COOKING INGREDIENTS

Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]

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Taxonomy
Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]

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Uses
Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

Safety
A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Cultivation
Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]

Gallery

Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.

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Thyme

Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

History
Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]

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assume that it means fresh. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dried.g. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. tomatoes and eggs. In French cuisine. Portuguese. It can be propagated by seed. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. fresh thyme is often available year-round. Italian. It tolerates drought well. Lebanese. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form.net/ . The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). As a rule of thumb. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded.a little less if it is ground. Persian. Spanish. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. or by the sprig. and in those derived from them. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. While summer-seasonal. soups and stews. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. Greek. and of herbes de Provence. in a bouquet garni). storage life is rarely more than a week. which is due to its content of thymol. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. while flavourful. the whole sprig may be used (e. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Leaves are often chopped. Thyme. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. Depending on how it is used in a dish. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). Libyan. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking.crazychefs.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. Syrian. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon.com http://www. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. and Turkish cuisines. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. In some Levantine countries. Albanian. cuttings. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant.

rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. All thyme species are nectar sources.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. it was used to medicate bandages.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. an antiseptic.[5] As with bay.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme.net/ . The dried equivalent is 1:3.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. pulegioides × T. Because it is antiseptic.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. etc. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. It also has medicinal uses.[6] Thymol. hybrid T. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. tisane. salve. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day.com http://www.crazychefs. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. but is grown as a ground cover.

8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity.com http://www.crazychefs. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.net/ . including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing.Variegated lemon thyme. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme.

neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.net/ .com http://www.

com http://www. B2) 0. although parsley has a milder flavor.1 mg 6.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0. B3) 1.1 mg recommendations for adults.0 mg Iron 6.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.1 mg Folate (Vit.net/ .2 mg Magnesium 50.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).9 g . European.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.crazychefs. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 mg Phosphorus 58. B1) 0.8 g 3.Dietary fiber 3. often used as spice. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.Sugars 0. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit. and American cooking.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit. It is common in Middle Eastern.3 g 0.0 μg Calcium 138.

neapolitanum). parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants.net/ . Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. For example. Like many other umbellifers. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. The similarity of the names is a coincidence.crazychefs. While parsley is biennial. However. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. it is not related to real turnips. tuberosum). not blooming until its second year. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. Although little known in Britain and the United States.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. or flat leaf (P. which then tend to protect plants nearby. it attracts predatory insects. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. which helps accommodate the long taproot. reducing pest attraction. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius).[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. used in soups and stews. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day.com http://www. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens.

chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b c John W.[3] Parsley is high (1. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato).of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries.com". Ossobuco alla milanese.net/ . "That Devilish Parsley. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs.. lamb or goose. Last retrieved April 26.g. References 1. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon).html. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. http://www. Jett. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. soups.70% by mass. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. leaf. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). and lemon zest. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. a mixture of parsley. "Parsley on plucodes. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. In addition.drugs. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. 2. fried chicken. garlic. root." West Virginia University Extension Service. steaks. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. In Southern and Central Europe.com/PLUdetails.aspx?id=1075&s=4. Parsley as an oil. 4. parsley is part of bouquet garni. 2007.com http://www. http://www. with fish. e. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup.com/npc/parsley. [1]) in oxalic acid.crazychefs.com". and sauces.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. or 4900. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon.plucodes. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3.

Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .com http://www.crazychefs.

Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O.crazychefs. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.net/ .

Greek. of the mint family. each with distinct flavours. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. as well as cultivars. e. Unlike most Italian herbs. growing to 20-80 cm tall. Together with basil. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. capers. 3-4 mm long.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno .crazychefs. It is a perennial herb. and grilled meat.com http://www. It is the leaves that are used in cooking.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. and lovage leaves. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. which is popular in southern Italy. and to add a nice. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. fried vegetables. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). produced in erect spikes. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. The flowers are purple. Oregano is an important culinary herb.net/ .g. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. O vulgare gracile.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. Oregano growing in a field. native to Europe.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. spicy flavor.

oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. In Turkish Cuisine. The influence of climate. West Asia) have similar flavors. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. differs significantly in taste. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation.crazychefs. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. warm and slightly bitter taste. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. In the Philippines. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. It has an aromatic.[5][6] Additionally. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. which.net/ . however. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. especially for mutton and lambs meat. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. useful for relieving children's coughs. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. together with paprika. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. Balkan peninsula. Asia Minor) and O. Oregano growing in a pot.com http://www. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. salt and pepper. It varies in intensity. In barbecue and kebab restaurants.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. heracleoticum (Italy. it can be usually found on table.

cholagogue. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. influenza. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. Coleus aromaticus).[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). antispasmodic. emmenagogue. oregano. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico.[7] and painful menstruation. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in".Main constituents include carvacrol. mild fevers. ocimene. indigestion. Plectranthus amboinicus. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including Poliomintha longiflora. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena.html. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. fungal infections.uni-graz. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. but is usually stronger. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. stimulant. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. capsules.net/ .crazychefs.com http://www. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. stomach upsets.[8] Hippocrates. pinene. Aqueous extracts. thymol. limonene. diaphoretic. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. Lippia berlandieri. and caryophyllene. especially in the United States. Used topically. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. carminative. useful for relieving children's coughs. In the Philippines. also called Cuban oregano.[12] References 1. this substitution would not work the other way round. ^ Organic Gardening 2. stomachic and mildly tonic. the father of medicine. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses.at/~katzer/engl/Orig_vul. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. enteric parasites. expectorant. ^ http://www. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. A Cretan oregano (O.

net/ .". ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". Agric.dmannose. http://www. Retrieved 200811-26. http://info. J.2008.crazychefs. Retrieved 2008-11-26. Fall/Winter 2007 10. (01 May 2003). ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online.com/articles/130620.php.medicalnewstoday.asp?item=1374&year=2008. Food Chem. doi:10. (2005). Steinar.uwe.uk/wild-oregano-oil-carvacrol. http://jn.co. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". ^ Epikouria Magazine. ^ Dragland. PMID 16218659. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. 12.3. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". June 2008. PMID 12730411. March 2009.org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286. 6. et al. draft revision for "origanum". 11. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. ^ ["http://www. ^ Epikouria Magazine. Draft revision for "oregano". "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. University of the West of England. 133 (5): 1286–1290.) and Origanum vulgare L. et al. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. J Nutr. 24 November 2008. Fall/Spring 2007 5.com http://www.ac. 28. 53 (21): 8162–8168. Medical News Today. draft revision for "organum".1021/jf0510079. 7. Leonor.nutrition. (Cav. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.uk/news/UWENews/article. ^ a b Faleiro.10.

It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses.[2] In Greek mythology.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. umbelliferous herb. This came from the Old English fenol or finol.net/ . which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae).com http://www. however. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. it was from the giant fennel. perennial. Also. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. It is a hardy. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. Ferula communis. meaning "hay". it seems. recorded in the 10th century. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now".crazychefs. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). In Ancient Greek. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen.

032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. they are finely dissected. glaucous green. B3) 0.Dietary fiber 3. but thinner. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. It is erect. half as wide or less.5 m.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 mm wide. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.047 mg Folate (Vit.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.com http://www.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike).01 mg 7. B1) 0.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.20 g 1. B2) 0. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.crazychefs. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates .232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.net/ . and grooved.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. with hollow stems. and grows to heights of up to 2. bulb. about 0.29 g 0.

[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. though usually not as strong.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. both raw and cooked.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. In North American supermarkets.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. the United States.crazychefs. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. but is more aromatic and sweeter.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. F. by the late 19th century. "bronze-leaved" fennel. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. syn.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. It propagates well by seed. both in its native range and elsewhere.net/ . it is often mislabelled as "anise". notably the Italian name finocchio. in pastures. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure.com http://www. It is of cultivated origin.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. vulgare var. and in other open sites in many regions. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). for its edible.20 mg Manganese 0.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. including northern Europe. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. which is also known by several other names.

and risottos. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. salads. or eaten raw. or cooked in risotto. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads.crazychefs. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. variyali in Gujarati. braised. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pastas. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. green seeds are optimal. Many egg. in side dishes. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). brown or green in colour when fresh.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. often tossed with chicory and avocado. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. both raw and cooked. though smaller. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. which are very similar in taste and appearance. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. stewed. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine.com http://www. fish. where bulbs and fronds are used. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. The bulb is a crisp. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. but also the most expensive. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. mouri in Bengali. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. badesoppu in Kannada. sompu in Telugu.Fennel. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. grilled. anise-flavoured spice. For cooking. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish.net/ . It may be blanched or marinated. foliage.

which can explain some of its medical effects: it. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. This use.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. as it is said to improve eyesight. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. used to ease flatulence in infants. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. also employed as a carminative. sometimes with some sweetener. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. or its polymers. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw.crazychefs.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'.net/ . is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[12] For adults.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. Fennel tea.com http://www. act as phytoestrogens. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. although not supported by direct evidence.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension.

[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.com http://www. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fennel and coriander. which promote growth of breast tissue. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs.net/ .[17] However.crazychefs. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. followed by India. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. badian (star anise).justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments.

zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum.[5] In Malayalam. In Farsi (Persian). Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. Chakka meaning bark or wood. it is known as "DalChini ( )". where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra.crazychefs.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.net/ . in the original Sinhala. itself ultimately from Phoenician. which are often called cinnamon too. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. cinnamon is known as kurundu.[2] In Marathi.com http://www. and in Gujarati taj. synonym C. Ceylon. it is called "Darchini" ( ). In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. native to Sri Lanka. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. In Bengali.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. it is called Dalchina Chakka.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. In Telugu. it is called darchin (‫. Hindi. the "real' cassia.C.[3] In Sri Lanka. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . In Urdu.

Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. and in Song of Solomon. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. in Proverbs. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. to protect their monopoly as suppliers.com http://www. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil.crazychefs.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC.net/ . cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. aloe and cinnamon. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome.

1 inches) long. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. p. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy.crazychefs. and used them to construct their nests.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. tea. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. sugar.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa.2 feet) tall. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. although in the first century.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. have a greenish color. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire.75–7.com http://www.net/ .[9] In Herodotus and other authors. "The shores of the island are full of it". They established a trading post in 1638. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. took control of the factories by 1640. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. The flowers. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. and coffee. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. in a letter of about 1292. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. and have a distinct odor. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a Dutch captain reported. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.8–49. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. 7–18 cm (2. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market.Ages. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. which are arranged in panicles. However." (Braudel 1984.

Madagascar. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. and Egypt. followed by China. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma.crazychefs.5 mm) inner bark is used. Bangladesh. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special.net/ . verum). These shoots are then stripped of their bark. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. Zanzibar. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. which is left to dry.[15] According to the FAO. Chips are trimmings of quills. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. the outer woody portion is removed. Only the thin (0. the West Indies. Vietnam. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. India. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. and Vietnam. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. The next year. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. Brazil.com http://www. Sumatra. Java. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. According to the International Herald Tribune. eg.

Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). or "Indonesian cinnamon". However. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. the related species. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark.crazychefs. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . less dense. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. using only the thin inner bark. as all of the layers of bark are used. and thicker (2–3 mm thick).[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. and more crumbly texture. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). hard and woody in texture. for example. many websites.[16] Ceylon cinnamon.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". has a finer.net/ . Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu. "Vietnamese cinnamon". is generally a medium to light reddish brown. and is considered to be less strong than cassia. zeylanicum).

True cinnamon. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. when whole. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. used in a variety of thick soups. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality.net/ . When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). especially in Mexico. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. hot cocoa. macerating it in seawater. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. but when cassia is present. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. and liqueurs. and sweets. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. such as apple pie. a deep-blue tint is produced.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content.5% to 1% of its composition. rather than cassia. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. tea. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. The two barks.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. ‫. bread-based dishes.crazychefs. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. especially apples. It is of a golden-yellow color. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. In the Middle East. whereas cassia sticks are much harder.com http://www. and then quickly distilling the whole.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). and fruits. drinks. are easily distinguished. In the United States. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes.

and money. cinnamyl acetate.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages.[34] Notes 1.0. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. who failed. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits).[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C.and a very hot aromatic taste. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. cassia.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh.com http://www. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). few seem able to succeed. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. luck. 2008. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. love. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). In Hoodoo. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh.net/ . it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. Encyclopaedia Britannica.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae.crazychefs. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. eugenol.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. ^ a b "Cinnamon". and Myanmar (Burma). However.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity. although it remains untested. cinnamaldehyde. The Cinnamon Challenge. and anethole. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). linalool. beta-caryophyllene.

retrieved 200807-15 6. ^ Shan B. ^ "Cassia. p.—Cinnamon.com/eclectic/kings/cinnamomum. PMID 10077878. Cathay and the Way Thither. Robert. ^ The Epicentre. Food Chem.com http://www.stm 3. Cinnamon. Nerín C (August 2005).co.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. 4. 437f.437. retrieved 2008-07-15 11.com 17. 437).en. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_June/ai_3289703 13. ^ Harris.htm 20.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/south_asia_sri_lanka0s_spice _of_life/html/1.za/index. Col. Sun M. Sir James Emerson. Anthea Bell. PMID 16104824. 22. p. ^ [2] 18.fao. http://www. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7.php?storyId=6672644. http://dsr. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour.com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. p. Account of the Island of Ceylon.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. retrieved 2008-07-15 12.org/templates/story/story.net/ . ^ http://links. p. 53 (17): 6939–46. Cozzolino FF. Agric. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.htm.1021/jf050709v. Agric. 53 (20): 7749–59. Cinnamomum.html.org/docrep/007/ae017e/ae017e12. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. ^ http://www.thespicehouse. 437 7.. ^ [1] 16.nii. http://www. 2009. J. Batlle R. ^ Yule. retrieved 200705-01 21. Emily. Van-Koiij A. ^ http://www. PMID 16190627. ^ Felter. doi:10.ac. ^ Tennent.com/spices/vietnamese-cassia-saigon-cinnamon-wholecracked-ground thespicehouse. ^ Mancini-Filho J. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". Corke H (October 2005).jp/toyobunko/III-2F-b-2/V-1/page/0487. http://lakdiva. "Solid. Harvey.theepicentre.bbc. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. 23. doi:10.html#pg598. 9. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.html. Sánchez C.jstor. Encyclopedia of Spices.ihaystack. revised ed. ^ López P. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0. J.com/Spices/cinnamon. The History of Food. Cai YZ. Food Chem.CO%3B2-N 15. ^ http://findarticles.crazychefs. http://www. 10." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. Breyne) extracts".henriettesherbal.html.iol.org/tennent/v1_p5_c02.2. ^ http://news. tr. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. ^ http://www. Torres RP (December 1998). ^ Knox. 8. Henry. p.org/sici?sici=00754358(1970)60%3C222%3ATSTOTR%3E2. Mancini DA. http://www.co. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009.1021/jf051513y.npr.

org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/977. ^ Vanschoonbeek. http://eprints. The Perspective of the World.com/news/health/803646/chillies_are_the_spice_of_life__pepper s_have_been/index. Cat.1643. Archer (1988).1. Cinnamon. Corn. Retrieved 2007-12-17. doi:10. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". (2005). Medicinal Seasonings.. 29.redorbit.pdf. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes". Alan W. Kristof et al.nutrition. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. doi:10.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14633804. ^ Beck. Retrieved 2008-05-11. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. http://www. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". Fernand (1984). July 2000.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68.26. doi:10. Eleventh Edition.24. 33. Eugen J. PMID 14633804. Safdar M. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study".1016/00219673(88)90035-0.com.113.12.utm.html?source=r_health. Akram et al.php?featured_food=80. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. ground.sciencedaily. http://care. Agricultural Research magazine. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8..com/releases/2004/07/040716081706. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". http://www.com. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). http://jn. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 28. Ali Khan MM. retrieved 200705-01 32. ^ Khan A. ^ Yronwode. Muhammad et al. 34.crazychefs. Research: Thalido. ^ George Mateljan Foundation. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.htm. http://www.1.3. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. Anderson RA (December 2003). "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF).com/doi/abs/10.luckymojo. 30. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. ^ Verspohl. Retrieved 200808-05.whfoods.com http://www. doi:10. http://www.3215.com/genpage. retrieved 200705-01 25... 27.1002/ptr.diabetesjournals. Leslie.futuremedicine. New York: Kodansha International.3. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206.113. Charles (1998). Khattak KN. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro".com/ingredient_index. ^ Taher. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007).sciencedaily..my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH. Braudel.lesliebeck.2337/diacare. 26. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".2217/14750708.. ^ Ranjbar. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. et al. http://www.2217/14750708. Retrieved 200805-11. http://www. a publication now in the public domain. ^ [3].net/ . www.

It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. Onions can be used. chopped. one of the oldest vegetables. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pickled. and dehydrated forms. it usually refers to Allium cepa. powdered.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. They are known by the common name "onion" but. which it is not.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. frozen. used without qualifiers.Department of Export Agriculture. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. and Allium asarense R.com http://www. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion.crazychefs.net/ . are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. canned. They are now available in fresh.M."[3] Uses Onions.

They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. transported and stored. due to toxicity during digestion. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". However. and also to relieve headaches. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. spicy.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. recent evidence has shown that dogs. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated.[5] However.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. Depending on the variety. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. cats. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. coughs. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. and other animals should not be given onions in any form.chopped or sliced. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. an onion can be sharp. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. In Bronze Age settlements. In ancient Greece. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet.crazychefs. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage.com http://www. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. snakebite and hair loss.[5] The onion is easily propagated. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood.net/ . in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish.

B1) 0. 0 μg 9.polyunsaturated 0.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .saturated 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.21 mg Magnesium 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.Dietary fiber 1.1 g 89.net/ .com http://www. B3) 0.4 mg Vitamin E 0.013 g . B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.monounsaturated 0.02 mg Vitamin K 0.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.7 g Fat .24 g .046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.042 g . B2) 0.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.Sugars 4.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.1 g 1.34 g 0.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.crazychefs. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Peruvian Sweet.crazychefs. eleven times the amount found in Western White. Mexico. and other diseases. Texas 1015. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. However. pungent yellow (New York Bold). This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. Western White. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. For all varieties of onions. Imperial Valley Sweet. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. Mexico. Western Yellow.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. Empire Sweet. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. Peruvian Sweet. and Vidalia.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. In the United States. and Vidalia.com http://www.net/ . Northern Red. Imperial Valley Sweet. Empire Sweet. Texas 1015. Peruvian Sweet. followed by Western Yellow. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. Empire Sweet. osteoporosis. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. Western White. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. Imperial Valley Sweet.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. In general. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. Northern Red. onions are used to heal blisters and boils.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). the variety with the lowest phenolic content. If you are allergic to onions. Shallots have the most phenols. diabetes. anticancer.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. Mexico. Texas 1015. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. anticholesterol. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone.[10] In many parts of the world. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat.

[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. garden lilies. cells are broken. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. Eye irritation can. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. shallots. allylpropyldisulfide. leeks.com http://www. differs among Allium species. ginger. and bananas. On January 31. allylmercaptan and allicin.crazychefs. therefore. nausea. creating a stinging sensation. where it binds to sensory neurons. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. garlic. The volume of sulfenic acids released. mouth and throat ulcerations. 2008. breathing difficulties. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. limiting the amount of gas generated.net/ . diarrhea. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. it can lead to an allergic reaction. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling.include reactions to onions.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. chives. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. As onions are sliced or eaten. and the irritation effect.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. all present in garlic. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide.

more commonly today. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or.com http://www. from sets started from seed the previous year. the Welsh onion. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. which is said not to produce dry bulbs.crazychefs. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. "short-day" onions. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types.net/ . Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. which can be planted directly in the ground. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. which have been developed in more recent times. Finally. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. Allium fistulosum.

The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion. a hybrid of Allium cepas.500 China United States 3.750 South Korea 1.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.764 Pakistan 1.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). Tree onion or Egyptian onion . Vale.Produce bulblets in the flower head. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.com http://www.crazychefs. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.758 Russia 1.149 Spain World Total 64. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.220 Turkey 1.346 2. each of which forms a bulb. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.net/ . bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.302 1.637 Japan Egypt 1.793 India 5. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions. Oregon (USA). Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.

net/ .[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. It remains in effect as of 2009.crazychefs. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.The Onion Futures Act. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. passed in 1958. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.

known as garlic. Allium sativum. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. from William Woodville. and chive.crazychefs.com http://www. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. leek.[1] A bulb of garlic. shallot. It has a characteristic pungent.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae.net/ . Its close relatives include the onion. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. the most commonly used part of the plant. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1793. commonly known as garlic. Medical Botany. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves.

Allium vineale. are common weeds in fields. In North America. accounting for over 77% of world output. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). but China is by far the largest producer of garlic.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The cloves are used as seed. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender.[5] The "wild garlic".net/ . The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. India (4. and for medicinal purposes. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable.crazychefs. Garlic plants can be grown close together.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. stems (scape). Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars.Yunnan province of China.[6] One of the best-known "garlics".com http://www. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. The leaves. and Allium oleraceum. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. the so-called elephant garlic. In cold climates. respectively. with approximately 10. with Russia (1. "crow garlic". according to Zohary and Hopf. Garlic is grown globally. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. They can suffer from pink root. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. The papery. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. for consumption (raw or cooked).

400 140. northern Africa.000 15. C = calculated figure. Southeast Asia. It is often paired with onion. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy.4%). F = FAO estimate. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. or ginger. tomato.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.088. including eastern Asia.686. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. P = official figure.000 645. southern Europe. A = aggregate (may include official. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.000 125.000 325. or estimates).com http://www. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form.810 168.000 254.net/ . semiofficial.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb.000 221. and parts of South and Central America.000 128. California. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods.000 142.Alaska) in fifth place (1. south Asia. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Middle East.crazychefs.

meat. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. Blending garlic. The leaves are cut. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. called black garlic. breads and pasta. or "tops". heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. In eastern Europe. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them.net/ . cleaned. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is sweet and syrupy. In some cuisine. oil. United Kingdom and Australia. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. Garlic. and spices. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove.com http://www. Immature scapes are tender and edible. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. almond. and roast them in an oven. bruschetta. garlic toast. and is now being sold in the United States. In Japan and Korea. crostini and canapé. "stems". oil. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. and a chunky base produce skordalia. or vegetables.crazychefs. and then stir-fried with eggs. the resulting product. meats. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. They are also known as "garlic spears". salt. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli.

Storage

Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—theheart.org, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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When eaten in quantity. allylpropyldisulfide.net/ . Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. thus mellowing its spiciness.in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. allylmercaptan and allicin. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. However. therefore. and worms from eating the plant. persillade. usually enjoy these sensations. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. and vampires. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[50] In Europe. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. deterring animals like birds. and bananas.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. ginger. making garlic much more potent than onions. leeks.[51] To ward off vampires. werewolves. included in many garlic recipes. Since digestion takes several hours.[48] Due to its strong odor. including onions. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. insects. forming allyl methyl sulfide. such as pistou. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. hung in windows. and release of AMS several hours more. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. Humans. shallots. where it is excreted. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. or leeks. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. Among the members of the onion family. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods.com http://www. chives. However. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. however. garlic could be worn. all present in garlic. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. shallots. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. garden lilies. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. The herb is.crazychefs. garlic.

You can help by converting this article to prose.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. at worst.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. dizziness. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. allergic reactions. minimal risks to normal individuals.In Daoism mythology. if any exist.com http://www.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved.crazychefs.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. bleeding. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. antiparasitic value of garlic. as well as other medications. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. indigestion. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). calcium channel blockers.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. emesis. sweating. are largely unknown.net/ . and diarrhea. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. indicated Muhammad. saquinavir. nausea. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. similar to the effect of aspirin. and hypoglycemic drugs. However. Editing help is available. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". Garlic can thin the blood. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". if appropriate. antiplatelets. antihypertensives.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and menstrual irregularities. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. and no FDA-approved study has been performed.

2. ^ http://www. Retrieved 5 June. ^ a b Lee.com http://www.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection".unigraz.org/Vol79/79_6/8. (2004).htm. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. http://hdl. J. In particular. one the bulbs will grow peeled. et al. 2000). ^ McGee p. Notes 1.html 8. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. topical use of raw garlic. ^ http://www. bigger. Domestication of plants in the Old World.jhortscib. Ethiopia". including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. split.com/alternative-therapies/herbs-for-health/medicinal-garlic/ 9. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable.handle. third edition (Oxford: University Press. et al.natural-holistic-health. 397 6. http://www. 4. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. 112 7. ^ a b c d Tabor.crazychefs. garlick)".) cultivars at Debre Zeit.at/~katzer/engl/Alli_sat. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. http://www. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 5 June 2009. (2005).[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns.html. is discouraged.net/10113/877. p. Retrieved 2007-08-28.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. 197 5. G.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came.net/ . ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. A bulb of garlic. 3. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. including burns to children.nj.com/warrenreporter/index. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum.

2005 ^ Groppo. doi:10.1016/j. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . PMID 17123684.005. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. [2] ^ Hamel.com 54 | P a g e http://www. and Empiricism" (PDF). Biochem. PMID 17328819. 15 (6): 373–7.1002/mnfr. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". Proc.01. Oztürk HS.).325. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Med.pdf. 18. Ferraresi. ^ a b Steiner M.1001/archinte. Hyg. 27. Sylva.1001/archinte. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". "Tropes. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. 104 (46): 17977–82. PMID 17325291. Akrami M (March 2007). Natl. Izzo AA (November 2007). ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. Sartoratto. PMID 15218732. 26. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7.net/ . doi:10.346. PMID 17951430. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007).200700072. Arch. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). ^ Durak I.1073/pnas. PMID 17966136. ^ Chan KC. ^ Mader FH (October 1990)." Int.167. Paul B. PMID 2291748.jnutbio. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets.167.ama-assn. Block E. 34. 33. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. Chao WJ (March 2007). "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". Acad. Ramacciato. PMID 17918162. doi:10.1162/106361403773062678. PMID 9641475. 30. J. and Mary U. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8.A. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. (Mrs. Garlic.1002/mnfr. Med. Intern. doi:10. Facts.org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract".crazychefs. 5..manchester. Sova P (May 2004). 25. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". Dent.C. 5:109–115. Mills RW. U. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". PMID 15277094. 11. Intern. 19. 2006. Nutr.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. 24. 12. ^ Gardner CD. ^ Charlson M. doi:10. 35. 17. Güven C (2002). Kavutcu M. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. ^ Kojuri J. Maud. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. ^ Durak I.. 14. Capasso R. doi:10.4. McFerren M (February 2007). 31. PMID 17325296. http://personalpages.200700058. Herald Publishing Co. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". 21.org/cgi/content/extract/167/4/325. Sci. Lin RS (June 1998).University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. P. et al (February 2007).lehoux/Tropes. R. A Modern Herbal. http://archinte. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. July 1. 167 (4): 346–53. J. 15.ama-assn. Vosoughi AR. 32.uk/staff/daryn. PMID 15157944. 22. 13. Yin MC. 20.10.. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study".. ^ Borrelli F. Accessed: December 18.0705710104. http://archinte. 167 (4): 325–6.A 400 Year History. ^ Goodbye. et al (November 2007). F.. Better Nutrition. 23.1186/1476-511X-6-5. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . A. J. et al (June 2004).S. Squadrito GL. Olcay E.ac.4. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". Arch. Lawson LD. 29. doi:10. (p. ^ Benavides GA.2004. Motta. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. 28. 16. doi:10. doi:10. N. Aytaç B. Daryn (2003).

Retrieved December 7. Iwai K.com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582..com/topic-t6335-a1-6Allium_sativum. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 65. on mutagenesis. Ali M (June 1996). http://joi.. Kominato Y. Yoffe B. Retrieved December 7. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. http://linkinghub. 52. Summer 2005 . NLM Gateway. Jordan W.unito. ^ Bukhari. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet.36. Chesson C.asm. 43. ^ Macpherson et al.elsevier. PMID 8644128. 49 (1): 473. Shishido C. Sanders N. Teel R.nhs.jlc.sgmjournals.jst. http://mic. 120. http://joi. PMID 8441577. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. 40. Pickering p. 049 . 211 51. UK Medicines Information.Garlic-in-Oil 61. "Allixin. Aon MA. ^ a b c d Hogg. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). (1989-01-30). 53. "Garlic burns".1099/mic.. Lau B. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. Steckelberg JM. doi:10. (1991-08-01).JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. a stress compound from garlic. Engl. 42. H.net/ . Patel R (January 2005). section "Conclusion" 48.2005. ^ a b McNally. ^ http://www.49.0. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. 85 (3): 157–64.com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390. Microbiology (Reading. 310–311 47. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9.com/a/Garlic.html 46.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. 2007. PMC: 538912. ^ McGee p. ^ http://www.it/didattica/infochimica/2006_aglio/pagine/agronomy.Vol 9 No. Sumida T.ch. Itakura Y.jp/JST. In Search of Dracula. Jennifer (2002-12-13).1. ISBN 0-30436561-0.. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. p. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions.ukmi. 39. ^ http://lem. 211..Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60.. ^ Macpherson et al. ^ Shuford JA. Matuura H. Agents Chemother. 66.January 29. Lett. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". Castro C.". 122.economicexpert. ^ John S. Complementary Medicines Summary. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". PMID 11600262. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). ^ Kodera Y.org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257.crazychefs. (2001). Raymond T (1994).elsevier. Book 65 57. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. 41. ^ Health Canada . doi:10.htm 44. ^ http://washokufood. Ronen M (November 2001). 2007. http://linkinghub. PMID 16207909. ^ Pickering. Thomson M. Slattery M.jst.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. http://aac. David (2003). Fuwa T. "Garlic burns". garlic advisory 63.goldbamboo. p. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. Nishimura S. PMID 11481410. ^ Oi Y.html 54. 38. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats". "Effect of allixin. ISBN 0-395-65783-0..com http://www. Antimicrob. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. http://www.go. Imafuku M.html 45. PMID 15616341.1128/AAC. James. Long D.jp/JST.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. ^ Garlic . Scolaro M. 37. Nishino H.go. ^ McNally p. 4 . ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association.. Volume 7.473. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. Toxicol. 49.pdf.28095-0. 58. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56.uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. ^ Fareed G.". Sagi A. Passa O. et al (October 2005). DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". 64.jlc.com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic. W.) 62. Houghton Mifflin. Sterling Publishing.blogspot. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. National Health Service. Yoshida S. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Bordia T. ^ Lemar KM. Retrieved 2007-0707. ^ Baruchin AM. 1988.

D. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". G. Efendy JL.jp[青森県産]. and Related Species (Second Edition). Naoki Kashimoto.. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". 94 (6): 632–5. Pharm. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. Z. (2001). Jain AK.com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6. Campbell GR.. D. Shan. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono.. Pharm. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). Boudoulas H. 'Kyolic'. (1985). Andy (2004). Lawson. Gardner.M. Chem. E.. P. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Kiazand. R. D. Block. http://circ. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Kozue Ogasawara. L. Hort. The chemistry of garlic and onions. 50. D. H.. Lawson. L. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. PMID 8441577. Jiro Yoshida. Belz GG (October 1997). Garlic. Gotzkowsky S.References Japanese garlic. http://linkinghub. Block. (2004). 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 50. J. Masanori Ayabe. Vargas R. Hamilton. [4] Lawson. A. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. Rabinowitch (2004). PMID 9247357. Lemar. Simmons DL. Ling M. Williams & Wilkens. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. D. Chem. 354-363 (2002). New York: Avery. Block. Med. Breithaupt-Grögler K. "Garlic burns".. Block. Naoto Uda. Am. Bull. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. Sci.elsevier. (1996). 405-407 (2002). PMID 8506890. C. C.. (1992). Turner.. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. Soc. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. Selfsufficientish . L. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. H. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. Hile. Campbell JH (July 1997). ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. I. Am. Balch. 3rd ed. Retrieved 1 May 2005. Makoto Ichikawa. Zemah. K. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Vol. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Z. Koch. Garty BZ (March 1993). A. E. L.-Z. P.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. (2000).. Yukihiro Kodera.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9355906. D.. E. McMahon FG (June 1993). J. Balise. Bull. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. R. Kamenetsky.net/ . Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42..P. E. Chatterjee. R. Kraemer. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Isao Sumioka.Garlic. M. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. 129: 144–151. A.. A.com http://www. Barzilay. Vol.ahajournals. Zhang. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. J. Wang. L. PMID 9355906. and H. Susumu Yoshida. H... M. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. S..crazychefs. Shafir. Lloyd.

PMC: 538912.K. (1998). "The Onion Family: Onions. PMID 9641475. Kadam. doi:10.com/pt/pt-core/templatejournal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage. et al. Steiner M.com http://www. Antimicrob.Lindsey J.crazychefs. Marcel Dekker. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. S. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pharmacol. Patel R (January 2005). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Eid. Leeks".1128/AAC. PMID 15616341. Michael Bandell. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45..473. pp. Y-Y. Macpherson. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". Neil A (1994).org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". 31 (6): 904–8. D. Agents Chemother.asm. Veena Viswanath. Samer R.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. 310–3. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". Shuford JA.wkhealth. H. http://aac. Bernhard H.2005. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. et al. (1999). Garlic. Salunkhe. 49 (1): 473. Abstract. Lin RS (June 1998). Scribner. et al. In: Ohigashi. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". (1997). ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. PMID 2291748. McGee. Cardiovasc.1. Yeh.. PMID 8169881. Silagy C. Y-Y. Harold (2004). Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. (eds). ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. Yeh.. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.49. http://meta. SunWook Hwang. Mader FH (October 1990).. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. Geierstanger. Steckelberg JM.net/ . J.12.S.

called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. when they are ready for collecting. it is called đinh hương.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. terminating in four spreading sepals. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. after which they develop into a bright red. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. and Sri Lanka. Zanzibar. syn.crazychefs.5-2 cm long.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S.com http://www. Pakistan. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. In Vietnam. Madagascar. and consist of a long calyx. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. Cloves are harvested when 1. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre.

During Christmas. it is used in almost all dishes. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. but as they are extremely strong. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. but with the addition of other spices). This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. they are used sparingly. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. spleen and stomach meridians. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. Cloves are used in cheeses. Cloves are used as a carminative. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas.000 tonnes).net/ . entering the kidney. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon.[1] In north Indian cuisine. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. warm and aromatic. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. especially for digestive problems. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. which sells Djarum Black.com http://www. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. cloves are often used to season pho broth. In south Indian cuisine. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis.crazychefs. often in combination with cumin.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. In Vietnamese cuisine. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. along with other spices. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form.

they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. vomiting and diarrhea. and Tidore. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana.com http://www. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. It is also used in severe burns. Makian. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade.[7] Nevertheless. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands).direct stomach qi downward. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Khalsa.P.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. were highly prized in Roman times. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. including cloves. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. most of the West Indies.crazychefs. In the late fifteenth century.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli.[6] History Until modern times. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. and Zanzibar. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). Brazil. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. along with nutmeg and pepper.[7] Cloves. including for multiple sclerosis.net/ . pimples etc. Subsequently.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. including Bacan. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. Ayurvedic herbalist K. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. Moti. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. Ternate. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus).[5] In West Africa. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. RH (AHG). to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. mainly from the Maluku Islands. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century.

Spice: The History of a Temptation. 3. ^ "TibetMed . and several sesquiterpenes. Alan.. rhamnetin. the flavonoids eugenin. John Wiley and Sons Inc.html Tilotson. 8. Jack (2004). 2.com/diseases/special-diets-for-illness. gallotannic acid. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. ^ a b Turner. Erich Stoger. kaempferol. ^ http://www. and eugenitin.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Vintage Books.org/questions/question_44. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. Andrew and Page. crategolic acid.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". cloves were worth at least their weight in gold.html National Institutes of Health. 3rd ed. Erich Stoger.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. stigmasterol and campesterol. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. tannins. http://www.nlm. ^ http://oneearthherbs. James. xv. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. due to the high price of importing them. Phyllis and Balch. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. ISBN 0-375-70705-0.squarespace. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin.net/ . pg.[8] Notes and references 1. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. Avery Publishing. pp. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. Steven Clavey. methyl salicylate (painkiller). ©2003. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World".. Karen.tibetmed. ^ Balch.com http://www. 94. Medicine Plus.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-clove.htm. ^ Dorenburg. Special Diets for Illness 6. comprising 72-90%. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. and Andrew Gamble. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. ©2000. 5.nih. Steven Clavey. Third Edition by Dan Bensky.crazychefs.

Shallot
Shallot

Shallots

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Details
Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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Cardamom
Cardamom

True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

Varieties
There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]

Uses

Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.

Gallery

Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

Notes
1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer. Rediff.com, 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

Bibliography
1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum
Hook.f.

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Usages
Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Identification
Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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Specification".3. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. Retrieved 8 June 2009. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. f. ^ Louisa Lim.net/ .a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 .2005.5555/jaoi. http://www.com/AOAC/doi/abs/10.org/iso/catalogue_detail.com/BZ-shuju/standshow.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 .88. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. ^ Joshi. Retrieved 8 June 2009. 18 May 2009 2.htm?csnumber =4844. 6.iso. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. et al.chinaios. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook.1021/jf058156b. while Lederer et al. PMID 15492355. ^ International Organization for Standardization. (2006). NPR. http://www. doi:10.atypon-link. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. http://www.2004-0058.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". f.) -.Botanical nomenclature".703.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. http://www.crazychefs.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. Retrieved 8 June 2009. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". 3. 5. Retrieved 10 November.iso. 4.1542/peds. (2005).com http://www. doi:10. Ines et al. Vaishali C.htm?csnumber=19183. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. ^ Lederer.

native from the east Mediterranean to East India. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.com http://www.net/ . ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.crazychefs. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Like many other Arabic words in the English language. and yellow-brown in colour. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. In Arabic. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced.com http://www. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). longitudinally ridged. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. parsley and dill. in northwestern China. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. a member of the parsley family. cumin is known as zireh. the story goes.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). Kerman. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. In Northern India and Nepal. maduru. in Iran and Central Asia. including kamūnu in Akkadian. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. cumin is known as kimyon. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni .Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. locally called "Kermun". The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". in Turkey.net/ .[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. being oblong in shape. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites.crazychefs.

It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony.crazychefs. In South Asia.net/ . Turkey. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. have been dated to the second millennium BC.com http://www. when added to hot milk and consumed. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. Egypt. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. Mexico. Syria. and this practice continues in Morocco. Uzbekistan. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). Seeds. In Sri Lanka. today it is mostly grown in Iran. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. Tajikistan.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. and Chile. India. Morocco.

and is found in achiote blends. popular in Indian. enchiladas. Cuban. but are smaller and darker in colour. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. Indian. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. curries. and borne in umbels. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine.net/ . white or pink. sofrito.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. either ground or as whole seeds. Today. Contrary to popular belief in the US. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. Pakistani. curry powder.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. It is traditionally added to chili. The flowers are small. garam masala. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. adobos. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese.com http://www. containing a single seed. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. It is an herbaceous annual plant. thread-like leaflets. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. Northern Mexican cuisines. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. Sri Lankan. and bahaarat. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. Middle Eastern. North African. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. pinnate or bipinnate. and in some traditional breads from France. and other Middle-Eastern. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. tacos.crazychefs. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder.

It is grown from seed. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F). Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. and needs fertile.very common in Mexican cuisine.Sugars 2.crazychefs. well-drained soil.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . B2) 0. However.579 mg Vitamin B6 0.435 mg Folate (Vit.Dietary fiber 10. B3) 4. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.com http://www. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 64 μg 44. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. Cultivation of cumin requires a long.net/ .saturated 1.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine.27 g 17.5 g Fat .327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.24 g 22. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.33 mg Vitamin K 5.81 g 8. it is drought-tolerant. hot summer of 3–4 months. sown in spring.25 g . It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.7 mg Vitamin E 3.

In Polish the difference is even less significant. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Not related to curcumin. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste.net/ . Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. However. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi).[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q.com http://www.Zinc 4. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it.crazychefs. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". to eat. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin.). lighter in colour.a cat and 'kotek' . from the Swedish word "spisa". cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. a chemical found in turmeric. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.v. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). as in 'kot' .a small cat). In Swedish. For example.

".1016/j.com 7.gov. ^ a b c Li. Essential Oils". 2000.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. et al. Lu et al.pl?12617.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.1302. 9. Domestication of plants in the Old World.crazychefs. 8. from China". ^ "KMN.ars-grin." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). 2000).foodreference. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b Wang. 206 5. (2005).1021/jf0487351." premiumwanadoo.313. ^ http://www.com http://www. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004).2009. third edition (Oxford: University Press. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L.030.com/html/fcumin. 2. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . Rong. doi:10. ^ "Kamūnu. ^ a b Iacobellis. p. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. ^ Growingtaste.1002/ffj. doi:10.aca. http://www. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. and Carum carvi L. 3. www. Retrieved 2008-03-13. (2009). whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1.html 6. Nicola S. 4.77. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". doi:10. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L.arsgrin.net/ .05.com. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 .

crazychefs.Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.net/ .

bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae).com http://www. cineol.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. shogaols and gingerols. West Africa and the Caribbean. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. medicine. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. In laboratory animals. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. sedative. and galangal. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.net/ . cardamom. or spice.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. and citral) have also been identified. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids.

81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which makes swallowing easier. and tender green chili peppers.com http://www.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. Adrak. For storage. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. in Gujarati. nuts. enchi in Malayalam. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. salt. and ginger beer. in Tamil Nadu. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Additionally. ginger ale. Allam ( ) in Telugu. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. crackers and cake.net/ . particularly gingerols and shogaols. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. In South India. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. to which honey is often added. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. Ginger has a sialagogue action. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. [edit] Regional use In India. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. Ginger is also made into candy. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. Inji in Tamil. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. especially in the Tanjore belt. and Aduwa in Nepali. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. or frozen for longer term storage.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. stimulating the production of saliva.crazychefs. Alay in Marathi. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. cookies. ghee. and sugar. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine.

In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. is made.crazychefs. ginger is called gyin. In Arabic. parkin and ginger biscuits. In the traditional Korean kimchi. In Vietnam. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. Greece. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. In the Ivory Coast. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. during their occupation of the islands. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. On the island of Corfu. In China. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku.net/ . traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. and a variety of nuts and seeds. In Western cuisine. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. gingerbread. ginger snaps. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes.com http://www. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. In the Caribbean. In Japan. In Burma. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. a type of ginger beer.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. and making drinks such as sorrel. France.

Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile.crazychefs. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. including warfarin. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. cough and cold.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. though studies been inconsistent. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. which several scientific studies support. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made.com http://www. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. though it does interact with some medications. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11].[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea.net/ .Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. morning sickness and chemotherapy. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

gas.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. In India. ginger can cause heartburn. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold.com http://www.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West.crazychefs. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. and heart rhythms. In China. reducing "winds" in the blood. people use ginger for making tea. bloating. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. and although it's generally recognized as safe. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. In Indonesia. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage.[14] In Congo. In Burma. particularly if taken in powdered form. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. In the United States. which is considered a panacea. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. belching and nausea.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. in food etc. it is considered good for a sore throat. and individuals who have had ulcers. clotting.

000 158. Traditionally. Production trends India. which has slipped to the second position (~20. washing and scraping gives white ginger. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems.5%) and Nigeria(~10%).crazychefs. it is immediately scalded. produces black ginger. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. with over 30% of the global share. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. Scalding.net/ . Nepal(~11. now leads in global production of ginger. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420.com http://www. but this generally reduces its value. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. or washed and scraped.5%). replacing China.7%).Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. followed by Indonesia(~12. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall.000 F 177.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.gov.000 57.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. is used in cooking and medicine. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.270 1. http://www.000 8. galangal. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai.ars-grin.387.000 28. a carcinogenic compound. Also referred to as galangal. Asarum canadense. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine.000 42. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . and its root has similar aromatic properties. but it is not related to true ginger. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. A = Aggregate(may include official.000 34.arsgrin. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). Galangal is also called Thai ginger. Retrieved 2008-03-03. semiofficial or estimates).pl?42254. the flower buds are the part eaten. F = FAO estimate.contains ginger material References 1. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". is also known as "wild ginger".Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. www.net/ .contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan .crazychefs.com http://www. The plant also contains aristolochic acid.

"Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). 15. ^ Al-Amin.com/oldformat. Kim Farrell. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". (2007). Sheng-Chu Kuo.1001/archfami.uspharmacist.2006. Jaw-Chyun. 6.com 7.cambridge. Retrieved 2007-08-02.523. 8.com http://www. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. 4.foodchem. PMID 9821826.html. "Ginger". Kathi Kemper. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. http://journals. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153.com 12. http://bja. doi:10. PMID 10793599. Retrieved 5 November.com 5. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). Mary.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716.7. http://www. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397.org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. "Beverage of Champions". http://timeblog. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger".013.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. ^ Al-Achi.com/china_blog/2007/01/the_beverage_of_champions_1. Retrieved 2007-08-06. http://www. ^ Afshari.library. Retrieved 2007-0808.1016/j. MD. Li-Jiau Huang. (01 Mar 2000). British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. M.1021/jf071460f. 11. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). ^ Jakes. Retrieved 2007-08-02. doi:10. Susan (2007-01-15). MD. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Chen. Retrieved 2006-09-06.umm.html. MD. Zainab M.mayoclinic. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536.ucla.. David Kiefer.2.edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch. Harold (2004). "A Current Look at Ginger Use".asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. ^ Ernst. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". 10. 425-426. & MSt.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/7/6/523. http://unitproj. (2006). ^ MD O' Hara. Antoine.01. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". Tin-Yun Ho. 9. Ali Taghizadeh et al.net/ . http://archfami.amaassn.com/health/ginger/NS_patient-ginger.edu/biomed/spice/index. doi:10.crazychefs. Retrieved 2007-08-02.cfm?displayID=15. http://www. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". 3.6. 14. 13. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". New York: Scribner pp. doi:10. Retrieved 2007-08-02. ^ McGee. et al. MPH (1998).H. Shih-Lu Wu. E.). & Pittler.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25).

after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. and to impart color to mustard condiments. In medieval Europe. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.crazychefs. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron.net/ . Zingiberaceae. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. For these reasons. Erode. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed].com http://www. slightly bitter. for dyeing.

dairy products. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. popcorn color.[citation needed] Sangli. powdered form. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. Over-coloring. sweets. and mustard. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. sauces. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. orange juice. In non-South Asian recipes. Although usually used in its dried. yellow cakes.Yellow City.com http://www.net/ . much like ginger. biscuits. not only in curry. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. turmeric is also used fresh. cake icings. ice cream. but also in masak lemak. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. gelatins. cereals. such as in pickles. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. yogurt.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders.crazychefs. and many more. or Textile City. Turmeric City. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric).[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. custardlike yellow color. rendang. etc. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. relishes. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf.

use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries.In combination with annatto (E160b). but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron).crazychefs. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. is also treated with turmeric powder. and other digestive disorders. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. an uncurable and debilitating disease.net/ . In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). Within one week of using turmeric. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. burns and bruises. It is unknown why it works. salad dressings.[4] cancer. are spiced with turmeric. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. dry mixes. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. Indians.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. Japan.com http://www. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. winter butter and margarine. a traditional dish in South Asia. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. yogurt. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. arthritis [5] and liver disorders.

Alzheimer's. or BDNF. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. and the U. Bangalore. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. found in black pepper. improves the absorption of turmeric.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. and Pakistan. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. and colorectal cancer. Bangladesh. multiple myeloma. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004.net/ . Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. Snake Bite Anti venin. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India.S. John‘s Medical College. In 1998 researchers at St.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would.com http://www.crazychefs. which supports nerve growth.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. research activity into curcumin is exploding. with no adverse effects.

India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. as a part of the marriage ritual. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. During the south Indian festival Pongal. Also. This happens in economically lower situations. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state.net/ . turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. However. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals.com http://www.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. such as saris. part of the Bengali wedding. and coconut and cooked in steam. and it is used for power and purification rites. jaggery. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire.crazychefs. In southern India.

| accessyear = 2009}} 3.W.crazychefs. Majeed M.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . ^ Chan.de/DOI/DOI?10. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1. www.aolhealth. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/condition-center/heart-disease/surviving-a-heart-attack.2008.bbc.ars-grin.6-heptadiene3. a polyphenol. 1998 May. Srinivas PS.1016/j. Joy D.ars-grin.I. 2. The systematic chemical name is (1E. (2009).thieme-connect. 64(4):353-6.5-dione. Notes 1.stm 5.pl?12676. et al.de Shoba G. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain".com http://www. Judy] (June 2009). The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Joseph T. 75300. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.6E)-1.foodchem. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. Retrieved 2008-03-04. http://www. Retrieved June 2009. http://www. AOL Health.uk/1/hi/health/1668932. keto and enol.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. ^ http://www. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.172.07.090. Planta Med. doi:10.net/ .co. or Natural Yellow 3. ^ [|Ketteler. E. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN".gov.C. ^ http://news. Rajendran R. 6.

crazychefs. Indian walnut. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). hence its name. The leaves are pale green. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree.com http://www. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A.) Willd. Kemiri. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). Euphorbiaceae. simple and ovate. with wide spreading or pendulous branches.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. flowers. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. with an acute apex. The nut is round. 4–6 centimetres (1. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans.6–2. which allows its use as a candle (see below). 10–20 centimetres (3.9 in) long.9–7. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. also known as Candleberry.net/ . and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics.4 in) in diameter.

A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they are mildly toxic when raw. fevers. swollen joints. In Sumatra. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. however. including: leis from the shells. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. as the candlenut is much more bitter. is quite different.crazychefs. burned with charcoal. This led to their use as a measure of time. and gonorrhea. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache.com http://www. On the island of Java in Indonesia. are applied around the navel for costiveness. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. In Java. In Hawaiʻi. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. a varnish with the oil. named kukui were burned to provide light. lit one end. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. leaves and flowers. In Malaya. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. the nuts. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. The flavor.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. pounded seeds. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. The seed kernels have a laxative effect.net/ . Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. giving them greater underwater visibility.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. ulcers. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. Outside of Southeast Asia.

the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. 26. ^ "Kukui". Retrieved 2009-03-06. "Chapter 4: Canoes". ISBN 9780824822514. ^ Krauss. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. http://books.com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. used as soap or shampoo. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). despite her best efforts to please her husband. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. (1993). and the husband was eventually killed.html.com/kukui. tukilamulamu. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a.google. Liana I. 4. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. http://canoeplants. Betty.google. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. ISBN 9781573061377.com/books?id=WOdrGIP3zksC&client=firefox-a.[citation needed] References 1.). Finally. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. ^ Dunford. was routinely beaten. One of the legends told of a woman who. ripe nuts.com http://www.com/books?id=PpKyFZXO_jEC. Mikiala Ayau. p. 50-51. University of Hawaii Press.google. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants.crazychefs. protection and peace. she was given new life.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). Beatrice H. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf.net/ . Being a kind and just woman. http://books. University of Hawaii Press. p.[5] In Tonga.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). Susan. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Honda. This larva is eaten by some people.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. In plantations. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. Craig Thomas (2000). pp. Bess Press. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. 2. 5. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. still nowadays. http://books. the god of agriculture. 122. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. Lilinoe Andrews. ^ Scott.

cultivated for its fruit.com http://www. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. . Peppercorns. Telugu:miriyam. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. Konkani:miriya konu. . and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. .Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. white pepper. may be described as black pepper. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. known as a peppercorn when dried.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. red pepper (as in bell or chile). green pepper. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. Kannada:meNasu. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. dark red when fully mature. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L.crazychefs. and very often simply pepper. The fruit. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. containing a single seed. . However. Malayalam:kurumulaku. unrelated plants.net/ . The terms pink peppercorns.

It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week.crazychefs.com http://www. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. White pepper consists of the seed only. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. the spice is called black peppercorn. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. chemical or biological methods. this was shortened to pep.net/ . "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. French poivre. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. In the 16th century. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. with the skin of the pepper removed. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants.S. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. wrinkled black layer. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. in the early 20th century. often alongside table salt. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. including decortication. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes.[4] In the U. and other similar forms.. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. Dutch peper. and the naked seed is dried. Once dried. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier.

[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". Schinus terebinthifolius. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. the Peruvian pepper tree. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. made from the largest.net/ . unpreserved green pepper berries. like black.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. green. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. with a bright aroma. Fresh.crazychefs. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. from Bangka Island. are used in some Asian cuisines.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius).[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. largely unknown in the West. is made from the unripe berries. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying.com http://www. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry.Black.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. which is mostly no longer an issue. Pickled peppercorns. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. Schinus molle. particularly Thai cuisine. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. also green. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour.

The cuttings are usually cultivars. but when full grown and still hard.net/ .[12][13] Within the genus Piper. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily.crazychefs. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. and before the fruit is mature. It is a spreading vine. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. The flowers are small. the berries lose pungency.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. moist. well-drained and rich in organic matter. entire.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. or trellises.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year.com http://www. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. Competing plants are cleared away.[11] Black pepper is native to India. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. poles. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. if allowed to ripen. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. The leaves are alternate. and ultimately fall off and are lost.

in what is now the state of Kerala. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money.[14] J.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. Chile peppers. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum.crazychefs. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. its most important source was India. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe.net/ . particularly the Malabar Coast. In fact.com http://www.

but these areas traded mainly with China. the Middle East. Malaysia. pepper was also being grown in Java. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. this trade advantage.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. Sunda. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. nor how it reached the Nile from India. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire.crazychefs. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. barged to Alexandria. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. Long pepper. or used the pepper locally. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. growing in the north-western part of India. According to the Roman geographer Strabo.Until well after the Middle Ages.com http://www. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. By the 16th century. Black pepper. Trade routes of the time were by land. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. changed the course of world history.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back.net/ . Madagascar. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. Returning from India. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. Sumatra.

Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". it is sometimes their sweetness. pepper was a luxury item. four. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages.net/ . Similarly. while that of white pepper is seven. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". Edward Gibbon wrote." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century.H.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. who travelled east to India. whereas. Apicius' De re coquinaria. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. After the fall of Rome. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE.. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. There is no evidence to support this claim. affordable only to the wealthy. clad in a wrinkled cover. seeing that in other substances which we use. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. first the Persians and then the Arabs. Once into the Mediterranean. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice.[22] In addition. and the prices reflected it.crazychefs. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. is fifteen denarii per pound. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. and the luxuries of the table.com http://www. if expensive.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. the banquets of kings. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. and of black. I season delicacies. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. seasoning in the Roman Empire. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. I wonder. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. 12. especially Venice and Genoa. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes.

his representative replied. "we seek Christians and spices.crazychefs. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. Pepper harvested for the European trader. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). especially in winter. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. However. has some antimicrobial properties. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. In 1498. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. Today. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased.com http://www. In the 17th century. and salt-cured meats were common fare. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. the effect is small. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. A depiction of Calicut.net/ . the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. as well as around Africa." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. Pepper.

an area in what is now the Sichuan province. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. but both were used.[26] By the 12th century. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. either long or black. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. liver problems.. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). insomnia.crazychefs. oral abscesses. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. was often the preferred medication. heart disease. hernia. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". Long pepper. as well as she could for sneezing. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. hoarseness.net/ . black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. insect bites. however.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. earache. gangrene. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. diarrhea. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. Note the cook's pepper mill. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. being stronger. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ".500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth..[25] In the 3rd century CE. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. indigestion. each load being equal to 223 lbs.000 pounds (4. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. including long pepper. lung disease. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border.com http://www. joint pain. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. but if this estimated 10. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". Like many eastern spices. Siddha and Unani medicine in India.

which is stripped of the fruit layer. sabinene. woody. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. tooth decay. left on black pepper. caryophyllene. Refined piperine. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. The outer fruit layer. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. Few. milligram-for-milligram. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. vitamin B. causing the sneezing. and toothaches.sunburn. if any. a mildly carcinogenic compound.[31] As a medicine. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. a substance present in black pepper.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. limonene. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. which give citrusy. chapter five. Some sources say that piperine.crazychefs. irritates the nostrils. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems.[31] Also. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium.com http://www. and floral notes. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. and linalool. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper.net/ . Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound.

accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. Brazil (13%).com http://www.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. Thailand (4%). Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. but has fallen to just over 271. As of 2008. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders").000 t (391. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. India (19%). Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. Sri Lanka (6%). by monetary value. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine.[35] By weight. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. the most widely traded spice in the world. so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. dispensers of pre-ground pepper.[33] Once ground. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi.000 short tons). Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. India.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. Malaysia (8%).net/ . and China (6%). but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. for example. are used for this. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%).Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. The price of pepper can be volatile. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998.000 t (299. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason.crazychefs.

gov. 4. Text online.2307/2657072. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. 20.pd f. Gernot (2006). 19. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. ^ Innes Miller. ISBN 075653836X.amjbot.com/2008/03/27/stories/2008032751741300. from Penzey's Spices. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. http://books. disease and weather. Egyptian Pharaoh.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581.com 9. http://www. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. 10. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). 11.com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary.pl?28589. Innes Miller. ISBN 0375407219. http://www.efloras. 88. 12.org/cgi/content/full/88/4/706 14. www.com http://www.crazychefs. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". Retrieved 12 August 2006. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 2006-1120.ars-grin. http://www.gov. Spice. M. 83 21. http://www. 18. 3. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. ^ Translation from Turner. Compass Point Books. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Pepper. p 94. 1969). Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either.000 short tons).000 t (99.poor crop management. The riddle's answer is of course pepper.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.[36] Notes 1. ^ J. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. ^ Dalby p. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). p. 5. 200803-27. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. 2. p. 8.ph/wps/wcm/resources/file/ebb81841763712b/black%20pepper. Vietnam dominates the export market.google. The Spice Trade. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. Retrieved 2008-03-02. Warrior. Alejandra (2001). Random House. Flora of China. Using fresh green peppercorns. ^ Peppercorns. 7. 6. ^ Katzer. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). Retrieved 17 October 2006. The Hindu Business line.da.htm. Ramses II. 80 16. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Black pepper is marica. Retrieved 2009-01-29.M1.thehindubusinessline. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. using almost none of its production domestically. p. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. 93. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus".arsgrin. PMID 11302858. ^ a b Jaramillo.net/ . http://www. 17. Retrieved 13 November 2005. doi:10. Retrieved 2008-01-29. and Builder. 13.org/florataxon. ^ Ochef.

Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries".google. Dover.pdf. 2005. 156. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. doi:10. 171. Karvy Comtrade Limited. 77. Full text at Blackwell website. ^ H. ^ a b McGee p. Cambridge University Press. CRC Press. 160. 204.S. ^ Jaffee p. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops.html.2000. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. http://books. 35. 10. 12. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. G.worldbank. Hamlyn. table 2. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. Buddhist Monastic Code II. ^ U. 108–109.com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 74–75. 27. 23. ^ Dalby p. ISBN 0600-60235-4.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2/bmc2. Jaffee. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. p. 33. also Turner pp. Berkeley: University of California Press. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. http://www. ^ Turner p.x. 36. References Dalby. J. Dangerous Tastes. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). Prosper (2001). purchase required. 26." 24. 28.accesstoinsight. 34. Larousse Gastronomique. "Mill".net/ . Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ^ Turner p.1365-2672.com http://www.google. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). Retrieved November 12. Dorman and S. ^ Dalby p. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant.00969. 31. 29. ^ "Karvy's special Reports .1046/j. ISBN 0520236742.22.crazychefs. Retrieved 2009-01-29.com/books?id=7IHcZ21dyjwC.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices. 30. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). ^ Dalby pp. 395. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. Alan (2002). "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". p. ^ Montagne. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. ISBN 0521367085. 2008-05-15. Davidson..karvycomtrade. ^ a b James A. 25. 428. "Spices. 726. ISBN 0849336201. pp. 2.com/books?id=tg7R4hU8hkC&pg=PA395&lpg=PA395&dq=Pepper+safrole&source=web&ots=38F TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. Andrew (2002). Steven (2004).Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". Retrieved 2008-01-29. D. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. Vol. http://www. Deans (2000). ^ Jaffee p. http://siteresources. ISBN 9781580084178. 32.ch05. http://books. Duke (1993-08-16).pdf.

London: Vintage Books. Jack (2004). annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. pp. Harold (2004). OCLC 56590708. "Black Pepper and Relatives".com http://www. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). 427–429. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. Scribner. Turner. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. OCLC 61213802.crazychefs. Spice: The History of a Temptation.McGee. ISBN 0375707050.net/ . ISBN 0-684-80001-2.

Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries.17 g 0. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80.Sugars 2.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Central America and northern South America. Peppers are native to Mexico.Dietary fiber 1.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.crazychefs.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". Today.224 mg Folate (Vit.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. B1) 0. B3) 0.net/ . green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. green and orange.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.40 g .34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.com http://www. yellow. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.64 g 0. B2) 0. including red. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.057 mg 4. sweet.Pepper.

crazychefs. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". g. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. In the United States and Canada. Indiana. "groene paprika". hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version.net/ . In Norway. like pasta. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. meaning pepper-fruit. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. In parts of Ohio. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". "red pepper". In France it is called "poivron". the term "paprika". the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. in Dutch. an unrelated plant.g.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. At that time peppercorns. or "piment. they are called "capsicum". Sweden. It's widely used in a variety of dishes." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. the fruit of Piper nigrum. "green pepper"). When cut off. "gele paprika". Bell peppers are botanically fruits. the word ピーマン ("pîman. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. It is eaten with fried noodles. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. regardless of their color. "Miris" is Chilli. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers.com http://www. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. and Pennsylvania. Grilled. were a highly prized condiment. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. Malaysia and New Zealand. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. With the similar meaning. " In Japan. India. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). Across Europe.. meaning Bulgarian pepper. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. which has its roots in the word for pepper. which are green and yellow. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. meaning Big pepper. In British English. respectively). such as Australia. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). instead of using as a spice.

yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. orange and. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. blue. Varieties The color can be green. pink. rainbow. yellow or orange peppers. violet. in salads. in various soups and stews. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. black and brown. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. It is eaten as a raw snack. white.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar.com http://www. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. maroon. red. purple. aqua.crazychefs.net/ . where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. more rarely. yellow.

It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. indigenous to Europe.crazychefs.com http://www.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita.com/html/fmango. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).foodreference. balsamea Willd.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint .Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. The plant. also known as M. [1]) is a hybrid mint.net/ . is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. ^ http://www. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L.

24– 0. The chromosome number is variable.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. it can grow anywhere. and 120 recorded. square in cross section. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. with smooth stems. he treated it as a species.com http://www. it is usually sterile. Flowering is from mid to late summer. The flowers are purple. fleshy. blunt spikes. noted since 1843[8].31 in) long. including stream sides and drainage ditches. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region.5 in) long and 1. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. and bare fibrous roots.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. dark green with reddish veins.crazychefs.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. Being a hybrid.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. 84. If placed.6–3. with 2n counts of 66. forming thick. 72.59–1. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem.net/ .5–4 cm (0. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1.6 in) cm broad. 6–8 mm (0.20 in) diameter. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. spreading by its rhizomes. with a few exceptions. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. confectionery.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. ice cream.[10] Similarly. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.1.crazychefs. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. and toothpaste. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is often used as a flavouring in tea. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. thus promoting belching.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. particularly menthyl acetate. chewing gum.net/ .com http://www.

pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. In addition to that. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. the Galápagos Islands. Foliage lime-scented. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. hairless. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. [16]. [21]. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. as a natural insecticide. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. Leaves wrinkled. New Zealand. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. Stems reddish. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'.[12] Outside of its native range. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. [18].crazychefs.[13] and in the United States. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. If you choose to grow peppermint. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. A mild. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. It needs a good water supply. which they then call "after-dinner mints.net/ . Leaves aromatic.com http://www. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. and it is considered invasive in Australia. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. and contribute only their own spearmint genes.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. Eau De Cologne Mint). Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. it is advisable to plant it in a container. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators.

^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . Thomson Healthcare. (1989). 9. C. Retrieved 3 June 2009. page 640.dld. Mentha L. & Grey-Wilson. ^ World Health Organization. ed. Flowers open from bottom up. ISBN 978-1563636783 10. doi:10.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. C. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe.crazychefs. C. http://whqlibdoc. a popular confection. M. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 11. ^ a b Blamey. ^ Linnaeus. (2007).glu. 7.pdf.. A. In: Stace. 6.2007.com http://www. (1992). ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.int/publications/2002/9241545372.02. 5. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. ^ Cappello. R.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . http://www.who. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats".net/ . Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. M.org/en/node/199. ^ a b Akdogan. G. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs".1016/j. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". Retrieved 2009-02-07.006. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial".. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. A. (1975).Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. ed. Mehmet (2004). ^ Harley. 2.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. ^ a b Huxley. et al. 4th Edition.. (1753). ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3.

)".1023/A:1006185103897.16..)". Derek R. 26. D.org/iso/catalogue_detail. http://www.S. Mehmet et al.sagepub.28. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 . Retrieved 6 June 2009. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats".10): 119 .htm. 27. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. Zheljazkov.com/cgi/content/abstract/23/1/21. http://www3. F. http://het. et al..159. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. ^ Akdogan. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 . "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". Retrieved 8 June 2009.interscience. and Mentha spicata L. 21.actahort. http://tih.htm.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. Retrieved 3 June. Bienvenu (1998). Retrieved 3 June. 18.E. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 . 17.D. Retrieved 3 June.. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)".2740311104. doi:10. J. ^ International Organization for Standardization.1002/jsfa. Retrieved 7 June 2009. ^ Farley. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice".htm?csnumber=32041. http://www.iso.1071/AP99036. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .iso. Retrieved 6 June 2009. ^ Edwards.Specification". ^ a b c Jullien. http://www.com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213. on kidney tissue in rats".org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.wiley. Retrieved 7 June 2009. (2004).. Bienvenu (1999).com/journal/118500486/abstract. S. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. populations.sagepub. http://het. Frédéric et al. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1151. 23..net/ . 25. Retrieved 3 June. ^ International Organization for Standardization.crazychefs.257.sagepub. 19.E.actahort.org/books/629/629_21. ^ Sharma.224. http://www. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L.htm?csnumber=11633. Plant Cell. 20. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . F. (2007). doi:10.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . Valerie Howland (2006). Mehmet (2003). "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". Ambika et al. paraquat. ^ Adamovic.122. ^ Akdogan.htm?csnumber=4844. 22. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. Australia". 24. V. ^ International Organization for Standardization.com http://www.org/books/249/249_8. http://www. doi:10.iso. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev.219.

Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A.crazychefs. to the Alliaceae family. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. porrum (L. ampeloprasum var. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum.com http://www. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A.).) J.Gay The leek. is a vegetable which belongs. Two related vegetables. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. along with the onion and garlic. the elephant garlic and kurrat.net/ . porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum (L. also sometimes known as Allium porrum. although different in their uses as food. Allium ampeloprasum var.

and overwintering leeks.net/ . Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil.crazychefs. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. and they have few pest or disease problems. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. to be planted out as weather permits. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. intended for harvest in the season when planted. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months.com http://www. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. leeks are hardy. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. Once established in the garden. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching).

Fried. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. which turns it soft and mild in taste.crazychefs. along with leek soup. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. Lamb is the most popular. although less bitter than scallion. The tender core may be eaten. The onion-like layers form around a core. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten.net/ . having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. which can be used in salads. due to the layered structure of the leek. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise.com http://www. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. The slices have a tendency to fall apart.Cuisine Leeks for sale. In its raw state. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. but. as the leek ages. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. carrots and potatoes and different meats. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. Raw. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient.

06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit. who consumed it most often in soup. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.3 g 1.9 g .8 g Fat .crazychefs.E.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.15 g 0. onwards.004 g . as well as other recipes with leeks.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.Sugars 3.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates . bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.E.04 g . Cultural significance Raw Leeks.C.C.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. In her book. B2) 0. as well as wall carvings and drawings.monounsaturated 0. B3) 0. 83 μg 14.saturated 0. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.233 mg Folate (Vit.net/ . Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet. B1) 0.polyunsaturated 0.Dietary fiber 1.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.

refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. good countryman.net/ .‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet.Vitamin E 0.12 mg recommendations for adults.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. for example. In the play. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. David‘s Day.crazychefs. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. representing Wales. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. Shakespeare. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards.com http://www. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. According to one legend. you know. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Notes 1. Mireille. 3.crazychefs. third edition (Oxford: University Press.net/ .p. (Penguin Books. Knopf.com http://www.. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Domestication of plants in the Old World. ^ Guiliano. French Women Don't Get Fat. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. ^ Jane Grigson. 1978. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. 2000). Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book.

com http://www.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe. dulce) or celeriac (var.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates . with fewer than 100 individuals left. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.net/ . graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.Sugars 2 g 3g . Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. Celery. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2 g 0.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable.crazychefs. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.Dietary fibre 1.6 g Fat Protein Water 0. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.

celery is also grown for its seeds. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. horses. onions. Celery. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and in Old Bay Seasoning. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. squirrels. on the Chicago-style hot dog. Actually very small fruit. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. and small rodents. 30 AD. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails).In temperate countries. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. as celery salt. onions. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. Celery is a staple in many soups. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. often used as a base for sauces and soups.crazychefs.net/ . dogs.com http://www. such as chicken noodle soup. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. birds. Celery.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats.

The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. even in trace amounts. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. M. at Kastanas. making avoiding such foods difficult. for people with celery allergy. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant.[8] In the European Union. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated.crazychefs. father of the Cabeiri. have to be clearly marked as such. Celery contains androstenone. In Homer's Iliad. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy.com http://www. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC).[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. however. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms.net/ . However. they note "since A. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. foods that contain or may contain celery. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. Lemnos and Thebes. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos.

many of which differ little from the wild species.. They are ranged under two classes. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars.. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. cracks. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. and a distinctive smell. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. fields are harvested only once. straightness and thickness of petiole. seleri. shape. but the leaves may be used in salads. to last from the beginning of September to late in April.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. 1.crazychefs. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. In North America. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. In the past. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. as the Grace of the whole Board".and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. due to extremely uniform crop growth. The wild form of celery is known as smallage.net/ . which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. at our Great Mens tables. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. earthy taste. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves.5–2 mm long and wide. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. 2–3 mm diameter. splits. apium Italicum. and the most crisp and tender. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. produced in dense compound umbels. insect damage and rot).[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. white and red. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sweetish. the whole plant having a coarse. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. from the Latin selinon. The flowers are creamy-white. Under optimal conditions.com http://www. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. and Praetors feasts. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. borrowed from Greek.[14] With cultivation and blanching. The plants are raised from seed.

between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). (3rd ed.edu/Produce/ProduceFacts/Veg/celery. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). 2003. 2000) p. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. 13. ^ OED. 16.com/edible. ^ Teng CM. ^ Celestin J. Radauer C. et al. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". "Celery".net/ .. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. T.6 (June 1993): 610-611. Natural History XIX. Hopf. de Medicina. 11. 14.practicallyedible. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5.. 1920). (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. C (1753). Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. ^ Cantwell.com http://www. s. P.17:1697-1699. Scheiner O. Thayer translation [1] 4. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82.202. (2005). 227. West J. Retrieved 2009-05-03. (2002-06-10). Zohary and M. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. Thomson. Holmiae. ^ D.[16] References 1.ucdavis. ^ a b Fragiska. (Laurentii Salvii). ^ William Robinson and W. Kraft D. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. 15. Ko SN.46. Post-harvest technology research and information center.v. Western Journal of Medicine 158. 3. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". p.. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". Retrieved 2008-03-04. Suslow. Lee LG. Wilson IBH.crazychefs.L. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. ^ Bublin M. M. ^ R. http://postharvest. M. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. 2.nsf/pages/smallage. 12. ^ snopes. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. 8. ^ Celsus. ^ Calcium sources 7. ^ Pliny. http://www. 9. 10.shtml. gentle handling. ^ "Smallage".com: Celery and Negative Calories 6. Heiner DC. and proper sanitation.

(Discuss) For other uses.98 g 0g 0g 0. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars. Sugar. Magnification of grains of sugar. see Sugar (disambiguation).Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.com http://www.Sugars 99.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 96.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.net/ . For the common table sugar.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .91 g . granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B2) 0.crazychefs. see sucrose.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.21 g .

com http://www.net/ . B2) 0.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. B3) 0. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. honey. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. lactose. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1.Water 1. mainly sucrose.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. It forms the main ingredient in candy.026 mg Folate (Vit. and fructose. but also appears in fruit.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. sorghum.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.crazychefs. and in many other sources. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. sugar maple (in maple syrup).77 g Thiamine (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. obesity and tooth decay.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. B1) 0.

A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. such as glucose. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. means "pebble".) will likely denote a sugar. Scientific Scientifically. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. the Spanish word azúcar.Popular In non-scientific use. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. Generically known as "syrups". and texture) of beverages and food. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). preservation.net/ . store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. etc. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet.crazychefs. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. "fructose". the Italian word zucchero. "dextrose".com http://www. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. (Compare the OED. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). Spanish and/or Italian. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". In this informal sense. Etymology In the case of sugar. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. including palm sugar and fructose. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). zahari.) The Greek word for "sugar".[4] It came to English by way of French. In a list of ingredients. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). molasses or treacle.

net/ . Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. 2. as its name suggests. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. making the sugars reactive. disaccharides. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. raw sugar. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively.crazychefs. plus sugars naturally present in honey.Culinary sugars Grainier. A notable exception. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). Natural sugars come in fruit.com http://www. This includes all the sugars referred to above. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). deoxyribose. important molecules in the body. cook or consumer. Sugars include monosaccharides. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. has a "missing" oxygen atom. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. 3.containing 1. syrups and fruit juices. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption.

lactose (milk sugar . chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses).net/ . Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. proteins connected to one or more sugars. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. producing invert sugar. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. galactose and mannose. If combined with fine ash. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. Note for example glycoproteins. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. which form part of nucleic acids. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. Monosaccharides include fructose.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. glucose. sugar will burn with a blue flame. fructose.com http://www. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar .1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. or DNA. including NADH and ATP. and galactose. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree.made from one glucose and one fructose).crazychefs. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. which is made of glucose. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which has the formula C6H12O6. After digestion and absorption. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. with less than 0. sweeter than the original sucrose. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. In these closed-chain forms. This resulting syrup. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch).water (H2O) per bond.

80 g/ml Notes 1. ISBN 1566398320.com/worldofsugar/internationalSugarStats." http://men. 1996. ^ scientificpsychic. OCLC 51837990 84251137.Bulk Density Chart. Cambridge: Woodhead.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. ^ "Engineering Resources . Temple University Press.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. 5. The International Sugar Trade. ^ Wuebben." Powder and Bulk References Adas. OCLC 44493265. ISBN 063205476X. James.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Glyn (2004).webmd. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/features/sugar-what-kinds-eat-when 2.net/ . Sugarcane.crazychefs. Michael (January 2001).illovosugar.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. Joseph and Mike Carlson. A C Hannah.com http://www. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. Blackwell Publishing.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. History of Science and Technology in Islam. 4.htm 3.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. Sugar Blues. ^ International sugar statistics http://www.com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan.

Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses.net/ . for light brown sugar. Products for industrial use (e. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sugar beet molasses is used. however. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. especially in the Netherlands. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. It is.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6.g. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane.com http://www. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. without mixing them separately.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals.crazychefs. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar.35 mm. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. Brown sugar contains from 3. Although in some areas. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products.25% of the total volume). the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar.5% molasses (dark brown sugar).

he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar.[2] John Yudkin.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). History In the late 1800s. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. as opposed to white sugar.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar.[1] However. in his studies (cited in "Pure. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. apart from pure carbohydrate. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar.com http://www. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume.net/ . but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. Nutritionally. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories.crazychefs. In other applications. The effort was so successful that by 1900. much like adding molasses would do. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. White and Deadly" . reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect.

2003. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar.crazychefs. 3.htm#bm07. http://www.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). which is then crystallized.wholesomesweeteners. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. resulting in the characteristic large. light brown. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. centrifuged. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. but most is now produced in Mauritius. light brown. 4. cane sugar. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. 6.". 7. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.org ^ Levenstein. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. http://www. http://www.com/PressRelease.com/brands/Wholesome_Sweeteners/Organic_Tur binado_Sugar.html.htm#sugarmade. largecrystalled.csrwire. Demerara is another unrefined. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. 32-33 5.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana.fao. Muscovado. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice.php?id=3026. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals.3 fao. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. References 1. Harvey. crystals. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 2. giving it a higher mineral content. ^ New Scientist.com http://www. or Demerara sugar. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. where sugar cane was grown. an island off Africa. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. Retrieved 2008-09-20.com/muscovado_sugar.net/ .wildernessfamilynaturals. Retrieved 2008-09-20.1.

white. including high blood pressure. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. refined salt (table salt). It is a crystalline solid. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). This salt shaker also contains grains of rice.[citation needed] Conversely. the two major components of salt.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures.net/ . Chloride and sodium ions. and iodized salt. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes.com http://www. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. which some use to prevent caking.crazychefs. including humans. pale pink or light gray in color. but toxic to most land plants.

salt provided the best-known food preservative. and the dye Tyrian purple. In 1960. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.[2]:44 Along the Sahara.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi.com http://www.crazychefs. the caravans still transported some 15. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans).History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years. especially for meat. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. glass.000 tons of salt.net/ . as were salted birds and salt fish. however. in the millennia before then. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire.

water. salz. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. which was illegal under British rule. In many Pagan religions esp. taking their names from hal(l)-. and Egyptian. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". the Roman exonym for the Celts. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible.net/ . This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26)." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork".[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. though incorrectly.com http://www. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha".fire. who had heretofore mined for salt. Greek. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. (Judges 9:45. began open pan salt making.) In the Sermon on the Mount.crazychefs. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt.[citation needed] The root hal(l). In religion According to Strong's Concordance.Salzburg. During the first millennium BC. Halych in Ukraine. God sent down four blessings from the sky . The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6).also gave us Gaul. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. a root for salt found in Celtic. Hallstatt." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. the Hallstatt Celts.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf.[1] It is widely. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria.

In the native Japanese religion Shinto.crazychefs. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. Halite.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. such as in Sumo Wrestling. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. In Aztec mythology. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .com http://www.

which are kiln-dried.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. After the raw salt is obtained.Different natural salts have different mineralities. Fleur de sel.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt.com http://www.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics.net/ . giving each one a unique flavor. Injected water dissolves the salt.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. food uses account for 17. which is most widely used presently. and thus is rarely eaten. Today. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight.[12] However. One example are bath salts. natural sea salt harvested by hand. In recrystallization.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. Refined salt. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). has a unique flavor varying from region to region. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. and the making of soaps and detergents. is mainly sodium chloride. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. Purification usually involves recrystallization.5% of salt production.

[29] However. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. and a bulk density (dry. and calcium aluminosilicate. Some people also add a desiccant. calcium silicate. Table salt has a particle density of 2. calcium or magnesium carbonates.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. Single-serving salt packets. Table salt Table salt is refined salt.165 g/cm3.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough.com http://www.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. magnesium oxide.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] .net/ .crazychefs.154 g/cm3. fatty acid salts (acid salts). keeping the salt crystals from sticking together.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. however.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. sodium aluminosilicate.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. silicon dioxide. but was determined to be unnecessary. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. condiments such as soy sauce. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. which can cause goitre. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems.crazychefs. potassium. and myxedema in adults. magnesium. dizziness. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. iodized salt is more common in the United States.[31] Today. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. fluorinated table salt is available.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. neurological problems.net/ . specifically endemic goiter. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. with insufficient salt intake. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. The reason for this is unclear. In the United States. In Canada. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment.[32] Another additive. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. In France. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. which can cause severe. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. or even an electrolyte disturbance. even fatal. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). sodium iodide.[33] Drinking too much water.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). or sodium iodate. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. especially important for pregnant women. cretinism in children. which gives the table salt a yellow color. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used.com http://www. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm.

" ([41] p3). the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake.crazychefs.net/ . p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium.[38] heartburn. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. combined with an inadequate intake of water. such as in treatment of dysautonomia. salt consumption is higher.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products." ([44].[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. forced salt intake.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention)." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women." ([41]. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. in Japan. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment.com http://www. p18) However. can cause hypernatremia. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. independently of blood pressure effects. It can exacerbate renal disease. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults." ([41]. since salt was quite valuable). Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. the risks have been exaggerated for most people.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%.

such as the Yanomami in South America. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1.net/ . have been found to consume little salt. SACN states. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. but achievable population goals. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. for a typical adult.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium.com http://www.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. A salt mill for sea salt.[50].crazychefs. However.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). Some isolated cultures.

heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0.).'[55] Campaigns In 2004. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". When other health claims are made about a food (e. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium.3 g sodium = 5. or Green (Low).5g salt per 100g (or 0.com http://www. LoSalt. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. without recourse to salt substitutes.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. low in fat. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).6g sodium). etc.1g sodium).net/ . which will increase potassium intake.300 mg of sodium (= 2. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. Those who have kidney failure. One manufacturer. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. calories.crazychefs. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.[51] In the United States." In the UK.8 g salt) per day.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005.g.[57] In March 2007.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. Amber (Medium). Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. "low". Australia.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". then that is a medium level of salt. Low is 0.

9). Triamterene.com. 4th edition".prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride.in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.3). 7.wikisource.net/ . Retrieved 2008-12-14. called halite.5). 5. Costs can reach staggering amounts. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride.3 million tonnes). Notes 1. http://www.com http://www. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. such as brine wells and salt lakes. Catholic Encyclopedia. Germany (17. 2. the top five producers being the United States (40. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 6. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.7). and Hall in Austria. Eplerenone and Inspra.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Salt.crazychefs. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. 4. and by mining rock salt. ^ "Salt". Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). 1913. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. India (14. http://en.answers. and Canada (12. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. 8. 3. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. China (32.com/salary. Answers. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). Dytac. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. In 2002.

http://books. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". J.com http://www. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt.anl. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. Ask a Scientist.stm 38. 11. 5379. pp. salt uses. p. ^ http://www.htm 19.google. ^ Iodized Salt 31. Science. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. 898 .crazychefs. Transportation Research Board.co. ^ Iodized Salt 32.com/journal/114028130/abstract. 28.htm 15. http://www. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.bbc. Fall/Winter 2006 10. sodium. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. 12. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. 10. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 14 August 1998. Epikouria Magazine. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www.saltsense.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. sodium. Retrieved 2009-0708. ^ Table 27.eu-salt. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. no. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/393201.pdf 33. salt history.907 37. "The (Political) Science of Salt". ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. Retrieved 200907-08.com/reports/salt 16. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". Salt Institute. salt history.9% sodium chloride 25. salt uses.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt).fr/Ftp/Afssa/26447-26448.newton. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. Kuemmel (1994). ^ Salt made the world go round 17. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". salt manufacture. Mason (2006-12-19).com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effe ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. ^ David A.9. ISBN 9780309056663. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. Salt Institute.Weather Curriculum 18.uk/aboutsaltwhat01. ^ Gary Taubes.htm. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. ^ What is Salt?.interscience.com/index3. Vol. ^ References on food salt & health issues. salt manufacture.net/ .roskill. 14. ^ Nauticus . 2008 29.wiley. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.dep. ^ B. ^ HE-620 24. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www.gov/askasci/gen01/gen01420. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. 281. http://www3.afssa. ^ a b http://news. Victoria) Salt 34. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30.co.

Sodium 52. Further reading Kurlansky. Barber. BMJ. Published online 2005.P. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. New York. New York: Walker & Co. Schindler. Mark. ^ U. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. 62.hyp. The Story of Salt. OCLC 48573453.ac. Salt: A World History.005 48. 7. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56.net/ . ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". 2007. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. and S. 61. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. doi:10. ^ Salt Matters 60. ISBN 0802713734.334(7599):885.. S.06. http://www. 28 January 2008. OCLC 48426519. http://www.guardian. Sodium chloride. Friedrich Schulz. ISBN 0393320197. ^ Understanding labels 55.40.healthandwellbeing.1002/0471238961. ^ Susan R. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. Feldman. New York: W. Mark (2002).1915040902051820. Erwin Koops. Obarzanek E et al. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt".a01. Legal Medicine 2005. John Wiley & Sons.com http://www. doi:10. Inc. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54.W.co.crazychefs.uk/society/2008/jan/28/foodanddrink. NY: G.2004.legalmed. ^ Cook NR. 47-50.1016/j.pub2 References Kurlansky.. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. (accessed13 January 2007) 49. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. The Mummies of Ürümchi. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. D. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. Cutler JA.uk/cash/. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). 2006. Putnam's Sons. Norton & Co. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. ^ Salt TV ads 59.

Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. Pierre.crazychefs.net/ . 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.talk by Dr Trevor Beard. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Salt: Grain of Life. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . The Stationery Office. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . Arts and traditions of the table.Laszlo. New York: Columbia University Press. Department of Health. 2001. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch.

as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. the Philippines and Singapore. such as Cambodia. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century.com http://www. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper.net/ . It can also be found in India. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu).crazychefs. found commonly in Thailand. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . Indonesia. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. Malaysia. phrik thai. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. phrik khi nu(lit.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. mainly Kerala. Vietnam. as well as in neighbouring countries.

com http://www." which can best be described by the English equivalent. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. "Big things come in small packages.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red.net/ . Although small in size compared to other types of chili.crazychefs. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili.000 to 100.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries.

Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). creating a rainbow effect. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. has peppers that point upward on the plant. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en.net/ . and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). orange. but slightly less pungent variety. Thai). African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. phrik khii nuu ( .crazychefs. Thai hot. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C.org/wiki/Thai_pepper" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and then red.wikipedia. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). The more decorative. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). and among the group of capsicum annuum. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental.com http://www. and go from green to yellow. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight.As well as the Malay word. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. Ladâ. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam.

and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews.crazychefs. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. or used in casseroles.net/ . gratins and baked dishes. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. It has a tough. it can also be used on its own. which store a large amount of starch. usually mashed. Unlike other root vegetables. about the size of a large potato. It is a kind of celery. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root.com http://www. furrowed. Celeriac has a celery flavour.

Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. rinsed.net/ .2 g . and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . 'Ibis'. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. Celeriac soup. especially in Europe. There are a number of cultivars available.Sugars 1. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.3 g 1. 'Diamant'.6 g 9.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Dietary fiber 1. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. Celeriac.com http://www. and 'Kojak'.crazychefs. Among them are 'Prinz'.

Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir.com http://www. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. aubergine. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. and see text The eggplant. It bears a fruit of the same name. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The flowers are white to purple. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall.crazychefs. The stem is often spiny. As a nightshade. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad.

the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco.crazychefs. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". History Solanum melongena. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). which are edible. soft seeds. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. The name eggplant.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. flower The plant is native to India. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants." Aubergine and brinjal. In the Caribbean Trinidad. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages.net/ . and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. but much larger in cultivated forms. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. which is used in British English.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. 1500 CE. Australia. The name aubergine. and contains numerous small. The fruit is fleshy. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. New Zealand. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. from Arabic al-badinjan.com http://www. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. In Indian and South African English. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. used in the United States. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. the fruit is known as a "brinjal.

and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Pingtung Long. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. shape and color.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred.com http://www. or white. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Black Magic. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. There are even orange varieties. Some cultivars have a color gradient. whiteskinned.crazychefs. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. and Tycoon. especially purple. Classic. and Black Beauty. Ichiban. Dusky. slightly pendulous cucumber. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. in white skin Dourga. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. A much wider range of shapes.net/ . Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. Traditional. green. Burpee Hybrid.

Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. It can be sliced. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. peanuts. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. along with the fish Hilsa. and garlic. and deep-fried. chutney. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. In the Caucasus. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. tahini. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary.net/ . for example in sambhar. for example. It. as they are far less bitter. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. complex flavor. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). battered. or tamarind. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. In some parts of India. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. In one dish. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. curries. The fruit flesh is smooth. The thin skin is also edible. the Arabian moussaka. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. It is often stewed. tahini. it is called Begun ( ). Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. rice.crazychefs. as in the related tomato.com http://www. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. As a native plant. as in the French ratatouille. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and achaar. braised (紅燒茄子). or other fillings and then baked. In Iranian cuisine. In Bangladesh. or Eggplant Parmesan. and masala and then cooked in oil. allowing for very rich dishes. so that peeling is not required. tomatoes. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food.

a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. flea beetle. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. containing both female and male structures. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). aphids. are also troublesome to eggplants. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. depending on cultivar. For this reason.) between plants.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in.) between rows. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. the most serious of which is Verticillium. Egypt.crazychefs. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. This is called Beguni ( ). with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms.com http://www. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants.) to 60 cm (24 in. and potato. such as tomato. (Adults can be removed by hand. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. Flowers are complete. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. and spider mites. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. pepper (capsicum). The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing.net/ . showing the inside. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half.

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.039 mg 5.com http://www. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.19 g 1.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit. F = FAO estimate.crazychefs. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.net/ .Dietary fiber 3.Sugars 2.35 g .[5] In the United States. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.043. P = official figure.7 g 0. New Jersey is the largest producing state. B2) 0. semi-official or estimates).5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates . B1) 0.(2.

such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. Brazil. while 1.Niacin (Vit. B3) 0. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). However.com http://www. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.01 mg/100g).24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.crazychefs. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.16 mg Manganese 0.084 mg Folate (Vit. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed].649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours.[8] On average.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking.net/ . with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.

capsicoides). H. album. which used to include Dunal's S.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. stenoleucum. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. and (invalidly) by Sweet. violaceum and viride. inerme and subinerme at that time. giganteum. aethiopicum. divaricatum. esculentum. S. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L.C. But this is not correct. ovigera. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. brownii. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. mainly by Dikii. an unrelated plant described by Ortega.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. such as agreste.-Lag. trongum. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. On the other hand. There is an actual S. Solanum longum Roxb. leucoum. racemiflorum. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. luteum. ruber. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties.net/ . Names for various eggplant types.Varieties Solanum melongena var. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. ovigerum and S. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. violaceum. that of Blanco to S.crazychefs.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. tongdongense. Solanum oviferum Salisb. racemosum. insanum. aethiopicum. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). globosi. multifidum. subrepandum. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. lasiocarpum. esculentum. edule. rumphii. oblongo-cylindricum. Scopoli's S. Dunal. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. inerme. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. variegatum. Similarly.F. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species.com http://www. sinuatorepandum. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named.

Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. S. ^ Doijode. CRC Press. D. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). common. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Hui (2006). and Engineering by Yiu H.com http://www. Footnotes 1. 2. (2001).net/ . Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. ISBN 1574445510. Handbook of Food Science. Technology.

2004. pp.Aubergine 8. Mahesh † and Y. 2008-11-11. http://faostat.50(2):101-102 11.uga. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). 273-6.fao. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14.3. ^ Edward F. Domino. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. ^ Kabashima K. Tsenge Demana. ^ "FAOSTAT". Vol. Volume 329:437 August 5. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. ^ SN Pramod. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena.) reveals female predominance. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. 202 4.com . FAO.edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/C934. ^ Solanum melongena var.net/ . Miyachi Y. 6. Toorenenbergen AW. 5. 18(1): 59-62 13. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables.caes. Ebury Press. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. The New England Journal of Medicine. volume 82 (nº 3). Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. Robert (2008-11-14). A. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. 1993 Number 6 9. http://pubs. N. ^ B. 2008 10.aspx?PageID=567#ancor.133(42):2081-3 12. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802.com http://www. Harish Babu * .pdf. 7. Bruno Caramelli. ^ Westerfield. P. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). Arq Bras Cardiol. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25.crazychefs.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. Retrieved 2009-07-01. Dieges PH. Retrieved 2007-04-24. ^ Health24. Erich Hornbach. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008.* YP Venkatesh. P. Andréa Thomaz.

crazychefs. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. syn. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. see section Fruit or vegetable below). woody stem that often vines over other plants. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together.8 in) across. Solanum lycopersicum.com http://www. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S.net/ . The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. with a serrated margin. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. odd pinnate.4–0.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. The tomato is native to South America. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. It is a perennial. and have a weak.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. yellow. One species. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous.

lycopersicum. a mutation from a smoother. meaning plump thing with a navel. now Mexico City in 1521. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. tomatl. a barber-surgeon.net/ .[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. ancestor of L. likely to be the original salsa recipe. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. an Italian physician and botanist. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. cerasiforme. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. means "wolf-peach". Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. in certain areas of Italy. was the first European to take back the tomato. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. such as Florence. However. the other by currant tomatoes. smaller vegetable . published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. golden apple. However. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. The exact date of domestication is not known. corn and salt. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. earlier in 1493. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. The specific name. lumpy tomato. according to Smith. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC.com http://www. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. and cultivation began in the 1540s.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans.[4] The large.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America.[6] Gerard's Herbal. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. They also took it to the Philippines. who named it pomo d‘oro. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s.crazychefs.

Paella. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. and to the market gardens south of Chichester.net/ . Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. who ate tomatoes in Paris. The Spanish tomato dish.M.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. California. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. sent some seeds back to America. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). In Victorian times. broths. Charles M. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. but the fruit is safe). when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. and before the end of that century. most famously in Worthing. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. ―within the last forty years. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. The University of California.crazychefs. Thomas Jefferson. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. Over the past 15 years. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. Rick.[6] But by the mid-1700s. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. Currently. particularly Florida and California.com http://www. and in general. and as a garnish. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The C. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. By the mid-18th century. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers.[6] Nonetheless. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. British consul in Aleppo c. Gerard's views were influential. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato.largely plagiarized from continental sources. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. 1799 – c. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France.

pink. It may be deleted after Friday. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. and have a lower water content. For processing tomatoes.4–0. Most cultivars produce red fruit.S. they are known as plum tomatoes. production and 35% of world production. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries. about 5mm in diameter. but a number of cultivars with yellow. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. the largest producer.0 in) diameter. orange. or white fruit are also available. purple.[12] According to FAOSTAT. through cherry tomatoes. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. China. followed by United States and Turkey. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.com http://www. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. 18 September 2009. black.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions.8 in) size as the wild tomato. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. green. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. California accounts for 90% of U.4 in) diameter range.crazychefs. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion.6–2.0–2.net/ .

all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. based mostly on shape and size. along with zucchini. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong.crazychefs. As in most sectors of agriculture.net/ . Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. as well as heirloom tomatoes. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . and are shaped like large strawberries. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. plum tomatoes. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. but unlike commercial hybrids. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes).com http://www. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed].their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1.[18] and productivity. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[19] Hybrid plants remain common.

campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. and purple. Red Boar). including Brandywine (biggest red). they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. Determinate. brown. they are often good choices for container growing. A variety of specific cultivars. white. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. etc. pink. As an intermediate form.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries.produce fruit in colors other than red.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A.cherry tomatoes are small and round. and lack of mealiness.com http://www. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. or bush. including yellow. disease and pest resistance. but are smaller than plum tomato. orange. Burracker's Favorite. Green Zebra (top right). While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. ivory. although some determinate heirlooms exist. multiple colors (Hillbilly. but must be bought as seed. Black Krim (lower left corner). Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). which usually discourages fruit set. et cetera. or home growers interested in canning. black. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season.especially heirlooms . but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost.crazychefs. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". low acidity. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time.net/ . some tomato cultivars . Lucky Cross). often via mail-order.

Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. tomatoes required cross-pollination.[24] and Colorado potato beetles. their traditional pollinators. and remain.com http://www. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety.fusarium wilt strain I. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. cabbage loopers.crazychefs. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening.alternaria. F . A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. red spider mite. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. T . too.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. whiteflies. original state. entirely within the closed corolla. slugs. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. cutworms. but manure or compost work well. As a floral device to reduce selfing. aphids. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. carried by the beet leafhopper. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. The most common letters are: V . it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. flea beetles. which interrupts the lifecycle. and A . N nematodes. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping.fusarium wilt strain I & II.tobacco mosaic virus. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. FF . The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs.verticillium wilt.net/ . As the name implies. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. tomato fruitworms. The stamens were. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. In the wild.

starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Unripe tomatoes are firm. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. depending on variety. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier.crazychefs. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. They may be recognized by their color. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. as with most species. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). or more often today. This is not the same as self-pollination.net/ . As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. However. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator.com http://www. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. by cultured bumblebees. In an outside setting. In more temperate climates.

stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine". Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce.Recently. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. especially in cooked tomatoes. In some studies lycopene. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). The tomato is acidic. Though it is botanically a berry. as tomato sauce. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. a subset of fruit.crazychefs. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. anthocyanin. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. and other antioxidants. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines.Sugars 2.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. in pieces. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . They contain lycopene.com http://www. or paste. carotene. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.6 g 4g . has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene).[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole.net/ . Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich).

Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The fruit is also preserved by drying. and grow as a series of branching stems. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. Spain.crazychefs. it will not continue to ripen. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. initially decumbent. generally three feet tall or shorter. there are variations. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. meaning covered with fine short hairs. Known for its tomato growth and production. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. often by sun. such as rugose leaves.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. vines. whether because of pruning or flowering.com http://www.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. lateral buds take over and grow into other.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture.net/ .[28] In October 1965. Determinate types are annual in all climates. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible.5 °C (54. Tomato plants are dicots. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. annually celebrates La Tomatina. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. When that tip eventually stops growing. although erect bush varieties have been bred. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. These hairs facilitate the vining process. Of regular leaves.5 °F). although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases.make salsa. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. or pickled. They are bred to continue ripening. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. fully functional. Embracing it for this protest connotation.

. i.g. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. chili peppers. angora leaves. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. As a true fruit. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. genetic evidence (e. variegated. making the Linnaean name correct. However. according to type. called locular cavities. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. would be more correct. very small cavities. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. (derivation. Therefore. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. This is because they are native to the Americas. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. Similarly.net/ .com http://www. or other external forces that present in the Americas. butterflies.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. These vary. "wolf-peach").deeply grooved.. while paste tomatoes have very few. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. which frequently used it and still do).[32] while others are pollinated by flies. 'lyco'. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). with both names found in the literature. moths. among cultivated species. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules.crazychefs. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon.e. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. and be dried/fermented before germination. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum).Karst. peach.[31] Their flowers. plus 'persicum'. Technically.) H. appearing on the apical meristem. Other species in that family are potatoes. tobacco. wolf. However. other insects. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. have the anthers fused along the edges. Despite this. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato).

180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. Corporations including Heinz. cucumbers. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. disease tolerance. and numerous other traits. shape. Ohio. 1883. AVRDC.S. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. a tomato is the ovary. Oregon. and organizations. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. color. flavor. pest tolerance. Bejoseed. 304)). Monsanto. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. corporations. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. of Reynoldsburg. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. A. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. Hedden (149 U. universities. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations.com http://www. from a culinary standpoint.W. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit.S. In 1887. University breeding programs are active in Florida. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. size. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs.crazychefs. However. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use.S. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. BHNSeed. nutritional value.S. In 2006. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. However. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. as are vegetables. New York. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. The U. together with its seeds. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. U.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. U. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. etc. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. Livingston. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. As noted above. North Carolina. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals.

In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . Pennsylvania. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Minnesota.com http://www. contain the poison Solanine. the U. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Speakers from the British Isles. 2006. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade).net/ . The fresh fruit is. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). On October 30.crazychefs. stems. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. Virginia. Georgia. Connecticut. Michigan. however. Rhode Island. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. harmless. Tennessee. North Carolina. Indiana.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Massachusetts.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Vermont and Wisconsin. Kentucky. Ohio.S. New Hampshire.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. Maine. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. which is toxic to humans and animals.

A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. Yong Huang. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. Lancashire.1 reported cases per million.net/ . the District of Columbia.000 kilograms (250.84 pounds (522 kg). with a harvest of more than 32.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. such as raw tomato. UK. and Canada. Oklahoma in 1986. fresh jalapeño pepper. 2008.S. from April 10. and fresh cilantro. Epcot's manager of agricultural science.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985.7 and 16.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley.273 illnesses from this outbreak.crazychefs. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. Illinois (100).000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.6:1). The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). fresh serrano pepper. French and Germans. of the cultivar 'Delicious'.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. 40. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. China. it caused at least one death. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. New Mexico (98). one would arrive at an estimated 40. respectively. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. the U. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. with 49.com http://www. and Arizona (49). As of July 2008. On August 30.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. Lake Buena Vista. discovered the unique plant in Beijing. 2007.151.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. Florida. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. 2008. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow.[38] As of July 8. in 2000." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38.8 m (65 ft) length.

Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific.com http://www.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak.S.crazychefs. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow.net/ . indeterminate. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. Derived from Cherokee Purple.S. Fusarium. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.

crazychefs. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pickling.net/ . Tomato fruit. good for Tomatoes on a vine. Young tomato plant. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Tomato slices.com http://www. in Korea. Tomato plants in the garden.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. Tomato Flower. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo.

Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .com http://www.crazychefs.

" 15.net/ . The Tomato in America.edu/. The tomato in America: early history.html". p. 6. A.easthamptonstar. Normania. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.C.gov.. D.Your Archives". Horticulture: Principles and Practices.smithsonianmag. 1881. http://www. it handles more than 1. T. http://www. 223 10. S.smithsonianmag.com. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online).gov. I. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . G.uk/index. University of Illinois Press.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po.smithsonianmag. (2002). UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. culture. 8.five tons to the acre. webpage: books-google-TTp17. During the three months of the local harvest.com/dnn/Archive/Home20080814/FoodWine/Seasons/ta bid/6280/Default. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. p.ucdavis. Footnotes 1.nationalarchives. section Lycopersicon Mill. ^ "http://www. and cookery.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Universityofcalifornia.html. 5.edu. October 26. Retrieved December 11 2009.17.ucdavis. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". ^ "http://www. Tgrc.Smith. ^ a b Smith. Culture.fao. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. 2002-05-08. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. and Cookery. E.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.edu.Food & Wine". Peralta. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. Yourarchives. ^ The Friend.com http://www. ^ http://faostat. ^ Tomato history 4.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.. (2001).html. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. Subsection Lycopersicon). Retrieved 2009-04-02. 13. page 57: ". M.nationalarchives. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. Processing Tomato Production in California. Andrew F. http://tgrc.aspx?PageID=567 14. 2. p.M. 11. ISBN 0252-07009-7. Appleton and Co.edu/news/article/4319. & Spooner. 2009-01-26. 2008. 1994. 7.uk. Retrieved 2009-04-02. http://yourarchives. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon.universityofcalifornia.crazychefs.html". Retrieved 2008-10-27. Andrew F (1994). Cyphomandra." See: Natural History Museum. (1994). ^ "UC Newsroom. F.aspx. ^ "C. Retrieved December 11 2009.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. Appletons' journal Published by D. Easthamptonstar.. USA: University of South Carolina Press.smithsonianmag. ISBN 1-57003000-6. Columbia. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. 1876. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. ^ Acquaah. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. (2002-0508)". et al. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. http://www. ^ a b Hartz. http://www. 3. Wettst. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. Smith. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 519 [1] 9. 12.The East Hampton Star .

html. ^ "Selecting. ^ "http://www.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes." 19. ^ http://www. Retrieved 2007-05-24. http://news. Retrieved 2009-04-02. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ http://www. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension.com/science-nature/passion-fortomatoes. Retrieved December 11 2009.html. 30.16.smithsonianmag.html".html. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium.gob. 2006. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips. Ohioline.php.html. Retrieved July 14. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt.eurekalert. ^ "http://www. http://www.smithsonianmag. Plb.edu. which are carried in the wind.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.stm.co.ufseeds.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ^ "Crop Profiles .Tomato".gardenweb. 17.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.ncsu. Ncsu.cornell.mx.edu/stories/Jan07/SolanacaeNSF. http://www. Retrieved June 30. 31. Smithsonianmag. "Tomato genome project gets $1.smithsonianmag.mx. Sinaloa.smithsonianmag.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5532. http://www.crazychefs.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague.gob. Retrieved 2008-10-27.com/faq/lists/tomato/2004111539004321. 26. Retrieved December 11 2009. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties.html. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.kr.bbc. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.html. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home".edu. 24. http://www.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44.smithsonianmag. http://www. http://www. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).com/genpage.html".plants. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once.am/wiki/Tomato#Early_tomatoes 21. Retrieved 200705-24. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like.news. 32.umn.osu. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".net/ . 33.am/wiki/Tomato#Novelty_tomatoes 22. Retrieved December 11 2009.edu.edu. http://ohioline. 29. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention".com. 2006. Faq. News.smithsonianmag. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes.whfoods.html". page 57: "The plants are still growing.osu.sinaloa. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html. http://faq. ^ http://www. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes".ucdavis. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'". Retrieved 200810-27.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.edu. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more.com.ucdavis. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. http://www.plants.uk/2/hi/health/7370759.org/pub_releases/2007-05/aafc-nmt051607.edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome. HYG-5532-93"." 18. http://wwwplb.8M". 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/All-About-Tomatoes_a6fd3933f91c4.com http://www.html.html.gardenweb." 20. ^ "http://www.edu.edu/sustainable/profiles/bot_tom.umn. 28. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". 27. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.cornell. 25. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html 23.smithsonianmag.

Retrieved 2009-0402. Cdc. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. 38. Retrieved 200904-02. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak.html?id=585498. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27.uchicago.com/highestperch8. http://www. (2004-04-15).uk/news/9a5a1671ceba4f43741dc008f237c1ea.34.journals. Tomato Recipe". Nationalpost. 38:S3. Tomato Nutrition.com/news/canada/story.cdc. Itn. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 37.co.uk. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".com/books?id=WhWjHB1Zjf8C&pg=PA643. http://www. ^ Voetsch. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC".google. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. p. 35.nationalpost. 42. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". 9781879906549. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"".net/ .html. ^ a b Pittenger.vegparadise. http://www. by state". (2002).gov/salmonella/saintpaul/map. 36. 2007-08-30. Foodsafetynetwork.html. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.com/stories/2006/10/30/national/main2138331. Retrieved 2008-1027. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . ANR Publications. California Master Gardener Handbook. Vegparadise.com. Retrieved 2008-10-27.com http://www. ISBN 1879906546. 39. http://www. http://www. 2004. ^ "ITN. 40.edu/doi/full/10.co.com. http://www.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/. et al. 41.foodsafetynetwork.gov.com. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". Dennis R. Retrieved 2009-0721. United States. Cbsnews.CBS News".html.ca.uk.co.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. ^ "August 8.ca/en/article-details. http://www.cdc.shtml. http://itn. 643.1086/381578. Clinical Infectious Diseases.cbsnews.

crazychefs. extracted oleoresins. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. In Indonesia. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. Species About 100 species. It also grows in Kerala. malabarica from India. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit.com http://www.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. especially in Grenada. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). called selei buah pala.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov.2 and 0. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans.net/ . and nutmeg butter (see below). a state in the south part of India. including essential oils.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. argentea from New Guinea. and Bombay Nutmeg M. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. or sliced finely. the fruit is also made into jam.7 in) wide. both are used as adulterants of M. fragrans products. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees.6 to 0. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". or Spice Islands. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.4 oz) dried. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. called Jaiphal in Hindi. nutmeg and mace.

it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. and baked goods. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. mulled wine.crazychefs. In Arabic.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). green. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. In Penang cuisine. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. In Indian cuisine. sauces. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. In European cuisine.com http://www. Painkiller. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. they are also used in soups. saffronlike hue it imparts. In the Caribbean.net/ . and Barbados rum punch. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. cauliflower. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and eggnog. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. "Lau Hau Peng". Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). and string beans.

and has applications as an industrial lubricant. although this is disputed. for instance. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. It is semi-solid. syrups. and sweets. preserving agents. which can be turned into myristic acid. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry.crazychefs. reddish brown in colour. 758 – ca. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. The oil is colourless or light yellow. beverages. used as flavourings. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods.net/ .Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. medicines. in toothpaste.com http://www. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation
needed]

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

Footnotes
1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". http://emj.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/22/3/223. 5. ^ "Erowid". http://www.erowid.org/plants/nutmeg/. 6. ^ "MDMA". http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=5469. 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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References
Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

Commercialization
The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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frozen.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. yeast extract.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. Canned. sugar beets. it also said that. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. or molasses. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. sugar cane." However. About 1.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. particularly processed foods.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. not reproducible.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs.com http://www.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. being an amino acid.crazychefs. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. However. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. and protein isolate. with 4% annual growth expected. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. and were not observed when MSG was given with food.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. soy extracts.net/ . some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. steak sauce. based on anecdotal reports. hydrolyzed yeast. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. autolyzed yeast. Fermented products such as soy sauce.

and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. [monosodium glutamate]. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. Albert Y. ^ Leung. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture.html 2.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. References 1. The label must bear the food additive class name (e.2.g.celiac. In the hydrolysis method.net/ . "Monosodium Glutamate". age 40–59 years. In the 2004 version of his book. acidification. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. such as hydrolyzed protein.com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1.com http://www.crazychefs. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. flavour enhancer).. concentration.7% women). followed by either the name of the food additive. New York: Wiley. purified. 621. In 1993. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea.). On Food and Cooking. and converted to its monosodium salt. Foster. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. For this reason. and mineral ions and growth factors. 373-375. pp. dextrose or citrate). MSG.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. even in large amounts. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.. ^ http://www.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. (2) synthesis. and crystallization.g. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there.". and (3) microbial fermentation. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. Steven (August 2003). followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. Drugs.

"Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.com/amino/eng/product. doi:10.17457599.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. Alan R. Stamler. doi:10.1111/j.celiac.00160.1038/oby. Dyer.3.crazychefs.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract.2006. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Takehara.1999. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. Van Horn. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". doi:10. ^ http://www.1002/chir. Anjimoto Co.a16 711. ^ http://vm. PMID 18497735.org/stable/3421360 5.ajinomoto. Yamaguchi. Case study: monosodium glutamate". Julia (2008-03-05). Linda.nlm. Ka.F. Inc. http://www. Martha L. Toxicol. doi:10.ajinomoto. Regul.cfsan.co. Kelly M. MSG. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study".jp/ajinomoto/ACompany/company/zaimu/pdf/fact/food_biz. http://www.. PMID 8282275.4.gov/~lrd/msg. 38–49. Yangfeng. (April 2000). Garside. PMID 16999713.net/ . "Yes.nytimes.2008. Kimber L. Zhao. "Monosodium Glutamate". ^ Moskin. ^ "Production process". Jordan (2005). Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. ^ http://www. doi:10. 277–282. Guo. 8. Shigeru. Linguang. Wu. Tetsuya. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. ^ Kawakita. PMID 10597625. Jeremiah (August 2008).html.1002/14356007. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S.html 4.1006/rtph.5.html 12. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. New York Times. ^ Freeman M. Food Chem. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. Daniel. ^ http://www.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10736382. "A Short History of MSG".274. (1993). ^ a b Rundlett. Armstrong. (October 2006). Daviglus. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. Chirality 6 (4): pp. Shioya.pdf 9. Nutr. 1875–1880. Beifan. 13.. Masahiro. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Sano. Dongshuang. ^ a b Geha RS. ^ He. 7. Zhou.jstor. et al. 16. Daniel W (1994). 14. Ren C. 10.com http://www.fda. Shizuko (2005). the Secret Behind the Savor". http://www.1525/gfc. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods".530060410.1337.38. Toxicol. ^ a b Tarasoff L.nutrition. ^ Walker R (October 1999). doi:10. 11.ca/Articles/Fall1990-1. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Zhu. http://jn. ^ Sand.ncbi. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Pharmacol.gov/entrez/query.x. 6.2005. Beiser A. J. 15. Liancheng. doi:10.nih. Chiaki. PMID 10736382.com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute.

豆油 3. 荳油 3. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1.net/ .com http://www. 酱油 2. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 醬油 2. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

[3] In the 18th century. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). In its various forms. and salt. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan.crazychefs. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji.com http://www. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands.net/ . it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. water.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. Soy sauce was invented in China. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product.500 years. [4] By the mid-19th century.

Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University.com http://www.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. such as in giant urns and under the sun.crazychefs. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. Although there are many types of soy sauce. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. sojae) and other related microorganisms. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap.net/ . The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Today. literally "delicious taste").Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans.

This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. It has a richer. slightly sweeter. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. since it is saltier. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. Since it is lighter in color. consistency. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. like extra virgin olive oil. pinyin: jiàngyóu. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish.net/ . Korean. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. and Chinese cuisine. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. or a mixture of both. Thai. fragrance and saltiness. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). lighter brown soy sauce. but it also adds flavour.3-DCP (1. ): A thin (nonviscous). There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. Despite their rather similar appearance. In traditional Chinese cooking. shuānghuáng (雙璜). one of the two types. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油.com http://www.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. opaque. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". Another type. An additional classification of light soy sauce.crazychefs. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. traditional Chinese: 醬油. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. with relatively low amounts of other grains. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning.

it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. or 醤油). It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?.net/ . that is used in its production. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. Technically. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. Shiro (白?. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. for example sashimi. Usukuchi (淡口?.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. It contains little or no wheat. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. where it is known as "shōyu". The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi.com http://www. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China.

this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce.net/ . Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu".Saishikomi (再仕込?. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process.com http://www. not pasteurized. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. Consequently. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol.crazychefs. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Amakuchi (甘口?. 1 litre bottles.

206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which has a thick. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor.com http://www. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. In Indonesia. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. in a pinch. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce.crazychefs.net/ . it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. usually implies limited quantity. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. It is a unique variety. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. powder.

TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. 조선간장. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce.net/ . Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. thin and dark brown in color. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). Joseon ganjang. lit.com http://www.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. is made entirely of soy and brine. Malaysia. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. O'Long(黑龍). dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). (called Joseon ganjang. Later. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). Founded in 1909. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). WanJaShan(萬家香).crazychefs. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan.4% of soy sauce purchases. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer.

or sometimes simply tương. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油.net/ . wheat. China. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans.3-DCP (1. salt. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. It can also be very salty. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. pronounced SOO-kah).3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. nước tương.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). Low-sodium soy sauces are produced.crazychefs. and caramel. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine.[6] Furthermore. it is also a table condiment. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand.

(1781).tw/60anniversary/century-gofun. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. Retrieved 2008-01-07.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. 6.food. 2 (January 2000). Sinsin. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. XXVII.317 2. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. III. Lee Kum Kee.org. Pearl River Bridge. marinades and other types of sauces. 7. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. No. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce.miyajimasoy. an increase over 23 to 5. Retrieved 200801-07. 8. 4. ^ Tanaka.asp?id=7598 10. including six samples with up to 11.htm. King Imperial. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). p. Jammy Chai. http://www.tw/newsdetail.tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9.000 to 18.jp/science/kouenkai/kouenkai. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. Individuals with a wheat allergy. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). ^ http://www. ^ http://www. Soon Teck• and Kang.gov. ^ Tanaka. ^ http://www. 2.com http://www. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. Vol. Golden Mark. Celiac disease. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. Kimlan. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. 7. Seong-Gook (2002). "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". ^ Titsingh. ^ Jung. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. p. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. Golden Swan. Press release.) In March 2008.net/ . 2nd edition. OCLC 9752305 5.gmp.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted.tcoc. Norio. 6." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol.[citation needed] In Vietnam. pp.crazychefs. 3. ^ Tanaka.org.co. Despite these being small in number in the UK.Kong and Taiwan. p.[1] Notes 1.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Isaac. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat.uk/news/pressreleases/2001/jun/soysaucerecall. http://www.smartfood.com.

Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. doi:10. ^ Kobayashi. ISBN 0632059877. Makio (2005-04-18). ^ Daniells. nutraingredients.food scares hit Vietnam 20. 12. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. ^ Shahidi. 18. ISBN 1587161389. PMID 16198255. ^ Tanasupawat. Naczk. 13.144. Marian (2003). 186. Food.com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15.11.com http://www. 16. Florence.net/ . Somboon (2002-06-18).201. Edition 2.crazychefs. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151.com. Stephen (2006-06-06). ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. fermentation and micro-organisms. ^ Bamford.2323/jgam. chemical veggies -. Hoboken. http://www. 14.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology.1263/jbb.com/news/ng. et al. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p. Fereidoon. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". 103. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. p. Retrieved 2008-01-07. doi:10. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand".google.100. ^ Toxic soy sauce. http://books. Charles W (2005).48. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce".nutraingredients. Kentucky: CRC Press. PMID 12469319.

0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.3–3.crazychefs.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.9180 (@ 15.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.5–21.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.com 211 | P a g e http://www.5% Linoleic acid: 3.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.3% Myristic acid: <0.net/ .1% Lignoceric acid: <1.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9150–0.0% Stearic acid: 0.5–5.5 °C) 84 cP 1.0% Arachidic acid: <0.5–20.4677–1.0–83.8% Behenic acid: <0.

Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production.crazychefs. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. principally Italy. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio.6 million tonnes.4680–1. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. Alberquina.com http://www. In 2006.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. which produce approximately 350.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. in Greece. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. Hojiblanca. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. but especially in the Mediterranean.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. family Oleaceae). and Manzanilla de Jaén. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. Olive oil is used throughout the world. as well as in Crete. cosmetics. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). North Africa and the Near East.[3] Of the European production. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. Picholine. Australia. Japan and China. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. Koroneiki. Italy and Greece. in France. 93% comes from Spain. pharmaceuticals.6 (refined and pomace) 0. and Moraiolo. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics.000 tons of olive oil annually. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%.net/ . in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. Leccino Pendolino. World production in 2002 was 2.

and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). of which 34. a private trade group. and by its flavor. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy.crazychefs. The USDA uses a different system. Spain.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. The California Olive Oil Council. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. In North America.800. Mission. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life).California.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. IOOC terminology is precise. The US imported 47. often in "prestige" packaging. After extraction the remnant solid substance. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules.000 m3) came from Italy.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed.600. in Croatia. and Turkey. called pomace. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils.000 US gallons (131. Oblica and Leccino. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. Galega.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. Spain.000 US gallons (181. with 23 member states. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations.net/ . in Portugal. with production increasing to meet demand. by its chemistry. defining quality standards. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. and monitoring authenticity.com http://www. still contains a small quantity of oil.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. Spain.

is extremely lax and corrupt.[14] In February 2008. particularly in Italy. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation.[12] In some cases. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. but there are no guarantees. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. both in Italy and abroad. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome).[16] In April 2008. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. however. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). but safe. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment.crazychefs. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. Almost 700 people died. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. measured by weight.[15] Under EU rules. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. defined as the percent. mostly hexane. EU officials took issue with the new law." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. it is believed. for blended oils. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. and by heat.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported.net/ . of free oleic acid it contains. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. product as superior olive oil. 25. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity.com http://www.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil.[14] In March 2008.

S. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized.crazychefs. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is fit for consumption. expressed as oleic acid. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product.com http://www. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. and is judged to have a good taste. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. another cause of rancidity.the oil degrades. The US is not a member. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. of no more than 1. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. of not more than 0. The U. has an acidity less than 2%. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. Used on salads.net/ . In order to classify it by taste. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. but may not be described simply as olive oil. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. absence of defects. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. and are based on acidity. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. It has a free acidity. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country.8% acidity. This is also called its organoleptic quality.3 grams per 100 grams (0.5% acidity. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. and is judged to have a superior taste. Pure olive oil. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. These grades were established in 1948. contains no more than 0. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food.

Grade C".5% and is "reasonably free from defects". since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.S.S. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. This is incorrect.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. "cold" does not define any precise temperature.4% and is "free from defects". Grade A or U.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.S.S. Grade D or U. with less flavour.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel.S.S. (34 kJ/ml). U.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.S. U. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality. First of all.com http://www. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label.crazychefs. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.0% and is "fairly free from defects". which may be as low as 10-15 °C.S. U. Grade B or U.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.U.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.S.net/ . A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. Grade C or U.

crazychefs.35 23.2 7 1. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.net/ .62 12. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. around 0. Portugal and Lebanon. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. Spain and Italy. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. over 26 liters per year. around 8 l. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.8 7. Tunisia. around 14 l.1 0. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. so the term "first press" is meaningless.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide.7 11.1 1.pressed".com http://www.7 l.

If ground with mill stones. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. After grinding. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). suggesting a different taste. then placed into the press.net/ . The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). This is done in specialised chemical plants. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. which is much faster and more accurate. 2. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method).France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect.com http://www. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. 3.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. After grinding. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. 4. Green olives produce bitter oil. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. not in the oil mills. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. 1. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms.34 1.crazychefs. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. no or very little organoleptic defects). Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity.

To achieve this possible benefit.com http://www.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.7%) and sterols (about 0. altitude. region. time of harvest.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.net/ .2% phytosterol and tocosterols). and extraction process. most notably oleic acid.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The composition varies by cultivar. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.omega-3 fat <1.crazychefs.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat .monounsaturated 73 g . Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.5 g . producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp.polyunsaturated 11 g . In the United States.omega-6 fat 3. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. along with traces of squalene (up to 0. including oleocanthal and oleuropein.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats.

in the long term. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed.crazychefs. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content.com http://www. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. rather than its fatty acid profile. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. 2004. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. The study was conducted in two stages. It is theorized that.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants).[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles.net/ .[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. at least in part. and oleuropein. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. For example.This decision was announced November 1.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. antithrombotic. This could. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. This way. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. During the first stage. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. During the second phase.

net/ . One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. as available in an oil producing region. A very fresh oil. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. not for foods to be eaten cold.com http://www. cookware. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F).[citation needed]. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. Also. For example. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. like salads.crazychefs. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. blenders. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. Also. etc. Used cold. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. oils deteriorate and become stale. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. In time.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.

Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil.crazychefs. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. acting as a stool softener. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is also good for the management of pain.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM).net/ . which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils.com http://www.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. It does have demulcent properties.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. and mild laxative properties.

from Anglo-Fr. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies.Fr.com http://www. Besides food. medicines.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil." In ancient Greece. huile).N. from O. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power.. magical. elaion "olive tree". olive oil.Fr. as a fuel in oil lamps. from L. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olive oil" (cf. and skin care application. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. soap-making. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. Homer called it "liquid gold. oleum "oil. olive oil has been used for religious rituals.crazychefs.net/ .Fr. olie.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". drawn and engraved by J. oile (12c.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. Mod. 1175. olio). and O. from Gk. It.

Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium. In the centuries that followed.crazychefs.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. Bodrum.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.com http://www. olive presses became common. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.net/ . but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.

preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff).crazychefs. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. where it is thought to have represented wealth.[46] Until 1500 BC. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. According to legend. when the oil had risen to the top. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. drained the water from the bottom. and Israel.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. Lebanon. Sinuhe. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. According to the historian Pliny. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states.[dubious – discuss] During this time. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. "the best in the Mediterranean".000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests.net/ . It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. the fertile crescent. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. and area consisting of present day Palestine. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates.000 tons of olive oil per season. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. oil containers are preferred. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated.com http://www. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage.000 and 3. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. during the 13th century BC.[citation needed]. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD.. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization.over 4. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. wrote of abundant olive trees. allowing more time for more oil to be made. together with naked appearance of athletes. he maintained.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. stored in special containers.

[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). http://www. Olive Production Manual.usda.imitate the original Menorah. 158. http://www.net/ . The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. http://findarticles. http://www. its oil almost glows. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. Retrieved 2008-07-04.gov/nass/pubs/agr05/05_ch3.PDF.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047.com http://www. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. and the Mount of Sinai. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047".internationaloliveoil.org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. ^ International Olive Oil Council. traditionally. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. 2. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". in the consecration of altars and churches. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick)." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. ^ "findarticles. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". 5. To douse the flame. p. Steven Sibbett. neither Eastern nor Western. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. the tourch is in a glass bulb. ^ USDA. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. and this secure city. "The Olive Tree. 4. Joann L Coviello. References 1. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. light upon light. ^ G. even without fire touching it. Louise Ferguson." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases.com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display.gourmetretailer. Retrieved 2007-05-25.crazychefs.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree.html. ANR Publications. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. In Islam. originating from King David. Margaret Lindstrand (2005). which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). and. 3. ^ USDA. Retrieved 2007-05-25.

internationaloliveoil. Di Majo. Tripoli. M. Retrieved 2008-11-16. PMID 17321749. http://query. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. 13. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". 2007-08-13.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institutionini. US Customs Department. et al. ^ "www.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. 14. 15. 25. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. Pharmacol.com/news-eu/1204304521. Slippery Business The New Yorker. Giammanco.net/ . ^ Riding. 21. 19.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. Am. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com".org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. G.telegraph. ^ Mueller. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis. 23. http://aje.co. http://www. ^ "Eubusiness.html". ^ Covas MI (March 2007).1079/NRR200495 24.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. http://news. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05.). Epidemiol. 18.com". 19 CFR 134.com/news-eu/1204304521.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705.Scotsman. Giammanco.com/gst/fullpage. 17.eubusiness.46. http://www. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". http://www. http://oliveoilonly. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. ^ a b McGee. 12. S. (December 1986). 16. 7. http://www.co.htm.23/. ^ Durant. ^ "EUbusiness. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . J. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil".htm".uk/news/main. ^ Keys A. ^ a b "Telegraph article". United States Department of Agriculture. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".xml.htm.phrs. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . November 2. Menotti A.internationaloliveoil.nytimes. and Maurizio La Guardia. The New York Times (H.com http://www. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. Dennis. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. Alan (1989-05-21).usda. Res. Karvonen MJ. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22.2007. 20. D.com News".gov/AMSv1. 10.xml.6.4005000.Telegraph".23/. ^ "www.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705.01. http://www. John.eubusiness.html. doi:10. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. http://www.1016/j. http://www. Tom.jp. Tabacchi. 124 (6): 903–15.southafrica.ams. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil.uk/news/main.oxfordjournals. Raymond & Co. J. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. 11. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. 2004. ^ New York Times. 55 (3): 175–86.scotsman. PMID 3776973.com/world/Forty-arrested-in-new-39fake39.southafrica.crazychefs.telegraph.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. Retrieved 2008-11-09.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3776973.010.

"New Year's Resolution No.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". p. (January 2005). Israel". 23. ^ Turner R.1.co. Suppl. PMID 17110467. A : Bito. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. 37. ^ Ehud Galili et al. ^ "Quite Interesting . p. Faseb J. 21 (1): 45–52. Marotta T. Vargas J. Nazim U. 2000. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). 11. 45. An Wu. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. ^ Mayo Clinic. p.1096/fj. No.html". (27 March 2000).crazychefs. Vol. d'Episcopo L. Mar. 38. but cites no source. 39." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. A : Wu. http://www.html. N U : Budiyanto. pp. Olives 41. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. Nov. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. Masamitsu Ichihashi.28. ^ [2] Ichihashi. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. 2085-2090. Ahmed.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé.v.75. "olive" and "oil" 40. De Castro A (February 2007). ssp.com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36. ^ Machowetz A. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. Pagnol. Use Olive Oil.61.net/ . Alonso MG. JDermatol-Sci. Brenes M. PMID 17263460. Dello Russo A.tchain." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. T : Ueda.xml. 21. ". Guida L. 44.1021/jf0630217. T.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42.telegraph. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". "[10 INSERT TITLE]". Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. PMID 15830923. et al. André Bervillé. Osamu Nikaido.v.Telegraph". ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. 34. 19 November 2007 30. Poulsen HE. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". Catherine Breton.1024/0300-9831. Toshinori Bito. 1: Prevent Cancer. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. ^ a b Davidson. Vol. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". 55 (3): 680–6. Olea europaea L. doi:10. 19.. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. Gruendel S.ama-assn. Medina E.uk/portal/main. 1S45-50. ^ Rosenblum. s. Etienne N. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842.videojug." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007.". Toshihiko Osawa. Carcinogenesis.. 29. ^ Ferrara LA.org 31. Raimondi AS. doi:10. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". Masato Ueda. 43. 10. ^ "www. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms".tchain. s. ^ Romero C.com http://www. http://www. PMID 10737284. M : Ahmed. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). 2000. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. J Agric Food Chem. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. doi:10. et al. 35. M : Osawa. (January 2007). ^ Pagnol. ^ http://www.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. 19.06-6328com. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte.

"Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. ed. B. 2001.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. ^ "www. pp119–33 50.org.htm. http://www. ^ F. Riley. 47. Kennell.net/ .htm. Provencal.crazychefs. C. Scanlon.).com http://www. ^ Nigel M.reshafim.youngmuslims.htm". ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Processing methods.46. http://www. 2005 49. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". ^ Thomas F. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Verstraete and V.R. Harrington Park Press. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland.youngmuslims.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95.il/ad/egypt/texts/sinuhe.

or hay-like fragrance. Saffron has further medicinal applications. crocin. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Saffron Saffron crocus C.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. each the distal end of a carpel. sativus flower bears three stigmas. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent.crazychefs. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.com http://www. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. A C.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. Saffron. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. ən] / [ˈsæf.net/ . ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L.

purple buds appear.2 in) in length. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. Only in October. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. broken apart.net/ . In autumn. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. and replanted. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ).crazychefs. which means "yellow. It is a sterile triploid form. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs.5 centimetres (1. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms.com http://www.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. A corm survives for one season. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. Being sterile. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. in Central Asia.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ).[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. must be dug up. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not.[11] Upon flowering. as was once generally believed.98–1.

com http://www. Planting depth and corm spacing. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. leaf rusts.000–1. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. loose.crazychefs. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. and birds. Greek.500 mm (39–59 in).8–5. well-watered. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere.[16] Furthermore.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. in concert with climate.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier..9 in) deep. low-density. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. rats. maximizing sun exposure. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production.e. they fare poorly in shady conditions. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. Moroccan. Nematodes.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. and corm rot pose other threats. where annual rainfall averages 1. where hot. are critical factors affecting yields. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates.net/ . Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops.

One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.and β-carotenes.net/ . This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.0. However. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.com http://www. including zeaxanthin. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic.[19] Meanwhile.8-carotenoic acid). It also has many nonvolatile active components.crazychefs. a product results that is itself water-soluble.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.8-diapo-8.11 gr) of dried saffron.[19] many of which are carotenoids. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and various α.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0. and thus oil-soluble. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). lycopene.2 oz of dried saffron).

0–14.com http://www.0 12.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.5 10.0 6.net/ .0 6.5 40.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0–7.0 1.0 1.0–1.0 6.0 3.0 10.crazychefs.0 12.0 0.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 1.0 11.0 2.0 9.0–13.0–15.0 6.0–8.0 8.0 4.

incidentally. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat.5-cyclohexadien-1-one.0 Source: Goyns 1999.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.6.4.crazychefs. the heat.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.net/ . The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. Significantly. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. When saffron is dried after its harvest. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. dried hay like". splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. combined with enzymatic action. p.6. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma.com http://www. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.6-trimethyl-2. Santorini.Fiber (crude) 5.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1.[18] Safranal.6. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. the scent of which has been described as "saffron. a volatile oil.3-diene-1. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels.

emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. cartwrightianus.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt.com http://www. and medical treatments.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. ointments. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. Since then. physicians in Gaza. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. colic. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug.[28][29] Later.crazychefs. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus.000 years. C.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.net/ . There.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos. and in the mithridatium. Thus. townspeople in Rhodes. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. sativus.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. cough.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. mascaras. and scabies. divine offerings.[33] potpourris. In late Hellenistic Egypt.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. a sterile mutant form of C.

the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. and used in dyes.com http://www. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. For example. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.[43] Thus. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy.net/ . Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. At such sites. saffron threads were woven into textiles.[53] On the other hand.[39][40] Later.[51] However. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. a Chinese medical expert. and body washes.[46][47][48] Meanwhile.crazychefs. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. Isfahan. perfumes. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". rice.[44] From there. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD.[44] During his Asian campaigns. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Asia The 17.[42] ritually offered to divinities.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. or jackfruit. a less expensive dye. Wan Zhen. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. dating to 978–993 AD. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. medicines.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq.

did significant cultivation endure. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. coffee. tea. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center.net/ . an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. indeed. In Europe. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. and Spain. imprisoned.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. It can be used to aromatise wine. However. named for its new specialty crop. which grew prosperous.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. Italy. under which saffron adulterators were fined. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. especially Norfolk and Suffolk.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha.saffron is in Kashmir. and Italy. The Essex town of Saffron Walden.com http://www. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code.[58] Soon after. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination.[62] By 1730." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. and executed. France.[59][60] Only in southern France.crazychefs.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. and then the saffron is obtained. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes.

Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing).crazychefs.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Central Asian. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. and antioxidantlike properties. immunomodulating. and chicken or trout dishes.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. Pennsylvania. noodles. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. and in perfumery. Arab. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes.com http://www. and Cornish cuisines.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly in China and India. Indian. Turkish. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. Medicinally. European. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County.net/ .

India. they are graded by government-imposed standards.500/€7.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad.000 flowers.500 per kilogram.net/ .550 per kilogram). and other countries.200/£1. are generally mellower in colour. Greece. are the major producers of saffron.100–11.crazychefs. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. the United States. Morocco. Spain's varieties. Vivid crimson colouring.000 per pound (US$1. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.100/€1. the average retail price is $1. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5. England. elasticity.000 flowers.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.000-170.[2] A pound comprises between 70. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. slight moistness.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. flavour. Azerbaijan.com http://www.000 and 200. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. In Western countries. Aside from these. France.000 threads. Annually. For example. and aroma.000–75. in decreasing order of production.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand.[5] Iran. Switzerland. and Italy.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. Spain.

net/ . Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). picrocrocin. unusually pungent aroma. Repeated droughts. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0.S. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). among the world's darkest. In the U. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality.com http://www. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. and crop failures in Kashmir. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue.crazychefs. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. blights.79 in). picrocrocin (taste). for quality and quantity. near L'Aquila. aroma. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. shape. is in San Gavino Monreale. combined with an Indian export ban. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.some organically grown. contribute to its high prices. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. There. and safranal (fragrance) content.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. and safranal content.. and colourative effect. it also has very high crocin. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. Sardinia.

national standards bodies. aroma.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. However.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content.net/ . absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. and I (finest quality). These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. pliability. with turmeric. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. and other powders used as diluting fillers. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages.[80] Thus.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. paprika.com http://www.crazychefs.[77] However. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. in India. many growers. III. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. red-dyed silk fibers. traders. and thus a greater colourative intensity. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. II. pomegranate fibers.

^ McGee 2004. ^ DPIWE 2005. 2. 4. pp. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. 53. crocin and safranal. Sterling. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Dharmananda 2005. ^ a b McGee 2004. 22.cababstractsplus.com/books?id=AaTpWEIlgNwC. ^ Rau 1969. ^ Grigg 1974. 272. p. p. 3. 2. 19. 3.". 16.cababstractsplus. 1. ^ Deo 2003. 1. ^ M. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. p. p. 7. 18. 14. 4. 1. 423. Grilli Caiola .org. 422. Honshū. http://www.crazychefs. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. p. p. stigma extracts and their constituents. 3–4. 9. 15. 12. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 20. 8. p. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. 24.google. p. 3. ^ Willard 2001. Retrieved 2007-12-01. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002.org/google/abstract. http://books.com http://www. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ Willard 2001. www. 21. 5. p. 103. pp. ^ a b Deo 2003.asp?AcNo=20043148643. 13.net/ . p. 4. Kansai. 17. pp. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. ^ a b Deo 2003. p. 287.Saffron reproductive biology 11. 2–3. ^ Harper 2001.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). ^ Willard 2001. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. 6. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 23. in mice. p. ^ Kumar V (2006). 3. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. p. ^ a b c Hill 2004.

^ Dalby 2003. ^ Willard 2001. p. 60.pdf 70. transl. p. pp. ^ Honan 2004. ^ Willard 2001. ca. p. pp.au/news/acevs%20saffron. ^ Willard 2001. 33.net/ . 128. ^ http://vision. 1. ^ Willard 2001. 28. ^ Willard 2001. ^ McGee 2004. p. 2–3. 138. ^ Celsus.25. 27. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001.crazychefs. 43. p. 58. 34–35. Kuo & Wang 1964. 12. 62. ^ Willard 2001. 58. 30. 63.edu. ^ Dalby 2002. ^ Willard 2001. 32. 44. p. 17–18. 41. ^ Willard 2001. 46. 36. 39. 31. 99. p. p. ^ Hill 2004.com http://www. 2. ^ a b Willard 2001.pdf 71. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. 68. 117. p. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 50. 95. 47. ^ Willard 2001. 64. 142–146. ^ Goyns 1999. 61. 6. 37. p. ^ Willard 2001. 224. p. ^ a b Willard 2001. 41. 40. 101. ^ Willard 2001. 41. ^ Willard 2001. 11. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Honan 2004. 138. 59. 143. p. ^ Willard 2001. p. 133. 55. pp. 51. p. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. p. p. 48. p. ^ Lak 1998b. 73. p. 1935 [1] 38. p.org/cgi/content/abstract/49/3/1254 69. 103–104. p. pp. 2. 54. 42. ^ Humphries 1998. 422.au/AnnualReports/ACEVS%20Report%202007. p. 72. pp. ^ Ferrence 2004. 1. 20. ^ Fletcher 2005. 65. 1. p. pp. ^ Hayes 2001. 63. 273. 70. 132–133. 30 AD. ^ a b c Willard 2001. 34. 49.edu. ^ http://www. 52. pp. 56. p. ^ Chang. Loeb Classical Library Edition. p.iovs. 55. 45. ^ http://www.vision. p. ^ Rau 1969. ^ a b Willard 2001. p. p. Random House. ^ Willard 2001. 26. 54–55. ^ Willard 2001. 1. 35. pp. p. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. p. Victoria (30 December 2002). 2. ^ a b Dalby 2002. 57. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. 138–139. 66. 67. de Medicina. 35. 1. 59. p. 256. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Deo 2003. 29. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Finlay. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53.

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Beacon Press. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. McGee. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). 2006.pl.com/classification. 2006[dead link]. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.htm>. Nair.barc. New Scientist.com http://www.com/irish/saffron. Pearce. Retrieved on January 10. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). "Grading and Classification". K (2003).cfm?chemic al_id=140>. 2006. <http://www.McGann. Retrieved on January 10. <http://books. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.usda.reconstructinghistory. Tarvand (2005b). "Saffron".com/channel/earth/mg18524831. <http://books.html>.google. <http://www. P (2001). Time Life Education.com/saffron.gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b.google. <http://www.newscientist.tarvandsaffron. Rau. H (2004). ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. Scribner. Retrieved on January 10. 2006. JB (2005). SR (1969).com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. Tarvand Saffron Company. F (2005). 2006. Reconstructing History.crazychefs. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). PMID 2025883 Park. <http://www. <http://www.html>. The Cooking of India. Retrieved on January 10.com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>. "What is Saffron?".net/ . "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". Willard.". Tarvand Saffron Company. 2006. USDA Phytochemical Database. Retrieved on January 10.tarvandsaffron. SC.000. 2006. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10.htm>. Cancer Letters 57 (2). "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity".

com http://www.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L. Dead Sea.crazychefs. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.net/ .

Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. referring to their wooden material.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. called xoana. they were reverently preserved for centuries. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. from Lebanon. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. Its fruit. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. endives. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. In Homer's Odyssey.[1] and in the Iliad.crazychefs. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. Theophrastus. Though. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. are borne generally on the last year's wood. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage.[9]. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive).The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae.5 cm long. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. olives. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. by a spring. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature."[7] indeed."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves.(XVII.net/ . it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. the olive. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. two stamens and bifid stigma. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. ca 170 AD. the olive suckers readily from the stump. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. It is short and squat.com http://www.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. The small white flowers. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. Asia and parts of Africa. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age.

as well as olive oil and olives. Theophrastus. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. for which the Greeks had a separate name. glory. wisdom. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. the olive has been the symbol of peace. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. power and pureness. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. kotinos. Chile and Argentina.net/ . in both the New and Old Testaments. but he makes clear (in 1. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. The olive tree itself. indeed. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. and one of the most significant. Today. fertility. As emblems of benediction and purification. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. play an important role in the Bible. olives were grown commercially in Crete. and its cultivation began in Mexico. wild-type olives. The Book of Jacob 5. As far back as 3000 BC. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible.crazychefs. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece.com http://www.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. For example. and then in the 18th century in California. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago.16.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. glory and peace .[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. the pits give rise to thorny. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees.The leafy branches of the olive tree . spread far and wide by birds. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. Over the years. in On the Nature of Plants.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. Peru.[12] After the 16th century.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over.

net/ . One olive tree in Bar.and fire-resistant. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult.com http://www. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14].600 years old.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. The age of an olive tree in Crete. drought-. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). which is made into top quality olive oil.crazychefs.000 years old. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. and can live for very long. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. Montenegro. has been calculated to be about 1. The older an olive tree is. disease. Istria in Croatia. claimed to be over 2. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. named "Plato's Olive Tree".

The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975.400 years ago. both in Galilee region. According to a recent scientific survey. In the same natural garden. and the olive fruit. a few other millenary trees can be admired. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna.crazychefs. Italy.2. Modern experience does not always confirm this. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. Specifically. and. see Olive (fruit). is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. A supposedly even older tree. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC.6 km) as the limit. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi.com http://www. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. though showing a preference for the coast. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. olive leaf. 1600-2000 years old. All seven trees continue to produce olives. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. called the "Peisistratos Tree". it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fine wood. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region.net/ . when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies.

[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment.crazychefs. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. such as South Africa. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Sudan. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. Chile.com http://www. northwest Africa) where winters are mild. Israel. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. Argentina. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. Australia. laperrinei (Algeria. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. Olive plantation in Andalucia. the Mediterranean Basin. Niger. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp.net/ .

net/ .com http://www.crazychefs.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ .Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.com http://www.crazychefs. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

rounded-oval fruit. grown around the world. anchovies. In recent times. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. 'Bosana'. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease.crazychefs. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. in southern Spain.200. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa.net/ . they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. which consists of 1. originating in Dos Hermanas. but only a few are grown to a large extent. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. a large. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. often after being pitted. Rich taste and thick pulp. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. It is used mostly for oils. with purple-green skin.Cailletier cultivar. A prolific bearer. stuffed (with pickled pimento. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. Seville. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. The olive grove of Amfissa.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . 'Manzanilla'.com http://www.

This small olive. 'Cornicabra'. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. 'Nabali'. originating in the south of France (Aude département). and elongated. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. though difficult to cultivate. Spain. and coastal climate conditions. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. even on clay if well drained. and elongated. Greece. medium size. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. It has a strong but sweet flavour. It is mainly used for oil. The flavour is mild and nutty. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. good for eating and for oil. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. It is used both for oil and for table olives. originating in the south of France. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. The olive is medium sized. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. It is green. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. good for eating and for oil. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. a large. round. 'Hojiblanca'. disease-resistant. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. Their flavour is mild and nutty. They are green. used as a table olive. 'Arbequina'. They grow in any light soil.[citation needed] 'Lucques'.[23] 'Barnea'.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. originating in the province of Córdoba. 'Empeltre'.net/ . black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. brown olive grown in Catalonia. large. They are black and generally used for table consumption. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). 'Picual'. 'Kalamata'. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. originating from the southern Peloponese. Spain. Moreover. Spain.com http://www. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. named after the city of Kalamata. which. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. originating in Toledo. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. a small. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. Due to their highly valued flavour. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. another modern Israeli. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. 'Souri'.crazychefs. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status.[21] 'Koroneiki'. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world.

where they soon form a vigorous shoot. However. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. In some places in Italy and Greece. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. it is valued by woodworkers. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. Where the olive is carefully cultivated.com http://www. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. but the time varies in each country. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. the oliviera. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. A. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. and can remain productive for as long. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. They tolerate drought well. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. Another method uses an electric tool. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. P. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. and with the season and the cultivar. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist.crazychefs. More specifically.net/ . 114). The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. This method is used for olives used for oil. soon vegetate. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. up to several centuries. In Italy. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. removing fruit from the tree. Occasionally. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. Olives are propagated in various ways. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. as in Languedoc and Provence. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. embryonic buds. the trees are regularly pruned. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. In Greece.poorer soil. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. which form small swellings on the stems.) Olives like hot weather. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. Olives grow very slowly. In southern Europe. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. being very hard and close-grained. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. to facilitate germination.

The method also involves sawing off branches.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. large fruit (e. which is healthy for future production. which can be eaten fresh. or green with hints of colour).crazychefs. then drained.. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar.net/ . 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. After some weeks. Fresh are often sold at markets. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein.5-2. Typical yields are 1. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. Olives can be used green. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. The olives are soaked in water to wash. which leads to a superior finished product. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green.com http://www. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. a bitter carbohydrate. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. As a result. the fruit is not bruised. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. which is a natural preservative. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.g. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. which is why they taste milder than green olives. through to full purple black ripeness. the creation of lactic acid.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products.2 kg of oil per tree per year.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating.

They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. garlic cloves. lemon juice. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. leaving sawtooth damage. especially to young trees. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. olive oil. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. A species of bacterium. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. vinegar. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. Sometimes. can infect the trees for several successive seasons.net/ . They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. The ten largest producing countries. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. Popular flavourings are herbs. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. an unnatural method. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. diseases. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. oleae[27]. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. causing great damage to plantations. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. Pests.6 to 8. and weather A fungus. juniper berries and anchovies. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. or removing the pit and stuffing them.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. spices. In France and north-central Italy. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more.com http://www.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. feta. but can be left to cure for up to three months. their main predators are wasps. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container.crazychefs. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. capsicum (pimento). It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. Cycloconium oleaginum. chili. induces tumour growth in the shoots. wine. olives suffer occasionally from frost. lemon zest. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. salt-curing. Lye-curing. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. of which the water is changed daily.

^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.5 6. 6.000 275.com http://www.." (Diodorus Siculus. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.160. Ancient Greek Agriculture.000 430. An introduction. Odyssey. ^ Pausanias.000 550.8 16. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.317.5 63.13. 1). Description of Greece 1.000 20. 1. book 5". 4. most notably South Australia. On the Causes of Plants. 4. 1992.685 765.000 8.000 998.000 1. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.4 30.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced. 5. 3.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.9 6.830 2. 27.1).089 6. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.net/ .[31] References 1.597. 38.000 49. 5.339 300.3 8.5. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.000 318.6 31. ^ Theophrastus. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.000 594.300. 7. p." (Herodotus.000 280. ^ ".988 500. to make bee-hives.000 1.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.000 470.100 3.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication. Bibliotheke.14.000 498.500. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk. 82.800.000 250.1 25.0 3. 3. 1 ). 2.888 178.400.7 27.140. and to cultivate olive-trees. 81.. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees.crazychefs.149. 4.981 1... ^ Homer.064 2.3 20.

30. Masuelli.W. vol. ^ Muncipality Bar.31. "Plants of the Bible" 1885. ^ Riley.15. p.com/ 25.zatoun. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10.net/ . the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. AGRISCIENTA. Australian Olives. 35. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. ca 30 BC 9. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". J. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. http://apps3.com http://www. http://www.pasoroblesolivefestival. Tabak & O. Rackham. rev. 27. ^ "FAO. http://www. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". pp 110–113. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. M. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope.cit. M Bauza & R. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives".A. E. ^ Fotiadi.. ^ Lewington. J. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. 1999. 69. Zatoun. Apps3. 29. Bacteriol. Simhoni. Odes 1.. p. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. Riley (2002). D. Int. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Juárez. John Hutton. Epikouria Magazine. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (1999) Ancient Trees. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp.8.brijuni.. Retrieved 2009-05-18. nom. Syst. 13. Madrid. Available through Google Books 11. Volume 15. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol.fao. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. Y. 2004".hr/Home. http://www." Horace. & Parker. 1779. ^ Burr. R. N.springerlink.org. J. 4th edition. 1981.htm. cited in F. Retrieved 2007-03-10. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine"... Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Processing methods.aspx?PageID=151. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. (September 2002). 28. nov. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. ^ Lumaret. ^ O. R. 1982. Kislew. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. ^ Janse. EspasaCalpe S. 105. ^ Gooch.org/wiews/olive/intro.jsp. op. Cavagnaro P. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. 2001. Brijuni National Park. ^ a b M. Leshonenu (Hebrew). "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. & Ouazzani. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992.crazychefs. ^ [1] 21. ^ "Old Olive Tree". (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. 32:166–169. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. Moody. 29 April. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. J. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". A.com/content/dlb533pw9cbwc59e/. ^ http://www.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. 1996. Elena "Unusual Olives". Ellen. ^ Belaj et al. 23. Epikouria Magazine. 24. Spring/Summer 2006 26. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. Volume 18:27-35 20.279 18.fao.com/study. ^ Balfour. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Number 4). 17. me cichorea levesque malvae.

com http://www. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. western North America." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. seldom produces flowers. with an entire margin.31. Corresponding to its species name. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L.net/ . The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. with slender branched stems. The leaves are lanceolate. however.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. glossy green. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. (French tarragon. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. and south to northern Mexico.R. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets.crazychefs. L. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad.

) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. It is normally purchased as a plant. A perennial. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. Fresh. dracunculoides L. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. by extension. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն.[1] However. Spreading plant can be divided easily. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. which is the Armenian.com http://www. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. sunny spot.[1] Russian tarragon (A. and particularly suitable for chicken. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун).[1] It likes a hot.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking.net/ . fish and egg dishes. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen.crazychefs. without excessive watering. it normally goes dormant in winter. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. but cannot be grown from seed. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. Persian and Russian word for . due to the presence of estragole. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. Georgia and. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. Russia and Ukraine.

pp. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Surburg.net/ . 3. Machinek A. Ley JP. Wiley-VCH. Maggie (2002). Foerstner J. Properties and Uses. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. The Bountiful Container. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Workman Publishing.[3] In Slovenia. 233.crazychefs. Rose Marie Nichols. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring.com http://www. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. Horst. Johannes Panten (2006). Stuckey. 2. Krammer G.Cis-Pellitorin. References 1. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. ^ a b c d McGee. ISBN 9783527607891. ^ Gatfield IL.

Sage is also common in Italian cooking. and some drinks. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Common sage. it is used when roasting mutton. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. Broadleaf sage. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. Dalmatian sage. In French cuisine. In Western cooking. It is a member of the mint family. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. grayish leaves. with woody stems. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). Lamiaceae. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it.crazychefs. Britain and Flanders.Salvia officinalis (Sage. Kitchen sage.net/ . and blue to purplish flowers. sage has a slight peppery flavor. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Culinary sage. In the Balkans and the Middle East. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. though other species. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. cheeses (Sage Derby). Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. In the United States. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. Garden sage. Purple sage.com http://www. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces.

hypoglycemic. ursonic acid. oleic acid.com http://www. niacin. caffeic acid. The underside of a sage leaf .Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. antispasmodic.net/ . estrogenic. astringent. nicotinamide. cornsole. cornsolic acid.[1] In a double blind. and thujone. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. which contains cineole. fumaric acid. means ―to heal". Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. ursolic acid. chlorogenic acid. salvia.crazychefs.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. flavones.trichomes are visible. antifungal.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. The Latin name for sage. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. and tonic. flavonoid glycosides. borneol. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. and estrogenic substances. antibiotic.more trichomes are visible on this side.

[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. and more. 2. a local anesthetic for the skin. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. Noroozian M. Khani M. a white-flowered cultivar. (2003). They are easily raised from summer cuttings. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. ^ Akhondzadeh S.php. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. Jamshidi AH. and tonic. OBeWise Nutriceutica. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. Pliny. Dioscorides. Retrieved 2008-02-04.00463. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and for low ground cover. ^ a b c "Sage". especially in sunny dry environments. 'Extrakta'. 'Alba'. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus.com/nutri/page8453. doi:10. a styptic. PMID 12605619. a cultivar with large leaves. yellow and green variegated leaves. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties.appliedhealth. and used as a diuretic. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). increasing women's fertility. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. a purple-leafed cultivar.crazychefs. Applied Health. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans.x. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. 'Icterina'. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. 'Berggarten'. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". http://www.2003. emmenagogue. a small leaved cultivar. and for other uses. a cultivar with white. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos.1365-2710. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. 'Lavandulaefolia'. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages.com http://www. 'Tricolor'. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar.[4] It was sometimes called S.net/ . Ohadinia S.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. snakebites. Mohammadi M.1046/j. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. References 1. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. hemostatic.

10-11.com http://www. 4. (2000). ISBN 9789058230058.crazychefs. Deni Bown (New York: DK.net/ . ^ a b Kintzios. Sage: The Genus Salvia. Spiridon E. CRC Press. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pp. p.3. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses.

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