree. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel.400 years ago. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. Specifically. According to a recent scientific survey. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. see Olive (fruit).2. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. olive leaf. though showing a preference for the coast. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. both in Galilee region. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. All seven trees continue to produce olives.

Australia. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). the Mediterranean Basin. Olive plantation in Andalucia. .[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. Sudan.crazychefs. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. northwest Africa) where winters are mild. Chile. Argentina. such as South Africa. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. Israel. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy http://www. laperrinei (Algeria.

com http://www.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .crazychefs.

germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.

The Iberian olives are usually cured and . with purple-green skin.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. It is used mostly for oils. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. often after being pitted. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. rounded-oval fruit. A prolific bearer. The olive grove of http://www. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. Seville. but only a few are grown to a large extent. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. in southern Spain. anchovies.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. stuffed (with pickled pimento. originating in Dos Hermanas. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. In recent times. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated.200. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. 'Manzanilla'. grown around the world. Rich taste and thick pulp. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. a large. 'Bosana'.Cailletier cultivar. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so.crazychefs. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . which consists of 1. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions.

black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. round.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. good for eating and for oil. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. a large. originating in the south of France. brown olive grown in Catalonia. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. 'Souri'. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. Moreover. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. which.[21] 'Koroneiki'. 'Picual'. 'Cornicabra'. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. originating from the southern Peloponese. originating in Toledo. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. 'Empeltre'. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. large. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. disease-resistant. The flavour is mild and nutty. They grow in any light soil. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. 'Kalamata'. They are black and generally used for table consumption. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. originating in the province of Córdoba.[23] 'Barnea'. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). It is green. Their flavour is mild and nutty.crazychefs. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. medium size. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. Due to their highly valued flavour. . Greece. It has a strong but sweet flavour. though difficult to cultivate. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. a small. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. They are green. originating in the south of France (Aude département). named after the city of Kalamata. and coastal climate conditions. used as a table olive. It is mainly used for oil. The olive is medium sized. good for eating and for oil. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Spain. 'Arbequina'. This small olive. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. even on clay if well drained. Spain. being the richest in oleic acid and E http://www. and elongated. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. 'Hojiblanca'. another modern Israeli. and elongated. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. 'Nabali'. It is used both for oil and for table olives.

while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. Another method uses an electric tool. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. This method is used for olives used for oil.poorer soil. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. the trees are regularly pruned. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning.) Olives like hot weather. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. Olives are propagated in various ways. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. In southern Europe. it is valued by woodworkers. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. Occasionally. and with the season and the cultivar. More specifically. In Greece. as in Languedoc and Provence. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November.crazychefs. harvesting is done for several weeks in http://www. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. soon vegetate.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. A. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. In . where they soon form a vigorous shoot. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. but the time varies in each country. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. which form small swellings on the stems. Olives grow very slowly. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. being very hard and close-grained. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. the oliviera. and can remain productive for as long. to facilitate germination. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. However. removing fruit from the tree. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. P. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. In some places in Italy and Greece. up to several centuries. embryonic buds. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. They tolerate drought well. 114). the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down.

The method also involves sawing off branches. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. which is a natural preservative.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. which is why they taste milder than green olives. Typical yields are 1. which can be eaten http://www. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. Fresh are often sold at markets.because the terrain is too mountainous for . Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. The olives are soaked in water to wash. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein.5-2. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. or green with hints of colour).g. After some weeks. a bitter carbohydrate. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. through to full purple black ripeness. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. large fruit (e. As a result.2 kg of oil per tree per year. which leads to a superior finished product. ripe green (a yellower shade of green.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable.. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. the creation of lactic acid. then drained. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. Olives can be used green.crazychefs. which is healthy for future production. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. the fruit is not bruised.

The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. Popular flavourings are herbs. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. leaving sawtooth damage. feta. Pests. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. diseases.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. The ten largest producing countries. their main predators are wasps. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. A species of http://www. an unnatural method.crazychefs.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. oleae[27]. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. of which the water is changed daily. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. spices.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. vinegar. lemon zest. lemon juice.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. juniper berries and anchovies. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. Sometimes. but can be left to cure for up to three months. induces tumour growth in the shoots. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. In France and north-central Italy. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. Lye-curing. olives suffer occasionally from frost. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. causing great damage to plantations. Cycloconium oleaginum. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. and weather A fungus. or removing the pit and stuffing them. wine. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. capsicum (pimento). Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and . salt-curing. chili.6 to 8. garlic cloves. olive oil. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. especially to young trees. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths.

1.000 20.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.8 16.000 1. 3.400.160.0 3.597. 4. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. 6." (Herodotus.000 318.000 498.crazychefs.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.[31] References 1. 5.500. book 5".net/ .1 25. and to cultivate olive-trees.000 594. most notably South Australia." (Diodorus Siculus.981 1.000 998.14.5 6. Description of Greece 1.000 8.988 500.13. 38.000 1. 1 ).000 49. 1). ^ ".888 178.6 31. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.800.4 30. 5.064 2. 27. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.100 3. 4.000 550. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures. ^ Homer. 2. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation. 82. and was the first to instruct men in these matters. Bibliotheke...5 63. ^ Theophrastus.3 8.685 765. ^ Pausanias.1). Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves. An introduction.000 430..000 470.089 6.000 275. p.9 6. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to make bee-hives. Ancient Greek Agriculture. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.5.000 280.317. On the Causes of Plants. Odyssey. 81.7 27.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon http://www. 4. 3.140.339 300.149. 7.3 20. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.300.830 2. 1992.000 250..

8. 17. ^ Burr.A.. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. M. Y. ^ Belaj et al." Horace. p. ^ Lumaret. & Parker. (September 2002). ^ Muncipality Bar. The Making of the Cretan Landscape..W. 28. 29. Volume 18:27-35 20. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Retrieved 2007-03-10. ^ Riley. 27. Riley (2002). J. ^ Gooch. rev. p. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. 2004". 1999.fao.fao.. Zatoun. Madrid. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. 13. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. ca 30 BC 9. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". Cavagnaro P. http://apps3. http://www. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992.279 18. Syst. J. AGRISCIENTA. 30. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. Tabak & O. Epikouria 25. ^ Epikouria 69. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 Number 4). ^ "Me pascunt olivae. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. R. 35. Brijuni National Park. M Bauza & R.pasoroblesolivefestival.crazychefs. Retrieved 2007-08-31. J. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. EspasaCalpe S. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. 4th edition. http://www.zatoun. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. 29 April. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading.springerlink. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". ^ http://www. 1981. 24. Apps3. Masuelli. ^ [1] 21. vol. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. J. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.31. ^ Fotiadi. ^ "Old Olive Tree".com http://www. Bacteriol. 1996. Juárez. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. N.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. D. Spring/Summer 2006 26. Leshonenu (Hebrew). Retrieved 2007-08-31. Odes 1.cit.htm. 105. Elena "Unusual Olives". (1999) Ancient http://www. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina".jsp. ^ a b M.15. Rackham. 23. 32:166–169. nom. 2001. John Hutton. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. cited in F. Ellen. ^ " Australian Olives. R.brijuni. ^ O. A. pp 110–113.. nov. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. Available through Google Books 11. Volume 15. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. & Ouazzani. ^ Janse. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". ^ Lewington. 1982. Int. Processing methods. op. Kislew. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 1779. Simhoni. . Moody. me cichorea levesque malvae.

crazychefs. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus .[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. glossy green. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. Corresponding to its species name." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. L. with an entire margin. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. however. (French tarragon. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. western North America. The leaves are lanceolate. with slender branched stems. seldom produces flowers.31.R. and south to northern Mexico. a common term for the plant is "dragon http://www. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets.

It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. fish and egg dishes.crazychefs. it normally goes dormant in winter. It is normally purchased as a plant. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. A perennial. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. Persian and Russian word for .com http://www. by extension. Russia and Ukraine. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce.[1] It likes a hot. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. dracunculoides L. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Georgia and. sunny spot.[1] Russian tarragon (A. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն.net/ . which is the Armenian. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. Spreading plant can be divided easily.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. Fresh.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. and particularly suitable for chicken. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. due to the presence of estragole. but cannot be grown from seed. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. without excessive watering.[1] However. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute.

^ Gatfield IL.[3] In Slovenia. Maggie (2002). has been isolated from Tarragon plant. 3. Horst. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. ^ Surburg. Wiley-VCH. Ley JP. Foerstner J. Workman Publishing. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. Stuckey. Johannes Panten (2006). pp. Machinek A. 233. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. http://www. Properties and Uses. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste.Cis-Pellitorin. Rose Marie Nichols. ISBN 9783527607891. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. References . The Bountiful Container. ^ a b c d McGee. Krammer G.

crazychefs. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and some http://www. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. though other species. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. It is a member of the mint family. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage.Salvia officinalis (Sage. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. Dalmatian sage. Kitchen sage. with woody stems. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. it is used when roasting mutton. In Western cooking. Common sage. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. and blue to purplish flowers. Garden sage. cheeses (Sage Derby). Broadleaf sage. . sage has a slight peppery flavor. In French cuisine. In the Balkans and the Middle East. Culinary sage. grayish leaves. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. In the United States. Purple sage. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Britain and Flanders.

it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every http://www. astringent. fumaric acid. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. cornsole. and tonic. oleic acid. flavonoid glycosides. nicotinamide. hypoglycemic. caffeic acid. The Latin name for sage. antibiotic. which contains cineole. estrogenic. The underside of a sage leaf .more trichomes are visible on this side. means ―to heal". randomized and placebo-controlled trial.[1] In a double blind.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sage leaf contains tannic acid.crazychefs. flavones. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. and estrogenic substances. antifungal. cornsolic acid. antispasmodic. salvia. niacin.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential .Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . chlorogenic acid. borneol. ursonic acid. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. ursolic acid. and thujone.trichomes are visible.

hemostatic.00463. Applied Health. and used as a diuretic. Ohadinia S. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9.1046/ and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. and more. emmenagogue. 'Tricolor'. snakebites.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. ^ a b c "Sage". 'Lavandulaefolia'. 2. 'Berggarten'. a small leaved cultivar. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages.[4] It was sometimes called S. a wild undershrub he called sphakos.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. Dioscorides.x. 'Icterina'. 'Alba'. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. a purple-leafed cultivar. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. Noroozian M. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. References 1. a styptic. increasing women's fertility. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). They are easily raised from summer http://www.appliedhealth. (2003). "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. Khani M. and tonic.1365-2710. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. a cultivar with large leaves. . PMID 12605619. Pliny. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. and for other uses. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. Jamshidi AH.2003.php. a local anesthetic for the skin.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. and for low ground cover. ^ Akhondzadeh S. a white-flowered cultivar. 'Extrakta'. yellow and green variegated leaves. OBeWise Nutriceutica.crazychefs. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. especially in sunny dry environments. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. doi:10. a cultivar with white. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. Retrieved 2008-02-04. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. Mohammadi M.

^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. Deni Bown (New York: DK. 10-11. Sage: The Genus Salvia. p. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. 4. ^ a b . (2000). 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. CRC Press.crazychefs. ISBN 9789058230058. Spiridon E. pp.

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