COOKING INGREDIENTS

Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]

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Taxonomy
Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]

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Uses
Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

Safety
A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Cultivation
Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]

Gallery

Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.

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Thyme

Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

History
Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]

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use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Spanish. Depending on how it is used in a dish.crazychefs. assume that it means fresh. It can be propagated by seed. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. tomatoes and eggs. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. Dried. and of herbes de Provence. As a rule of thumb. soups and stews. Persian. In some Levantine countries. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. the whole sprig may be used (e. Leaves are often chopped. Lebanese. and Turkish cuisines. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. while flavourful.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. or by the sprig. cuttings.net/ . or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. Italian. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. Portuguese. Albanian. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. and in those derived from them. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. which is due to its content of thymol. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. Syrian. storage life is rarely more than a week. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. Greek. In French cuisine. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. fresh thyme is often available year-round. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni.a little less if it is ground. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. It tolerates drought well. Thyme. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. in a bouquet garni).g. While summer-seasonal. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient.com http://www.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof).[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. Libyan. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer).

estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. hybrid T. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed].[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa.[6] Thymol. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty.[5] As with bay. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. but is grown as a ground cover. tisane. All thyme species are nectar sources. an antiseptic. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. etc. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. Because it is antiseptic. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. It also has medicinal uses. The dried equivalent is 1:3. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. pulegioides × T.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. salve. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. it was used to medicate bandages. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover.com http://www. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day.net/ . Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme.

crazychefs.com http://www. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing.Variegated lemon thyme.

net/ .Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.com http://www. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .1 mg 6. European.crazychefs.9 g .0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 3.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.8 g 3.0 mg Iron 6.net/ .Sugars 0.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0. B3) 1.2 mg Magnesium 50. although parsley has a milder flavor.com http://www.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.3 g 0.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit. and American cooking. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 mg Phosphorus 58.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.1 mg recommendations for adults. often used as spice.0 μg Calcium 138. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).1 mg Folate (Vit. It is common in Middle Eastern. B2) 0. B1) 0. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.

tuberosum). Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. it is not related to real turnips. which then tend to protect plants nearby. reducing pest attraction. For example. used in soups and stews. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. which helps accommodate the long taproot. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs.com http://www. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. it attracts predatory insects. While parsley is biennial. not blooming until its second year.net/ . The similarity of the names is a coincidence. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. Like many other umbellifers.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. Although little known in Britain and the United States. or flat leaf (P. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum).Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. However.crazychefs. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination.

Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. Last retrieved April 26. 4. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles.com/npc/parsley. References 1. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. lamb or goose.aspx?id=1075&s=4. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Parsley as an oil. a mixture of parsley. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. [1]) in oxalic acid.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. ^ a b c John W. and sauces. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. steaks. http://www. root. "Parsley on plucodes.crazychefs.. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf).plucodes.70% by mass. fried chicken. 2. 2007.com/PLUdetails. e. or 4900." West Virginia University Extension Service. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. Ossobuco alla milanese.com http://www. Jett. In Southern and Central Europe.html. parsley is part of bouquet garni. garlic. soups.g. http://www. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). In addition.[3] Parsley is high (1. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. and lemon zest. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. leaf.com". a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. with fish. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs.drugs. "That Devilish Parsley. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines.net/ . green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. Goulash or Chicken paprikash).com".

crazychefs.Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.net/ .

com http://www. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.net/ .crazychefs.

com http://www.g. Together with basil. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. and lovage leaves. The flowers are purple. of the mint family.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. fried vegetables. Varieties There are a number of subspecies.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. Unlike most Italian herbs. Oregano growing in a field. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. capers.net/ . Oregano is an important culinary herb. which is popular in southern Italy. as well as cultivars. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). and grilled meat. It is the leaves that are used in cooking. O vulgare gracile. Greek. e. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and to add a nice. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. produced in erect spikes. spicy flavor. each with distinct flavours.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno .crazychefs. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. It is a perennial herb. growing to 20-80 cm tall. native to Europe. 3-4 mm long.

A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. The influence of climate. In the Philippines.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. Asia Minor) and O. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. useful for relieving children's coughs. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. especially for mutton and lambs meat.com http://www. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. warm and slightly bitter taste.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. heracleoticum (Italy. together with paprika.[5][6] Additionally. In Turkish Cuisine.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. however. it can be usually found on table.net/ . differs significantly in taste. It varies in intensity. Oregano growing in a pot. It has an aromatic. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant.crazychefs. West Asia) have similar flavors. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. salt and pepper. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. which. Balkan peninsula.

and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. this substitution would not work the other way round.at/~katzer/engl/Orig_vul. this latter is used in at least one Old English work.[7] and painful menstruation. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. ocimene. oregano. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram.com http://www. expectorant. pinene. thymol. influenza. Lippia berlandieri. and caryophyllene.html. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. In the Philippines. stomachic and mildly tonic.crazychefs. fungal infections. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language.net/ . ^ http://www. mild fevers. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. Coleus aromaticus). Used topically.Main constituents include carvacrol. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Aqueous extracts. stimulant. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. enteric parasites. emmenagogue. including Poliomintha longiflora. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. Plectranthus amboinicus.[12] References 1. but is usually stronger.[8] Hippocrates. carminative.uni-graz. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". diaphoretic. ^ Organic Gardening 2. stomach upsets. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). indigestion. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. antispasmodic. especially in the United States. useful for relieving children's coughs. also called Cuban oregano. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. cholagogue. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. limonene. A Cretan oregano (O. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. capsules. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. the father of medicine.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano.

^ Epikouria Magazine. 12. ^ a b Faleiro. 133 (5): 1286–1290. Retrieved 2008-11-26. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants".3. Leonor. doi:10.com/articles/130620. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F.php.asp?item=1374&year=2008. ^ ["http://www. ^ Dragland.nutrition. (01 May 2003).co.org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". draft revision for "organum". ^ Epikouria Magazine. Medical News Today.crazychefs. 7. June 2008. J.ac. Agric.uk/wild-oregano-oil-carvacrol. 11. 24 November 2008. http://info.net/ . Fall/Winter 2007 10. 28. Retrieved 200811-26. J Nutr. March 2009. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1021/jf0510079. Food Chem. PMID 12730411. draft revision for "origanum".com http://www.medicalnewstoday.".dmannose. PMID 16218659. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online.uk/news/UWENews/article. (2005). Draft revision for "oregano". University of the West of England. et al. et al. 53 (21): 8162–8168. Fall/Spring 2007 5. http://jn.) and Origanum vulgare L. (Cav. http://www.10. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA". Steinar.2008.uwe. 6. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8.

but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. recorded in the 10th century. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). Ferula communis. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). the diminutive of fenum or faenum. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl.[2] In Greek mythology. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. Also. It is a hardy. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. This came from the Old English fenol or finol. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). In Ancient Greek. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. meaning "hay". Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. it seems. umbelliferous herb. it was from the giant fennel. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. The Latin word for the plant was ferula.net/ .[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. perennial. however. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now".Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill.crazychefs. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe.com http://www.

B1) 0. It is erect. they are finely dissected.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates .047 mg Folate (Vit. and grooved.com http://www. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long.29 g 0. with hollow stems.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.crazychefs.01 mg 7. half as wide or less.5 m. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.20 g 1.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.net/ .Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but thinner. B2) 0. glaucous green. and grows to heights of up to 2.5 mm wide.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. bulb. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill. about 0.Dietary fiber 3. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike).[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. B3) 0.

In North American supermarkets.crazychefs. both in its native range and elsewhere. It propagates well by seed. vulgare var. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. It is of cultivated origin. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. and in other open sites in many regions. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure.com http://www. both raw and cooked. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs.net/ .Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. including northern Europe. though usually not as strong. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. for its edible. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. the United States.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. which is also known by several other names.20 mg Manganese 0. F. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. in pastures. syn. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. by the late 19th century. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. it is often mislabelled as "anise". "bronze-leaved" fennel. but is more aromatic and sweeter. notably the Italian name finocchio.

shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. pastas.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. mouri in Bengali. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. green seeds are optimal. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. The bulb is a crisp. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic.crazychefs.Fennel. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. foliage. often tossed with chicory and avocado. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. For cooking. though smaller. anise-flavoured spice. but also the most expensive. braised. Many egg. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. It may be blanched or marinated. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. both raw and cooked. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. or cooked in risotto. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. and risottos. or eaten raw. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. where bulbs and fronds are used. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ).net/ . hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. salads. fish. brown or green in colour when fresh. grilled. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. variyali in Gujarati. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. stewed. badesoppu in Kannada. in side dishes. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages.com http://www. which are very similar in taste and appearance. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. sompu in Telugu.

Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. sometimes with some sweetener.com http://www.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. also employed as a carminative. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress.net/ . it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye.crazychefs. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw.[12] For adults. although not supported by direct evidence. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'. This use.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. used to ease flatulence in infants. or its polymers. Fennel tea. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. act as phytoestrogens.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. as it is said to improve eyesight.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. which can explain some of its medical effects: it.

com http://www. followed by India. fennel and coriander. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise.net/ .[17] However. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. badian (star anise). Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs.crazychefs. which promote growth of breast tissue.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens.

itself ultimately from Phoenician. it is called darchin (‫.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. it is called "Darchini" ( ). In Telugu. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia.C. Ceylon.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni.net/ . Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon.crazychefs. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. In Urdu. Chakka meaning bark or wood.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. cinnamon is known as kurundu. native to Sri Lanka.[3] In Sri Lanka. in the original Sinhala. which are often called cinnamon too. synonym C. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni .[5] In Malayalam. In Farsi (Persian). it is known as "DalChini ( )".[2] In Marathi. and in Gujarati taj. it is called Dalchina Chakka.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. In Bengali. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. the "real' cassia. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. Hindi.com http://www.

he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. and in Song of Solomon.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. aloe and cinnamon.crazychefs. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. in Proverbs.com http://www. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew .net/ .[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh.

However. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. and used them to construct their nests. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score.8–49. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. and have a distinct odor. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe.2 feet) tall. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. which are arranged in panicles. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas.net/ . and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis.com http://www. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. have a greenish color. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more.75–7. in a letter of about 1292. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world.Ages. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 7–18 cm (2. sugar. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire.crazychefs.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. and coffee. took control of the factories by 1640. p. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. They established a trading post in 1638. "The shores of the island are full of it". the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. although in the first century. The flowers." (Braudel 1984. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market.1 inches) long. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. tea.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. a Dutch captain reported.

crazychefs. Sumatra. The next year. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Brazil.net/ . The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. Only the thin (0. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. the outer woody portion is removed. Zanzibar. eg. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. Bangladesh. followed by China. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Madagascar. and Vietnam. verum). about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. which is left to dry. Java. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. Chips are trimmings of quills. According to the International Herald Tribune. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. the West Indies. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special.5 mm) inner bark is used. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale.[15] According to the FAO. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. and Egypt. Vietnam. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg.com http://www. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. India.

is generally a medium to light reddish brown. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. and is considered to be less strong than cassia. However. the related species. hard and woody in texture. "Vietnamese cinnamon".crazychefs. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . as all of the layers of bark are used. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu.[16] Ceylon cinnamon.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. using only the thin inner bark. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. for example. and more crumbly texture.com http://www. or "Indonesian cinnamon". Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. has a finer.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. zeylanicum). less dense. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon".net/ . many websites.

Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly.5% to 1% of its composition. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality.crazychefs. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. bread-based dishes. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. drinks. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. and fruits. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. especially apples. It is of a golden-yellow color. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. but when cassia is present.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. hot cocoa. macerating it in seawater. In the Middle East. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). True cinnamon. especially in Mexico. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations.com http://www.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. and sweets. are easily distinguished. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. The two barks. In the United States. a deep-blue tint is produced. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark.net/ .[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. used in a variety of thick soups. when whole. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. and then quickly distilling the whole. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. which is the main importer of true cinnamon.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. ‫. and liqueurs. tea. rather than cassia. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. such as apple pie.

and Myanmar (Burma).[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. and money. who failed." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. eugenol. love. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. although it remains untested. and anethole. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). 2008.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde.0. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. cinnamaldehyde. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. The Cinnamon Challenge. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate.[34] Notes 1. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. However. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves).[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion.and a very hot aromatic taste. beta-caryophyllene.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity.com http://www. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. few seem able to succeed.net/ . zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. linalool.crazychefs. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). luck. cassia.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. In Hoodoo. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. Encyclopaedia Britannica. cinnamyl acetate. ^ a b "Cinnamon".[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance.

co. ^ [1] 16. Henry. Encyclopedia of Spices. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ Shan B. Food Chem.htm. p. Nerín C (August 2005).net/ . An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon.com/spices/vietnamese-cassia-saigon-cinnamon-wholecracked-ground thespicehouse. http://www. PMID 16104824. 22.org/docrep/007/ae017e/ae017e12. Cathay and the Way Thither. Van-Koiij A. doi:10. http://dsr.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_June/ai_3289703 13. Anthea Bell. ^ http://links. ^ http://www. ^ Knox. ^ http://www.theepicentre.org/templates/story/story. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". ^ Mancini-Filho J. ^ http://www. PMID 16190627.com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004.org/sici?sici=00754358(1970)60%3C222%3ATSTOTR%3E2.html#pg598.com http://www. 23.2. http://www. J. retrieved 2007-05-01 19. The History of Food.ihaystack.html. Cai YZ. p. tr. ^ López P. Sir James Emerson. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. Corke H (October 2005). ^ Yule. p. Cinnamomum.bbc. Sun M. ^ http://news. 437).php?storyId=6672644.html.co.. Harvey.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. Agric." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. Sánchez C.jstor. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Col. 10. ^ [2] 18. Cinnamon. PMID 10077878.html. retrieved 2008-07-15 11. Robert.ac. 8.henriettesherbal. http://www.437. 4. retrieved 200705-01 21. ^ http://findarticles.1021/jf050709v. retrieved 200807-15 6.0. 437 7. ^ Felter.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/south_asia_sri_lanka0s_spice _of_life/html/1. Breyne) extracts". ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009.jp/toyobunko/III-2F-b-2/V-1/page/0487. retrieved 2008-07-15 12.1021/jf051513y. doi:10. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. Mancini DA.za/index. ^ Harris.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains".htm 20. Emily.en.—Cinnamon. Food Chem. Torres RP (December 1998).org/tennent/v1_p5_c02. http://lakdiva. ^ "Cassia.iol. 53 (20): 7749–59. Cozzolino FF.com/Spices/cinnamon. p. J. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009.stm 3. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. 2009.CO%3B2-N 15. p. 53 (17): 6939–46.nii.fao. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. revised ed. http://www. Batlle R. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 437f. ^ The Epicentre. "Solid.com/eclectic/kings/cinnamomum. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour. ^ Tennent.crazychefs.npr. Agric. Account of the Island of Ceylon.com 17. 9.thespicehouse.

30. Agricultural Research magazine.lesliebeck.com/doi/abs/10. 27. Leslie. Research: Thalido. Retrieved 200808-05. http://jn.net/ .3. ^ [3].. ^ Ranjbar.1002/ptr.1016/00219673(88)90035-0.luckymojo. ground.1. Khattak KN..pdf.113. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). doi:10.utm.sciencedaily.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14633804..com http://www. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. Ali Khan MM. http://www.26. doi:10. ^ Vanschoonbeek. doi:10.. Anderson RA (December 2003).2217/14750708.sciencedaily.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/977.htm. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". ^ George Mateljan Foundation. a publication now in the public domain.2217/14750708. http://eprints.my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH.2337/diacare. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". Medicinal Seasonings. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. retrieved 200705-01 25. ^ Beck.futuremedicine.3. Braudel. Archer (1988). Alan W. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276.. 33. July 2000. http://www. www. http://www. Retrieved 2007-12-17. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. et al.. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. http://www. Safdar M. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". http://www. 29. doi:10. (2005). "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".diabetesjournals. Eugen J.redorbit.com/news/health/803646/chillies_are_the_spice_of_life__pepper s_have_been/index. Eleventh Edition.24. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. http://www. Retrieved 2008-05-11. Muhammad et al. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes". New York: Kodansha International. The Perspective of the World.12.crazychefs.com. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. Charles (1998). "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". Cat. ^ Khan A. PMID 14633804.php?featured_food=80. Fernand (1984).php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. ^ Taher. Kristof et al. ^ Yronwode. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF).whfoods. 28.1643. Corn. Retrieved 200805-11.com/genpage.1. retrieved 200705-01 32. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life".com/ingredient_index.html?source=r_health. http://care. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8.nutrition. Akram et al.3215. 26. 34.com. ^ Verspohl. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. Retrieved 2008-05-11. Cinnamon.113.com/releases/2004/07/040716081706.

com http://www.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium.Department of Export Agriculture. They are known by the common name "onion" but. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. pickled.M. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. it usually refers to Allium cepa. which it is not. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. chopped. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. and dehydrated forms. powdered."[3] Uses Onions. and Allium asarense R. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. frozen. Onions can be used. one of the oldest vegetables. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. used without qualifiers. canned.crazychefs. They are now available in fresh.net/ .

tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. Depending on the variety. In Bronze Age settlements.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. spicy. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. However. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. recent evidence has shown that dogs.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. and also to relieve headaches.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5] However.com http://www.net/ . The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. an onion can be sharp. cats. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. coughs. In ancient Greece.crazychefs. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. transported and stored. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. snakebite and hair loss. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. due to toxicity during digestion. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage.chopped or sliced. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions".[5] The onion is easily propagated. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications.

com http://www.24 g .1 g 89.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.21 mg Magnesium 0.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.Dietary fiber 1.02 mg Vitamin K 0.042 g . 0 μg 9.12 mg Folate (Vit. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B1) 0.116 mg Vitamin B6 0. B3) 0.crazychefs.net/ .4 mg Vitamin E 0.34 g 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. B2) 0.1 g 1.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.7 g Fat .saturated 0.Sugars 4.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.013 g .monounsaturated 0.polyunsaturated 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.

the variety with the lowest phenolic content. Texas 1015.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. Imperial Valley Sweet.net/ . and Vidalia. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. However. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. and Vidalia. pungent yellow (New York Bold). the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. Imperial Valley Sweet. Western White.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. Mexico. diabetes. For all varieties of onions. eleven times the amount found in Western White. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. Empire Sweet. and other diseases.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. Peruvian Sweet. In the United States. Northern Red. If you are allergic to onions. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. Mexico. Peruvian Sweet. Western White. anticholesterol.crazychefs. onions are used to heal blisters and boils. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). Shallots have the most phenols. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. Texas 1015. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. Imperial Valley Sweet. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women.com http://www.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. followed by Western Yellow. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. Texas 1015. Peruvian Sweet. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. Mexico.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease.[10] In many parts of the world. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Western Yellow. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. Northern Red. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. In general. osteoporosis. anticancer. Empire Sweet. Empire Sweet. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells.

The volume of sulfenic acids released.com http://www.net/ . as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. all present in garlic. allylpropyldisulfide. On January 31. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. garden lilies. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. Eye irritation can. and bananas. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. cells are broken. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation.crazychefs. As onions are sliced or eaten.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. and the irritation effect. shallots. diarrhea. limiting the amount of gas generated. nausea. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. 2008. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. allylmercaptan and allicin. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. leeks. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. where it binds to sensory neurons. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last).include reactions to onions. it can lead to an allergic reaction.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. and in rare cases anaphylaxis. chives. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. breathing difficulties. therefore. ginger. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. garlic. mouth and throat ulcerations. creating a stinging sensation. differs among Allium species. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water.

Allium fistulosum.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur.crazychefs. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. "short-day" onions. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. Finally. which can be planted directly in the ground. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring.net/ . Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned.com http://www. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. more commonly today. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. the Welsh onion. from sets started from seed the previous year. which have been developed in more recent times.

or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.net/ .500 China United States 3.793 India 5. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.637 Japan Egypt 1. Vale. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).220 Turkey 1.302 1. each of which forms a bulb.Produce bulblets in the flower head. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.758 Russia 1. Oregon (USA). Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.149 Spain World Total 64.764 Pakistan 1. Tree onion or Egyptian onion . Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions.750 South Korea 1.346 2. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.crazychefs. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk. a hybrid of Allium cepas.

[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. passed in 1958. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.net/ . Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.com http://www. It remains in effect as of 2009.The Onion Futures Act.crazychefs. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices.

commonly known as garlic.com http://www. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. the most commonly used part of the plant. and chive. shallot. Medical Botany. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. known as garlic. 1793. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. leek. Its close relatives include the onion. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves.net/ . sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. from William Woodville. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes.[1] A bulb of garlic. Allium sativum. It has a characteristic pungent.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum.

are common weeds in fields. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. the so-called elephant garlic. softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. Garlic is grown globally. India (4. The leaves. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. In North America. They can suffer from pink root. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". and for medicinal purposes. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. The papery.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. accounting for over 77% of world output. respectively. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. Garlic plants can be grown close together. There are different types or subspecies of garlic.com http://www. and Allium oleraceum. "crow garlic". leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. In cold climates. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. The cloves are used as seed. for consumption (raw or cooked). is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum).Yunnan province of China. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. with Russia (1. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. with approximately 10.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allium vineale.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised.crazychefs. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red.[5] The "wild garlic". which grows wild in southwestern Asia.net/ . according to Zohary and Hopf. stems (scape). Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates.

and parts of South and Central America.com http://www.4%).[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. south Asia. tomato.000 128.686. C = calculated figure.crazychefs. northern Africa.810 168.400 140. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Southeast Asia. A = aggregate (may include official. P = official figure. including eastern Asia. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. or estimates).000 254. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods.000 325.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. It is often paired with onion. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". or ginger.000 15. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12.Alaska) in fifth place (1. California.088. the Middle East. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press.net/ .000 221. F = FAO estimate. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.000 645.000 142. southern Europe.000 125. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. semiofficial.

oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. almond. Garlic. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. In Japan and Korea. oil. Immature scapes are tender and edible. and spices. the resulting product. crostini and canapé. oil. cleaned. "stems". Blending garlic.crazychefs. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. or "tops". In some cuisine. or vegetables. United Kingdom and Australia. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. is sweet and syrupy. garlic toast. and roast them in an oven. They are also known as "garlic spears". meats. bruschetta. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. The leaves are cut. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. and a chunky base produce skordalia. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. and then stir-fried with eggs. and is now being sold in the United States.com http://www. meat. breads and pasta. salt. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. In eastern Europe. called black garlic. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus.net/ .

Storage

Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—theheart.org, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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therefore. including onions. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. insects.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. and worms from eating the plant.com http://www. and bananas. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. persillade. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose.[51] To ward off vampires. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). making garlic much more potent than onions. included in many garlic recipes.[50] In Europe. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. where it is excreted. or leeks. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. ginger. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. werewolves. shallots.[48] Due to its strong odor. and vampires. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. Since digestion takes several hours. allylpropyldisulfide. usually enjoy these sensations.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. However. Among the members of the onion family. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. leeks.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. and release of AMS several hours more. However. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread.in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. The herb is. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. Humans. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". chives. hung in windows. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. garlic could be worn. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. all present in garlic. When eaten in quantity. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. shallots. allylmercaptan and allicin. forming allyl methyl sulfide. such as pistou.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. however. garden lilies. garlic.crazychefs. thus mellowing its spiciness. deterring animals like birds.net/ .

It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. indicated Muhammad. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. However. bleeding. and menstrual irregularities. Editing help is available. and diarrhea. indigestion. antiparasitic value of garlic. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. allergic reactions. and hypoglycemic drugs. antihypertensives. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". Garlic can thin the blood. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. minimal risks to normal individuals.crazychefs. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. You can help by converting this article to prose. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption.In Daoism mythology.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. antiplatelets. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". calcium channel blockers.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. dizziness. if appropriate. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. saquinavir. similar to the effect of aspirin. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). nausea.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. sweating.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. at worst. are largely unknown. emesis. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated.com http://www. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. if any exist. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth.net/ .[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. as well as other medications.

topical use of raw garlic.nj. ^ a b c d Tabor.unigraz.htm. 2000). split. http://www. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. Domestication of plants in the Old World.handle. J. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p.net/ .[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs.com/warrenreporter/index. is discouraged.html 8. G. In particular. Retrieved 5 June 2009. ^ McGee p. garlick)". 197 5.jhortscib.crazychefs.net/10113/877. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. et al. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic.org/Vol79/79_6/8. ^ http://www. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. including burns to children. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 2007-08-28. ^ http://www.com http://www. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting.) cultivars at Debre Zeit.html. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. (2005). 397 6.com/alternative-therapies/herbs-for-health/medicinal-garlic/ 9. 4.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. 3.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. Retrieved 5 June. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. bigger.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". third edition (Oxford: University Press. A bulb of garlic.natural-holistic-health. p. http://hdl. one the bulbs will grow peeled. 2. 112 7. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. et al. ^ a b Lee.at/~katzer/engl/Alli_sat. (2004).ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. http://www. Notes 1.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. Ethiopia".

Sci. 28.com 54 | P a g e http://www. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. PMID 17951430. PMID 17325296. PMID 9641475. Chao WJ (March 2007).01. 18. (Mrs. 104 (46): 17977–82. 13. Arch. McFerren M (February 2007). Paul B. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). ^ Mader FH (October 1990). et al (June 2004). 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). Lin RS (June 1998). garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. ^ Durak I. http://archinte. Ferraresi.jnutbio.org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346. doi:10. PMID 17966136...ac. 20.C.A. 167 (4): 346–53. Biochem. doi:10. doi:10. "Tropes. N. doi:10. doi:10.org/cgi/content/extract/167/4/325. Accessed: December 18. ^ a b Steiner M. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345.. ^ Chan KC. Mills RW.1002/mnfr. Herald Publishing Co. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. Yin MC. PMID 15218732. Med. 5. P. Motta.1001/archinte. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. Olcay E. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32.S.1162/106361403773062678. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits".346. PMID 17328819.325. ^ Kojuri J. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology".1186/1476-511X-6-5.4.1002/mnfr.pdf.0705710104. Hyg. 21.uk/staff/daryn.lehoux/Tropes. 25. 15 (6): 373–7. ^ Gardner CD. Lawson LD. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. J. and Empiricism" (PDF). 26. et al (February 2007). 15.1073/pnas. doi:10. 19. 30. 32. U.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M.200700058.manchester.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. A Modern Herbal. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Ramacciato. 16. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. Med. PMID 17918162. 22. 11. Acad. Akrami M (March 2007). ^ Benavides GA.167. et al (November 2007). A. F. Sartoratto. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. http://archinte. doi:10. PMID 2291748. J. ^ Durak I.crazychefs. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". Oztürk HS.ama-assn.1001/archinte. ^ Goodbye.).. 17. Proc. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . 5:109–115. 2005 ^ Groppo.4.A 400 Year History.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store.200700072. doi:10.2004. Maud. 24. Izzo AA (November 2007). 27. Vosoughi AR. Dent. Intern. [2] ^ Hamel. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic".10. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7.167. ^ Charlson M. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -.1016/j. Sylva. 29. Daryn (2003). Better Nutrition. 33. 35. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". 14. Arch. PMID 15277094.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. http://personalpages. 12. Block E.. Kavutcu M. 31. Aytaç B. Natl. Facts. ^ Borrelli F. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". PMID 15157944. (p.net/ .005. PMID 17325291. Garlic. Capasso R. 23. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". and Mary U." Int. PMID 17123684. doi:10. Intern. Squadrito GL. R. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6.ama-assn. July 1. Güven C (2002). 2006. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". J. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sova P (May 2004). Nutr. 167 (4): 325–6. 34.

Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. 85 (3): 157–64. Engl. Book 65 57.go. doi:10. Pickering p. Steckelberg JM. 39. Antimicrob.jp/JST. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). 53. Shishido C. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 2007.36.com/a/Garlic. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Patel R (January 2005). ISBN 0-30436561-0. Chesson C. ^ http://www. (1991-08-01). Aon MA. 120. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. Nishimura S. PMID 15616341. ^ Macpherson et al. http://mic. ^ Baruchin AM. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. 64. Lau B. 310–311 47. section "Conclusion" 48. et al (October 2005).ch. 66. 52. Slattery M. H. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. ^ Kodera Y.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. Thomson M. UK Medicines Information. Sumida T.jp/JST. Toxicol. Long D. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55. 42.jst. ^ http://www. ^ Lemar KM.unito.pdf. Bordia T. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". "Effect of allixin.473. Retrieved December 7. ^ Bukhari. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. http://linkinghub.com/topic-t6335-a1-6Allium_sativum. Jennifer (2002-12-13). ^ a b Mayo Clinic. a stress compound from garlic. 49 (1): 473. Yoffe B. ^ Shuford JA.Vol 9 No. 41.blogspot.com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390.org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257. Matuura H. p. Raymond T (1994). http://aac. 2007. Lett.jlc.) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65. Kominato Y. Yoshida S. 211 51.uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". Passa O.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.goldbamboo..2005. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. ^ Macpherson et al.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59.com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582. PMID 11481410. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. PMC: 538912. Castro C..it/didattica/infochimica/2006_aglio/pagine/agronomy.. Iwai K. http://joi. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". a phytoalexin produced by garlic.. 58. Microbiology (Reading. "Garlic burns". 4 . "Allixin.jlc. Volume 7. garlic advisory 63.html 45. Sterling Publishing. Ronen M (November 2001).sgmjournals. ^ http://washokufood.1099/mic.28095-0. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Complementary Medicines Summary.net/ . ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. 38. 122.ukmi. 43.".go.html 54.elsevier. 49.. 1988. http://joi.) 62.0. Ali M (June 1996). Scolaro M. ^ Garlic . In Search of Dracula. ^ McNally p. Imafuku M. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. ^ a b c d Hogg.1.49. Agents Chemother. James. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet.asm.elsevier. Jordan W. PMID 8441577. 211.com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic. ^ McGee p.jst. PMID 11600262. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2.Garlic-in-Oil 61. Sanders N. Summer 2005 . PMID 8644128. NLM Gateway. 37. ^ Oi Y. Teel R. 65. ^ http://lem.crazychefs.economicexpert.com http://www. ^ Pickering.. ^ John S. ^ a b McNally. Nishino H. http://linkinghub. Houghton Mifflin. ^ Health Canada . Retrieved 2007-0707. "Garlic burns".. (2001). (1989-01-30). on mutagenesis. ^ Fareed G.". http://www. p.htm 44. doi:10.1128/AAC.html 46. Sagi A. PMID 16207909. W. Fuwa T.nhs. 40.. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). David (2003). Retrieved December 7. 049 .January 29. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats". ISBN 0-395-65783-0. National Health Service. Itakura Y.

Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). R. (1985).. E.P. McMahon FG (June 1993). ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Belz GG (October 1997). The chemistry of garlic and onions. (1992). "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". Rabinowitch (2004).ahajournals.References Japanese garlic.. Susumu Yoshida. Med. Balch. Kiazand. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. A.M. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6.. Kozue Ogasawara. Jiro Yoshida. Naoki Kashimoto. http://linkinghub. D.com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6. Campbell JH (July 1997). L. Z. Naoto Uda. L. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. Ling M. Z. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. Lawson.. Chem. PMID 9355906. Zemah. Barzilay. K. 129: 144–151. Wang. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. 'Kyolic'.. Retrieved 1 May 2005. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. H. C. Vargas R. P. and Related Species (Second Edition).. Yukihiro Kodera. PMID 9247357. Chatterjee. J. Am. D. J. Soc. [3] Yukihiro Kodera.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Pharm. Bull. Jain AK. S. Sci. Am.. Balise. 94 (6): 632–5.. D. C. Efendy JL. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. J.. Gotzkowsky S. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. Masanori Ayabe. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.. L. "Garlic burns". Koch. E. Pharm. (2001). Campbell GR. Breithaupt-Grögler K. Hile. A. and H. Shan. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. 354-363 (2002). (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. Hamilton. Hort. Block. Makoto Ichikawa. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. R. H. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Chem. H. Bull.. [4] Lawson. Shafir.Garlic. Lloyd. Lawson. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. E. 50.crazychefs. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Gardner. Garty BZ (March 1993). Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. Vol. (1996). "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". Kraemer. Lemar. 3rd ed..com http://www. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. D. 50. L.. P. Turner. Block.jp[青森県産]. PMID 8441577. R. M. A.-Z. E.net/ . G. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. Selfsufficientish . Simmons DL. Kamenetsky.elsevier. Andy (2004). Isao Sumioka. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. D. (2004). PMID 8506890. M.. Vol. (2000). Block. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 405-407 (2002). L. Boudoulas H. I.. Zhang. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Block. http://circ. D. Williams & Wilkens. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9355906. New York: Avery. Garlic. A.

com/pt/pt-core/templatejournal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage. et al. doi:10. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209.crazychefs. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". 31 (6): 904–8.asm. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient.. Yeh.wkhealth. Samer R. (1998). "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (1997). 49 (1): 473. Kadam. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. PMID 2291748. Y-Y.com http://www. http://meta. Salunkhe.Lindsey J. S. PMID 9641475. Eid. Bernhard H. 310–3. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. PMID 8169881. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". http://aac. Marcel Dekker.49. Lin RS (June 1998). D. pp.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904.12. Macpherson. et al.473.. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Silagy C. In: Ohigashi. Garlic. McGee.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. Veena Viswanath. Pharmacol. Harold (2004). PMC: 538912. Yeh.. Leeks". H. (eds).1. PMID 15616341.S.1128/AAC. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. "The Onion Family: Onions. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Patel R (January 2005). Scribner. Steckelberg JM. Cardiovasc. Abstract. Antimicrob. Shuford JA. Michael Bandell. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". Mader FH (October 1990). Steiner M. (1999). Neil A (1994).2005. Geierstanger. Agents Chemother. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). J.net/ . SunWook Hwang. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005).K. et al. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Y-Y..

The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. after which they develop into a bright red. when they are ready for collecting.5-2 cm long. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. Madagascar.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. and Sri Lanka. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. and consist of a long calyx. it is called đinh hương.net/ .com http://www. In Vietnam. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. Cloves are harvested when 1. Pakistan. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. syn. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. terminating in four spreading sepals. Zanzibar.crazychefs.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S.

The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. which sells Djarum Black. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes.[1] In north Indian cuisine. along with other spices. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. but with the addition of other spices). it is used in almost all dishes. but as they are extremely strong. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. warm and aromatic. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. especially for digestive problems. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor").Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. they are used sparingly. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice.net/ . In south Indian cuisine. Cloves are used in cheeses. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. cloves are often used to season pho broth. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. spleen and stomach meridians. often in combination with cumin. entering the kidney.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis.crazychefs. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. In Vietnamese cuisine.000 tonnes). During Christmas. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. Cloves are used as a carminative.com http://www.

Subsequently. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. and Zanzibar. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. were highly prized in Roman times.com http://www. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. pimples etc. Brazil. along with nutmeg and pepper. including cloves. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands).[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. Ayurvedic herbalist K. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate.[6] History Until modern times. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang.direct stomach qi downward. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. Makian.P. including for multiple sclerosis. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. vomiting and diarrhea. RH (AHG). and Tidore. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. a kg costing around 7 g of gold.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. Khalsa. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli.[7] Cloves. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. mainly from the Maluku Islands. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. including Bacan. It is also used in severe burns. In the late fifteenth century.net/ ." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade.[7] Nevertheless. most of the West Indies. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness.crazychefs. Moti.[5] In West Africa.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. Ternate.

html National Institutes of Health. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World".Question: Multiple Sclerosis". ^ "TibetMed . Medicine Plus. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. due to the high price of importing them. Alan. stigmasterol and campesterol.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. pp. 94.org/questions/question_44.nih.. Jack (2004). Avery Publishing. Vintage Books. tannins. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. ©2003. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. gallotannic acid.html Tilotson. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. James. Andrew and Page.. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. 8.com/diseases/special-diets-for-illness.[8] Notes and references 1. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. crategolic acid. ^ Balch. ^ http://www. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. pg. http://www. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. Steven Clavey. ©2000. rhamnetin.crazychefs.tibetmed. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7.htm. and eugenitin.net/ .squarespace. methyl salicylate (painkiller). Steven Clavey. ^ http://oneearthherbs. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. Special Diets for Illness 6. 3rd ed. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. the flavonoids eugenin.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. comprising 72-90%. and Andrew Gamble. John Wiley and Sons Inc. ^ Dorenburg. 5. Spice: The History of a Temptation. Karen. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol.com http://www. Phyllis and Balch. kaempferol. 2. Erich Stoger. xv.nlm. ^ a b Turner. Erich Stoger.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-clove. 3. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. and several sesquiterpenes.

Shallot
Shallot

Shallots

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Details
Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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Cardamom
Cardamom

True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

Varieties
There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]

Uses

Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.

Gallery

Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

Notes
1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer. Rediff.com, 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

Bibliography
1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum
Hook.f.

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Usages
Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Identification
Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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PMID 15492355. "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice".a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 .net/ . http://www.Specification". "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. doi:10. http://www. NPR.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. Vaishali C. 5. doi:10.) -. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. http://www. Retrieved 8 June 2009. et al.iso. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706.com http://www. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院.5555/jaoi.2004-0058.3.htm?csnumber =4844. (2006). 18 May 2009 2. Ines et al. ^ Louisa Lim. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species.1542/peds. (2005).com/AOAC/doi/abs/10.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. ^ Joshi. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". http://www.atypon-link.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 .crazychefs. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=19183. ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ International Organization for Standardization.com/BZ-shuju/standshow.2005. f.Botanical nomenclature".1021/jf058156b. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. 6.iso.chinaios. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. ^ Lederer. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. while Lederer et al. f. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". Retrieved 10 November. Retrieved 8 June 2009. 4. Retrieved 8 June 2009. 3. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -.703.88.

[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.net/ .Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. native from the east Mediterranean to East India.com http://www. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.

73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle".(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. Kerman. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni .crazychefs.net/ . Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum.com http://www. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). including kamūnu in Akkadian. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. in Iran and Central Asia. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. in northwestern China. being oblong in shape. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. maduru.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. cumin is known as zireh. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. in Turkey. locally called "Kermun".[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. In Arabic. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. and yellow-brown in colour. longitudinally ridged. In Northern India and Nepal. a member of the parsley family. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. the story goes. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. parsley and dill. cumin is known as kimyon. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". the white variety being suduru and the large variety.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira.

Egypt. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. Seeds. today it is mostly grown in Iran. Mexico. and Chile.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). when added to hot milk and consumed. In South Asia. Syria. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. and this practice continues in Morocco.net/ . Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. Tajikistan. Uzbekistan.com http://www. Turkey. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems.crazychefs. India. Morocco.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. In Sri Lanka. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. have been dated to the second millennium BC. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der.

com http://www. Indian. and in some traditional breads from France. Today.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. enchiladas. garam masala. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. adobos. thread-like leaflets. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. either ground or as whole seeds. Northern Mexican cuisines. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. and borne in umbels. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. and other Middle-Eastern. white or pink. curry powder. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. It is an herbaceous annual plant. North African. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. Pakistani. sofrito.crazychefs. Contrary to popular belief in the US. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. Cuban. Sri Lankan. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma.net/ . Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. curries. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. Middle Eastern. tacos. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). and is found in achiote blends. It is traditionally added to chili. and bahaarat. popular in Indian. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. containing a single seed. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. but are smaller and darker in colour. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. The flowers are small. pinnate or bipinnate.

well-drained soil. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. Cultivation of cumin requires a long.27 g 17. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. B2) 0. it is drought-tolerant. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well. sown in spring. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. 64 μg 44. It is grown from seed. hot summer of 3–4 months.crazychefs.Sugars 2.5 g Fat .saturated 1.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.81 g 8.very common in Mexican cuisine.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. B3) 4. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3. However.7 mg Vitamin E 3.Dietary fiber 10.24 g 22.435 mg Folate (Vit.com http://www. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.33 mg Vitamin K 5.25 g . the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes. and needs fertile. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish.net/ .

and larger than caraway (Carum carvi).crazychefs. However. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. For example. to eat. another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin).v.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'.com http://www. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron.net/ .[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q.). Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Zinc 4.a small cat). a chemical found in turmeric. from the Swedish word "spisa". unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. In Swedish. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron. Not related to curcumin.a cat and 'kotek' . lighter in colour. caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". as in 'kot' . In Polish the difference is even less significant. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two.

(2009).gov. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1.2009.1016/j. doi:10. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". 2.1002/ffj. 9. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61.aca. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.foodreference.com/html/fcumin. 206 5. ^ "Kamūnu.crazychefs. from China". Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . doi:10.". "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. http://www. Rong.05. Essential Oils". 2000.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. ^ a b c Li.com 7. ^ http://www. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). 3. Lu et al. www. (2005). ^ a b Wang. third edition (Oxford: University Press. p. et al.com http://www.77.313. 2000).com.html 6.1302. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. Nicola S.net/ . 8. ^ Growingtaste. 4.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. doi:10." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). Retrieved 2008-03-13.pl?12617. ^ a b Iacobellis." premiumwanadoo. ^ "KMN. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 .1021/jf0487351.030.arsgrin. Domestication of plants in the Old World.ars-grin. and Carum carvi L.

com http://www.Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .crazychefs.

and galangal. cardamom. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. In laboratory animals. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. medicine.com http://www. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. West Africa and the Caribbean.crazychefs. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India.net/ . sedative. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. shogaols and gingerols. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. and citral) have also been identified. cineol.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. or spice.

They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. Ginger is also made into candy. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Inji in Tamil. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. especially in the Tanjore belt. and ginger beer. in Gujarati.crazychefs. and Aduwa in Nepali. which makes swallowing easier. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. to which honey is often added. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. Additionally. in Tamil Nadu. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. In South India.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. Adrak. ghee. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ginger ale. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. particularly gingerols and shogaols. cookies. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women.net/ . Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. Allam ( ) in Telugu. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. nuts. or frozen for longer term storage. and sugar. [edit] Regional use In India.com http://www. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. and tender green chili peppers. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Ginger has a sialagogue action. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. enchi in Malayalam. salt. Alay in Marathi. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. stimulating the production of saliva. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. For storage. crackers and cake. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing.

ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. is made. ginger snaps. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. In Japan. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. and a variety of nuts and seeds. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. In Burma. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. parkin and ginger biscuits. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. a type of ginger beer.crazychefs. In the traditional Korean kimchi. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. Greece. and making drinks such as sorrel. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. In Arabic. gingerbread. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale.net/ . 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In China. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. On the island of Corfu. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. In Western cuisine. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). In the Ivory Coast. In the Caribbean. France.com http://www. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. during their occupation of the islands. In Vietnam. ginger is called gyin. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. However. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. ginger is a popular spice for cooking.

morning sickness and chemotherapy. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. including warfarin. cough and cold. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11].Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion.com http://www. though studies been inconsistent.crazychefs.net/ . though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. though it does interact with some medications. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. which several scientific studies support.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries.

Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. In Burma. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. In India.crazychefs. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. reducing "winds" in the blood. people use ginger for making tea.[14] In Congo. gas. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. clotting. belching and nausea.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. in food etc. and individuals who have had ulcers.com http://www. In China. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. which is considered a panacea. bloating.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. ginger can cause heartburn. In the United States. it is considered good for a sore throat. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. and although it's generally recognized as safe. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue. In Indonesia. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. particularly if taken in powdered form.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and heart rhythms. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement.net/ .

7%).net/ . Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. which has slipped to the second position (~20. Scalding. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. or washed and scraped.000 F 177. it is immediately scalded.5%) and Nigeria(~10%).crazychefs.000 158. produces black ginger.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nepal(~11. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. Production trends India. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates.com http://www. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. Traditionally. followed by Indonesia(~12. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff.5%). now leads in global production of ginger. with over 30% of the global share. washing and scraping gives white ginger. but this generally reduces its value. replacing China.

is used in cooking and medicine.contains ginger material References 1.387.com http://www. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai.000 57. galangal. A = Aggregate(may include official.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. F = FAO estimate. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine.270 1. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. a carcinogenic compound. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). Galangal is also called Thai ginger. is also known as "wild ginger". Retrieved 2008-03-03.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.000 8. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America.net/ . but it is not related to true ginger.ars-grin.000 42. Asarum canadense.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . and its root has similar aromatic properties. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. www.000 34. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". http://www. Also referred to as galangal.gov.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. semiofficial or estimates).000 28.arsgrin. the flower buds are the part eaten.pl?42254.

ucla. "Ginger".com http://www. http://archfami. MD. PMID 9821826. http://journals. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". Harold (2004). (2006). ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger".523. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). http://www. ^ Ernst. ^ Al-Amin. 10.org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716.com/health/ginger/NS_patient-ginger. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. & Pittler. Li-Jiau Huang. Retrieved 5 November. M. New York: Scribner pp. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666.01. Shih-Lu Wu. Retrieved 2007-0808. doi:10.uspharmacist.library. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371.1001/archfami. 11.edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch. Kim Farrell. 8. (2007). ^ Jakes.013.org/cgi/content/full/7/6/523. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. Tin-Yun Ho. doi:10.. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). Jaw-Chyun. Retrieved 2007-08-02.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. Ali Taghizadeh et al. Sheng-Chu Kuo. et al. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. doi:10.H. 15.cfm?displayID=15.cambridge. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 4.1021/jf071460f.html.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2.crazychefs.).oxfordjournals.edu/biomed/spice/index. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). http://timeblog.com 12. MD. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". PMID 10793599. 13. ^ Al-Achi. MD. David Kiefer. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. ^ Chen. 3.amaassn.6.html. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. Susan (2007-01-15).com/china_blog/2007/01/the_beverage_of_champions_1. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia.foodchem. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Retrieved 2006-09-06. MPH (1998). Zainab M.2. ^ MD O' Hara. & MSt. 6. http://unitproj. 9.7. Retrieved 2007-08-02. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. (01 Mar 2000). "Beverage of Champions". Kathi Kemper. Mary. http://bja. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". Retrieved 2007-08-06. http://www. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". Antoine. E. ^ Afshari. http://www.mayoclinic.com 7.umm. 425-426. ^ McGee. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".net/ . "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats".com 5. 14.1016/j. doi:10.2006. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.com/oldformat.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25).

turmeric became known as Indian Saffron.crazychefs. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. and to impart color to mustard condiments. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. In medieval Europe. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. slightly bitter. For these reasons. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. for dyeing. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Zingiberaceae.com http://www. Erode. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.net/ .

relishes. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. etc.[citation needed] Sangli. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. cereals.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. and many more. orange juice. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. yogurt. sweets. biscuits. yellow cakes. It is used in canned beverages and baked products.crazychefs. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Over-coloring. dairy products. not only in curry. Although usually used in its dried.com http://www. and mustard. much like ginger. turmeric is also used fresh. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric).Yellow City. rendang. In non-South Asian recipes. cake icings. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. gelatins. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. powdered form. custardlike yellow color. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. popcorn color. or Textile City. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. sauces. Turmeric City. ice cream. but also in masak lemak. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. such as in pickles.net/ .

It is also used as an antibacterial agent. and other digestive disorders. dry mixes. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. an uncurable and debilitating disease. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking.net/ . which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. a traditional dish in South Asia. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan.crazychefs. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. It is unknown why it works. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings).com http://www. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Within one week of using turmeric.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). Japan. yogurt. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth.In combination with annatto (E160b). arthritis [5] and liver disorders. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. are spiced with turmeric. is also treated with turmeric powder. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. burns and bruises. winter butter and margarine. salad dressings. Indians.[4] cancer.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

John‘s Medical College.com http://www. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. or BDNF. In 1998 researchers at St. and the U. multiple myeloma. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. and colorectal cancer. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. Bangalore. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. Bangladesh. which supports nerve growth. improves the absorption of turmeric. research activity into curcumin is exploding. found in black pepper. and Pakistan.S. Snake Bite Anti venin. Alzheimer's. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites.crazychefs. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. with no adverse effects.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric.

turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing. In southern India. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). This happens in economically lower situations. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire.crazychefs. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. as a part of the marriage ritual. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. and it is used for power and purification rites. such as saris. jaggery. During the south Indian festival Pongal. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. part of the Bengali wedding. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice.net/ . and coconut and cooked in steam. However. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. Also.com http://www. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants.

net/ . Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. a polyphenol.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. 1998 May.6E)-1.07. Joseph T.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. ^ http://www. The systematic chemical name is (1E.C. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C. 6. Rajendran R. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. Majeed M.ars-grin. Srinivas PS. http://www.crazychefs.I.aolhealth. AOL Health. 64(4):353-6. Notes 1.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1.uk/1/hi/health/1668932.1016/j. Judy] (June 2009). ^ http://news. (2009).thieme-connect. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. Retrieved June 2009. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". ^ [|Ketteler.de/DOI/DOI?10. doi:10.172.6-heptadiene3. E. or Natural Yellow 3. Planta Med. keto and enol.com/condition-center/heart-disease/surviving-a-heart-attack.W. 75300.090. http://www.co. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4.de Shoba G.com http://www.gov.bbc. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5-dione.stm 5. www. ^ Chan.ars-grin. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Joy D. et al. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 .foodchem. 2. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance.pl?12676.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.2008. Retrieved 2008-03-04.

with an acute apex.crazychefs. Kemiri. Euphorbiaceae. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). Indian walnut. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). also known as Candleberry.) Willd. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. which allows its use as a candle (see below). Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans.6–2.9 in) long. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. 4–6 centimetres (1. flowers. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. simple and ovate. The leaves are pale green. 10–20 centimetres (3.4 in) in diameter. hence its name.net/ . The nut is round.com http://www. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9–7. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. is a flowering tree in the spurge family.

Outside of Southeast Asia. fevers. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors.com http://www. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. In Hawaiʻi. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. including: leis from the shells. On the island of Java in Indonesia.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. This led to their use as a measure of time. The flavor. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. is quite different. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. as the candlenut is much more bitter. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. In Sumatra. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. named kukui were burned to provide light. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. lit one end. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. they are mildly toxic when raw. are applied around the navel for costiveness. pounded seeds. burned with charcoal. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. a varnish with the oil. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. giving them greater underwater visibility.crazychefs. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. In Java.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. and gonorrhea. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . however. In Malaya. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. swollen joints. the nuts. ulcers. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. leaves and flowers. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. The seed kernels have a laxative effect.

Beatrice H. http://books. still nowadays. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. Finally. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. Liana I. 122. This larva is eaten by some people. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. ISBN 9780824822514.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono.com/books?id=PpKyFZXO_jEC.html. One of the legends told of a woman who. (1993). ^ Dunford. tukilamulamu.google. ISBN 9781573061377. http://books. Being a kind and just woman. Susan.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). ^ "Kukui". ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. Mikiala Ayau. Betty. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree.com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a. p. Lilinoe Andrews.google. the god of agriculture. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). ripe nuts. 4. "Chapter 4: Canoes". Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. ^ Scott. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed.[5] In Tonga. pp.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing.net/ . 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. University of Hawaii Press. In plantations.com/kukui. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. University of Hawaii Press. Craig Thomas (2000). she was given new life. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii.google. Bess Press. 26. 50-51. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. Honda. 2. http://canoeplants. Retrieved 2009-03-06. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. http://books. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. ^ Krauss. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). and the husband was eventually killed. p. despite her best efforts to please her husband.).[citation needed] References 1. protection and peace. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts.com http://www.com/books?id=WOdrGIP3zksC&client=firefox-a. 5. used as soap or shampoo. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf.crazychefs. was routinely beaten.

may be described as black pepper.net/ .com http://www. green pepper. unrelated plants. Peppercorns. . green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. Kannada:meNasu. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. . white pepper. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. Telugu:miriyam.crazychefs. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. red pepper (as in bell or chile). containing a single seed. known as a peppercorn when dried. and very often simply pepper. Malayalam:kurumulaku. dark red when fully mature. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. . nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. The terms pink peppercorns. However. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. . Konkani:miriya konu. The fruit. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. cultivated for its fruit.

this was shortened to pep. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. French poivre. in the early 20th century. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali.crazychefs. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. often alongside table salt. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. and the naked seed is dried. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. and other similar forms. the spice is called black peppercorn.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out.net/ . In the 16th century. chemical or biological methods. with the skin of the pepper removed.. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. including decortication. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world.S. Once dried.com http://www. Dutch peper. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. wrinkled black layer. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes.[4] In the U. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. White pepper consists of the seed only.

Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns".[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. from Bangka Island.Black. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. green. which is mostly no longer an issue. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. Schinus terebinthifolius.com http://www. the Peruvian pepper tree. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. particularly Thai cuisine. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. Schinus molle. is made from the unripe berries. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. largely unknown in the West. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. are used in some Asian cuisines. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. also green.net/ . A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. unpreserved green pepper berries. Pickled peppercorns.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh.crazychefs. Fresh. like black. with a bright aroma. made from the largest.

The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. poles. if allowed to ripen. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. the berries lose pungency. It is a spreading vine. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long.[11] Black pepper is native to India.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. or trellises. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. selected both for yield and quality of fruit.com http://www. The cuttings are usually cultivars.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart.net/ .crazychefs. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. but when full grown and still hard. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. The flowers are small. well-drained and rich in organic matter. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. moist. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. entire.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. and before the fruit is mature. The leaves are alternate. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. and ultimately fall off and are lost. Competing plants are cleared away.

In fact. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". particularly the Malabar Coast. its most important source was India.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. in what is now the state of Kerala.[14] J. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today.net/ . were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe.crazychefs. Chile peppers. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined.com http://www. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Until well after the Middle Ages. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. Sumatra. Madagascar. Sunda. or used the pepper locally. Black pepper. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. Returning from India.net/ . Long pepper. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. but these areas traded mainly with China. barged to Alexandria. Trade routes of the time were by land. changed the course of world history. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. growing in the north-western part of India. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt.crazychefs. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. nor how it reached the Nile from India. this trade advantage. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. the Middle East. Malaysia. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE.com http://www. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. pepper was also being grown in Java.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. By the 16th century. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. it is sometimes their sweetness. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. 12. After the fall of Rome. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . affordable only to the wealthy. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. Similarly. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery"..[22] In addition. who travelled east to India. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. and the luxuries of the table. clad in a wrinkled cover.H. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. I season delicacies. pepper was a luxury item. is fifteen denarii per pound. There is no evidence to support this claim. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm.. I wonder." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. while that of white pepper is seven. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. seeing that in other substances which we use. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. if expensive. especially Venice and Genoa. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. Edward Gibbon wrote. four.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. whereas.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade.crazychefs. Once into the Mediterranean. and the prices reflected it.net/ . Apicius' De re coquinaria." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. seasoning in the Roman Empire. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. first the Persians and then the Arabs.com http://www. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. the banquets of kings. and of black.

net/ . from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. and salt-cured meats were common fare. However. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. the effect is small. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. "we seek Christians and spices. especially in winter. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. Today. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. his representative replied. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. In 1498.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). Pepper." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. as well as around Africa. In the 17th century. has some antimicrobial properties. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade.crazychefs.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. Pepper harvested for the European trader. A depiction of Calicut. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats.

crazychefs.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". as well as she could for sneezing. being stronger. but both were used. Long pepper.. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. earache.000 pounds (4. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. oral abscesses. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. including long pepper. Like many eastern spices. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. hernia. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". either long or black.net/ . heart disease. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). indigestion. insomnia. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads.[25] In the 3rd century CE. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". was often the preferred medication. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. gangrene. however. liver problems.[26] By the 12th century. lung disease. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). diarrhea. but if this estimated 10.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. each load being equal to 223 lbs. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. insect bites.com http://www.. joint pain. hoarseness. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. Note the cook's pepper mill.

Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. vitamin B.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. woody. which give citrusy.sunburn. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. Some sources say that piperine. if any. tooth decay. irritates the nostrils. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. causing the sneezing. chapter five. which is stripped of the fruit layer.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper.[31] As a medicine. a substance present in black pepper. and linalool. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. caryophyllene. and toothaches. left on black pepper. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. Few. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene.com http://www. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. The outer fruit layer. Refined piperine.crazychefs. limonene. a mildly carcinogenic compound. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. sabinene.net/ . and floral notes.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole.[31] Also. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. milligram-for-milligram.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging.

com http://www.000 t (299. Brazil (13%). which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. Malaysia (8%). and China (6%).[33] Once ground. but has fallen to just over 271.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. The price of pepper can be volatile. for example.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year.000 short tons). by monetary value.crazychefs. As of 2008. India (19%). Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. Thailand (4%). pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. Sri Lanka (6%). accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002.[35] By weight. sometimes instead of pepper shakers.000 t (391. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. are used for this. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. the most widely traded spice in the world.net/ . so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. India. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason.

arsgrin. Innes Miller. 2006-1120. Retrieved 6 November 2005. http://www.gov.org/cgi/content/full/88/4/706 14. 19.org/florataxon. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. 200803-27. 11. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. ^ Ochef. http://www. http://books. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. ^ Peppercorns. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. Using fresh green peppercorns.amjbot. 17. Retrieved 17 October 2006. 8. PMID 11302858. ^ J. and Builder. Retrieved 6 November 2005.com http://www. 83 21. p.[36] Notes 1.efloras. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Dalby p. http://www. p. http://www. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". ISBN 0375407219. ISBN 075653836X. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". 4.htm. 2. 6.poor crop management. Compass Point Books. 12.com 9. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. from Penzey's Spices. doi:10. using almost none of its production domestically. p. 5.gov. www.thehindubusinessline.ph/wps/wcm/resources/file/ebb81841763712b/black%20pepper. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". 93. The Hindu Business line. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10).pd f.pl?28589.com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. 3.2307/2657072. disease and weather. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). Flora of China.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.net/ . ^ a b Jaramillo. http://www. M. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Ramses II.com/2008/03/27/stories/2008032751741300. ^ Translation from Turner.000 short tons). ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. 1969).000 t (99. Spice. Alejandra (2001). Vietnam dominates the export market.M1. p 94.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. Retrieved 2008-03-02. Retrieved 2009-01-29. The Spice Trade. ^ Innes Miller.da. Black pepper is marica. 10. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). Pepper. 18. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". 13. Egyptian Pharaoh.google. 7. Gernot (2006). ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. Retrieved 13 November 2005. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Retrieved 12 August 2006. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. 88. ^ Katzer. Random House. 80 16. Text online. Warrior. 20.crazychefs. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages.ars-grin.

^ Jaffee p. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". Retrieved November 12. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods.pdf. Duke (1993-08-16). Alan (2002). pp. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale.00969. ^ Montagne. J.karvycomtrade.x. ^ Jaffee p. Full text at Blackwell website. 31. http://www. http://books.S. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). Deans (2000). 30. Vol.crazychefs. 34. 33.ch05.com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01. ^ H. Hamlyn. 160. ^ a b James A.1365-2672.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. ^ Turner p. 428. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils".. 29. 77.com/books?id=tg7R4hU8hkC&pg=PA395&lpg=PA395&dq=Pepper+safrole&source=web&ots=38F TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122.net/ . Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. Karvy Comtrade Limited. ISBN 0521367085. Andrew (2002). 171. Steven (2004). ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30).org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices. 27.com/books?id=7IHcZ21dyjwC.com http://www. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. CRC Press. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 204. 10. Davidson. 108–109. References Dalby.2000. Dover. Prosper (2001).pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-29." 24. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. 2. 32. ^ Dalby p. purchase required. 2005. ISBN 0600-60235-4.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2/bmc2. Jaffee. Dangerous Tastes. ISBN 0520236742.22. 156. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum.google. ^ a b McGee p.accesstoinsight. http://siteresources.1046/j. 35. table 2. ^ U. ^ Dalby p. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. Buddhist Monastic Code II. ^ Turner p. p. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Mill". D. Berkeley: University of California Press. http://books. ISBN 0849336201. 36. Larousse Gastronomique. 25. also Turner pp. 28. ^ Dalby pp. G.google. p. ISBN 9781580084178. 726. "Spices. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 395. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. 12. http://www. 74–75. doi:10. Dorman and S.worldbank. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. 26. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. 23. Cambridge University Press. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops.html. 2008-05-15.

Spice: The History of a Temptation.com http://www. Turner. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. "Black Pepper and Relatives".crazychefs. OCLC 61213802. pp. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. 427–429.net/ . Jack (2004). OCLC 56590708. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.McGee. Scribner. ISBN 0375707050. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Harold (2004). annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. London: Vintage Books.

net/ .64 g 0.com http://www.17 g 0. sweet.Sugars 2. green and orange.224 mg Folate (Vit. B3) 0. Central America and northern South America.crazychefs.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0. B1) 0. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including red.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".057 mg 4.Pepper.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. Today.40 g .480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.Dietary fiber 1. yellow. Peppers are native to Mexico. B2) 0.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.

"green pepper"). rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. Across Europe. which are green and yellow. It is eaten with fried noodles.net/ . In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. an unrelated plant. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". At that time peppercorns. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. meaning Bulgarian pepper. the word ピーマン ("pîman. meaning pepper-fruit. respectively). they are called "capsicum". bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice.g. Malaysia and New Zealand.crazychefs. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. and Pennsylvania. In Argentina it's called "Morrón".com http://www. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. were a highly prized condiment. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. Grilled. Sweden. "Miris" is Chilli. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). and "Maalu" means Vegetable. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Norway. the term "paprika". and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. regardless of their color.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. like pasta. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. "gele paprika". the fruit of Piper nigrum. instead of using as a spice. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. which has its roots in the word for pepper. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". "red pepper". With the similar meaning. India. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. In France it is called "poivron". In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. " In Japan. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. meaning Big pepper. When cut off. In British English.. The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. or "piment." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. In the United States and Canada. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. In parts of Ohio. in Dutch. Indiana. such as Australia. "groene paprika". the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). g. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country.

Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. blue.net/ . violet. black and brown. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. yellow or orange peppers. yellow. pink. in various soups and stews. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. aqua. maroon. more rarely. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. white. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is eaten as a raw snack. in salads. orange and.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. rainbow. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet.crazychefs. purple. red.com http://www. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. Varieties The color can be green.

The plant.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. also known as M. balsamea Willd.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. ^ http://www. indigenous to Europe. [1]) is a hybrid mint.com http://www.html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint .net/ .crazychefs. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita.com/html/fmango. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).foodreference. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2].

and 120 recorded. with a few exceptions. 84. 6–8 mm (0. forming thick. he treated it as a species.net/ . The flowers are purple. it is usually sterile.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats.5 in) long and 1. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. it can grow anywhere.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. square in cross section.20 in) diameter.6–3. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. Flowering is from mid to late summer.6 in) cm broad.5–4 cm (0. and bare fibrous roots. spreading by its rhizomes.crazychefs. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. dark green with reddish veins. blunt spikes. Being a hybrid. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. fleshy. If placed.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem.59–1. noted since 1843[8]. The chromosome number is variable.31 in) long. with 2n counts of 66. including stream sides and drainage ditches. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. 72.24– 0. with smooth stems.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England.com http://www. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.

thus promoting belching.net/ . Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. particularly menthyl acetate.1. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. and is often used as a flavouring in tea. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. ice cream. chewing gum. confectionery.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. and toothpaste.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin.com http://www.[10] Similarly. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters.crazychefs.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content.

They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. New Zealand. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden.net/ . Stems reddish. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. In addition to that. Eau De Cologne Mint). Foliage lime-scented. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. [21]. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. Leaves wrinkled. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. which they then call "after-dinner mints. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. and it is considered invasive in Australia. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants.[13] and in the United States. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15].[12] Outside of its native range. hairless. Leaves aromatic. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. [16]. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. as a natural insecticide." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. It needs a good water supply.crazychefs. it is advisable to plant it in a container. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. [18]. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. the Galápagos Islands.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. If you choose to grow peppermint. A mild.

11. (1975). Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. 9. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. C. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". In: Stace. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. R. 5. Mentha L.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. a popular confection.1016/j. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. A. A.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil .2007. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. http://www. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. ^ Linnaeus.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . Retrieved 2009-02-07. (1989). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'.006. ^ a b Huxley. ^ Harley. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. 4th Edition. et al. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". ^ World Health Organization. (1992). Retrieved 3 June 2009.. M. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". http://whqlibdoc. C. ^ Cappello.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . 2. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". Thomson Healthcare. ed. doi:10.com http://www.glu. Flowers open from bottom up. G. ISBN 978-1563636783 10.who. (1753). Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. C.. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12.pdf. page 640. 6. ^ a b Blamey. M.int/publications/2002/9241545372. (2007). & Grey-Wilson.dld. ed. ^ a b Akdogan.net/ . ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. Mehmet (2004).02.. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3.crazychefs. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines.org/en/node/199. 7.

S.htm. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)".28.iso. 21. Retrieved 7 June 2009. F. 19.com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213. (2004).wiley.159.224.E.1151. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev.sagepub.257.Specification". http://www. ^ Akdogan. Valerie Howland (2006). http://www. ^ International Organization for Standardization. 23. Retrieved 3 June. 27. Mehmet (2003).crazychefs. ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ Farley. ^ Akdogan.sagepub. Derek R. doi:10. ^ Sharma. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". and Mentha spicata L.)".org/iso/catalogue_detail.219. ^ a b c Jullien.16. 20.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. http://www. et al. V. doi:10. Mehmet et al. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria.)". 26. (2007). Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .. 17.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 ... Zheljazkov. ^ Adamovic. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. 24.2740311104.htm. Retrieved 8 June 2009. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)".iso. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 .htm?csnumber=11633. http://het. http://tih. Retrieved 3 June.10): 119 . Retrieved 3 June.S. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . D. Ambika et al.E. paraquat. Retrieved 6 June 2009. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. populations. ^ International Organization for Standardization.iso. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . Frédéric et al.interscience. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats".com/journal/118500486/abstract.net/ . J.1002/jsfa.sagepub. doi:10. http://www3.htm?csnumber=32041.htm?csnumber=4844. F. http://www. http://www. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide.1023/A:1006185103897.com http://www. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint". "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". Retrieved 7 June 2009. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 .org/books/629/629_21. on kidney tissue in rats".122. 25. Bienvenu (1999).com/cgi/content/abstract/23/1/21.org/books/249/249_8.1071/AP99036.actahort. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. Plant Cell. http://het.D. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. Retrieved 6 June 2009. Australia".actahort. Retrieved 3 June. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 . Bienvenu (1998). ^ Edwards.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119.. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 18. 22..

). ampeloprasum var. Two related vegetables. although different in their uses as food.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum.crazychefs. to the Alliaceae family.Gay The leek. the elephant garlic and kurrat.net/ . Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum (L. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. is a vegetable which belongs. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. also sometimes known as Allium porrum.com http://www.) J. along with the onion and garlic. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. porrum (L. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var.

the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size.crazychefs. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. and overwintering leeks. intended for harvest in the season when planted. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil.com http://www. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. and they have few pest or disease problems. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways.net/ . but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Once established in the garden. to be planted out as weather permits. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. leeks are hardy. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. In its raw state. The onion-like layers form around a core. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. carrots and potatoes and different meats. which turns it soft and mild in taste. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. Raw. which can be used in salads. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. having been overlooked for several centuries[1].crazychefs.Cuisine Leeks for sale. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. Lamb is the most popular. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. although less bitter than scallion. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). Leek has a mild onion-like taste. Fried. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. as the leek ages. The tender core may be eaten. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. due to the layered structure of the leek. along with leek soup.net/ .com http://www. but. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk.

E. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.crazychefs.Sugars 3.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.com http://www. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit. as well as other recipes with leeks. 83 μg 14. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.8 g Fat .15 g 0.E.233 mg Folate (Vit.Dietary fiber 1.04 g .monounsaturated 0.net/ .5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.9 g . bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In her book.004 g . B1) 0.C. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. B3) 0.saturated 0. as well as wall carvings and drawings.C. Cultural significance Raw Leeks. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe.polyunsaturated 0.3 g 1. B2) 0. who consumed it most often in soup.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates . onwards.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.

crazychefs. David‘s Day. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. Shakespeare. you know.12 mg recommendations for adults. According to one legend.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0.Vitamin E 0. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. for example. good countryman. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. In the play. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. representing Wales. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton.net/ . Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet.com http://www.

^ Guiliano. ^ Jane Grigson. 1978.Notes 1. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.p.crazychefs. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Knopf. 3.net/ . 2000). ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2.com http://www. Domestication of plants in the Old World.. (Penguin Books. Mireille. French Women Don't Get Fat. third edition (Oxford: University Press. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book.

6 g Fat Protein Water 0.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.crazychefs. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.com http://www.2 g 0. Celery. dulce) or celeriac (var.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.Sugars 2 g 3g .5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.net/ . with fewer than 100 individuals left. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.Dietary fibre 1.

Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. celery is also grown for its seeds. Celery. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. onions. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs.In temperate countries. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt.com http://www. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine.net/ . 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. onions. birds. dogs. squirrels. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. such as chicken noodle soup. on the Chicago-style hot dog.crazychefs. horses. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. Celery. and small rodents. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. and in Old Bay Seasoning. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. Celery is a staple in many soups. often used as a base for sauces and soups. as celery salt. 30 AD. Actually very small fruit.

However. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. Lemnos and Thebes. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. father of the Cabeiri.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium.[8] In the European Union.net/ . Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. M. they note "since A. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. In Homer's Iliad.com http://www. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. however. Celery contains androstenone. have to be clearly marked as such. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. even in trace amounts. making avoiding such foods difficult. for people with celery allergy.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos.crazychefs. at Kastanas. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. foods that contain or may contain celery. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death.

from the Latin selinon.. fields are harvested only once. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. apium Italicum. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. many of which differ little from the wild species. The plants are raised from seed. at our Great Mens tables. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. 2–3 mm diameter. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. borrowed from Greek. insect damage and rot). The wild form of celery is known as smallage. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet.[14] With cultivation and blanching. the whole plant having a coarse. and Praetors feasts. due to extremely uniform crop growth. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. In North America. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. The flowers are creamy-white. earthy taste. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems.net/ . sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet.crazychefs. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. seleri. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease.com http://www. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. splits. and the most crisp and tender. but the leaves may be used in salads. produced in dense compound umbels. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. They are ranged under two classes. white and red. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). shape.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. In the past. sweetish. Under optimal conditions.. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars.5–2 mm long and wide. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as the Grace of the whole Board". 1. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. cracks. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. straightness and thickness of petiole. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. and a distinctive smell. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall.

3. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing.L.[16] References 1. (2002-06-10). gentle handling. West J. ^ Cantwell. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. Thayer translation [1] 4. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. Radauer C.. Kraft D. 15. 10. T. Holmiae.v. http://www.46. ^ OED. "Celery". a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. 2000) p. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. ^ "Smallage". ^ Pliny. 13. Retrieved 2008-03-04.nsf/pages/smallage. 2003. (3rd ed. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". Species Plantarum: Tomus I..edu/Produce/ProduceFacts/Veg/celery. C (1753). Hopf. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. Post-harvest technology research and information center. 1920). 14. ^ Calcium sources 7. Western Journal of Medicine 158. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. Lee LG. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 2.com/edible.crazychefs. Heiner DC. ^ Celestin J. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens".between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). M. Ko SN. M. (Laurentii Salvii).practicallyedible. ^ D. Scheiner O. and proper sanitation. ^ William Robinson and W. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". ^ Bublin M.ucdavis.com http://www. 227. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5.net/ . 12. Natural History XIX..202. ^ Celsus. ^ snopes. s. 8. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. p. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables.17:1697-1699. Suslow.6 (June 1993): 610-611. 16. ^ a b Fragiska. P. 11. Wilson IBH. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. Zohary and M. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. ^ Teng CM.com: Celery and Negative Calories 6. ^ R. (2005). et al. de Medicina.shtml. Thomson. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". http://postharvest. 9.

21 g .Sugars 99.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates . B2) 0.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.91 g . For the common table sugar. see sucrose.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.crazychefs.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars.Sugars 96. (Discuss) For other uses. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.98 g 0g 0g 0. Sugar. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99.net/ .com http://www. Magnification of grains of sugar.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. see Sugar (disambiguation).

008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. lactose. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. sorghum. honey. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes.com http://www.Water 1. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. B3) 0. and in many other sources.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. It forms the main ingredient in candy.crazychefs. and fructose.082 mg Vitamin B6 0.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. mainly sucrose. B1) 0.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit.net/ . obesity and tooth decay. B2) 0. but also appears in fruit.77 g Thiamine (Vit.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.026 mg Folate (Vit. sugar maple (in maple syrup).

133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including palm sugar and fructose. the Italian word zucchero.) The Greek word for "sugar".Popular In non-scientific use. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. Etymology In the case of sugar. Spanish and/or Italian. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). the Spanish word azúcar. such as glucose. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy.) will likely denote a sugar. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. Scientific Scientifically. means "pebble". Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. etc. "dextrose". and texture) of beverages and food. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). molasses or treacle. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre).net/ . sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. preservation. "fructose".crazychefs.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. zahari. In a list of ingredients. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist.[4] It came to English by way of French. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. In this informal sense. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. Generically known as "syrups". Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). (Compare the OED.com http://www. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey".

Culinary sugars Grainier. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Natural sugars come in fruit. 2. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. cook or consumer. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. Sugars include monosaccharides. as its name suggests.crazychefs. has a "missing" oxygen atom. making the sugars reactive. raw sugar. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). This includes all the sugars referred to above.net/ . 3. important molecules in the body. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. A notable exception. disaccharides.com http://www. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. syrups and fruit juices. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. plus sugars naturally present in honey.containing 1. deoxyribose.

com http://www.crazychefs. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. with less than 0. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. sweeter than the original sucrose. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. lactose (milk sugar . These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. and galactose. which is made of glucose. glucose. After digestion and absorption. sugar will burn with a blue flame.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). producing invert sugar. galactose and mannose.net/ . The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process.made from one glucose and one fructose). creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. This resulting syrup. including NADH and ATP. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). which has the formula C6H12O6. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . Monosaccharides include fructose. proteins connected to one or more sugars. or DNA. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. If combined with fine ash.water (H2O) per bond. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. which form part of nucleic acids. Note for example glycoproteins. fructose. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. In these closed-chain forms. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised.

OCLC 44493265. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. 5. Joseph and Mike Carlson.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. OCLC 51837990 84251137.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4.com/features/sugar-what-kinds-eat-when 2. Glyn (2004)." Powder and Bulk References Adas. James. 4.net/ . Sugar Blues. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. 1996.webmd. Michael (January 2001).com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0.htm 3.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. History of Science and Technology in Islam. ^ "Engineering Resources . ISBN 063205476X.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. Sugarcane. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. Cambridge: Woodhead.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. ^ Wuebben.crazychefs.80 g/ml Notes 1. The International Sugar Trade. Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West. ISBN 1566398320.Bulk Density Chart. ^ scientificpsychic." http://men. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. Temple University Press. ^ International sugar statistics http://www.com http://www. Blackwell Publishing. A C Hannah. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/worldofsugar/internationalSugarStats.illovosugar.

5% molasses (dark brown sugar).net/ .g. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. Although in some areas. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses.crazychefs. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. especially in the Netherlands.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs.35 mm. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. without mixing them separately. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. for light brown sugar. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. It is. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed.25% of the total volume). however. Brown sugar contains from 3. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products.com http://www. sugar beet molasses is used. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. Products for industrial use (e. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6.

while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. in his studies (cited in "Pure.[2] John Yudkin. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. History In the late 1800s. much like adding molasses would do. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar.com http://www. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. apart from pure carbohydrate. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. White and Deadly" .When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar.net/ . he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. The effort was so successful that by 1900. as opposed to white sugar. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water.crazychefs. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect.[1] However. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. Nutritionally. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. In other applications.

The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. Retrieved 2008-09-20. Demerara is another unrefined. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. 32-33 5.wildernessfamilynaturals. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". 6. crystals. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. resulting in the characteristic large. http://www.html. where sugar cane was grown. 3. which is then crystallized. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). Retrieved 2008-09-20.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07.htm#sugarmade.crazychefs.csrwire. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane.com/brands/Wholesome_Sweeteners/Organic_Tur binado_Sugar. 2. an island off Africa. or Demerara sugar.net/ . 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice.php?id=3026. Retrieved 2008-09-20. giving it a higher mineral content. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. Muscovado. References 1. 7. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. light brown. 2003. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www.org ^ Levenstein.com http://www. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. light brown.1.com/muscovado_sugar. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar.3 fao. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. centrifuged. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". cane sugar.". 4.wholesomesweeteners. http://www.com/PressRelease. ^ New Scientist. but most is now produced in Mauritius. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. largecrystalled. http://www.fao.htm#bm07. Harvey.

Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt).[citation needed] Conversely. including humans. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. refined salt (table salt). This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. which some use to prevent caking.net/ . white.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body.com http://www. It is a crystalline solid. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. but toxic to most land plants. and iodized salt. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. Chloride and sodium ions. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. the two major components of salt. pale pink or light gray in color.crazychefs. including high blood pressure. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems.

History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC.net/ . the caravans still transported some 15. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. especially for meat. however.crazychefs.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. salt provided the best-known food preservative.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC. In 1960. glass. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. and the dye Tyrian purple. as were salted birds and salt fish.com http://www. in the millennia before then.000 tons of salt.

water.[citation needed] The root hal(l). Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church.[1] It is widely. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. Greek. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. During the first millennium BC. a root for salt found in Celtic.net/ . In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. which was illegal under British rule. the Roman exonym for the Celts. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. God sent down four blessings from the sky . both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it.also gave us Gaul.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6).com http://www. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. the Hallstatt Celts.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". as it avoided paying the "salt tax". Halych in Ukraine. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. began open pan salt making.Salzburg." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. who had heretofore mined for salt. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". Hallstatt. and Egyptian. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. salz.) In the Sermon on the Mount. (Judges 9:45. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. In many Pagan religions esp.fire. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth.crazychefs. taking their names from hal(l)-. though incorrectly. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork".

com http://www. such as in Sumo Wrestling.[9] The Ancient Egyptians.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea.crazychefs. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. Halite. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. In Aztec mythology. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal.net/ . and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt.

Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. giving each one a unique flavor. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. Fleur de sel. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .com http://www.5% of salt production. and thus is rarely eaten. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. Today. Injected water dissolves the salt. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. natural sea salt harvested by hand. which is most widely used presently. In recrystallization. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. One example are bath salts. is mainly sodium chloride. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water.[12] However.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. Purification usually involves recrystallization. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. and the making of soaps and detergents.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water.crazychefs. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. Refined salt.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. which are kiln-dried. After the raw salt is obtained. food uses account for 17.Different natural salts have different mineralities.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals.

condiments such as soy sauce.crazychefs.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. calcium silicate. silicon dioxide. but was determined to be unnecessary. and calcium aluminosilicate. Single-serving salt packets. Table salt has a particle density of 2. and a bulk density (dry.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity.165 g/cm3. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. however. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. calcium or magnesium carbonates. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use.com http://www. sodium aluminosilicate.net/ . fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. fatty acid salts (acid salts).[29] However. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together.154 g/cm3. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. Some people also add a desiccant. magnesium oxide.

while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. specifically endemic goiter. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. cretinism in children. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. sodium iodide.[33] Drinking too much water. In Canada. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). or even an electrolyte disturbance.crazychefs. potassium. which gives the table salt a yellow color. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. In the United States. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. which can cause severe. neurological problems.net/ . Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. with insufficient salt intake. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. The reason for this is unclear. or sodium iodate. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101.com http://www. which can cause goitre. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. and myxedema in adults. especially important for pregnant women. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. iodized salt is more common in the United States. magnesium. fluorinated table salt is available.[31] Today. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. even fatal.[32] Another additive. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. In France.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. dizziness.

[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. in Japan." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. p18) However. the risks have been exaggerated for most people.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention).[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. such as in treatment of dysautonomia. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. since salt was quite valuable). Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. can cause hypernatremia.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food.net/ . forced salt intake. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased." ([41]." ([41]. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. salt consumption is higher. combined with an inadequate intake of water.crazychefs.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid." ([44]." ([41] p3).com http://www.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease.[38] heartburn. It can exacerbate renal disease. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. independently of blood pressure effects. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults.

but achievable population goals. such as the Yanomami in South America. SACN states. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels. for a typical adult. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time.[50]. However.net/ .com http://www. have been found to consume little salt. A salt mill for sea salt. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.crazychefs. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that.6 g or 70 mmol sodium).Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. Some isolated cultures.

If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.g. etc.300 mg of sodium (= 2. One manufacturer. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet.'[55] Campaigns In 2004.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia.crazychefs. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.1g sodium). The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children.com http://www.6g sodium)." In the UK.[57] In March 2007. then that is a medium level of salt. Amber (Medium). which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. calories. LoSalt. low in fat. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.). which will increase potassium intake. When other health claims are made about a food (e.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0.8 g salt) per day. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. Australia. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium.5g salt per 100g (or 0. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it".[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free".[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996.3 g sodium = 5. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. or Green (Low).The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.net/ . "low". without recourse to salt substitutes. Low is 0.[51] In the United States. Those who have kidney failure.

(Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other.in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.crazychefs.wikisource. Triamterene. called halite. and Hall in Austria.com. Dytac. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. New York: Robert Appleton Company.answers.com/salary.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Salt. China (32.7). less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). Germany (17.3). 4. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. 2. 4th edition". http://www. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. In 2002. 1913.net/ .3 million tonnes).9). 5. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. India (14. http://en. Catholic Encyclopedia. 6. and by mining rock salt.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. ^ "Salt". Retrieved 2008-12-14. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone).5). Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Canada (12. 7. such as brine wells and salt lakes. 8. 3. the top five producers being the United States (40. Answers. Eplerenone and Inspra. Costs can reach staggering amounts.com http://www. Notes 1.

p. 14.wiley. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www.bbc. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Vol.roskill.eu-salt. sodium. Fall/Winter 2006 10. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. 281. Victoria) Salt 34. ^ Iodized Salt 31. salt manufacture. 10. Kuemmel (1994). Ask a Scientist. ISBN 9780309056663.co. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. Science. Retrieved 2008-07-29.com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effe ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1.pdf 33.com/journal/114028130/abstract. Salt Institute. salt uses. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26.crazychefs. 11. 12. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. ^ Iodized Salt 32. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20. ^ http://www.9% sodium chloride 25. 28.anl. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. ^ Nauticus .com/reports/salt 16.com http://www. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. ^ B. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13.co. J. Transportation Research Board. 898 . salt manufacture. Retrieved 2009-0708. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. salt history. "The (Political) Science of Salt".com/index3. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www.907 37.newton. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www.htm 15.stm 38.google. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. salt uses. ^ What is Salt?.9.afssa. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". ^ HE-620 24. Salt Institute.htm 19.uk/aboutsaltwhat01.fr/Ftp/Afssa/26447-26448. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ Table 27. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. salt history. ^ References on food salt & health issues. sodium. http://www.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/393201. no. ^ David A.dep.gov/askasci/gen01/gen01420.net/ .htm. http://books. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. 5379. ^ a b http://news. Retrieved 200907-08.saltsense. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1.interscience.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). pp.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. Epikouria Magazine. 2008 29. 14 August 1998. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". ^ Gary Taubes. Mason (2006-12-19).Weather Curriculum 18. http://www3.

^ Salt TV ads 59. 2006. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos.P. Inc. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. Norton & Co. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. Legal Medicine 2005.1915040902051820.1016/j. New York. Mark. Cutler JA. Sodium chloride. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. Schindler. http://www. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. and S. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50..uk/cash/. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt".healthandwellbeing. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. 7. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. BMJ. ^ Susan R.a01. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. John Wiley & Sons.40. ISBN 0802713734.06. OCLC 48573453.W. 61. doi:10. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43.legalmed. (accessed13 January 2007) 49. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP).. 28 January 2008.hyp.uk/society/2008/jan/28/foodanddrink. ISBN 0393320197.net/ .1002/0471238961. NY: G. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. Erwin Koops. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. Sodium 52. 62. 47-50. Salt: A World History. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases.crazychefs. OCLC 48426519. S. Obarzanek E et al.pub2 References Kurlansky. Feldman.guardian. ^ Salt Matters 60. D. ^ U. The Story of Salt. Published online 2005. doi:10.334(7599):885. Putnam's Sons. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. ^ Cook NR. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. Mark (2002). Elizabeth Wayland (1999). ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. 2007. New York: Walker & Co. Barber. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods".2004. http://www.005 48.com http://www. The Mummies of Ürümchi.co. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. Further reading Kurlansky. Friedrich Schulz. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. New York: W. ^ Understanding labels 55. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia.ac.

Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above.com http://www. New York: Columbia University Press. Arts and traditions of the table. The Stationery Office. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy .Laszlo.crazychefs.talk by Dr Trevor Beard. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . Pierre. 2001. Department of Health.net/ . Salt: Grain of Life. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round.

found commonly in Thailand. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it.com http://www. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. phrik khi nu(lit. as well as in neighbouring countries. Malaysia. such as Cambodia. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers.net/ . This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes.crazychefs. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. Vietnam. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. Indonesia. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It can also be found in India. the Philippines and Singapore.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. phrik thai. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . mainly Kerala.

" which can best be described by the English equivalent. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. "Big things come in small packages. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red.crazychefs. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries.000 to 100.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region.com http://www.net/ .

As well as the Malay word. Siling Labuyo (Filipino).net/ . but slightly less pungent variety. and go from green to yellow. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. has peppers that point upward on the plant. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. and among the group of capsicum annuum.com http://www. creating a rainbow effect. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. Thai hot. Thai). phrik khii nuu ( . Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian).org/wiki/Thai_pepper" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The more decorative.crazychefs. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. and then red. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. orange.wikipedia. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. Ladâ. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam.

It has a tough. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. usually mashed. about the size of a large potato.crazychefs. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. gratins and baked dishes. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it can also be used on its own. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. furrowed.net/ .Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A.com http://www. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. which store a large amount of starch. It is a kind of celery. or used in casseroles. Unlike other root vegetables. Celeriac has a celery flavour.

and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail.Dietary fiber 1.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Among them are 'Prinz'. Celeriac.6 g 9. especially in Europe.com http://www. rinsed. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. There are a number of cultivars available.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.3 g 1.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. 'Diamant'. Celeriac soup.net/ .2 g . Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. and 'Kojak'. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. 'Ibis'.crazychefs.Sugars 1. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk.

aubergine. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. As a nightshade.com http://www. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. and see text The eggplant. It bears a fruit of the same name. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. The stem is often spiny. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India.crazychefs.net/ . to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. The flowers are white to purple. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum.

but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids." Aubergine and brinjal. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. The name eggplant. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". The fruit is fleshy. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. History Solanum melongena. New Zealand. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE.com http://www. from Arabic al-badinjan.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. used in the United States. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous.net/ . and contains numerous small. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. which is used in British English. Australia. 1500 CE. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. which are edible. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. In the Caribbean Trinidad. from Persian bad'en-j'aan.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. The name aubergine. soft seeds. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. but much larger in cultivated forms. flower The plant is native to India. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. In Indian and South African English.

There are even orange varieties. especially purple. Ichiban. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. slightly pendulous cucumber. Burpee Hybrid. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Traditional. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. and Tycoon. Black Magic. Dusky. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. green. Some cultivars have a color gradient. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. or white. whiteskinned. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. A much wider range of shapes. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. shape and color. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush.com http://www. Pingtung Long.crazychefs. Classic. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. and Black Beauty. in white skin Dourga. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin.net/ .

so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. The thin skin is also edible. for example in sambhar. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. or other fillings and then baked. so that peeling is not required. peanuts. braised (紅燒茄子). or tamarind. complex flavor. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. it is called Begun ( ). Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. In one dish. or Eggplant Parmesan. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. tahini. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. The fruit flesh is smooth.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. and deep-fried. tomatoes. the Arabian moussaka. as they are far less bitter. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. In the Caucasus. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Iranian cuisine. as in the French ratatouille. curries. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. as in the related tomato. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces.com http://www. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. rice. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. battered. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. and garlic. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. allowing for very rich dishes.net/ . it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. and achaar. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. In Bangladesh.crazychefs. It is often stewed. In some parts of India. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. tahini. for example. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). and masala and then cooked in oil. along with the fish Hilsa. chutney. As a native plant. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. It. It can be sliced.

) between rows.net/ . and potato. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. pepper (capsicum). a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. flea beetle.com http://www. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (Adults can be removed by hand. This is called Beguni ( ). Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants.) between plants. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. For this reason. are also troublesome to eggplants.crazychefs. and spider mites.) to 60 cm (24 in. Flowers are complete. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). showing the inside. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). containing both female and male structures. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. Egypt. the most serious of which is Verticillium. depending on cultivar. aphids. such as tomato. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. Common North American pests include the potato beetle.

B2) 0. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.043.crazychefs.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .19 g 1.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.[5] In the United States. P = official figure.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.(2. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. semi-official or estimates).7 g 0. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world. B1) 0. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.Sugars 2.com http://www.Dietary fiber 3. New Jersey is the largest producing state.039 mg 5.35 g .4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.net/ . F = FAO estimate.

Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.com http://www. B3) 0.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.16 mg Manganese 0.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).crazychefs.[8] On average.Niacin (Vit. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2. Brazil. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0. while 1. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.01 mg/100g).[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. However. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.net/ .084 mg Folate (Vit.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours.

tongdongense. There is an actual S.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. such as agreste. divaricatum. globosi.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. edule. ovigera. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var.C.net/ . violaceum. brownii. which used to include Dunal's S. insanum. variegatum. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. Solanum oviferum Salisb. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. giganteum. multifidum. Similarly. oblongo-cylindricum. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). aethiopicum. leucoum. ruber. Scopoli's S. esculentum. subrepandum. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. album. inerme and subinerme at that time. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. Solanum longum Roxb. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant.F. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. S. lasiocarpum. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. Names for various eggplant types. racemosum.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. H.-Lag. But this is not correct. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. trongum.Varieties Solanum melongena var. aethiopicum. that of Blanco to S. capsicoides). Dunal. On the other hand. and (invalidly) by Sweet. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. luteum. esculentum. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S.com http://www. stenoleucum. rumphii. mainly by Dikii. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. sinuatorepandum. inerme. ovigerum and S.crazychefs. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. racemiflorum. violaceum and viride.

Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant.com http://www. and Engineering by Yiu H. Handbook of Food Science. S. Hui (2006). Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). ^ Doijode. CRC Press. common. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Technology. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Footnotes 1. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. 2. D.net/ . ISBN 1574445510. (2001).

A.uga.* YP Venkatesh.50(2):101-102 11. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province.133(42):2081-3 12.Aubergine 8. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners.pdf. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. Miyachi Y. The New England Journal of Medicine. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. Domino. http://pubs. ^ B. P. ^ Gerth van Wijk R.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. ^ Health24. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite. ^ SN Pramod. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). Retrieved 2007-04-24. 1993 Number 6 9. 5. ^ Kabashima K.caes.fao. Volume 329:437 August 5. Erich Hornbach. ^ Westerfield. ^ Edward F.net/ . Arq Bras Cardiol.3. Mahesh † and Y.) reveals female predominance. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. http://faostat. FAO. 2008-11-11. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. P.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. Tsenge Demana. 7. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14.crazychefs. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. 273-6. Harish Babu * . 2004. Vol. pp. Dieges PH. N. Ebury Press. 18(1): 59-62 13. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. Toorenenbergen AW.com . 202 4.com http://www. Bruno Caramelli. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena.edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/C934. Robert (2008-11-14). 6. Retrieved 2009-07-01. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). 2008 10. volume 82 (nº 3). ^ "FAOSTAT". J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. Andréa Thomaz. ^ Solanum melongena var.

usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long.crazychefs. Solanum lycopersicum. woody stem that often vines over other plants. with a serrated margin. odd pinnate. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. see section Fruit or vegetable below). Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. and have a weak.4–0. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. with five pointed lobes on the corolla.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable.net/ . Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height.8 in) across. It is a perennial. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. syn. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. yellow.com http://www. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. One species. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0. The tomato is native to South America.

an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. However. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. smaller vegetable . meaning plump thing with a navel. However. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination.crazychefs.[4] The large. in certain areas of Italy. a mutation from a smoother. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. and cultivation began in the 1540s. means "wolf-peach". Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. They also took it to the Philippines. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. such as Florence.net/ . earlier in 1493. according to Smith. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. The exact date of domestication is not known. was the first European to take back the tomato. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. lycopersicum.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). cerasiforme. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. lumpy tomato. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. golden apple.com http://www.[6] Gerard's Herbal. a barber-surgeon. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. tomatl. now Mexico City in 1521. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. likely to be the original salsa recipe. who named it pomo d‘oro.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. an Italian physician and botanist. ancestor of L. corn and salt. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. the other by currant tomatoes. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. The specific name.

they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Thomas Jefferson. sent some seeds back to America. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop.[6] But by the mid-1700s.M.crazychefs. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. most famously in Worthing. 1799 – c. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. Rick. and as a garnish.com http://www. In Victorian times.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. British consul in Aleppo c. and to the market gardens south of Chichester.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. Over the past 15 years. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. broths.net/ .[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. The Spanish tomato dish. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). Paella. Charles M. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. but the fruit is safe). Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. Currently. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. By the mid-18th century. who ate tomatoes in Paris. The University of California. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. particularly Florida and California. and in general. The C.[6] Nonetheless. Gerard's views were influential. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. ―within the last forty years. California. and before the end of that century.largely plagiarized from continental sources.

net/ .125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[12] According to FAOSTAT. For processing tomatoes. about 5mm in diameter.6–2. green. through cherry tomatoes. and have a lower water content.4 in) diameter range. followed by United States and Turkey. California accounts for 90% of U. or white fruit are also available. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. but a number of cultivars with yellow. the largest producer. purple. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. orange. production and 35% of world production. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. pink. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. Most cultivars produce red fruit. China.crazychefs. 18 September 2009.0–2.0 in) diameter. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. they are known as plum tomatoes. black. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. It may be deleted after Friday. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries.8 in) size as the wild tomato.S.com http://www.4–0. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits.

as well as heirloom tomatoes.com http://www.[19] Hybrid plants remain common. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. plum tomatoes.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. along with zucchini.crazychefs.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. based mostly on shape and size. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more.[18] and productivity. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. As in most sectors of agriculture. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance.net/ . Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. and are shaped like large strawberries. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed].Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. but unlike commercial hybrids.

crazychefs.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. multiple colors (Hillbilly. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. including yellow.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced.cherry tomatoes are small and round. they are often good choices for container growing. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. but are smaller than plum tomato. or home growers interested in canning. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. low acidity. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. or bush. and purple. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. brown. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. although some determinate heirlooms exist.produce fruit in colors other than red. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. which usually discourages fruit set. disease and pest resistance. and lack of mealiness. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". black. Red Boar).especially heirlooms . etc. et cetera. pink. Burracker's Favorite. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. Determinate. including Brandywine (biggest red). nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries.com http://www. white. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. A variety of specific cultivars. Black Krim (lower left corner). fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. Lucky Cross). some tomato cultivars . hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. Green Zebra (top right). ivory. often via mail-order. orange. As an intermediate form. but must be bought as seed.

original state. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. N nematodes. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. T . Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. and A . and remain. The most common letters are: V . The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[24] and Colorado potato beetles.tobacco mosaic virus. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10.fusarium wilt strain I. The stamens were. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. flea beetles. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. F . which interrupts the lifecycle. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. tomatoes required cross-pollination. whiteflies. cabbage loopers. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. too. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally.crazychefs.alternaria. FF . the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop.fusarium wilt strain I & II. carried by the beet leafhopper. but manure or compost work well. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. tomato fruitworms. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. As a floral device to reduce selfing. As the name implies. slugs.verticillium wilt. cutworms. In the wild.net/ .com http://www. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. red spider mite. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. aphids. their traditional pollinators. entirely within the closed corolla.

by cultured bumblebees. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. This is not the same as self-pollination. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube.crazychefs. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. However. In more temperate climates. Unripe tomatoes are firm.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait.com http://www. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. In an outside setting. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. They may be recognized by their color. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. or more often today. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind.net/ . Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. as with most species. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. depending on variety. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant.

Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). or paste. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine".[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Though it is botanically a berry. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. especially in cooked tomatoes. and other antioxidants.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). The tomato is acidic. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. in pieces.Recently. as tomato sauce. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world.6 g 4g . They contain lycopene.crazychefs. In some studies lycopene.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. anthocyanin. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine.Sugars 2. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term.com http://www. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. a subset of fruit. carotene.net/ . has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes.

Determinate types are annual in all climates. initially decumbent. When that tip eventually stops growing. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands).[28] In October 1965. vines. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. Embracing it for this protest connotation. Known for its tomato growth and production. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. and grow as a series of branching stems. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing.5 °F). lateral buds take over and grow into other. or pickled. Tomato plants are dicots.crazychefs. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol.net/ . The fruit is also preserved by drying. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. generally three feet tall or shorter. often by sun. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin.make salsa.com http://www. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. annually celebrates La Tomatina. They are bred to continue ripening. such as rugose leaves. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. These hairs facilitate the vining process. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials.5 °C (54. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. meaning covered with fine short hairs. fully functional. although erect bush varieties have been bred. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. there are variations. Of regular leaves. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. Spain. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. it will not continue to ripen. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. whether because of pruning or flowering. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes).

it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. would be more correct.) H. "wolf-peach"). Other species in that family are potatoes. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.crazychefs. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera.net/ . moths. However. butterflies. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing.. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. wolf. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Despite this. with both names found in the literature. appearing on the apical meristem. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). Technically. very small cavities. according to type. and be dried/fermented before germination. As a true fruit. called locular cavities. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. making the Linnaean name correct. chili peppers. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. or other external forces that present in the Americas.Karst. However. (derivation.deeply grooved. which frequently used it and still do).com http://www. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. peach. among cultivated species. 'lyco'. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. tobacco.. while paste tomatoes have very few. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). plus 'persicum'.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. i. These vary. variegated. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. have the anthers fused along the edges. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. Similarly. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. Therefore. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing.[31] Their flowers. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination.g. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. This is because they are native to the Americas.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. angora leaves. genetic evidence (e. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry.e. other insects.

it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. and organizations. corporations.com http://www. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. flavor.net/ . Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. disease tolerance. North Carolina. University breeding programs are active in Florida. 1883. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. Ohio.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. Oregon. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. BHNSeed. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. pest tolerance. universities. cucumbers. U. shape. as are vegetables. and numerous other traits. However.S. In 1887. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and.crazychefs. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. Corporations including Heinz. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it.W.S. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. As noted above. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. 304)). together with its seeds. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. AVRDC. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. Bejoseed. Monsanto. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. a tomato is the ovary. Livingston. In 2006.S. New York. The U. U. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. etc. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. from a culinary standpoint. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. size. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. Hedden (149 U.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. of Reynoldsburg. A. However. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. nutritional value.S. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. color.

S. which is toxic to humans and animals. Vermont and Wisconsin. however. Maine. Massachusetts. 2006. Georgia. North Carolina. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Tennessee.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). contain the poison Solanine. Kentucky. stems.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. the U. On October 30.com http://www. Michigan.crazychefs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. Indiana. Minnesota. Ohio. Rhode Island. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. The fresh fruit is. Virginia.net/ . ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak. Pennsylvania. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. Connecticut. harmless. Speakers from the British Isles. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. New Hampshire.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock.

[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. Illinois (100). such as raw tomato. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British. French and Germans. Oklahoma in 1986. Florida. with 49.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.273 illnesses from this outbreak. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. Yong Huang.net/ . in 2000.com http://www.1 reported cases per million. On August 30. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. 2007.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. fresh serrano pepper. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz).[38] As of July 8.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115. and Arizona (49). China.crazychefs. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. As of July 2008. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). Lancashire. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. one would arrive at an estimated 40. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.6:1). from April 10. UK. New Mexico (98). and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. the U. fresh jalapeño pepper. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. it caused at least one death. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. and fresh cilantro.84 pounds (522 kg).7 and 16.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. 2008.151.000 kilograms (250. the District of Columbia. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. 2008.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported.8 m (65 ft) length.S. respectively.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. with a harvest of more than 32. 40. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. Lake Buena Vista. and Canada.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19.

crazychefs. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fusarium. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium.S. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.net/ . Derived from Cherokee Purple.com http://www. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry.S. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. indeterminate.

various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine.crazychefs. pickling. good for Tomatoes on a vine.net/ . Tomato slices. Young tomato plant.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. Tomato plants in the garden. Tomato Flower. in Korea.com http://www. Tomato fruit. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo.

Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .crazychefs.com http://www.

com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. University of Illinois Press. 13.smithsonianmag. Columbia. Normania. ^ Acquaah. 2008. USA: University of South Carolina Press.Your Archives". 6. Andrew F. Culture. 5. Wettst.Food & Wine". page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. (2001). The tomato in America: early history. Easthamptonstar. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. Retrieved December 11 2009. Universityofcalifornia. M. ISBN 1-57003000-6. http://www. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". and cookery. ^ http://faostat.universityofcalifornia. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). 8. S. & Spooner.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. A." See: Natural History Museum.fao.ucdavis. T. October 26. Smith. 2009-01-26. ^ The Friend. ^ a b Hartz. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. Processing Tomato Production in California." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 2.html.uk. p. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. 1881.smithsonianmag. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History.com/dnn/Archive/Home20080814/FoodWine/Seasons/ta bid/6280/Default. and Cookery. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.edu. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. http://tgrc.aspx?PageID=567 14. Retrieved 2009-04-02. p.html. I.net/ .17.edu. Retrieved 2009-04-02.. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. Appleton and Co. The Tomato in America. ^ "http://www.uk/index. http://www. D.crazychefs. ^ a b Smith. page 57: ".2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. 223 10..gov. (1994). ^ Tomato history 4.Smith. 11." 15. Retrieved December 11 2009.ucdavis. Andrew F (1994). webpage: books-google-TTp17. E. Footnotes 1. culture. (2002-0508)". 1994. F. (2002). http://www. et al. Tgrc. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 2002-05-08. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. ^ "UC Newsroom.easthamptonstar. 1876. 3.C.five tons to the acre.html". section Lycopersicon Mill. Peralta. ISBN 0252-07009-7. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum.gov. http://yourarchives.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.html".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Yourarchives. During the three months of the local harvest. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87.nationalarchives. http://www. p.com.edu/news/article/4319.aspx.M. 519 [1] 9.The East Hampton Star .com http://www. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. 12.. Subsection Lycopersicon). it handles more than 1. Cyphomandra. 7. ^ "http://www. Appletons' journal Published by D.edu/. G.nationalarchives. ^ "C.

org/pub_releases/2007-05/aafc-nmt051607. 2006. http://www. 32. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. http://www. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007).html".cornell.ucdavis.html".ucdavis.news.kr. 24. Ohioline. Retrieved July 14.smithsonianmag. http://www.uk/2/hi/health/7370759.osu. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips.gob.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved June 30. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes".plants.bbc. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 26. Sinaloa. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. Retrieved December 11 2009. http://www. http://www. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. http://wwwplb. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once.edu.net/ . In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.umn. Retrieved 200705-24.smithsonianmag. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. 28.com http://www.edu.ufseeds.gardenweb. http://www.co. Ncsu.html. 33. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". http://news. Smithsonianmag. ^ http://www.html 23. http://www. ^ http://www.gob.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. which are carried in the wind.html. Faq.html.eurekalert.smithsonianmag. 31. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 29.16.edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome.smithsonianmag.umn.edu.am/wiki/Tomato#Novelty_tomatoes 22.gardenweb.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5532.com/genpage. http://faq. Retrieved 2007-05-24.am/wiki/Tomato#Early_tomatoes 21.whfoods. Retrieved December 11 2009.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.stm.html." 18. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. Retrieved 200810-27. page 57: "The plants are still growing.ncsu.plants.edu/sustainable/profiles/bot_tom." 20.com/science-nature/passion-fortomatoes. Retrieved 2008-10-27.com/All-About-Tomatoes_a6fd3933f91c4.php.Tomato".html. 17. Retrieved 2008-10-27.sinaloa. 30. ^ "Crop Profiles . ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ^ "http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.crazychefs.edu.html. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention".8M".edu/stories/Jan07/SolanacaeNSF. Retrieved 2009-04-02.html. "Tomato genome project gets $1. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more.edu. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.html.com.mx. 25.com/faq/lists/tomato/2004111539004321. http://ohioline.smithsonianmag. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague.com. Plb.edu. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. 2006.osu.mx.cornell. ^ "Selecting. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. ^ "http://www. ^ "http://www." 19. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'". HYG-5532-93". Retrieved December 11 2009. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. News. http://www. ^ http://www.html. 27. http://www.html".

^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. http://www.crazychefs.uk/news/9a5a1671ceba4f43741dc008f237c1ea.nationalpost. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/map. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History.uchicago. Retrieved 2009-0721. http://www. et al.journals.cdc.vegparadise.foodsafetynetwork. United States. http://www. ^ "August 8. Vegparadise.html.shtml.com. 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC".com http://www.uk. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak.html.ca. http://www. 37. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005".cbsnews.edu/doi/full/10. 643.com/news/canada/story. Cdc. 42.com/highestperch8.1086/381578. ^ Voetsch. Retrieved 2008-10-27. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States".cdc.com/stories/2006/10/30/national/main2138331. California Master Gardener Handbook. http://www. 36.html. http://itn. 9781879906549. 40.com. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . p. 39.co. Retrieved 2009-0402. 38:S3. Retrieved 200904-02.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/.gov. ISBN 1879906546.CBS News". (2002). Foodsafetynetwork. Itn. 2007-08-30. 2004. Clinical Infectious Diseases.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953.co. by state". ANR Publications. 41. Cbsnews.google. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 35.co. http://www. Dennis R.uk. Retrieved 2008-1027.com. Nationalpost. http://www. Tomato Recipe". ^ "ITN.net/ . ^ a b Pittenger. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". (2004-04-15).html?id=585498.com/books?id=WhWjHB1Zjf8C&pg=PA643. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Tomato Nutrition. 38.34. http://www.ca/en/article-details.

Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source.net/ . native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. and nutmeg butter (see below). Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. fragrans products. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans.2 and 0. or sliced finely. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. Species About 100 species. malabarica from India. including essential oils.crazychefs. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice".com http://www.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. In Indonesia. extracted oleoresins. It also grows in Kerala. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. called selei buah pala. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.6 to 0. and Bombay Nutmeg M.4 oz) dried. or Spice Islands.7 in) wide. both are used as adulterants of M.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. the fruit is also made into jam. called Jaiphal in Hindi. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. argentea from New Guinea. a state in the south part of India. nutmeg and mace. especially in Grenada.

and baked goods. green. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. and eggnog. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater).com http://www. cauliflower. sauces. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. In Arabic. "Lau Hau Peng".crazychefs. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. and string beans. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. mulled wine. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. and Barbados rum punch. they are also used in soups. In Indian cuisine. In European cuisine. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. In the Caribbean. In Penang cuisine. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. Painkiller. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. saffronlike hue it imparts.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine.

Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. although this is disputed. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. which can be turned into myristic acid. medicines. preserving agents. 758 – ca. that were at the time highly valued in European markets.com http://www. in toothpaste. and smells and tastes of nutmeg.crazychefs. It is semi-solid. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. syrups. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. reddish brown in colour. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.net/ . for instance. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. beverages. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. and sweets. used as flavourings. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. The oil is colourless or light yellow.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation
needed]

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

Footnotes
1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". http://emj.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/22/3/223. 5. ^ "Erowid". http://www.erowid.org/plants/nutmeg/. 6. ^ "MDMA". http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=5469. 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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References
Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

Commercialization
The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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being an amino acid. About 1. Fermented products such as soy sauce. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky. based on anecdotal reports. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. frozen. yeast extract. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG.crazychefs. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. it also said that. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips." However.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. not reproducible.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. Canned.net/ ." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. particularly processed foods. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs. steak sauce. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. and protein isolate. sugar beets. soy extracts. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. sugar cane. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives. hydrolyzed yeast. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing.com http://www. with 4% annual growth expected. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. However. autolyzed yeast. or molasses.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms.

concentration. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea.). In 1993. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there.. Drugs. In the 2004 version of his book. and mineral ions and growth factors. (2) synthesis. purified.2.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. "Monosodium Glutamate". and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture.net/ . 373-375. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. MSG. For this reason. and crystallization.g. acidification. age 40–59 years. In the hydrolysis method. pp. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. New York: Wiley. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index).[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. References 1. even in large amounts. Albert Y.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. 621. ^ http://www.7% women). "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes.g. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. such as hydrolyzed protein. Steven (August 2003). and converted to its monosodium salt.." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. [monosodium glutamate]. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. Foster.com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1. followed by either the name of the food additive.com http://www.crazychefs.html 2. flavour enhancer). ^ Leung. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people.". ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. On Food and Cooking. dextrose or citrate). and (3) microbial fermentation. The label must bear the food additive class name (e.celiac. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product.

jstor.2008.crazychefs. 277–282. Armstrong. Food Chem.x. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Inc.ncbi. Stamler. Linguang. PMID 16999713. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Guo. Pharmacol.1525/gfc.1006/rtph. 1875–1880. 16. "A Short History of MSG". ^ Kawakita.530060410. 31 (12): 1019–1035. Zhou.F.html. "Monosodium Glutamate". Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. 10.com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute.00160.1999.co. ^ http://www. Kelly M. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121. http://www. Liancheng.4. doi:10. doi:10. et al. Kimber L. Wu. ^ a b Rundlett.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. http://jn. ^ http://www. Linda.1038/oby. (1993). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. 13. ^ a b Geha RS. 6.jp/ajinomoto/ACompany/company/zaimu/pdf/fact/food_biz. 15.nytimes. PMID 10597625. 14. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". Yangfeng. Zhu.pdf 9. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study".org/stable/3421360 5. 7. Sano.celiac. Chirality 6 (4): pp. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Yamaguchi.gov/entrez/query. Shigeru.1337. ^ Sand. "Yes. J. Ka. Daniel. ^ Walker R (October 1999). Jeremiah (August 2008). ^ a b Tarasoff L. Dongshuang..nih. ^ "Production process". Daviglus. ^ http://www.2005. Tetsuya. Shizuko (2005).org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10736382.gov/~lrd/msg. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. Van Horn. ^ Moskin.a16 711. Martha L.ca/Articles/Fall1990-1.nutrition. Anjimoto Co. Beifan.1111/j.38.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. Alan R. Garside.. Julia (2008-03-05). http://www.net/ . the Secret Behind the Savor". 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/amino/eng/product. doi:10. Shioya.17457599. PMID 10736382. ^ Freeman M.com http://www.3. PMID 18497735. doi:10. New York Times.274.1002/14356007. 8. Nutr. ^ He.ajinomoto. Daniel W (1994). Toxicol.fda.html 12.5. doi:10. PMID 8282275.1002/chir.cfsan. Ren C. Toxicol. Zhao. http://www. (October 2006). 11. Masahiro. Takehara.html 4. Chiaki. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp. "The significance of excursions above the ADI.ajinomoto. Jordan (2005).nlm. MSG. doi:10. Regul. Beiser A. doi:10. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. ^ http://vm.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. 38–49. (April 2000). Dyer.2006. Case study: monosodium glutamate".

荳油 3.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 豆油 3.net/ .com http://www. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1. 醬油 2. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1.crazychefs. 酱油 2.

Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. water.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [4] By the mid-19th century. Soy sauce was invented in China.500 years. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan.[3] In the 18th century. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. In its various forms. and salt.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima.net/ . this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands.crazychefs. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods.com http://www. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market.

com http://www. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. Today. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. sojae) and other related microorganisms. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. literally "delicious taste"). Although there are many types of soy sauce.net/ .Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. such as in giant urns and under the sun. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours.

the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish.3-DCP (1. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish.com http://www. and Chinese cuisine. one of the two types. Since it is lighter in color. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. with relatively low amounts of other grains. Thai. ): A thin (nonviscous).3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. consistency. In traditional Chinese cooking. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. like extra virgin olive oil. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. Korean. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. Despite their rather similar appearance. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. Another type. lighter brown soy sauce. but it also adds flavour. pinyin: jiàngyóu. since it is saltier. opaque. An additional classification of light soy sauce. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. slightly sweeter. shuānghuáng (雙璜). fragrance and saltiness. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). traditional Chinese: 醬油.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. or a mixture of both. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste.net/ . is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. or 酱清 "jiàng qing". It has a richer.crazychefs.

Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. where it is known as "shōyu". lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. It contains little or no wheat. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce.com http://www. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. for example sashimi.crazychefs. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. Technically. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. Shiro (白?. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. or 醤油). This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. Usukuchi (淡口?. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. that is used in its production. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り).net/ . "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce.

com http://www. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. 1 litre bottles. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. Amakuchi (甘口?. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. Consequently. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. not pasteurized.crazychefs. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu".Saishikomi (再仕込?. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product.net/ .

com http://www. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. usually implies limited quantity.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses.crazychefs.net/ . which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. which has a thick. It is a unique variety. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. In Indonesia. in a pinch. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. powder. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in.

when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). Joseon ganjang. (called Joseon ganjang. Later.net/ . Founded in 1909. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair.4% of soy sauce purchases. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. 조선간장. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well.crazychefs. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. lit. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia.com http://www. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. is made entirely of soy and brine. WanJaShan(萬家香).[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. Malaysia. thin and dark brown in color. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. O'Long(黑龍). A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce.

[12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. and caramel.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. China. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced.[6] Furthermore.crazychefs. salt. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. pronounced SOO-kah). nước tương. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. wheat. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. or sometimes simply tương. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). it is also a table condiment. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1.3-DCP (1. It can also be very salty.net/ .

Kong and Taiwan. Lee Kum Kee. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. 6. ^ Tanaka. marinades and other types of sauces. Kimlan. ^ Jung. ^ http://www. Despite these being small in number in the UK. Pearl River Bridge. p.org.[1] Notes 1. p. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". ^ Tanaka.net/ . 7. No."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare. 4. p.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. including six samples with up to 11. ^ http://www. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application.gmp. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. Retrieved 200801-07. ^ http://www.tw/60anniversary/century-gofun.[citation needed] In Vietnam.000 to 18.smartfood. XXVII.com http://www. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho. 6.miyajimasoy. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. King Imperial.jp/science/kouenkai/kouenkai. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. ^ Titsingh.htm. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". Celiac disease. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). 2. Press release. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). pp.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce.org. III. Individuals with a wheat allergy. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001.tcoc.co. Sinsin. Soon Teck• and Kang.com. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy).gov. 8. ^ Tanaka. Isaac.asp?id=7598 10. 2nd edition.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat.tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9. Retrieved 2008-01-07. http://www.317 2. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. Vol.tw/newsdetail.food.) In March 2008. http://www. (1781). OCLC 9752305 5. Golden Swan. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. Norio. Jammy Chai. Seong-Gook (2002). some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol.crazychefs.uk/news/pressreleases/2001/jun/soysaucerecall. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. Golden Mark. an increase over 23 to 5. 2 (January 2000). 3. 7.

Hoboken.com.com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. ^ Tanasupawat. Fereidoon. ^ Toxic soy sauce. 18. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.com http://www. Retrieved 2008-01-07.food scares hit Vietnam 20.com/news/ng. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. ISBN 1587161389. Kentucky: CRC Press. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. http://www. PMID 12469319. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". PMID 16198255.100. doi:10. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. nutraingredients. Edition 2. 16. 13. p. doi:10. fermentation and micro-organisms. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals.1263/jbb. Food.google.201.nutraingredients. Naczk. 12. Charles W (2005).net/ .2323/jgam. ^ Daniells. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. ^ Shahidi. Makio (2005-04-18). ^ Kobayashi.crazychefs. Somboon (2002-06-18). et al.48. Marian (2003). p. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. chemical veggies -.11. 14. ^ Bamford. Stephen (2006-06-06).144. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. ISBN 0632059877. 186. 103. http://books. Florence. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD".

0–83.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.3% Myristic acid: <0.0% Arachidic acid: <0.8% Behenic acid: <0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.crazychefs.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.0% Stearic acid: 0.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.5–20.3–3.4677–1.9150–0.5% Linoleic acid: 3.5–21.net/ .5 °C) 84 cP 1.5–5.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9180 (@ 15.com 211 | P a g e http://www.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.

production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. North Africa and the Near East. Hojiblanca. in France. Leccino Pendolino.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. World production in 2002 was 2. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. 93% comes from Spain. Australia. principally Italy. Italy and Greece. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities.com http://www. Koroneiki. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. In 2006. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands.6 million tonnes. Alberquina. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. cosmetics. Olives are grown for oil in Greece.[3] Of the European production. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. in Greece. which produce approximately 350. but especially in the Mediterranean. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. as well as in Crete. which receives about three-quarters of total exports. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics.crazychefs. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. family Oleaceae). pharmaceuticals. and Moraiolo. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. Japan and China. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. and Manzanilla de Jaén.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. Picholine. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .[1] It is commonly used in cooking. Olive oil is used throughout the world. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1.000 tons of olive oil annually.4680–1. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees.6 (refined and pomace) 0.

and monitoring authenticity. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. After extraction the remnant solid substance.com http://www. Mission.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. and by its flavor.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. by its chemistry.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. defining quality standards. Spain. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils.800.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC.000 US gallons (181. with 23 member states.600.crazychefs. Oblica and Leccino. often in "prestige" packaging. and Turkey.California. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil).000 US gallons (131. The California Olive Oil Council. with production increasing to meet demand. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. The USDA uses a different system. in Portugal.000 m3) came from Italy. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. In North America. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. a private trade group. Galega. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998.net/ . called pomace. in Croatia. The US imported 47. Spain. Spain. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. IOOC terminology is precise. of which 34. still contains a small quantity of oil.

[14] In February 2008. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. is extremely lax and corrupt. 25. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. product as superior olive oil.net/ . for blended oils. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. particularly in Italy. it is believed. Almost 700 people died.com http://www. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior.[15] Under EU rules.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). mostly hexane. of free oleic acid it contains. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. but there are no guarantees. however.crazychefs. both in Italy and abroad. defined as the percent. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment.[16] In April 2008.[14] In March 2008. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. measured by weight.[12] In some cases. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. and by heat. EU officials took issue with the new law. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents. but safe. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity.

S. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. Pure olive oil.5% acidity. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. but may not be described simply as olive oil.net/ . Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. This is also called its organoleptic quality. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It has a free acidity.8% acidity. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. and is judged to have a good taste. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. of no more than 1. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions.com http://www. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. has an acidity less than 2%. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. and is judged to have a superior taste. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. contains no more than 0. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. In order to classify it by taste. These grades were established in 1948. It is fit for consumption. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. of not more than 0. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. absence of defects. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized.crazychefs. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. The U.3 grams per 100 grams (0. and are based on acidity. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. The US is not a member. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. Used on salads. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. expressed as oleic acid. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. another cause of rancidity. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure.the oil degrades.

S. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. First of all. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated.S. U.S. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". (34 kJ/ml).[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. This is incorrect.crazychefs. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. "cold" does not define any precise temperature. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.S. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. Grade B or U.5% and is "reasonably free from defects". which may be as low as 10-15 °C.S. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. U. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.U. Grade A or U. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. Grade C or U.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning.0% and is "fairly free from defects".4% and is "free from defects".S.net/ . Grade C". Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.S.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. Grade D or U.S.S. with less flavour.com http://www. U.

7 l. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.62 12.8 7. over 26 liters per year.1 1. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil.pressed".com http://www. around 0. Northern Europe and North America consume far less. so the term "first press" is meaningless. around 8 l.crazychefs.35 23.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide.net/ . Portugal and Lebanon. around 14 l. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label.7 11.2 7 1. Spain and Italy. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. Tunisia.1 0. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

After grinding. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. 1. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. not in the oil mills. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. 4. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method).34 1. Green olives produce bitter oil. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. 3. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks.crazychefs. then placed into the press.net/ . The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". suggesting a different taste. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. and overripe olives produce rancid oil.com http://www. no or very little organoleptic defects). 2. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). which is much faster and more accurate. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. This is done in specialised chemical plants. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. After grinding. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. If ground with mill stones. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.polyunsaturated 11 g . most notably oleic acid.com http://www. and extraction process. The composition varies by cultivar. including oleocanthal and oleuropein.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . time of harvest. In the United States. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.7%) and sterols (about 0. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.monounsaturated 73 g . To achieve this possible benefit. altitude. region.5 g .omega-3 fat <1. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .2% phytosterol and tocosterols).omega-6 fat 3. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp.crazychefs. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids.

the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. For example.net/ .crazychefs. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles.com http://www.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. rather than its fatty acid profile. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. During the second phase. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. During the first stage. and oleuropein. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. It is theorized that. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. at least in part. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol. antithrombotic. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. in the long term.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. This could. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. This way. 2004. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. and that it exerts antiinflamatory.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity.This decision was announced November 1. The study was conducted in two stages. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans.

but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. Also. For example.com http://www. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. not for foods to be eaten cold.crazychefs. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). as available in an oil producing region. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. A very fresh oil. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. Also.[citation needed]. cookware.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. etc. oils deteriorate and become stale. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant.net/ . In time. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. like salads. blenders. Used cold. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine.

Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil.com http://www.net/ . and mild laxative properties. It is also good for the management of pain. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients.crazychefs. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). acting as a stool softener. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. It does have demulcent properties.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils.

N. as a fuel in oil lamps. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. olie.Fr. from L.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. huile). from Gk.Fr. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. Mod. from O.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. magical. olio). medicines.Fr. oile (12c. Homer called it "liquid gold. soap-making. Besides food.. olive oil" (cf. 1175.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. Amman in the Sixteenth Century.crazychefs. and skin care application. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power." In ancient Greece. olive oil. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. It. from Anglo-Fr. and O. elaion "olive tree".net/ . 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. drawn and engraved by J. oleum "oil.com http://www.

In the centuries that followed. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.net/ .[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC).[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. olive presses became common. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. Bodrum. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC.com http://www.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete.

com http://www.net/ . the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah.crazychefs. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. Lebanon. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. oil containers are preferred. the fertile crescent. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. According to legend.000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. he maintained. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). and Israel.000 and 3.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. According to the historian Pliny. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. during the 13th century BC. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. and area consisting of present day Palestine.[citation needed].over 4. allowing more time for more oil to be made. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. where it is thought to have represented wealth. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. Sinuhe. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC.. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. drained the water from the bottom. "the best in the Mediterranean". Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. wrote of abundant olive trees. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. together with naked appearance of athletes. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. stored in special containers. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt.[dubious – discuss] During this time. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire.000 tons of olive oil per season.[46] Until 1500 BC. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). when the oil had risen to the top. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia.

3. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. ^ USDA. "The Olive Tree. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath.net/ .html. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". Retrieved 2007-05-25. In Islam. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries.gourmetretailer. 4.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047". http://www.org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo. and. its oil almost glows. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil.imitate the original Menorah. ^ G. and the Mount of Sinai. Steven Sibbett. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. Olive Production Manual. and this secure city. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. Joann L Coviello. neither Eastern nor Western. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. ^ USDA.usda. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). 158. the tourch is in a glass bulb. 5. http://www. traditionally. Louise Ferguson. Margaret Lindstrand (2005).com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. p. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. References 1. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. ^ "findarticles. 2. Retrieved 2008-07-04. http://findarticles. ANR Publications. To douse the flame. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation.gov/nass/pubs/agr05/05_ch3. originating from King David.PDF." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed.internationaloliveoil.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. http://www. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil.crazychefs. even without fire touching it.com http://www. in the consecration of altars and churches." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick).jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. ^ International Olive Oil Council. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. Retrieved 2007-05-25. light upon light. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil.

info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. http://www. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". Retrieved 2008-11-16. 23.htm. ^ "www. November 2.internationaloliveoil. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . John. ^ Mueller. 11. Retrieved 2008-11-09.com".23/.html. 18. 14. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). 55 (3): 175–86. Slippery Business The New Yorker.jp. 2004.46. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.telegraph. G.uk/news/main. J.010. Tabacchi.html".crazychefs. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". ^ New York Times. 124 (6): 903–15. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. et al. http://www. S. 20.01. http://oliveoilonly. Alan (1989-05-21).htm".com http://www. Raymond & Co. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud .net/ .htm. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27. (December 1986).org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institutionini. 10. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. United States Department of Agriculture. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28.phrs. Dennis.23/.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9.2007. ^ Durant. 19 CFR 134.co.org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. 2007-08-13.internationaloliveoil. http://www.southafrica.southafrica. PMID 17321749. 19. J. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ a b McGee.4005000. Tripoli.com/news-eu/1204304521. 15. 12. and Maurizio La Guardia. M. 16.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705.6.gov/AMSv1.xml. Pharmacol.scotsman.xml. Menotti A.nytimes. 7.). http://www. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3776973.eubusiness.Telegraph". Epidemiol. Karvonen MJ. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. doi:10.ams. Di Majo. 13. 17.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".1016/j. Tom. http://query. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. Giammanco. http://www.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. ^ a b "Telegraph article".com News".com/gst/fullpage. Retrieved 2008-11-16.co.Scotsman. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. http://news.com/world/Forty-arrested-in-new-39fake39.1079/NRR200495 24.com/news-eu/1204304521.usda. Res. http://aje.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. PMID 3776973. Am. ^ "EUbusiness.telegraph.oxfordjournals.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini. 21.uk/news/main.eubusiness. ^ "www. The New York Times (H. ^ "Eubusiness. ^ Riding.com". http://www. Giammanco. 25. http://www. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". ^ Keys A. US Customs Department. D.

"Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. Dello Russo A. J Agric Food Chem. Catherine Breton.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. p.net/ . Nov. ^ Mayo Clinic. "olive" and "oil" 40. Toshihiko Osawa.co. Vol. doi:10. Ahmed.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. 10." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. et al. ^ http://www. 1: Prevent Cancer. but cites no source. doi:10. 55 (3): 680–6. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 19 November 2007 30. 21 (1): 45–52.com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36. Vargas J. p. 1S45-50. 23. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto.v. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. N U : Budiyanto. "New Year's Resolution No. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé.tchain. 35. ^ Ehud Galili et al. Medina E. A : Bito. Toshinori Bito. Alonso MG. ^ Turner R.tchain. ^ Rosenblum.. 2000. T : Ueda. 43. ^ "Quite Interesting . ssp.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. doi:10. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. 2085-2090. 34. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. 29.v. A : Wu. ^ Ferrara LA. Mar. Pagnol. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori".videojug. No. http://www. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". 45.ama-assn. T.06-6328com. http://www. Suppl. Carcinogenesis. (January 2005). p. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. ^ Machowetz A.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". Olea europaea L. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997).Telegraph".telegraph. Use Olive Oil. André Bervillé. pp.org 31. s. 38.1. ^ [2] Ichihashi. 11. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. ^ "www. Etienne N. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". 44. d'Episcopo L. 39.html. et al. JDermatol-Sci. Poulsen HE. ^ a b Davidson. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. 19. De Castro A (February 2007). "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". Faseb J. s. Israel". Raimondi AS. ^ Pagnol.crazychefs. Vol. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. 19. (January 2007).com http://www. Marotta T.1024/0300-9831." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33.uk/portal/main. Guida L.xml. Masamitsu Ichihashi.. Brenes M. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". Nazim U.61. 37. Olives 41. M : Osawa. Masato Ueda.75.1096/fj. PMID 17110467. Osamu Nikaido. 21. M : Ahmed. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". 2000. ^ Romero C. PMID 15830923. ". says the 6th millennium in Jericho.1021/jf0630217.html". PMID 10737284." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. (27 March 2000). PMID 17263460.28. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. An Wu.". Gruendel S.

^ Nigel M. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed.). Kennell. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". 47. Processing methods. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece".net/ .youngmuslims.htm.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. http://www. pp119–33 50.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. Harrington Park Press. http://www.org. 2005 49. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. ^ "www.htm. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. Riley.htm". ^ Thomas F.com http://www. B.il/ad/egypt/texts/sinuhe. 2001.R.reshafim. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil".youngmuslims. C. Scanlon. Verstraete and V. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. Provencal.crazychefs.46. ed. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48. ^ F.

each the distal end of a carpel. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. Saffron has further medicinal applications.com http://www. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. sativus flower bears three stigmas.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia.net/ .or hay-like fragrance.Saffron Saffron crocus C. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. ən] / [ˈsæf. Saffron. A C. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). crocin. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.

do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. must be dug up. broken apart.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C.net/ . A corm survives for one season. Being sterile. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. Only in October. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4.98–1. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. purple buds appear. It is a sterile triploid form. In autumn. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C.5 centimetres (1.2 in) in length. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants.crazychefs. which means "yellow. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. as was once generally believed." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height.[11] Upon flowering. in Central Asia. and replanted.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran.com http://www. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds.

Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5.net/ . and birds. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks.000–1. Greek. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere).035 oz) of dry saffron threads. where annual rainfall averages 1.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn.[16] Furthermore. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. loose. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. in concert with climate.500 mm (39–59 in).e. well-watered.com http://www. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. Nematodes.crazychefs. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. Planting depth and corm spacing. are critical factors affecting yields. leaf rusts. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops. Moroccan.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. where hot. rats. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn.8–5. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. maximizing sun exposure. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. and corm rot pose other threats. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. low-density. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested).. they fare poorly in shady conditions. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms.9 in) deep. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production.

However. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.8-diapo-8.com http://www.8-carotenoic acid).[19] Meanwhile.crazychefs. a product results that is itself water-soluble.2 oz of dried saffron).11 gr) of dried saffron. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.0.and β-carotenes.[19] many of which are carotenoids.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. and thus oil-soluble. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8.net/ . When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). It also has many nonvolatile active components.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and various α. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. including zeaxanthin. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes. lycopene.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.

0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 8.0 6.0–1.0–13.0–7.5 10.crazychefs.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 10.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.net/ .0 1.0 1.5 40.0 1.0 11.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 6.0 6.0–15.0–14.com http://www.0 9.0–8.0 4.0 12.0 2.0 12.

the scent of which has been described as "saffron.net/ .6. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma.crazychefs.com http://www. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. dried hay like". It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen.3-diene-1. p. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. Santorini.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.6. Significantly. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1.4. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri.5-cyclohexadien-1-one.Fiber (crude) 5. the heat. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. When saffron is dried after its harvest.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate. incidentally. combined with enzymatic action. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is.[18] Safranal. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties.6. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron.0 Source: Goyns 1999.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. a volatile oil.6-trimethyl-2.

physicians in Gaza.[33] potpourris.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. mascaras. and scabies. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. In late Hellenistic Egypt.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. sativus. divine offerings. ointments. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. cartwrightianus.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. and medical treatments. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. Since then.000 years.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3. townspeople in Rhodes. a sterile mutant form of C. Thus. cough. There.com http://www. colic. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. and in the mithridatium. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC.net/ .[28][29] Later.crazychefs. C. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron.

Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong.com http://www. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. Isfahan. Wan Zhen. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. rice. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. a Chinese medical expert. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. medicines.net/ . For example.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD.[43] Thus. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC.crazychefs.[51] However. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". and used in dyes.Asia The 17. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. a less expensive dye. At such sites. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. dating to 978–993 AD. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death.[39][40] Later. and baths as a curative for battle wounds.[44] From there.[44] During his Asian campaigns.[42] ritually offered to divinities.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. or jackfruit.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece.[53] On the other hand.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. and body washes. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. saffron threads were woven into textiles.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. perfumes. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.

often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. coffee. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. and executed.[62] By 1730. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. However. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. which grew prosperous. indeed. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts.[59][60] Only in southern France. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. imprisoned. France. and Spain. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. under which saffron adulterators were fined. Italy. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate.[55] During the 14th century Black Death.saffron is in Kashmir.net/ . The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War".[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Europe. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. and Italy. especially Norfolk and Suffolk. did significant cultivation endure. named for its new specialty crop. It can be used to aromatise wine. The Essex town of Saffron Walden.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. and then the saffron is obtained. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed.crazychefs. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron.com http://www. tea. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour.[58] Soon after. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code.

grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. and Cornish cuisines. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Arab. immunomodulating. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes.com http://www. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. Medicinally. Indian. and chicken or trout dishes. noodles.crazychefs.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). European. particularly in China and India.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Central Asian. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. and antioxidantlike properties. Turkish. Pennsylvania. and in perfumery.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian).[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing).

000 per pound (US$1. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.000 and 200. Morocco.com http://www. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. France.000 threads. England.000-170.200/£1.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide. Annually. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. the average retail price is $1. flavour. in decreasing order of production.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2.100/€1.550 per kilogram). they are graded by government-imposed standards. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. Greece. In Western countries. A pound of dry saffron requires 50.000 flowers. and Italy. are generally mellower in colour.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east.net/ . and other countries. India.[2] A pound comprises between 70.000 flowers. and aroma. Azerbaijan. Switzerland. elasticity. Spain.500/€7. Aside from these.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150.[5] Iran. Vivid crimson colouring. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. Spain's varieties. the United States.000–75.crazychefs.100–11. For example.500 per kilogram. slight moistness. are the major producers of saffron. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram).

The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). unusually pungent aroma. In the U. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour.crazychefs.net/ .some organically grown.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). and crop failures in Kashmir.. contribute to its high prices. Sardinia. for quality and quantity. shape.com http://www. among the world's darkest. blights. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. and safranal content.S. near L'Aquila. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). combined with an Indian export ban. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. picrocrocin (taste). which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. picrocrocin. aroma. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. it also has very high crocin.79 in). a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and safranal (fragrance) content. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). Repeated droughts. is in San Gavino Monreale. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. and colourative effect. There. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation.

these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I).[80] Thus. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). and consumers reject such lab test numbers. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. III. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. red-dyed silk fibers. paprika. However. aroma. and other powders used as diluting fillers. traders. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. with turmeric. pomegranate fibers. and I (finest quality). many growers. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250.crazychefs. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. II.com http://www.[77] However. and thus a greater colourative intensity. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets.national standards bodies. in India. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0).[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. pliability.net/ .

com http://www. 20. p. 19. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. ^ a b c Hill 2004. 1. 272. pp. ^ Willard 2001. 6. 1.". ^ a b Deo 2003. p. http://www.net/ . 18. ^ DPIWE 2005. 14. stigma extracts and their constituents. 13. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). ^ a b c d Deo 2003. 3–4. 3. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 9. www. 24. Honshū. 21. 12. 2–3. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. 5. p. ^ Willard 2001. 103. p.google. ^ Deo 2003. ^ Grigg 1974. p.cababstractsplus. ^ a b Deo 2003. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 4. 23. p. pp.crazychefs. 4. Kansai. ^ Willard 2001. 3. http://books. p. Grilli Caiola .Saffron reproductive biology 11. crocin and safranal. 3. 17. ^ Dharmananda 2005.asp?AcNo=20043148643. 2. ^ Willard 2001. 53. p. in mice. ^ Harper 2001. 4. p. ^ McGee 2004. p. ^ a b McGee 2004. ^ M. 22. 15. ^ Rau 1969. 2. 422.com/books?id=AaTpWEIlgNwC. Sterling. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. p. 3. 7. p. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ Kumar V (2006). ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. 16.org. p. Retrieved 2008-03-02. p. 1. pp.cababstractsplus. 423. 287. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.org/google/abstract. 8.

au/AnnualReports/ACEVS%20Report%202007. 27. ^ Willard 2001. 6. 43. p. 44.com http://www. p. 28. 34. p. pp. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Kuo & Wang 1964. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b Willard 2001. 17–18. ^ Willard 2001. p. p. 32. 138. p. 2. ^ http://www. 64. 95. 42. ^ Willard 2001. 50. 224. ^ Honan 2004. p.iovs. ^ Willard 2001.25. 40. p. 51. 20. 99. 128. ^ Willard 2001. 33. ^ Willard 2001. p. 68. p. ^ Fletcher 2005. 30. p. p.au/news/acevs%20saffron. 72. p. Random House.pdf 71. ^ Willard 2001. 70. p. p. 60. ^ Dalby 2003. transl. ^ Willard 2001. 11. 422. pp. p. p. ^ http://vision. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001.edu. p. ^ Chang. 143. 30 AD. ^ a b Willard 2001. ^ Lak 1998b. ca. Victoria (30 December 2002). 73. ^ Willard 2001. 1935 [1] 38. 132–133. 62. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ a b Willard 2001. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999.crazychefs. 47. p. 45. ^ Willard 2001. pp. p. 58. p. p. ^ Humphries 1998. pp. 256.edu. 61. ^ Willard 2001. 35. 2. ^ a b c Willard 2001. 12. 54. ^ Rau 1969. ^ Ferrence 2004. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. 133. ^ Goyns 1999. 34–35. ^ Willard 2001. 1. 41. ^ Finlay. 2–3. ^ Hill 2004. p. 36. ^ Honan 2004. 67. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 46. ^ http://www. ^ Willard 2001. 41. 63. pp. 101.vision. ^ McGee 2004. 35. 37. 103–104. p.pdf 70. 39. 65. p. 58. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Dalby 2002. pp. 55. p. 29. de Medicina. 59. 56.org/cgi/content/abstract/49/3/1254 69. 1. p. 55. p. 1. ^ Celsus. pp. 66. 138. 48. 26. 138–139. ^ Hayes 2001. p. 273. ^ a b Dalby 2002. pp. 54–55. 49. 2. 41. p. 117. p. ^ Deo 2003. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. 63. 31. 59. Loeb Classical Library Edition. 1. 142–146.net/ . 52. p. 1. 57.

^ Willard 2001. 2006. B (2003). Retrieved on July 27. <http://www. 8.au/landline/stories/s556192.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=7IHcZ21dyjwC>. Dalby. 2008. ^ Tarvand 2005. University of California Press.edu/biomed/spice/index. p. 76. 75. Retrieved on January 10 2006. Experimental Biology and Medicine 227 (1). Retrieved on January 10.htm>. 201.htm>. ^ a b Tarvand 2005b.itmonline. "Kashmiri saffron producers see red over Iranian imports". A (2003). 2006. "Saffron". AN. References Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2003). Crop & Food Research (New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research) (no.ebmonline. 80. MJ Gregory & RC Menary (2005). 2006. 2006[dead link]. 77.org/cgi/content/full/227/1/20>. <http://www. ISBN 0415-23259-7.org/arts/saffron. Phytotherapy Research 19 (11). <http://www.au/news/newsitems/200311/s982047. 2006. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2003.): effect on the uterus and/or estrous cycle". FI (2002). Landline (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). A (2002). Retrieved on January 10. p. S (2005). 245 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Effect of drying temperature and air flow on the production and retention of secondary metabolites in saffron". ^ Goyns 1999. Darling Biomedical Library (UCLA). Retrieved on January 10. extract and its bioactive constituents". Routledge (UK). "Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L.google.crazychefs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.library. ^ Hussain 2005. "The pharmacological action of 藏红花 (zà hóng huā—Crocus sativus L. Dharmananda. "Saffron: An Anti-Depressant Herb". VP Papageorgiou & Z Sinakos (2005).)". ISBN 0-520-23674-2. PMID 11788779 Assimopoulou.cfm?displayID=22>.nz/home/productsservices/publications/broadsheets/020saffron. 82. 81.abc.net. "Tasmania's Saffron Gold". p.com http://www. 79. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 11. <http://www.abc.htm>. pp.net/ . PMID 16028982 Deo. P (2002).net. 274. CT Kuo & CK Wang (1964). ^ Willard 2001. Liang. <http://books.crop. Institute for Traditional Medicine. W. Darling Biomedical Library (2002). Davies.pdf>. PY. 78. ^ Lak 1998. 102–104. PMID 16317646 Chang. <http://www. "Growing Saffron—The World's Most Expensive Spice". 20).cri. Retrieved on January 10. ^ Hill 2004. <http://unitproj. Courtney.ucla. Retrieved on January 10. Abdullaev. Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. Food in the Ancient World from A to Z. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. "Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.74. Dalby. 53 (15). NW.

ISBN 0-521-09843-2. <http://news. Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4).com/2004/03/02/science/02MEDI. "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera". D (2001). The Essential Saffron Companion. WH (2004). Lak. Cambridge University Press.com http://www. T (2004). Martin's Press. "Saffron (Crocus sativus L. PMID 16180089 Katzer. Humphries. Saffron.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/213043. Wiley.pdf>. "Saffron". The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global Kitchen. Principles and Methods of Toxicology.uni-graz. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. J (1998). Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1). ISBN 1-56032-814-2. BBC News. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution". ISBN 0-471-21423-X. Fotedar.co. BBC News.au/inter. N (2005). Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). <http://www. <http://www.)". Retrieved on January 10. <http://news. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5). Goyns. S (1998–1999).DPIWE (2005). Hussain. SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995). 2006. Hasegawa. saffron".google. 2006.gov.co. Harper. Retrieved on January 10. JH. 2006[dead link]. Retrieved on January 10. Jessie.co. MH (1999). AW (2001).bbc. Ferrence. 2006. ISBN 90-5702-394-6.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/212491. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2). Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. <http://www. 2006.nsf/WebPages/EGIL5K63X8?open#Saffron>. <http://books. D (1998).bbc.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4216493. 2006. "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice.crazychefs. <http://www. Retrieved on January 10. 2006. ISBN 0-312-34068-0.html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>. G (2001). 2006.ikashmir. BBC News. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages.stm>.bbc. Online Etymology Dictionary. 2006. PMID 15259204 Fletcher. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron". SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005). Taylor & Francis.php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>. "Saffron".etymonline. The New York Times.com/index.st m>.at/~katzer/engl/Croc_sat.stm>. Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. A (2005). Taylor & Francis. "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron". Grigg. Retrieved on January 10. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron". D (1998b). Food & Agriculture.leffingwell. Retrieved on January 10. DB (1974). <http://news. Honan. St. ISBN 1-58008-024-3.nytimes. Ten Speed Press.pdf>. PMID 8590890 Hayes.com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=l-QJaUp31T4C>.com/download/saffron. Lak.tas. The Agricultural Systems of the World. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine". 2006.dpiwe.html>.net/ . "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". Leffingwell. Retrieved on January 10. JC (2002). Retrieved on January 10. Hill.org/pdf/Vitasta1998-1999. SC (2004). "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress".

com http://www. Retrieved on January 10. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. 2006. "Saffron".com/irish/saffron. New Scientist. 2006. Willard. <http://www. Retrieved on January 10.crazychefs. Tarvand (2005b). PMID 2025883 Park. 2006. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron".McGann. Cancer Letters 57 (2). <http://books. "Grading and Classification". <http://www. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". H (2004). USDA Phytochemical Database.tarvandsaffron. 2006.com/channel/earth/mg18524831. Retrieved on January 10.htm>. "What is Saffron?". F (2005).google.html>. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. 2006. K (2003). Retrieved on January 10.barc. Retrieved on January 10.net/ . 2006[dead link].google. 2006.".com/classification.newscientist. SC.htm>. Retrieved on January 10. P (2001).tarvandsaffron. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991).usda. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Nair. SR (1969).pl.000. Pearce. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus).reconstructinghistory. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. Reconstructing History. Time Life Education. <http://www. Tarvand Saffron Company. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). <http://books. McGee.com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>. <http://www.html>. Beacon Press. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Rau. Scribner. JB (2005). ISBN 0-684-80001-2.gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b.com/saffron.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>. The Cooking of India.cfm?chemic al_id=140>. Tarvand Saffron Company.

19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L.com http://www.crazychefs. Dead Sea.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea.net/ . Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.

olives. Theophrastus.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. they were reverently preserved for centuries.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2."[7] indeed. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean.com http://www.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. two stamens and bifid stigma.crazychefs. from Lebanon. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock.(XVII. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. Asia and parts of Africa.[1] and in the Iliad. the olive. Its fruit. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. The small white flowers. by a spring. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry.net/ . according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. It is short and squat. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. referring to their wooden material. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide.[9]. endives.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth.5 cm long. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. Though. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. ca 170 AD. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. called xoana. In Homer's Odyssey. the olive suckers readily from the stump. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). are borne generally on the last year's wood. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height.

kotinos. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. wild-type olives. glory.com http://www. and then in the 18th century in California. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. olives were grown commercially in Crete. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. the olive has been the symbol of peace. Today. in both the New and Old Testaments. glory and peace . As emblems of benediction and purification. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. play an important role in the Bible.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. the pits give rise to thorny. For example. Peru. Chile and Argentina.crazychefs.The leafy branches of the olive tree . Olive oil has long been considered sacred. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. in On the Nature of Plants.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. spread far and wide by birds.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. as well as olive oil and olives. for which the Greeks had a separate name. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over.16. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel.[12] After the 16th century. Theophrastus.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. and its cultivation began in Mexico. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. fertility.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . indeed. and one of the most significant. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. Over the years. As far back as 3000 BC. power and pureness. but he makes clear (in 1. The Book of Jacob 5. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. The olive tree itself. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. wisdom. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games.

com http://www.net/ . The age of an olive tree in Crete. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. and can live for very long. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year).Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. disease. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca.[16] An olive tree in west Athens.and fire-resistant. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. Montenegro. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed.600 years old. One olive tree in Bar. claimed to be over 2.crazychefs. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). drought-. which is made into top quality olive oil. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. has been calculated to be about 1. The older an olive tree is.000 years old. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. named "Plato's Olive Tree". Istria in Croatia. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14].

olive leaf. a few other millenary trees can be admired. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. In the same natural garden. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. According to a recent scientific survey. both in Galilee region. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens.2. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. see Olive (fruit).[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia.com http://www. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. Modern experience does not always confirm this.400 years ago. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region.net/ . though showing a preference for the coast.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. All seven trees continue to produce olives.6 km) as the limit. and the olive fruit. Specifically. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River.crazychefs. A supposedly even older tree. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. called the "Peisistratos Tree". Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. Italy. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. 1600-2000 years old. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. and. fine wood. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel.

particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. the Mediterranean Basin. Olive plantation in Andalucia.com http://www. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. Australia.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. such as South Africa.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates.net/ . The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. Argentina. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Israel. Chile. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. Sudan. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. northwest Africa) where winters are mild. Niger. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates.crazychefs. laperrinei (Algeria.

com http://www.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.net/ .

germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.net/ .com http://www.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.

Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. In recent times. It is used mostly for oils. the most common olive grown on Sardinia.crazychefs.200. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in southern Spain.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape.com http://www. A prolific bearer. anchovies. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. 'Manzanilla'. grown around the world.net/ . with purple-green skin. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. 'Bosana'. but only a few are grown to a large extent. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. originating in Dos Hermanas. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. The olive grove of Amfissa. a large. Seville. which consists of 1.Cailletier cultivar. often after being pitted. Rich taste and thick pulp. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. stuffed (with pickled pimento. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. rounded-oval fruit. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'.

Spain. Due to their highly valued flavour. good for eating and for oil. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. They are green. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. another modern Israeli. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. used as a table olive. named after the city of Kalamata. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. a large. It is green. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). 'Arbequina'. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece.[21] 'Koroneiki'. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. 'Cornicabra'. and elongated. though difficult to cultivate. It is used both for oil and for table olives. brown olive grown in Catalonia. 'Picual'. originating in Toledo. a small. 'Nabali'. 'Hojiblanca'. Spain. disease-resistant. 'Kalamata'. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. which. originating in the south of France (Aude département). but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. This small olive. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. 'Empeltre'. Greece. originating in the province of Córdoba. good for eating and for oil. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. large. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). Spain. medium size. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. and coastal climate conditions. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. originating in the south of France. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. They grow in any light soil. 'Souri'. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. It has a strong but sweet flavour. They are black and generally used for table consumption. round. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf.crazychefs. and elongated.net/ . Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. Their flavour is mild and nutty. The olive is medium sized. originating from the southern Peloponese. Moreover.[23] 'Barnea'. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop.com http://www. The flavour is mild and nutty. It is mainly used for oil. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. even on clay if well drained.

or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. up to several centuries. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. This method is used for olives used for oil. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. In Italy. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. They tolerate drought well. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. Another method uses an electric tool.net/ .) Olives like hot weather.crazychefs. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. More specifically. the trees are regularly pruned. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. soon vegetate. In southern Europe. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. and with the season and the cultivar. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. embryonic buds. In some places in Italy and Greece.poorer soil. In Greece. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. P. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. as in Languedoc and Provence. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. Olives grow very slowly. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. Olives are propagated in various ways. and can remain productive for as long.com http://www. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. However. being very hard and close-grained. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. Occasionally. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. but the time varies in each country. removing fruit from the tree. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. 114). it is valued by woodworkers. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. A. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. which form small swellings on the stems. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. to facilitate germination. the oliviera. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November.

the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. The method also involves sawing off branches. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places.crazychefs. large fruit (e. The olives are soaked in water to wash. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.. Typical yields are 1.com http://www.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating.2 kg of oil per tree per year. which is healthy for future production.5-2. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. a bitter carbohydrate. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. After some weeks. Fresh are often sold at markets. the fruit is not bruised. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. then drained. which is why they taste milder than green olives. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. which leads to a superior finished product. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. As a result. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. which can be eaten fresh.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products.net/ . through to full purple black ripeness. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. the creation of lactic acid. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar.g. which is a natural preservative. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. Olives can be used green. or green with hints of colour).

but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. and weather A fungus. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. diseases. can infect the trees for several successive seasons.com http://www. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. spices. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. juniper berries and anchovies. lemon juice. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive.crazychefs. wine.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. Cycloconium oleaginum. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. A species of bacterium. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. chili. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. olives suffer occasionally from frost.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. feta. but can be left to cure for up to three months. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. vinegar. an unnatural method. of which the water is changed daily. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. Lye-curing. induces tumour growth in the shoots. garlic cloves.6 to 8. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. In France and north-central Italy. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. Pests. Sometimes. lemon zest.net/ .[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. especially to young trees. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. The ten largest producing countries. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. oleae[27].salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. or removing the pit and stuffing them. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. salt-curing. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. their main predators are wasps. leaving sawtooth damage. Popular flavourings are herbs. causing great damage to plantations. olive oil. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. capsicum (pimento). The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month.

317. On the Causes of Plants.000 275.000 1. ^ Theophrastus. 5.597.1 25. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.7 27. Bibliotheke.000 1.3 8.9 6.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.0 3. Odyssey.888 178. and to cultivate olive-trees. 81. 6.149.500.crazychefs. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.13. Ancient Greek Agriculture.800.000 998.000 49. 7.[31] References 1. An introduction. p.089 6. 1 ).981 1. 4. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.339 300. 82.064 2.14.160. 3. 4. most notably South Australia.000 550.400. 2.000 430. ^ Homer. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.net/ .000 318.. 3. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.000 470.1). 1.685 765." (Herodotus.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.. Description of Greece 1. 1).3 20. 5. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard. ^ Pausanias.4 30.. ^ ".000 8. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees.830 2.300.000 20. 1992.6 31.000 594. 4. to make bee-hives.100 3.. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 250.5 6.000 280.000 498.140. 27." (Diodorus Siculus. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.com http://www. book 5". 38.5 63.988 500.5. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.8 16.

pasoroblesolivefestival.springerlink. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. ^ a b M. N. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. 29. Ellen. Syst. ^ Belaj et al. Apps3. rev. ^ Riley. ^ "FAO. 105. 29 April. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. Available through Google Books 11. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. ^ Lumaret. 69. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. me cichorea levesque malvae..A.htm.fao. ^ Fotiadi. 2001. ^ "Old Olive Tree".) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". J. Int. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 23. Zatoun. R. ^ [1] 21. Epikouria Magazine.brijuni. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. 35. Juárez.fao. 32:166–169.15. & Parker. ^ Balfour. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.zatoun.org. Bacteriol. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. EspasaCalpe S. Spring/Summer 2006 26. Masuelli. 13. p. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. Riley (2002). Moody. 27. Volume 15. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. Odes 1. Processing methods.hr/Home. & Ouazzani. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. Kislew.com/ 25.org/wiews/olive/intro. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. 28. Retrieved 2007-08-31. p. (1999) Ancient Trees." Horace. nov. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. Volume 18:27-35 20. London: Collins & Brown Ltd.jsp. E. Epikouria Magazine. J. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine".8.crazychefs. D. J. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares.com http://www. http://www. M Bauza & R. Retrieved 2007-08-31. ^ Muncipality Bar. (September 2002). 30.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. ca 30 BC 9. op. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. Brijuni National Park.aspx?PageID=151. Y. ^ O. 1779.31. R.W.cit. Elena "Unusual Olives". "Plants of the Bible" 1885. vol.. John Hutton. 24. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. Retrieved 2007-03-10. cited in F. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. AGRISCIENTA. nom. 1996. M. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". Tabak & O. 1981. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil.net/ . 4th edition. 1982. 2004". http://www. http://apps3. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. J. http://www. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. 17. Number 4). "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". Leshonenu (Hebrew).com/study. pp 110–113. Madrid.. ^ http://www. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. ^ Burr. Australian Olives. ^ Janse.279 18. A. 1999. Cavagnaro P. Rackham.. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil".. ^ Lewington. Simhoni.com/content/dlb533pw9cbwc59e/. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. ^ Gooch.

with slender branched stems. L. however. glossy green. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. and south to northern Mexico. with an entire margin. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. Corresponding to its species name. (French tarragon.R. seldom produces flowers. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction.com http://www. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. western North America.31.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. The leaves are lanceolate. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad.net/ .

This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect.[1] However. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute.[1] It likes a hot. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). It is normally purchased as a plant. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. due to the presence of estragole. Spreading plant can be divided easily.[1] Russian tarragon (A. A perennial. and particularly suitable for chicken. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. it normally goes dormant in winter. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն.com http://www. Russia and Ukraine. Persian and Russian word for . Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. dracunculoides L. by extension. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. Georgia and. Fresh. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety.net/ . without excessive watering.crazychefs. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. fish and egg dishes. but cannot be grown from seed. sunny spot. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. which is the Armenian.

[3] In Slovenia. Wiley-VCH. ^ a b c d McGee. Maggie (2002). ^ Gatfield IL. 3. Krammer G.crazychefs. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L.net/ . ISBN 9783527607891. Machinek A.Cis-Pellitorin. has been isolated from Tarragon plant.com http://www. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. Johannes Panten (2006). Stuckey. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Properties and Uses. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Horst. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. pp. 2. Foerstner J. Workman Publishing. The Bountiful Container. Rose Marie Nichols. 233. References 1. ^ Surburg. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. Ley JP.

Kitchen sage.net/ . and some drinks. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). it is used when roasting mutton. Broadleaf sage. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. In French cuisine. grayish leaves. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. though other species. In the United States.Salvia officinalis (Sage. and blue to purplish flowers. Britain and Flanders. Lamiaceae. It is a member of the mint family. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. Culinary sage. Dalmatian sage. Purple sage. In Western cooking. with woody stems.crazychefs. Garden sage. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. In the Balkans and the Middle East. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. cheeses (Sage Derby). Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Common sage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. sage has a slight peppery flavor.com http://www. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil.

[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. and tonic. flavonoid glycosides.com http://www. cornsole. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. which contains cineole. and thujone. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. antifungal.crazychefs. hypoglycemic. borneol. niacin. salvia. The underside of a sage leaf . caffeic acid. ursonic acid. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. estrogenic. oleic acid. flavones.[1] In a double blind. fumaric acid. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. means ―to heal". chlorogenic acid. antibiotic. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. cornsolic acid.more trichomes are visible on this side. antispasmodic.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf .net/ . ursolic acid. and estrogenic substances. nicotinamide.trichomes are visible. The Latin name for sage.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. astringent.

and more.appliedhealth. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. a purple-leafed cultivar. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. ^ a b c "Sage". PMID 12605619. Ohadinia S. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. 2. 'Icterina'. yellow and green variegated leaves. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. emmenagogue. a cultivar with white. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages.x.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind.00463. 'Alba'. 'Berggarten'. especially in sunny dry environments. http://www.[4] It was sometimes called S.com/nutri/page8453. hemostatic. OBeWise Nutriceutica. Applied Health. a cultivar with large leaves. References 1. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). Mohammadi M. and for low ground cover. 'Tricolor'. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine.net/ . a styptic.1365-2710. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. a small leaved cultivar. Retrieved 2008-02-04.crazychefs. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. Khani M. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. Pliny. doi:10.php.com http://www.2003. and used as a diuretic. Dioscorides. a white-flowered cultivar. a local anesthetic for the skin. Noroozian M. increasing women's fertility.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. Jamshidi AH. (2003). and for other uses. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. ^ Akhondzadeh S. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. snakebites. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. 'Extrakta'.1046/j.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. and tonic. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. 'Lavandulaefolia'.

4. (2000).crazychefs. Spiridon E. ^ a b Kintzios.net/ .com http://www. pp. 10-11. Sage: The Genus Salvia. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. Deni Bown (New York: DK.3. ISBN 9789058230058. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. CRC Press. p.