Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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com http://www. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. storage life is rarely more than a week. Greek. fresh thyme is often available year-round. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. . and Turkish cuisines.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. Albanian. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. while flavourful. which is due to its content of thymol. Leaves are often chopped. Thyme is often used to flavour meats.crazychefs. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . While summer-seasonal.a little less if it is ground. Italian. Depending on how it is used in a dish. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. and of herbes de Provence. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. the whole sprig may be used (e. In French cuisine. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof).Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour.g. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. In some Levantine countries. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. Portuguese. tomatoes and eggs. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. cuttings. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. or by the sprig. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. Dried. It can be propagated by seed. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. in a bouquet garni). Persian.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Syrian. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). Libyan. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. As a rule of thumb. assume that it means fresh. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. Lebanese. Spanish. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. It tolerates drought well. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. and in those derived from them. soups and stews. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart.

Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. it was used to medicate bandages. Because it is antiseptic. pulegioides × T. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. but is grown as a ground cover. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. It also has medicinal uses. All thyme species are nectar sources. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for . is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. hybrid T.crazychefs.[5] As with bay. an antiseptic. The dried equivalent is http://www.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs.[6] Thymol. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. salve. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. etc. tisane.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails.

Variegated lemon . including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme. 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times http://www. http://www. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/ .Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.

2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0. European.3 g http://www.Dietary fiber 3. B1) 0.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .net/ . although parsley has a milder flavor.0 mg Iron 6. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.8 g 3.1 mg Folate (Vit.2 mg Magnesium 50.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B3) 1. B2) 0. and American cooking. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).Sugars 0.1 mg recommendations for adults. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. often used as spice.9 g .0 mg Phosphorus 58. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.crazychefs.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.0 μg Calcium 138. It is common in Middle Eastern.1 mg 6.

Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. neapolitanum). The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. While parsley is biennial. Although little known in Britain and the United States. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and .[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. it is not related to real turnips. which then tend to protect plants nearby. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. which helps accommodate the long taproot. or flat leaf (P. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. it attracts predatory insects. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". tuberosum). Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. reducing pest attraction. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. Like many other umbellifers. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). used in soups and stews. For example. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. not blooming until its second year. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. However. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. Green parsley is often used as a http://www. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol.crazychefs.

e. http://www. leaf. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew.drugs. fried chicken.html. In addition. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf).. Goulash or Chicken paprikash).com". garlic. http://www. Jett. [1]) in oxalic acid." West Virginia University Extension Service. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs.aspx?id=1075&s=4. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. "That Devilish Parsley. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. a mixture of parsley. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. lamb or goose. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon.g. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. 2007. steaks. and sauces. Parsley as an oil. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. In Southern and Central Europe. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. with fish. References . and lemon". 4. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). "Parsley on plucodes. or 4900. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor http://www. Ossobuco alla milanese. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins.70% by mass. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women.[3] Parsley is high (1.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899. root.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries.plucodes.crazychefs. parsley is part of bouquet a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier. Last retrieved April 26. 2. soups. ^ a b c John W.

crazychefs.Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www. http://www. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O.

of the mint family. growing to 20-80 cm tall. The flowers are purple. O vulgare gracile. It is a perennial herb. and lovage http://www.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. produced in erect spikes. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). as well as . which is popular in southern Italy. fried vegetables. and to add a nice. Unlike most Italian herbs. Oregano growing in a field. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. Together with basil. Varieties There are a number of subspecies. Greek. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. spicy flavor. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. 3-4 mm long.g. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. Oregano is an important culinary herb.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. each with distinct flavours. capers. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. e. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. It is particularly widely used in Turkish.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . It is the leaves that are used in cooking. native to Europe. and grilled meat.

16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Balkan peninsula. useful for relieving children's coughs. especially for mutton and lambs meat. In the . heracleoticum (Italy. It has an aromatic. warm and slightly bitter taste.crazychefs. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. It varies in intensity. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. differs significantly in http://www. it can be usually found on table. which. however. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. In Turkish Cuisine. Oregano growing in a pot.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. salt and pepper.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. together with paprika. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. The influence of climate. Asia Minor) and O. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species. West Asia) have similar flavors. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes.[5][6] Additionally. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor.

which simply referred to "an acrid herb". The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". including Poliomintha longiflora.crazychefs. capsules. useful for relieving children's coughs.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. stomach upsets. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ this substitution would not work the other way round. cholagogue. ^ http://www. pinene. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. especially in the United States. A Cretan oregano (O. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. indigestion. fungal http://www. Lippia berlandieri.uni-graz. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. In the Philippines.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. also called Cuban oregano. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. oregano. thymol. emmenagogue. the father of medicine. stomachic and mildly tonic. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. influenza. ocimene. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn. carminative. mild fevers. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. Aqueous extracts. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. limonene. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep.[8] Hippocrates. ^ Organic Gardening 2. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. Coleus aromaticus). Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. but is usually stronger. Used topically. antispasmodic. .[7] and painful menstruation. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. enteric parasites. Plectranthus amboinicus. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States.html. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. expectorant. stimulant. and caryophyllene.Main constituents include carvacrol. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano.[12] References 1.

http://jn. Retrieved 200811-26.10. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".asp?item=1374& Food Chem. 6.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. Agric. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. et PMID 12730411. ^ ["http://www. Retrieved 2008-11-26. et al. http://www. (2005).org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286.2008. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 12. (01 May 2003). March 24 November 2008. J Nutr.uwe. J. ^ Epikouria Magazine.dmannose. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. ^ a b Faleiro. 133 (5): 1286–1290. University of the West of England. Draft revision for "oregano". http://www. draft revision for "origanum".) and Origanum vulgare L.nutrition. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". 53 (21): 8162–8168. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project".". 7. PMID 16218659. http://info.3. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. draft revision for "organum". June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. doi:10. Fall/Spring 2007 5. ^ Dragland. Fall/Winter 2007 10. ^ Epikouria Magazine.1021/jf0510079. Medical News Today. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. . June 2008. (Cav.

and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Also. meaning "hay". is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). Ferula communis. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). however. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. it seems. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). In Ancient Greek. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. recorded in the 10th century.crazychefs. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. It is a hardy. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae).[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 . This came from the Old English fenol or finol. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now".com http://www.[2] In Greek mythology. the diminutive of fenum or faenum.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. umbelliferous herb. it was from the giant fennel. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). perennial. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world.

) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb. with hollow stems. It is erect.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit. B3) 0. half as wide or less. B2) 0.5 m.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.047 mg Folate (Vit.5 mm wide.20 g http://www. and grows to heights of up to 2.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. they are finely dissected. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 3. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill. glaucous green.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and grooved. bulb. but thinner.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. about . with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike). B1) 0.crazychefs. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long.29 g 0.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates . B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.01 mg 7.

the United States. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. but is more aromatic and sweeter.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. which is also known by several other . It propagates well by seed. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. both raw and cooked. It is of cultivated origin.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "bronze-leaved" fennel. including northern Europe. and in other open sites in many regions. vulgare var.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type.crazychefs.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. though usually not as strong. for its edible.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. In North American http://www. F. it is often mislabelled as "anise".20 mg Manganese 0. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. in pastures. syn. both in its native range and elsewhere. by the late 19th century. notably the Italian name finocchio.

in side dishes. foliage. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice .[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. Many egg. or eaten raw. often tossed with chicory and http://www. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). variyali in Gujarati. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. anise-flavoured spice. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise.Fennel. mouri in Bengali. For cooking. salads. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. grilled. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed.crazychefs. but also the most expensive. brown or green in colour when fresh. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. or cooked in risotto. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. and risottos. The bulb is a crisp. It may be blanched or marinated. green seeds are optimal. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. sompu in Telugu. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. where bulbs and fronds are used. which are very similar in taste and appearance. pastas. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. stewed. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. fish. both raw and cooked. badesoppu in Kannada. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. though smaller. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. braised.

is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. sometimes with some sweetener. although not supported by direct evidence. used to ease flatulence in infants. also employed as a carminative.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties. act as phytoestrogens.[12] For adults.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. This http://www.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. Fennel tea. or its polymers.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. as it is said to improve eyesight. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel . Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye.crazychefs. which can explain some of its medical effects: it.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration.

[17] However. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum .justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. badian (star anise).com http://www. which promote growth of breast tissue.crazychefs.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. fennel and coriander. followed by India.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child.

itself ultimately from Phoenician.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. which are often called cinnamon too. and in Gujarati taj. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫.C. cinnamon is known as kurundu.[3] In Sri Lanka.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. native to Sri Lanka. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. it is called darchin (‫. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . in the original Sinhala.crazychefs. In Telugu. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum http://www. In Farsi (Persian).(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. synonym C. Chakka meaning bark or wood. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. it is called Dalchina Chakka. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.[2] In Marathi.[5] In Malayalam. it is called "Darchini" ( ). Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. the "real' cassia.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. In . In Bengali. Hindi. it is known as "DalChini ( )". Ceylon. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum.

and in Song of Solomon. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum http://www. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. in Proverbs.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. aloe and cinnamon. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. to protect their monopoly as suppliers.crazychefs. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome.

and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. 7–18 cm (2. "The shores of the island are full of it". The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. a Dutch captain http://www. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed.75–7. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining.Ages.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. although in the first century. However. in a letter of about 1292. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. which are arranged in panicles. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270.crazychefs. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. They established a trading post in 1638. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. took control of the factories by 1640. and coffee.1 inches) long. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. and used them to construct their nests. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape." (Braudel 1984. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. have a greenish color. tea. and have a distinct odor. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. sugar.2 feet) tall. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks.8–49. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. The .

In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. The next year. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. Brazil. the outer woody portion is removed. M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg.[15] According to the FAO. verum). about a dozen shoots will form from the http://www. . Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Bangladesh. which is left to dry. Madagascar. Vietnam. and Egypt. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special.crazychefs. Zanzibar. According to the International Herald Tribune. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka. and Vietnam.5 mm) inner bark is used. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. Java. Sumatra. the West Indies. followed by China. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. Chips are trimmings of quills. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Only the thin (0. India. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs.

[16] Ceylon cinnamon. for example.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". is generally a medium to light reddish brown. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. the related http://www. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). many websites.crazychefs. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). hard and woody in texture. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. zeylanicum). However. has a finer. and is considered to be less strong than cassia. using only the thin inner . and more crumbly texture. "Vietnamese cinnamon". less dense. as all of the layers of bark are used. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. or "Indonesian cinnamon". and thicker (2–3 mm thick).[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

crazychefs. tea. drinks. and fruits. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. and http://www. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. such as apple pie. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. macerating it in seawater. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. are easily distinguished. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. rather than cassia. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. True cinnamon. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. and sweets. especially in Mexico. especially apples. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). In the United States. bread-based dishes. but when cassia is present. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. hot cocoa. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. when whole. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. It is of a golden-yellow color. ‫. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. used in a variety of thick soups.5% to 1% of its composition. The two barks. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian . a deep-blue tint is produced. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. In the Middle East. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. and then quickly distilling the whole. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations.

linalool.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. few seem able to succeed.0. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. who failed. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. and Myanmar (Burma).crazychefs. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. and anethole. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. it darkens in color and develops resinous http://www. In Hoodoo.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. 2008. Encyclopaedia Britannica. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. ^ a b "Cinnamon". cassia. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. However. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. The Cinnamon Challenge. beta-caryophyllene. cinnamaldehyde.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. and money.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. luck. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.[34] Notes 1. eugenol. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh.and a very hot aromatic taste. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. cinnamyl acetate. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). love. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves).[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. although it remains untested.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity.

^ Yule. ^ The 22. Sánchez C.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". "Solid.html. Encyclopedia of Spices. 4. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009. Breyne) extracts". "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents".org/sici?sici=00754358(1970) p. Robert. PMID 16104824.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14.thespicehouse. Food Chem. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. J.. PMID 10077878.2. ^ http://www. http://www. Cai YZ. _of_life/html/1. Mancini DA. ^ Mancini-Filho J. 13. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Harvey.crazychefs.—Cinnamon. Nerín C (August 2005). ^ Tennent.htm 20.nii.html#pg598.stm 3. PMID 16190627. Torres RP (December 1998). retrieved 200807-15 6. http://www. retrieved 2007-05-01 19.1021/jf051513y.htm. Sir James Emerson.theepicentre. 437). The History of Food. Cathay and the Way Thither. 9. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. retrieved 2008-07-15 11. p.php?storyId=6672644. ^ http://www. ^ thespicehouse.en. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. p.CO%3B2-N 15. ^ [1] 16. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour. ^ Shan B. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. http://dsr. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. ^ [2] 18. _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. J. retrieved 200705-01 21. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. Agric.npr. Van-Koiij A. 53 (20): 7749– Cozzolino FF. doi:10. ^ http://links. p. 2009.fao. p. ^ Knox. ^ Harris.henriettesherbal. Cinnamomum. revised ed. Corke H (October 2005).com 17. Sun M. 10. 23. ^ "Cassia. 53 (17): 6939–46. Batlle R.html. doi:10.html. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report. Food Chem." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. ^ López P. ^ http://findarticles. Henry. Anthea Bell.1021/ http://www. tr. 437 7. ^ Felter.ihaystack. .iol. ^ http://news. Account of the Island of Ceylon.

luckymojo.1016/00219673(88) http://www. http://jn. ^ Taher. http://www.2337/diacare. a publication now in the public domain. The Perspective of the World.nutrition. Corn. Eugen J.lesliebeck. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). doi:10.utm. ^ George Mateljan Khattak KN. http://www. Retrieved 200808-05.12. Cinnamon. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007).2217/14750708.1. et al. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. retrieved 200705-01 32.3215. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206. www. Ali Khan MM. Muhammad et al. PMID 14633804. Akram et al.3. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. ground. 27.. Archer (1988). Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes". Alan W. .diabetesjournals. Braudel. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". Eleventh Edition. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade.113. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". http://care. Retrieved 2008-05-11. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. Safdar M.. ^ Khan A. ^ Yronwode.htm.html?source=r_health.2217/14750708. (2005). July 2000.26. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". doi:10. Anderson RA (December 2003). Vol III of Civilization and 26.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68.pdf.whfoods. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). Charles (1998). ^ [3]. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food.crazychefs. retrieved 200705-01 25. New York: Kodansha International.113. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". http://www. ^ Retrieved 200805-11. ^ Ranjbar. 33.sciencedaily. Leslie.. s_have_been/index. ^ Vanschoonbeek. 30. Retrieved 2007-12-17.sciencedaily. Retrieved "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". 34. http://eprints.php?featured_food=80. 29. Agricultural Research http://www. 28. ^ Research: Thalido.futuremedicine. http://www. Medicinal Seasonings. Cat. Fernand (1984). Kristof et al. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8.

Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus http://www. which it is not.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. powdered. Onions can be used. it usually refers to Allium cepa. They are known by the common name "onion" but. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. chopped. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved.M. and dehydrated ."[3] Uses Onions. and Allium asarense R. canned. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. used without qualifiers. frozen. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L.Department of Export Agriculture. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. They are now available in fresh. one of the oldest vegetables. pickled.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures.

Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. coughs. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. recent evidence has shown that dogs. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to . tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. However. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. cats. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. and also to relieve headaches. an onion can be sharp. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. In Bronze Age settlements. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. snakebite and hair loss.crazychefs. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood.[5] The onion is easily propagated. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage.[5] However. Depending on the variety. spicy. and other animals should not be given onions in any http://www.chopped or sliced. transported and stored. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. due to toxicity during digestion. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. In ancient Greece. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions".[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets.

027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B3) 0. B2) 0.34 g 0.saturated 0.monounsaturated 0.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.4 mg Vitamin E 0.1 g 89.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates .4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.013 g .crazychefs.polyunsaturated 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. 0 μg 9.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.21 mg Magnesium 0.Dietary fiber http://www. B1) 0.24 g .02 mg Vitamin K 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.042 g .1 g 1.7 g Fat .Sugars 4. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C .

then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). some studies have found their action to be ineffective. pungent yellow (New York Bold). Empire Sweet. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. Texas 1015. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. Peruvian Sweet. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. Shallots have the most phenols. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory.[10] In many parts of the world. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. In general. Texas 1015.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. Peruvian Sweet. and Vidalia. Western White. and other diseases.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. anticancer. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. Mexico. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. Mexico.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. followed by Western Yellow. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. Mexico.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. Imperial Valley Sweet. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids.crazychefs. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. osteoporosis. In the United States. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. Peruvian Sweet. For all varieties of onions. Imperial Valley Sweet. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. However. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). If you are allergic to onions. Western Yellow. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. Western White. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. anticholesterol. Northern Red. Empire http://www.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. Texas 1015. onions are used to heal blisters and . Empire Sweet. Northern Red. eleven times the amount found in Western White.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. diabetes. Imperial Valley Sweet. and Vidalia.

include reactions to onions.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. breathing difficulties. creating a stinging sensation. and in rare cases anaphylaxis.crazychefs. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. differs among Allium species. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. and bananas. garlic. garden lilies. ginger. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. Eye irritation can. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from . allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. mouth and throat ulcerations. nausea. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. The volume of sulfenic acids released. shallots. limiting the amount of gas generated. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. chives. On January 31. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. cells are broken. therefore. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the http://www. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. diarrhea. leeks. As onions are sliced or eaten. allylpropyldisulfide. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). allylmercaptan and allicin. 2008.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. it can lead to an allergic reaction. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. all present in garlic. where it binds to sensory neurons. and the irritation effect. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount.

The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and http://www. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. the Welsh onion. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity.crazychefs. Finally. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. which have been developed in more recent times. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. more commonly today. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. from sets started from seed the previous year. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. "short-day" onions. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. which can be planted directly in the ground. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allium fistulosum. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following . and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation.

a hybrid of Allium http://www. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion.346 2. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions. Tree onion or Egyptian onion . Vale.637 Japan Egypt 1. each of which forms a bulb. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion.crazychefs. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.220 Turkey 1.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).500 China United States 3.750 South Korea 1. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9.758 Russia 1. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.764 Pakistan 1. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.149 Spain World Total 64. Oregon (USA).Produce bulblets in the flower head.302 1. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple .101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.793 India 5.

Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. passed in 1958. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United . It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. It remains in effect as of 2009.crazychefs. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.The Onion Futures Act.

Allium sativum. and chive. shallot. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It has a characteristic pungent. Medical Botany. 1793. commonly known as garlic. Its close relatives include the onion.Garlic Garlic Allium . leek. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. the most commonly used part of the plant. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking.[1] A bulb of garlic. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. from William http://www. known as garlic.

The leaves.crazychefs.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. and for medicinal purposes.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated http://www. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005.[5] The "wild garlic"."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. In cold climates. according to Zohary and Hopf. The papery. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). for consumption (raw or cooked). softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. with Russia ( . is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. and Allium oleraceum. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. The cloves are used as seed. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. with approximately 10.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". They can suffer from pink root. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". accounting for over 77% of world output. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. respectively. In North America. India (4. Allium vineale. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. Garlic plants can be grown close together. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. the so-called elephant garlic. stems (scape). and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. "crow garlic". Garlic is grown globally. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic.Yunnan province of China. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. are common weeds in fields.

A = aggregate (may include official. northern Africa. and parts of South and Central America. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 254. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". including eastern Asia. Southeast Asia.000 221. tomato. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press.crazychefs.4%). It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.686.000 15. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12.000 http://www. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. south Asia. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure.000 325. or ginger. California.000 128.000 . P = official figure. the Middle East.400 140.810 168. southern Europe. semiofficial. or estimates).[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form.088.Alaska) in fifth place (1. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. It is often paired with onion. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. F = FAO estimate. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb.000 142. C = calculated figure.

In Japan and Korea. almond. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. is sweet and syrupy. and a chunky base produce skordalia. The leaves are cut. "stems". Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. garlic toast. and roast them in an oven. In eastern Europe. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of . and is now being sold in the United States. called black garlic. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. breads and pasta. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. bruschetta. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. the resulting product. cleaned. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. salt. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. Garlic. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. In some http://www. meats. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. Immature scapes are tender and edible. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. or "tops". Blending garlic.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. They are also known as "garlic spears". and then stir-fried with eggs. meat. oil. oil. crostini and canapé. or vegetables. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. United Kingdom and Australia. and spices.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. allylmercaptan and allicin.[51] To ward off vampires. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right.[48] Due to its strong odor. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. such as pistou. thus mellowing its spiciness. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. leeks. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. deterring animals like birds. werewolves. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. and worms from eating the plant. insects. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. ginger. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic.[50] In Europe. hung in windows. However.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. or leeks. Among the members of the onion family. When eaten in quantity. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. However. garden lilies. persillade. forming allyl methyl sulfide. all present in garlic. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. and release of AMS several hours more. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. however. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. and bananas. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. shallots. The herb is. shallots. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. and vampires. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. Humans. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). garlic could be worn. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long http://www. Since digestion takes several hours.crazychefs.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. therefore. usually enjoy these sensations. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. included in many garlic recipes. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. including onions. chives. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. making garlic much more potent than onions. allylpropyldisulfide. garlic.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. where it is .in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products.

suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. bleeding. In connection with the odor associated with garlic. and menstrual irregularities.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. nausea. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. if any exist.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. calcium channel blockers. as well as other medications. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath).com http://www. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. sweating. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events. are largely unknown. minimal risks to normal individuals. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. and diarrhea. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations.In Daoism mythology. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. Editing help is available. saquinavir. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. similar to the effect of aspirin. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of . dizziness. You can help by converting this article to prose. if appropriate. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. emesis. indigestion. However. antiplatelets.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. antiparasitic value of garlic. and hypoglycemic drugs. Garlic can thin the blood.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi".[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. at worst.crazychefs. indicated Muhammad. allergic reactions. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. antihypertensives.

[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such .org/Vol79/79_6/8. ^ McGee p. et al. ^ a b c d Tabor. 4. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. including burns to children.handle. Retrieved 5 June. A bulb of garlic. 2000). In 3. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. bigger. Domestication of plants in the Old World. 197 5. third edition (Oxford: University 9. (2004). ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). J. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum. ^ http://www. http://hdl. one the bulbs will grow peeled. G. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. 112 7.ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection".jhortscib. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. 397 ^ http://www.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes.crazychefs. 2.nj.html 8. Notes 1. et split. Retrieved 5 June 2009.natural-holistic-health. Ethiopia". topical use of raw garlic.html. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 2007-08-28. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. garlick)". topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.htm. is discouraged.) cultivars at Debre Zeit. http://www. so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. ^ a b http://www. http://www. p. (2005).

http://archinte.10. 30.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". ^ a b Steiner M. Chao WJ (March 2007).. 167 (4): 346–53. and Empiricism" (PDF). "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". 29.2004. Vosoughi McFerren M (February 2007). doi:10. 32.1186/1476-511X-6-5. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. 15. ^ Durak I. Facts. "Tropes. 33. 2005 ^ Groppo. Maud. Aytaç B. 18. [2] ^ Hamel.0705710104.1001/archinte. (Mrs. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. PMID 17328819. 16. 167 (4): 325–6. Sci. 104 (46): 17977–82.crazychefs. PMID 15277094. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". PMID 17951430. Proc. 25. 13. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. doi:10. PMID 15218732. 2006. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44.pdf. (p.manchester. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. ^ Gardner CD.1002/mnfr. Olcay E. ^ Charlson M. Block E. Lawson LD. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. Squadrito GL. Med. Daryn (2003). doi:10. doi:10.A. PMID 17918162. 26.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. Ferraresi. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". 14. Kavutcu M.167. 12. PMID 17966136. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic".ama-assn.346. Hyg. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know".lehoux/Tropes.ama-assn. et al (February 2007). Accessed: December 18. 11.A 400 Year History.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Sept 1996 ^ Garlic .org/cgi/content/full/167/4/ 54 | P a g e http://www. Oztürk HS. P. Lin RS (June 1998).S. Biochem. A Modern Herbal. J. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. ^ Kojuri J.01. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". et al (June 2004). http://archinte. Med. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. Yin MC.. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). Paul B.4. Garlic. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats".. 21. ^ Goodbye. Sylva. Capasso R. PMID 17123684.1073/pnas.1002/mnfr. Akrami M (March 2007). A.C.200700058.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. et al (November 2007). Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23.. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -. 31. http://personalpages. Dent. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . F. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. ^ Chan KC. 28. ^ Mader FH (October 1990). "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". 20. 15 (6): 373–7. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. Natl. 24." Int. Herald Publishing Co. Motta. doi:10.1001/archinte. J. PMID 15157944. J. doi:10. PMID 17325291. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). 27. 35. Sartoratto.005.167. Arch. ^ Durak I. ^ Benavides . and Mary U. Intern. 23. doi:10. Ramacciato. PMID 2291748. N. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Izzo AA (November 2007). PMID 9641475. July 1.1016/j. PMID 17325296. Better Nutrition. Acad. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology". doi:10. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". Sova P (May 2004). Mills RW.1162/106361403773062678. 5. doi:10. U. Arch.. 19. 22. Intern.). Nutr. ^ Borrelli F. 5:109–115. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. R. 34. Güven C (2002).200700072.

Nishino H. ^ McNally p.elsevier. Complementary Medicines Summary. ^ Kodera Y.pdf. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. 37. ^ http://washokufood. Thomson M. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. Slattery M. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. PMID 15616341.go.ukmi. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. Engl. Long D. a stress compound from garlic.473. (1991-08-01). ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). Bordia T.blogspot. Raymond T (1994). Lau B. PMID PMID 11600262. Retrieved 2009-01-30. p.36. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55.1128/AAC. Summer 2005 . Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60.. http://aac. 2007.Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. National Health Service. ^ Pickering.49. 38. Yoffe B. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF).jp/JST. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter.nhs. David (2003). ^ Bukhari.Garlic-in-Oil 61. http://joi. Ali M (June 1996). Sagi A. Shishido C. Kominato Y. http://www. et al (October 2005). 9 No.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ^ a b Mayo Clinic.economicexpert. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".htm "Allixin. James. ^ John S. (2001). 85 (3): 157–64.. Retrieved 2007-0707. PMID 11481410.".) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65.. 310–311 47. 120.goldbamboo. ^ Macpherson et al. Sterling Publishing. ^ Macpherson et al. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. Agents Chemother. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2.jst.January 29. 49. 122.".go. Castro C.2005.html 46. ^ http://lem. Jennifer (2002-12-13).. 049 .) 62. NLM Gateway. Chesson C. 43.asm. Microbiology (Reading. Book 65 57.. "Garlic burns". "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats".uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2.28095-0. Volume 7. 40. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. http://mic.. ^ Mosquito Repellents Matuura H. on mutagenesis.1099/mic.html 54. Scolaro M. Aon MA. Pickering p. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. doi:10. 211. ^ a b McNally. ^ Baruchin AM. Ronen M (November 2001). Toxicol. 49 (1): 473.unito. H. PMC: 538912. ^ Garlic . p. Retrieved December Jordan In Search of Dracula. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. 42. 41.jst. http://www. http://joi. ^ Lemar KM. "Effect of allixin. "Garlic burns". section "Conclusion" 48. (1989-01-30).net/ . Nishimura S. 211 51. W.0. UK Medicines Information. http://linkinghub. 64. ^ http://www. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. Passa O.. Teel DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". Houghton Mifflin. 53. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ^ http://www.html 45. ^ Health Canada . ISBN 0-30436561-0. ^ McGee p. Imafuku M. Steckelberg JM. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. ^ a b c d Hogg. 58. ^ Shuford JA. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". ^ Oi Y. Fuwa T. PMID 8441577. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. garlic advisory 63. Sumida T. Sanders N. 66. doi:10. Iwai 1988.. Itakura Y. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. Lett. Patel R (January 2005). PMID 8644128. Yoshida S. 2007. http://linkinghub. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. 4 . ^ Fareed G. Retrieved December 7.

ISBN 0-683-18147-5. I. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.P.. Boudoulas H. Wang. P.. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly".にんにく専門のにんにく屋. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. (1985). 129: 144–151. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. Z. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Balch.. Zhang. Kamenetsky. Lawson. 50. Vol. Bull.. Chem. Block. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. C. R. Vargas R.. R. Naoki Kashimoto. 354-363 (2002). Block. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Zemah. New York: Avery.. Rabinowitch (2004). 405-407 (2002). Susumu Yoshida. L. A. L. Gardner. Isao Sumioka. Hort. Chatterjee. [4] Lawson. and Related Species (Second Edition). Am. PMID 8506890. 50. Z. H. Kozue .. K. Jain AK.. Makoto Ichikawa. Masanori Ayabe.References Japanese garlic. Balise. McMahon FG (June 1993). Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3)... Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. Lloyd. Lemar. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". L. M.-Z. Efendy JL. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. D. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. Andy (2004). J. (1992). ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Pharm. Kraemer. Soc. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. D. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. "Garlic burns". Block. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. PMID 9247357. P.elsevier.. A... E. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono.crazychefs. Turner. Campbell GR. Belz GG (October 1997). D. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. Pharm. Campbell JH (July 1997).org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9355906. E. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. Shan. R. Yukihiro Kodera. A. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. (1996). Retrieved 1 May 2005. Garty BZ (March 1993). (2000). The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Jiro Yoshida. H. C. (2001). E.[青森県産]. S. Kiazand. D.. Am. Ling M. Williams & Wilkens. (2004). D. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum and H. Vol. L. Hile. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. Naoto Uda. 3rd ed.. Hamilton. The chemistry of garlic and onions. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. http://linkinghub. 94 (6): 632–5. Simmons DL. Garlic.M. Breithaupt-Grögler K. Shafir. http://circ. 'Kyolic'. Barzilay. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. Med. Selfsufficientish . Chem. Bull. Koch. PMID 8441577. http://www. Lawson. Sci. Gotzkowsky S. M.Garlic. D. A. G. H. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. E.ahajournals. J. Block. PMID 9355906.

et al. (eds). "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. Bernhard . Eid. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. PMID 15616341. Macpherson.12. 49 (1): 473. Antimicrob. Y-Y. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".49. (1999). http://meta. Marcel Dekker. "The Onion Family: Onions. (1998). Harold (2004). Steiner M. http://aac.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. Yeh. et al. Kadam.1128/AAC. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). Lin RS (June 1998). Scribner.1. PMID 8169881. D. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". Shuford JA.K.S. McGee. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. 31 (6): 904–8. 310–3. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. Patel R (January 2005). http://www. Samer R. Agents Chemother. pp. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. H. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Mader FH (October 1990). Leeks".. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". In: Ohigashi. SunWook Hwang. Michael Bandell. PMID 2291748.. Yeh.. Abstract. (1997). Steckelberg JM.2005. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". Pharmacol.wkhealth.crazychefs. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). PMC: 538912. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. Y-Y. Veena "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Geierstanger.. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Silagy C. doi:10.473. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. PMID 9641475. Neil A (1994). et al.asm.Lindsey J. Garlic. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. S. J.

when they are ready for collecting. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium http://www. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. In Vietnam. syn. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. and Sri . Cloves are harvested when 1. it is called đinh hương. Madagascar. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. after which they develop into a bright red. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m.crazychefs. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. and consist of a long calyx. Zanzibar.5-2 cm long. Pakistan. terminating in four spreading sepals.

This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. During . where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon.Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum.[1] In north Indian cuisine. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. which sells Djarum Black. warm and aromatic. often in combination with cumin. Cloves are used as a carminative. but as they are extremely strong. cloves are often used to season pho broth. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. In south Indian cuisine. they are used sparingly. entering the kidney. but with the addition of other spices). and are notable in their ability to warm the http://www.000 tonnes). Cloves are used in cheeses. it is used in almost all dishes.crazychefs. along with other spices. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). In Vietnamese cuisine. spleen and stomach meridians. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. especially for digestive problems.

[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. including Bacan.crazychefs. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his http://www. Ayurvedic herbalist K. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. Brazil. along with nutmeg and pepper. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. Ternate. 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5] In West Africa. including cloves. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. and Tidore. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne.[7] Cloves. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. mainly from the Maluku Islands. Khalsa. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. vomiting and diarrhea. Makian. RH (AHG). and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). including for multiple sclerosis. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. In the late fifteenth century. Subsequently.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus).[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. and Zanzibar. Moti. were highly prized in Roman times. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation. It is also used in severe burns. pimples etc.[7] stomach qi .[6] History Until modern times. most of the West Indies.P.

htm. Special Diets for Illness 6. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. gallotannic Prescription for Nutritional Healing. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves.. Erich Stoger.Question: Multiple Sclerosis".In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. comprising 72-90%. kaempferol.html Tilotson. 3rd ed. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.nlm. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. 8. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. Erich Stoger. 3. Andrew and Page. Spice: The History of a Temptation. Medicine Plus. and Andrew Gamble. http://www. Karen. ^ a b Turner. tannins.tibetmed. and several sesquiterpenes.crazychefs. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. the flavonoids eugenin. stigmasterol and campesterol.[8] Notes and references 1. Vintage Books. due to the high price of importing them. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". rhamnetin. Steven Clavey. James. Phyllis and and Jack (2004).html National Institutes of Health.squarespace. ^ Balch. pp. pg.nih. http://www. 94. Avery Publishing. ^ Dorenburg. 5. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. John Wiley and Sons Inc. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. xv. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. ^ http://www. ©2003. crategolic acid. 2. methyl salicylate (painkiller). Third Edition by Dan Bensky.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. ^ http://oneearthherbs. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is . Steven Clavey. ©2000. ^ "TibetMed .



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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while Lederer et http://www. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise". "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". 18 May 2009 2.2005. Retrieved 8 June 2009.iso. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. Retrieved 8 June 2009.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods.atypon-link.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". http://www. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. doi:10. 6.Botanical nomenclature". by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography".iso.1021/jf058156b. Vaishali C.htm?csnumber=19183. http://www. Ines et al. ^ Louisa Lim. 4.3. Retrieved 8 June 2009.chinaios. Retrieved 10 5. 3. et al.5555/jaoi. doi:10.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . http://www. http://www.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al.crazychefs. f. ^ Joshi.Specification".htm?csnumber =4844.) -.1542/peds. ^ International Organization for . (2005). ^ Lederer. (2006). NPR.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1.703. PMID 15492355.

com http://www. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/ . cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. native from the east Mediterranean to East India.

parsley and dill. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. in Iran and Central Asia. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . the white variety being suduru and the large variety. In Northern India and Nepal. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. a member of the parsley family.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni .(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). the story goes.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. being oblong in shape. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. In Arabic. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. Kerman. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds.crazychefs. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid . cumin is known as ziran (孜然). and yellow-brown in colour. locally called "Kermun". For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". maduru. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th http://www.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. cumin is known as kimyon. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in northwestern China. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. longitudinally ridged. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. including kamūnu in Akkadian. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. in Turkey. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. cumin is known as zireh.

net/ .crazychefs. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. In South Asia. Tajikistan. Mexico. today it is mostly grown in Iran. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common http://www. and Chile. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. when added to hot milk and consumed. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. Morocco. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. In Sri Lanka. and this practice continues in Morocco. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). Uzbekistan. Egypt. have been dated to the second millennium BC. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Syria. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. India. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. Turkey. Seeds. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region.

Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. The flowers are small. either ground or as whole seeds. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. curry powder.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. Sri http://www. It is an herbaceous annual plant. Indian. popular in Indian. and borne in umbels. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. Middle Eastern. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. and other Middle-Eastern.crazychefs. Contrary to popular belief in the US. white or pink. pinnate or bipinnate. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. Northern Mexican cuisines. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. adobos. thread-like leaflets. Cuban. but are smaller and darker in . Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. Pakistani. and bahaarat. curries. tacos. sofrito. and is found in achiote blends. containing a single seed. and in some traditional breads from France. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. garam masala. North African. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. Today. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. It is traditionally added to chili.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. enchiladas. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall.

25 g . well-drained soil.24 g 22. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3. hot summer of 3–4 months. and needs fertile.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish.81 g 8.7 mg Vitamin E 3. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.5 g Fat . Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine.579 mg Vitamin B6 . Cultivation of cumin requires a long.33 mg Vitamin K 5.saturated 1.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.very common in Mexican cuisine. It is grown from seed. sown in spring.Dietary fiber 10. it is drought-tolerant. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.27 g 17.crazychefs. the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.435 mg Folate ( http://www. 64 μg 44. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0. B3) 4.Sugars 2.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F).4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66. However.

For example. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin.v. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix.Zinc 4. from the Swedish word "spisa". In Polish the difference is even less significant. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron.a small cat). Not related to . caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". and larger than caraway (Carum carvi).a cat and 'kotek' . Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q.crazychefs.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. However. to eat. Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron.). unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. lighter in colour. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. a chemical found in turmeric. as in 'kot' .com http://www. In Swedish. The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it.

^ a b c Li. 3. 4.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. 206 5. Nicola doi:10. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. 2.1021/jf0487351. third edition (Oxford: University Domestication of plants in the Old World. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 . Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 .1016/j.05.ars-grin. http://www.2009.1302.".com 7. ^ http://www. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. ^ a b Iacobellis." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). 9. doi:10. from China". 2000. www. (2005).foodreference.77.crazychefs.arsgrin.aca. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Essential Oils". whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. doi:10.html 6. Lu et al. and Carum carvi L. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". (2009). 8. et al.1002/ffj." premiumwanadoo. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004).net/ . ^ "KMN.030. Retrieved ^ a b 2000). ^ "Kamūnu. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. ^ Growingtaste. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. Rong.

Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.crazychefs.

net/ . Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. http://www. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. medicine. cardamom. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids.crazychefs. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. and citral) have also been identified. and galangal.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. In laboratory animals. West Africa and the Caribbean.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. sedative. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. or spice.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). shogaols and gingerols.

ginger is called Aada in Bengali. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. enchi in Malayalam. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. ginger ale. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. in Gujarati. For storage. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. to which honey is often added. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. and ginger beer. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. [edit] Regional use In India. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. Allam ( ) in Telugu. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Ginger is also made into candy. stimulating the production of saliva. In South India. in Tamil Nadu. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet http://www. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. Inji in Tamil. Additionally. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being . Adrak. especially in the Tanjore belt. ghee. which makes swallowing easier. nuts. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. and tender green chili peppers. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. particularly gingerols and shogaols. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. crackers and cake. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar.crazychefs. Ginger has a sialagogue action.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. salt. and Aduwa in Nepali. or frozen for longer term storage. Alay in Marathi. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. cookies. and sugar.

Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. gingerbread. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. In the traditional Korean kimchi. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). In the Ivory Coast. On the island of http://www. during their occupation of the islands. In Western cuisine.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. In China. However. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. In Vietnam. In Arabic. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. a type of ginger beer. is made. In Burma. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. In the Caribbean. In Japan. and a variety of nuts and seeds. ginger is called gyin. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. It is also made into a candy called shoga no . ginger snaps. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. France. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. parkin and ginger biscuits. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. and making drinks such as sorrel. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic.crazychefs. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. Greece.

Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from . though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. though it does interact with some medications.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. including warfarin. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative. though studies been inconsistent. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. cough and cold. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. morning sickness and chemotherapy. which several scientific studies support. and used frequently for dyspepsia and http://www.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.crazychefs.

bloating. and although it's generally recognized as safe.[14] In Congo. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. in food etc. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. In the United States. In China. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce . In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. In India. clotting. In Indonesia. gas. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness.crazychefs. and individuals who have had ulcers. people use ginger for making tea. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. belching and nausea.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. reducing "winds" in the blood. ginger can cause heartburn. In Burma. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu. and heart rhythms.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly if taken in powdered form. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary http://www. which is considered a panacea. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. it is considered good for a sore throat.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones.

5%).000 F 177. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates. it is immediately scalded. Scalding. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. replacing China. Production trends . Nepal(~11.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. washing and scraping gives white ginger. but this generally reduces its value.7%). Traditionally. applied generally to the older and poorer roots.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. produces black ginger. followed by Indonesia( http://www. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. with over 30% of the global share. the root is gathered when the stalk withers.000 158. or washed and scraped. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff.crazychefs.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. which has slipped to the second position (~20. now leads in global production of ginger.

000 but it is not related to true ginger. A = Aggregate(may include official. Galangal is also called Thai ginger.arsgrin.000 34. .contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . Retrieved 2008-03-03. is used in cooking and medicine. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Also referred to as galangal. is also known as "wild ginger".387.000 28.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure.000 42. and its root has similar aromatic properties. http://www.crazychefs.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. F = FAO estimate.contains ginger material References 1. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine.ars-grin. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . http://www.270 1. Asarum canadense. the flower buds are the part eaten. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". semiofficial or estimates). a carcinogenic compound.000 57. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family.

org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367. 9. Sheng-Chu Kuo. Retrieved 5 November. Retrieved 2006-09-06. et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. Susan (2007-01-15).edu/biomed/spice/ Ali Taghizadeh et al. PMID 10793599. doi:10. "Beverage of Champions". "A Current Look at Ginger Use". ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153. ^ Chen. "Ginger". ^ Al-Achi. http://archfami. Li-Jiau Huang. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. 11.foodchem. Retrieved 2007-0808. New York: Scribner 7. Jaw-Chyun.html. 13.H. doi:10.1021/jf071460f. Retrieved 2007-08-02.library. PMID 9821826. Zainab M.html.umm. 15. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). 6. E. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". David Kiefer.mayoclinic. ^ Ernst. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). 8. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. Harold (2004). This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". ^ MD O' Hara. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". 4. M. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mary.cfm?displayID=15.2. Retrieved 2007-08-02. MD. 3. Tin-Yun Ho. (2006).amaassn. doi:10. http://journals. 10. 14. Shih-Lu Wu. http://unitproj. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. & MSt. & http://www. http://www. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. MD. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660– ^ Afshari. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats".uspharmacist. MD. (01 Mar 2000).1016/j. ^ McGee. ^ Al-Amin. Retrieved 2007-08-06. doi:10. Kathi Kemper. http://www.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. Antoine.013. (2007).01.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25).com 12. ^ Jakes.523. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger".1001/archfami. http://www. http://bja. MPH (1998) . Retrieved 2007-08-02. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.7.). ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by Kim Farrell.2006.cambridge.oxfordjournals. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.crazychefs.

slightly bitter. for dyeing. In medieval http://www. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30° . since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family.crazychefs. Zingiberaceae. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. Erode. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. and to impart color to mustard condiments. For these reasons.

[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry http://www. etc. gelatins. biscuits. or Textile City. cake icings. Over-coloring. dairy products. popcorn color. rendang. and many more. relishes. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). cereals. custardlike yellow color. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. turmeric is also used fresh. and mustard. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. such as in . Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. powdered form. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. orange juice. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. ice cream.[citation needed] Sangli. Although usually used in its dried.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine.crazychefs. but also in masak lemak. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Yellow City. much like ginger. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. sweets. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. yellow cakes. not only in curry. yogurt. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. Turmeric City. In non-South Asian recipes. sauces.

Within one week of using turmeric. an uncurable and debilitating disease. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. burns and bruises. It is unknown why it works.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards.crazychefs. yogurt. Japan. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. a traditional dish in South Asia. winter butter and margarine.[4] cancer.In combination with annatto (E160b). canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). and other digestive disorders. dry mixes. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. is also treated with turmeric powder. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. salad dressings. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. It is popular as a tea in http://www. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. Indians. arthritis [5] and liver . are spiced with turmeric. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings).

which supports nerve growth. research activity into curcumin is exploding. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. and Pakistan. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. and the U. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of http://www. found in black pepper. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric . Bangladesh. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . In 1998 researchers at St. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. and colorectal cancer. with no adverse effects.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. John‘s Medical College. or BDNF. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal.S.crazychefs. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. Alzheimer's. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. Snake Bite Anti venin. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. multiple myeloma. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. improves the absorption of turmeric. Bangalore. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body.

The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is http://www. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. and it is used for power and purification rites. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants.crazychefs. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. and coconut and cooked in steam. such as saris. jaggery.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. During the south Indian festival Pongal. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. However. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently. part of the Bengali wedding. In southern India. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of . as a part of the marriage ritual. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. This happens in economically lower situations. Also. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state.

C. 64(4):353-6. Judy] (June 2009). 2. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. ^ Chan. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.07. Retrieved June 2009. 1998 May.090. ^ http://www.I.6E)-1.thieme-connect. 6. Planta Retrieved 2008-03-04.stm 5. www. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. Joy D.1016/ http://www. The systematic chemical name is (1E.W. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as .2008. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain".gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.5-dione. Notes 1. or Natural Yellow 3. AOL Health. ^ http://news. http://www. Joseph T. et al. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1. a polyphenol. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms.6-heptadiene3. http://www. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers. | accessyear = 2009}} Srinivas PS. Majeed M.172. (2009).de Shoba G. ^ [|Ketteler. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution.aolhealth.foodchem. keto and thiemeconnect. Rajendran R.

and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). 10–20 centimetres ( http://www.9 in) long. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. Kemiri. . the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content.9–7. which allows its use as a candle (see below). is a flowering tree in the spurge family. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. also known as Candleberry.4 in) in diameter.6–2. Indian walnut.) Willd. 4–6 centimetres (1. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L.crazychefs. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. hence its name. The nut is round. flowers. simple and ovate. with an acute apex. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. The leaves are pale green.

the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. leaves and flowers. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. swollen joints. the nuts. In Hawaiʻi. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. however. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. lit one end. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as . Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. including: leis from the shells. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. pounded seeds. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. they are mildly toxic when raw. The flavor.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. In Malaya. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. On the island of Java in Indonesia. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. This led to their use as a measure of http://www. are applied around the navel for costiveness. as the candlenut is much more bitter. ulcers. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. and gonorrhea. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. named kukui were burned to provide light. burned with charcoal. Outside of Southeast Asia. fevers. In Sumatra. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. In Java. giving them greater underwater visibility.crazychefs. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a varnish with the oil. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. is quite different. http://www. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. Susan. http://books.html. she was given new life. named tuitui are pounded into a paste. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. Retrieved Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ This larva is eaten by some people. p. University of Hawaii Press. 122.). ^ Krauss. used as soap or shampoo. ISBN 9781573061377. Craig Thomas (2000). The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. Liana I.crazychefs. "Chapter 4: Canoes". Mikiala Ayau. In plantations. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). ^ Dunford. (1993). was routinely beaten. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. ^ "Kukui".google. http://canoeplants. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. . and the husband was eventually killed.[citation needed] References 1. Finally. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). One of the legends told of a woman who. ISBN 9780824822514.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. 26. 5.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. protection and peace. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. still nowadays. Bess p. 50-51. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Betty. despite her best efforts to please her husband.[5] In Tonga. ripe nuts. Beatrice H. tukilamulamu. 4. http://books. the god of agriculture. ^ Scott. Honda. University of Hawaii Press. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. pp. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. Being a kind and just woman. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage).google. Lilinoe Andrews.

is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. containing a single seed.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. . Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. may be described as black pepper. The fruit. known as a peppercorn when dried.crazychefs. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. Konkani:miriya konu. Kannada:meNasu. . . and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. The terms pink peppercorns. Telugu:miriyam. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. dark red when fully . unrelated plants. cultivated for its fruit. http://www. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. However. white pepper. green pepper. . Malayalam:kurumulaku. and very often simply pepper. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. red pepper (as in bell or chile).

and other similar forms. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. in the early 20th http://www. this was shortened to pep. White pepper consists of the seed only. chemical or biological methods. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. Dutch peper. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. wrinkled black layer. including decortication. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. often alongside table salt. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same . during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant.[4] In the U. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed. the spice is called black peppercorn. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants.crazychefs. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water.S.. and the naked seed is dried. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. with the skin of the pepper removed. French poivre. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. Once dried. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. In the 16th century. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer.

[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. Schinus terebinthifolius.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns".net/ . Fresh. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). is made from the unripe berries. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. the Peruvian pepper tree. particularly Thai cuisine. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. largely unknown in the West. unpreserved green pepper http://www. from Bangka Island. also green. made from the largest. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product.Black. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin.crazychefs. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. Schinus molle. are used in some Asian cuisines. which is mostly no longer an issue. like black. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. green. with a bright aroma.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. Pickled peppercorns. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family.

but when full grown and still hard. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. moist. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. entire. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. It is a spreading vine. and before the fruit is mature.[12][13] Within the genus Piper.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting .[11] Black pepper is native to India. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. Competing plants are cleared away. well-drained and rich in organic matter. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. if allowed to ripen. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red. The cuttings are usually cultivars. The leaves are alternate. the berries lose pungency. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. The flowers are small. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. poles. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. and ultimately fall off and are lost. or trellises. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres http://www.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

its most important source was India. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 http://www. particularly the Malabar Coast. in what is now the state of Kerala.crazychefs.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long . The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper".[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. In fact. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe.[14] J. Chile peppers. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum.

Until well after the Middle Ages. Malaysia. changed the course of world . as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. Sunda. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. this trade advantage. nor how it reached the Nile from India. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. pepper was also being grown in Java. Madagascar. Trade routes of the time were by land. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. growing in the north-western part of India. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. or used the pepper http://www. Returning from India. but these areas traded mainly with China.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. the Middle East. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. By the 16th century. Long pepper.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. barged to Alexandria. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. Sumatra.crazychefs. Black pepper.

Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. four. seeing that in other substances which we use. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. who travelled east to India. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. 12. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. After the fall of Rome. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. pepper was a luxury item. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. Apicius' De re coquinaria. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. and the luxuries of the table. Edward Gibbon wrote. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. the banquets of kings. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". if expensive. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes. .. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic http://www.[22] In addition. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. I season delicacies.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. first the Persians and then the Arabs. while that of white pepper is seven. and the prices reflected it. I wonder.H.crazychefs. and of black. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. is fifteen denarii per pound. it is sometimes their sweetness. Similarly. affordable only to the wealthy.. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. especially Venice and Genoa." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. There is no evidence to support this claim. clad in a wrinkled cover. Once into the Mediterranean. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. seasoning in the Roman Empire.

from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. "we seek Christians and spices. Today. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. as well as around Africa. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea.crazychefs.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. However." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. and salt-cured meats were common fare. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese http://www. the effect is small. A depiction of Calicut. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. has some antimicrobial properties. In 1498. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. Pepper harvested for the European trader.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the . In the 17th century. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. especially in winter. Pepper. his representative replied. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade.

indigestion. oral abscesses.[26] By the 12th century. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. Note the cook's pepper mill. including long pepper. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. each load being equal to 223 lbs. Long pepper. diarrhea. but both were used. hernia.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. gangrene. http://www. liver problems. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper..[25] In the 3rd century CE. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ".000 pounds (4. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. but if this estimated 10. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. either long or black. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a . however. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". was often the preferred medication."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. being stronger. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). lung disease. joint pain. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". — Alice in Wonderland (1865). heart disease. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as well as she could for sneezing. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. Like many eastern spices.crazychefs. earache. hoarseness. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. insect bites. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts..

There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. milligram-for-milligram. irritates the nostrils.crazychefs. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tooth decay. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging.sunburn. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. Some sources say that http://www. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. The outer fruit layer. chapter five.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. Few. a mildly carcinogenic compound. which give citrusy.[31] As a . woody. sabinene.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. if any. and linalool. left on black pepper.[31] Also. caryophyllene. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. Refined piperine.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. and floral notes. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. a substance present in black pepper. vitamin B. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. which is stripped of the fruit layer. and toothaches. causing the sneezing. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. limonene.

000 t (299. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. Thailand (4%). Malaysia (8%).000 t (391.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. by monetary value. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. are used for this. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. but has fallen to just over 271.[33] Once http://www.crazychefs. Sri Lanka (6%). which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. the most widely traded spice in the world. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over . sometimes instead of pepper shakers. for example. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. and China (6%). The price of pepper can be volatile. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns.000 short tons). Brazil (13%). India (19%). Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). dispensers of pre-ground pepper.[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are.[35] By weight. India. As of 2008. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century.

^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF).crazychefs. 9. Retrieved 12 August using almost none of its production domestically. p. 2006-1120.ars-grin. The Hindu Business line. Alejandra (2001). 7. 17. Innes Miller. Flora of China. Retrieved 13 November 2005. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. ^ Ochef. Retrieved 17 October 2006. ^ Peppercorns. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. Spice.efloras. Retrieved 2008-01-29. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon http://www. 88. www. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary.000 t ( http://www. disease and weather. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. ^ J. 8. Using fresh green peppercorns. Retrieved 2009-01-29. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 200803-27. Pepper. 3. Vietnam dominates the export market. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ISBN 0375407219. 6. 11. http://books. 12. ISBN 075653836X. Ramses . Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well.pd f. Egyptian Pharaoh.M1.2307/2657072. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 80 14. 93.htm. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. ^ Innes Miller. 18. ^ Translation from Turner. Retrieved 6 November 2005.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. 2. from Penzey's Spices.[36] Notes 1. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. ^ Dalby p. 4. Gernot (2006). 83 21. 5. Text online.amjbot. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. M. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. ^ Katzer. http://www. 13. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". and Builder. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08).gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. ^ a b Jaramillo. Retrieved 6 November ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. Black pepper is marica. Random House. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. The Spice Trade. http://www. 20. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". 1969).000 short tons). 10. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production".poor crop management. p.arsgrin. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. Warrior. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. PMID 11302858. Compass Point Books. p 94.

which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods.00969." 24. pp. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires.1365-2672. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF).x. 23. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. ISBN 9781580084178. Retrieved 2009-01-29. ISBN 0520236742. 108–109. 428. D. ds/IndiaSpices.ch05. 34.accesstoinsight. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. purchase required. 30. Dangerous Tastes. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. Dorman and S. doi:10. p. ISBN 0849336201. ^ Turner p. 171. 74– . ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). http://siteresources. http://www.karvycomtrade. Duke (1993-08-16). ^ Jaffee Deans (2000). http://www. Alan (2002). References Dalby. 77. ^ Montagne.1046/j. ^ a b McGee p. 395. ISBN 0600-60235-4. ^ Dalby pp. also Turner pp. ^ "Karvy's special Reports .pdf. table 2. 160.. ^ H.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". 156. G. p. Retrieved November 12. 27. ISBN 0521367085. 36. Davidson. Vol. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Karvy Comtrade Limited. 33. 2008-05-15. ^ U. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. Prosper (2001).S. Buddhist Monastic Code II. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. CRC Press. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. 10.worldbank. 35. 726. Full text at Blackwell website.pdf. Larousse Gastronomique. ^ Dalby p.crazychefs. Why does pepper make you sneeze?. Andrew (2002). TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. Hamlyn. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). http://www. Retrieved 2008-01-29. Berkeley: University of California Press. "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2000. "Spices. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. 12. 31. 26. Cambridge University Press. 2. ^ Turner p. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ^ Dalby p. Steven (2004). ^ a b James A. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. Jaffee. ^ Jaffee p.22.html. http://books. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries".com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01. "Mill". 29. 28. 25. 2005.

427–429. OCLC 56590708. Scribner. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. London: Vintage Books. Spice: The History of a Temptation. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Jack (2004). yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Turner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.McGee. Harold (2004) . OCLC http://www. "Black Pepper and Relatives". pp. ISBN 0375707050.

crazychefs.Sugars 2. B1) 0. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.057 mg 4.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.Dietary fiber 1.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. B3) 0. Today.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. B2) 0. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.64 g 0.40 g .com http://www. yellow. Peppers are native to Mexico. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. including red.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.Pepper. . Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". Central America and northern South America. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0. green and orange.224 mg Folate (Vit. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.17 g 0.

com http://www. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. or "piment.. When cut off. regardless of their color. Indiana. meaning Bulgarian pepper. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). In Norway. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. "gele paprika". " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. In British English. respectively). an unrelated plant. Sweden. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. At that time peppercorns. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. With the similar meaning.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. Across Europe. whereas パプリカ ("papurika.crazychefs. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. g. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. In France it is called "poivron". the word ピーマン ("pîman. Malaysia and New Zealand. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. which are green and yellow. were a highly prized condiment. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". meaning pepper-fruit. Grilled. instead of using as a spice. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. It is eaten with fried noodles. In the United States and Canada. in Dutch. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. the fruit of Piper nigrum. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). " In Japan. "green pepper").net/ . the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. they are called "capsicum". and "Maalu" means Vegetable. meaning Big pepper." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). such as Australia. India. like pasta. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. "Miris" is Chilli. In parts of Ohio. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. "red pepper". is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. and Pennsylvania. "groene paprika". the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan.g. the term "paprika". which has its roots in the word for pepper.

the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full . maroon.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". pink. in http://www. yellow. red. yellow or orange peppers. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. blue. rainbow. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. orange and. Varieties The color can be green. purple. more rarely. It is eaten as a raw snack. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. violet. aqua. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. black and brown.crazychefs. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. white. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. in various soups and stews. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green.

com http://www. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2]. Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita [1]) is a hybrid mint.foodreference. also known as M. ^ http://www. The plant.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). indigenous to Europe. balsamea .html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint .Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species.

with smooth stems. and bare fibrous roots.6 in) cm broad. it can grow anywhere. 6–8 mm (0. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins.5 in) long and 1. noted since 1843[8]. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall. fleshy.24– . with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. spreading by its rhizomes.crazychefs. 72. http://www. Being a hybrid. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. with 2n counts of 66.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England.20 in) diameter. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. blunt spikes. with a few exceptions.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid.6–3.5–4 cm (0. The chromosome number is variable. it is usually sterile.31 in) long. dark green with reddish veins. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem.59–1. forming thick. he treated it as a species. The flowers are purple. and 120 recorded. square in cross section. including stream sides and drainage ditches. Flowering is from mid to late summer. If placed. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.

some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. confectionery. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. chewing gum.crazychefs. particularly menthyl acetate. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[10] Similarly. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. ice cream.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.net/ .com http://www. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. and toothpaste. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. thus promoting belching. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps.1. and is often used as a flavouring in tea.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content.

which they then call "after-dinner mints. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. [21]. Eau De Cologne Mint). New http://www. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. Stems reddish. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. A mild. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. the Galápagos Islands. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. In addition to . areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants.crazychefs. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. as a natural insecticide. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. and it is considered invasive in Australia. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. Leaves aromatic. Leaves wrinkled. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. [18]. It needs a good water supply." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. it is advisable to plant it in a container. If you choose to grow peppermint.[12] Outside of its native range. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. Foliage lime-scented. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. hairless. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. [16].taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient.[13] and in the United States.

Thomson Healthcare. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In: Stace.. M. (1753). ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. ed. ^ World Health Organization. & Grey-Wilson. http://whqlibdoc. 5. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . http://www. C. ISBN 978-1563636783 10. (1975). Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15.dld. ^ a b Blamey.. 4th Edition. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387. ^ Harley. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats".02. Mehmet (2004).1016/j. 2. R. 7. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. ^ Cappello.who. ^ a b Huxley. 6.2007. ^ Linnaeus. ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. A. ed. (2007). ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2".[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . Flowers open from bottom . Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13.glu.pdf. a popular confection. Mentha L. et al. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. C. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. 9. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". page 640.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . (1992)..006. Retrieved 3 June 2009. A. C. (1989).crazychefs. G. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 11. ^ a b Akdogan. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints.

and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint".org/books/249/249_8. ^ International Organization for Standardization.htm?csnumber=11633. V. 25.. Retrieved 3 June. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". 23.Specification".sagepub. Ambika et al. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1151. Bienvenu (1998). "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice".10): 119 .D. ^ Adamovic. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita 19.htm?csnumber=4844. ^ International Organization for Standardization. and Mentha spicata L. D.interscience. populations. ^ Akdogan. 17.iso. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria.S. ^ a b c Jullien.. paraquat. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. Retrieved 3 June. ^ International Organization for 27. 18. F.htm.crazychefs. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev.1002/jsfa. (2007).. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . Plant Cell. Mehmet (2003).iso.htm?csnumber=32041. Retrieved 6 June 2009.wiley. Valerie Howland (2006). "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. Frédéric et al. on kidney tissue in rats". ^ Sharma.122. 26. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. 20. J. http://het.2740311104. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats". http://www3. Retrieved 7 June 2009. Australia". Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 .sagepub. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .actahort. Retrieved 3 June. doi:10. Retrieved 6 June 2009. doi:10.219. Retrieved 3 June. S. . ^ Edwards. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. Bienvenu (1999).16. http://www. http://tih.htm. F. 22.)". Retrieved 8 June 2009. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 . 21. Retrieved 7 June 2009. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. Derek R. et al.1071/AP99036. ^ Akdogan. ^ Farley. Mehmet et al.)".159. 24. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 .1023/A:1006185103897. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .E. (2004).

also sometimes known as Allium porrum. porrum (L.crazychefs.). although different in their uses as food. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var.) J.Gay The leek. along with the onion and garlic. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Two related . to the Alliaceae family. is a vegetable which belongs.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. porrum ( http://www. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. Allium ampeloprasum var. the elephant garlic and kurrat. ampeloprasum var.

Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. and they have few pest or disease problems. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several . Once established in the garden.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. and overwintering leeks. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. to be planted out as weather permits. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. leeks are hardy.crazychefs. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering http://www. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. intended for harvest in the season when planted. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Growing Leek field in Houthulst.

Cuisine Leeks for http://www. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). along with leek soup. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. as the leek ages. In its raw state. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. due to the layered structure of the leek. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. Raw. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. which turns it soft and mild in taste. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. carrots and potatoes and different meats. although less bitter than scallion. The tender core may be eaten. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. The onion-like layers form around a core. but. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. Fried. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: . which can be used in salads. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. Lamb is the most popular. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk.

Dietary fiber 1.8 g Fat .Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.polyunsaturated 0. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.monounsaturated http://www.233 mg Folate (Vit.3 g 1.C. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero.saturated 0. onwards.E.C.E. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.15 g 0. as well as other recipes with leeks.04 g .Sugars 3. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.4 mg Vitamin B6 0.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.004 g .‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.9 g . B2) . B1) 0. who consumed it most often in soup. providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe. In her book. 83 μg 14.crazychefs. B3) 0.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. as well as wall carvings and drawings.

According to one legend. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. for example. you know. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. In the play.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. David‘s Day. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. good countryman.Vitamin E 0. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.12 mg recommendations for http://www. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. representing Wales.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. .

net/ . ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria http://www. Domestication of plants in the Old World.Notes 1. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. third edition (Oxford: University Press. 1978. 2000). French Women Don't Get Fat. ^ Guiliano.. 3.crazychefs. Mireille. Knopf. (Penguin Books. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. ^ Jane Grigson.

graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.Dietary fibre 1.6 g Fat Protein Water 0.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. Celery. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten. dulce) or celeriac (var.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for . raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.2 g 0.Sugars 2 g 3g . Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.crazychefs. with fewer than 100 individuals left. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.

these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. 30 AD. onions.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. Celery is a staple in many soups. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. often used as a base for sauces and soups. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. Actually very small fruit. and in Old Bay Seasoning. squirrels. as celery salt. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. Celery. such as chicken noodle soup. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots.In temperate countries. onions. http://www. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. horses. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. celery is also grown for its . in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). Celery. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. dogs. on the Chicago-style hot dog. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. and small rodents.

Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. Lemnos and http://www. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. they note "since A. at Kastanas. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. for people with celery allergy. have to be clearly marked as such. even in trace amounts. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. however. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. In Homer's Iliad.crazychefs. father of the Cabeiri. M.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . foods that contain or may contain celery.[8] In the European Union. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. Celery contains androstenone. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. However." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. making avoiding such foods difficult.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets.

but the leaves may be used in salads.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). sweetish. The flowers are creamy-white. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. In North America. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. produced in dense compound umbels. seleri. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery.. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. fields are harvested only once.crazychefs. white and red. the whole plant having a coarse. straightness and thickness of petiole.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars.[14] With cultivation and blanching. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. cracks. and the most crisp and tender. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. splits. from the Latin selinon. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. 1. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. insect damage and rot). The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. many of which differ little from the wild species. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. The plants are raised from seed. and Praetors feasts. In the past. Under optimal conditions. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. and a distinctive smell. due to extremely uniform crop growth. as the Grace of the whole Board". earthy taste. apium Italicum. borrowed from Greek.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. at our Great Mens . 2–3 mm diameter. They are ranged under two classes. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. shape.5–2 mm long and wide. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring.. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. The wild form of celery is known as smallage.

12.. Ko SN. de Medicina. 10. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. 14. (2002-06-10).shtml. http://postharvest. ^ (June 1993): 610-611.nsf/pages/smallage. Retrieved 2008-03-04. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay.202. (2005). ^ Pliny. ^ Celsus.. Lee LG. 2003. T. ^ William Robinson and W. ^ Teng CM.crazychefs. Natural History XIX. ^ OED. (3rd ed. et al. Western Journal of Medicine 158. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. Suslow. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. Thayer translation [1] 4. 9. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. 2. 3.ucdavis. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. ^ Calcium sources 7. s. and proper sanitation. Wilson IBH. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). Retrieved 2009-05-03. p. Kraft D. gentle handling.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). 1920). 16. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. http://www. 2000) p.[16] References 1. Zohary and M. Heiner DC. Celery and Negative Calories 6. 11. M. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. ^ "Smallage". 8. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". C (1753). which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. Hopf. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Cantwell. Radauer C. M.17:1697-1699. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. 15. ^ Bublin . P. Scheiner O. "Celery". ^ a b Fragiska. Post-harvest technology research and information center. ^ Celestin J. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". Species Plantarum: Tomus I.L. ^ R. The Vegetable Garden (3rd http://www. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. 227. (Laurentii Salvii). West J. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". ^ snopes. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. 13.

98 g 0g 0g 0.Sugars 99.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose.Sugars 96.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.03 g Riboflavin (Vit. B2) .Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99. Magnification of grains of sugar.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. For the common table sugar.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates . showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.crazychefs.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates . Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars. (Discuss) For other uses. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3. see Sugar (disambiguation). Sugar. see sucrose.91 g .Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein http://www. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.21 g .

B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1. lactose. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.026 mg Folate (Vit. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar http://www.crazychefs. and fructose. sugar maple (in maple syrup).77 g Thiamine (Vit.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.082 mg Vitamin B6 0.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. .18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions. but also appears in fruit. obesity and tooth decay. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. It forms the main ingredient in candy.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. B2) 0.Water 1. B1) 0. B3) 0. honey. mainly sucrose. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. and in many other sources. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit.

com http://www. the Spanish word azúcar. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". preservation.crazychefs. In a list of ingredients. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. zahari. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Spanish and/or Italian. etc. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel.) The Greek word for "sugar". and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. In this informal sense. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. Scientific Scientifically. including palm sugar and fructose.Popular In non-scientific use. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. means "pebble".[4] It came to English by way of French. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). (Compare the OED. Etymology In the case of sugar. such as glucose. the Italian word . and texture) of beverages and food. sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. Generically known as "syrups". The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. "fructose". Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. molasses or treacle.) will likely denote a sugar. "dextrose". and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ . Sugars include monosaccharides. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. making the sugars reactive. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. 2. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. disaccharides. where there are carbon-oxygen double http://www. This includes all the sugars referred to above. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. as its name suggests.Culinary sugars Grainier. raw sugar. has a "missing" oxygen atom. deoxyribose. Natural sugars come in fruit.containing 1. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. important molecules in the body. plus sugars naturally present in honey. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. syrups and fruit juices. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form.crazychefs. cook or consumer. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . 3. A notable exception. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right).

Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. Note for example glycoproteins. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. This resulting syrup. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. glucose. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. producing invert sugar.water (H2O) per bond. which is made of glucose. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate . Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. If combined with fine ash. with less than 0. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. including NADH and ATP. sweeter than the original sucrose. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. galactose and mannose. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . proteins connected to one or more sugars. sugar will burn with a blue flame. Monosaccharides include fructose. fructose. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. lactose (milk sugar . Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. After digestion and absorption. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11.crazychefs. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). and galactose. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. which form part of nucleic acids.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses).[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11.1% of the molecules in the open-chain http://www. or DNA. In these closed-chain forms. which has the formula C6H12O6.made from one glucose and one fructose).

OCLC 44493265. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0. ISBN 063205476X.htm 3. 4. Sugar Blues. The International Sugar Trade. Cambridge: http://www.illovosugar.crazychefs. ^ scientificpsychic. Blackwell Publishing. History of Science and Technology in Islam.56 g/ml Beet Sugar ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan.webmd.80 g/ml Notes 1. ISBN 1566398320. ^ "Engineering Resources . Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. Glyn (2004). James. Joseph and Mike Carlson.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. 5. A C Hannah. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. OCLC 51837990 84251137.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History." http://men. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sugarcane. 1996. Michael (January 2001).Bulk Density Chart. Temple University Press. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical 2. ^ International sugar statistics http://www." Powder and Bulk References .com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. ^ Wuebben.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6.

5% molasses (dark brown sugar).com http://www. Brown sugar contains from 3.25% of the total volume). Products for industrial use (e.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. without mixing them separately. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. . This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. sugar beet molasses is used.35 mm. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. It is. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. for light brown sugar. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. especially in the Netherlands. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. Although in some areas. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed.crazychefs.

net/ . suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. The effort was so successful that by 1900."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. in his studies (cited in "Pure. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. much like adding molasses would do.crazychefs. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. History In the late 1800s.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. dark brown sugar should be used only when http://www. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar.[2] John Yudkin. In other applications. as opposed to white sugar. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. White and Deadly" . apart from pure carbohydrate. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar.[1] However. Nutritionally.

light brown. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar".org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. light brown. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. largecrystalled.php?id=3026.csrwire. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup.htm#sugarmade.fao.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana.3 fao. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar.". ^ Levenstein. Demerara is another unrefined. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. http://www. centrifuged. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. 2.crazychefs. 6. ^ New Scientist. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. resulting in the characteristic large. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ binado_Sugar. Muscovado. http://www. an island off Africa. 32-33 5. 7.wildernessfamilynaturals.html. Harvey. which is then crystallized. http://www. cane sugar. Retrieved 2008-09-20. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar. References 1. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. giving it a higher mineral content. or Demerara sugar. http://www. but most is now produced in Mauritius. crystals. Retrieved 2008-09-20. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. Retrieved 2008-09-20. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. where sugar cane was grown.htm#bm07.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left).

crazychefs. including high blood pressure. the two major components of salt. Chloride and sodium ions. including http://www. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. white. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body.[citation needed] Conversely. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. but toxic to most land plants. 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and iodized salt. It is a crystalline solid. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. refined salt (table salt). which some use to prevent caking. pale pink or light gray in . overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl).

glass.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. as were salted birds and salt fish.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. however. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.[2]:44 Along the Sahara.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. salt provided the best-known food preservative. China dates back to at least 6000 BC.crazychefs. In 1960.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure. in the millennia before then.000 tons of . and the dye Tyrian purple. especially for meat. the caravans still transported some 15.

Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. the Roman exonym for the Celts. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. began open pan salt making. Hallstatt. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. though incorrectly. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". and Egyptian. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. who had heretofore mined for salt. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. which was illegal under British rule. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. the Hallstatt Celts. God sent down four blessings from the sky .[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. salz.also gave us Gaul. Greek.[citation needed] The root hal(l). It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres.crazychefs. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26).[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. the earliest being the story of Lot's and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. water. (Judges 9:45. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. During the first millennium BC. a root for salt found in Celtic. taking their names from hal(l)-. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". Halych in Ukraine. In religion According to Strong's .Salzburg.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100.) In the Sermon on the Mount. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error.[1] It is widely." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. In many Pagan religions esp.

and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and . to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. Halite.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and http://www. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. such as in Sumo Wrestling. In Aztec mythology. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts.crazychefs.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God.

[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper.crazychefs. One example are bath salts. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. food uses account for 17. and thus is rarely eaten. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. Refined salt. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia.Different natural salts have different mineralities. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. Injected water dissolves the salt. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. which is most widely used presently. In recrystallization. is mainly sodium chloride. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects.[12] http://www. which are kiln-dried. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. Today. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. natural sea salt harvested by hand. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. and the making of soaps and detergents.5% of salt production. giving each one a unique flavor. After the raw salt is obtained. Purification usually involves recrystallization. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic . Fleur de sel. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide.

ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. calcium or magnesium carbonates. and a bulk density (dry. silicon dioxide. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. and calcium aluminosilicate. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. sodium aluminosilicate. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together.165 g/cm3. calcium silicate.154 g/cm3. Table salt has a particle density of 2. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. Some people also add a desiccant. however.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. fatty acid salts (acid salts). magnesium oxide.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals.crazychefs.[29] However. but was determined to be unnecessary.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as a few grains of uncooked rice.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization. Single-serving salt packets.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United . condiments such as soy sauce.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian http://www.

sodium iodide. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. with insufficient salt intake.[33] Drinking too much water. magnesium. which can cause severe. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. potassium. or even an electrolyte disturbance. which can cause goitre. The reason for this is unclear.crazychefs. In France. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. and myxedema in adults.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In the United States. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. dizziness. which gives the table salt a yellow color.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. fluorinated table salt is available. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR . In Canada. especially important for pregnant women. iodized salt is more common in the United States. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is http://www. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck.[31] Today.[32] Another additive. specifically endemic goiter. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. neurological problems. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. cretinism in children. or sodium iodate. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. even fatal. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom.

[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. forced salt intake. such as in treatment of dysautonomia." ([41] p3).person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia)." ([41]. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. p18) However.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. combined with an inadequate intake of water. the risks have been exaggerated for most people." ([41].[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products. salt consumption is higher.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. It can exacerbate renal .com http://www. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. can cause hypernatremia.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.[38] heartburn." ([44]." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. in Japan. since salt was quite valuable). Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake.crazychefs. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. independently of blood pressure effects.

but achievable population goals.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 http://www. However. Some isolated cultures. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. such as the Yanomami in South America.crazychefs. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.[50]. have been found to consume little salt. A salt mill for sea salt. SACN states. for a typical adult. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of .[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium.

[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. One manufacturer.g.6g sodium).net/ . LoSalt. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation. without recourse to salt substitutes. it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA). a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.5g salt per 100g (or 0. etc.1g sodium). or Green (Low). Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it".[57] In March 2007.crazychefs. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day.[51] In the United States.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free".3 g sodium = 5. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium.'[55] Campaigns In http://www. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.300 mg of sodium (= 2.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Those who have kidney failure. calories. then that is a medium level of salt.)." In the UK.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). Low is 0.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. Amber (Medium).8 g salt) per day. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High).[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. When other health claims are made about a food (e. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. Australia. low in fat. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. "low". which will increase potassium intake. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children.

9). Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone).net/ .com http://www. Germany (17. Notes 1.answers. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other million tonnes).com/salary. http://en.3). Costs can reach staggering amounts. http://www. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. 7. 8.wikisource. 4. ^ "Salt". New York: Robert Appleton Company. 2. Triamterene. India (14. China (32. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application. Dytac. Retrieved 2008-12-14. 1913. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. and by mining rock salt. and Hall in Austria. 6. called halite. Answers. 4th edition". Catholic Encyclopedia.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l).in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. and Canada (12. In 2002.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. 3. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction.crazychefs.5). These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. 5. such as brine wells and salt lakes. the top five producers being the United States (40. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. Eplerenone and Inspra. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. Vol. 10. 281. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. Retrieved 2008-07-29. Salt ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. ^ 2008 ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. http://books. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". 5379. ^ B. ^ a b http://news. Transportation Research Board. ^ References on food salt & health issues. ISBN ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. 11. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine Curriculum 18. salt uses.newton. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. sodium. salt manufacture. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. 12. salt uses. http://www. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations.htm 15. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 16. ^ Nauticus .9. salt history.afssa. Epikouria Magazine. ^ David ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia.roskill. 14 August 1998. 898 .stm 38. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt.anl. ^ What is Salt?. http://www3.907 37. "The (Political) Science of Salt". Retrieved 2009-0708. Retrieved 200907-08. pp. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. Kuemmel (1994).com http://www. Mason (2006-12-19). Key information on salt from the Salt Industry . ^ Gary Taubes. ^ Iodized Salt 32. Fall/Winter 2006 10. no. sodium.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. salt history.wiley.htm. p. ^ HE-620 24. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt".bbc. J. Salt Institute. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www.pdf 33.interscience. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: salt manufacture.saltsense. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Iodized Salt Victoria) Salt 34.htm 19. 28. ^ Table 27.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. Ask a Scientist. Science. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032.9% sodium chloride

The Story of Salt. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. (accessed13 January 2007) 49.hyp. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.pub2 References Kurlansky. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43.. 7.40. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. D. New OCLC 48573453. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47.P. Barber. Friedrich Schulz. Schindler.legalmed. Cutler JA.1002/0471238961. Sodium chloride. Published online 2005. 28 January 2008. New York: W. ^ Salt Matters 60. Mark. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. 61. ^ Elisabeth Elena Tü .1016/j. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases.005 ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. ^ Understanding labels 55. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. 47-50. Sodium 52. 62. Obarzanek E et al. and S.. Erwin Koops. Norton & Co. Salt: A World History. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63. ISBN 0802713734. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study.2004. ^ Cook NR. New York: Walker & Co. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. John Wiley & Sons. NY: G. Further reading Kurlansky. 2007. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. ^ Salt TV ads 59.crazychefs. BMJ. Legal Medicine 2005. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. Feldman. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). S. doi:10.1915040902051820. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. http://www.a01. doi:10. ^ Susan R. The Mummies of Ürümchi. Victoria) Fluid retention 46.334(7599):885. ^ U. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". 2006.06. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia.healthandwellbeing.W. Mark (2002).guardian. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". ISBN 0393320197. OCLC 48426519.

153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy .net/ .crazychefs. by Dr Trevor Beard. The Stationery http://www. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Department of Health. Arts and traditions of the table. New York: Columbia University Press. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. Salt: Grain of Life.Laszlo. Pierre.

which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth http://www. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper.crazychefs. such as . as well as in neighbouring countries. phrik thai. Malaysia.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Vietnam. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. phrik khi nu(lit. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. mainly Kerala. Indonesia. the Philippines and Singapore. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. It can also be found in India. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . found commonly in Thailand.

the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. Although small in size compared to other types of http://www." which can best be described by the English equivalent. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones.crazychefs. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies.000 on the Scoville pungency . They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries.000 to 100. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. "Big things come in small packages.

essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit.crazychefs. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. and go from green to yellow. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. and then red. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. has peppers that point upward on the plant. Ladâ. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). The more decorative. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum http://www. creating a rainbow effect. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name).net/ . Thai hot. and among the group of capsicum annuum.As well as the Malay word. Thai). Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). orange. phrik khii nuu ( .wikipedia. but slightly less pungent variety. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan.

157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium . celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. Unlike other root vegetables. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. about the size of a large potato. furrowed. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and http://www. It is a kind of celery. which store a large amount of starch. or used in casseroles. usually mashed. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. It has a tough. Celeriac has a celery flavour. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. gratins and baked dishes. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. it can also be used on its own.

2 g . Celeriac soup. 'Ibis'.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths. There are a number of cultivars available. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. especially in Europe. Among them are 'Prinz'. raw Nutritional value per 100 g ( .3 g 1.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean. and 'Kojak'.6 g 9.Sugars 1. Celeriac.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the http://www.Dietary fiber 1.crazychefs. rinsed. 'Diamant'.

Pakistan and Sri Lanka. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. and see text The eggplant. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. The stem is often spiny. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) http://www. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India.crazychefs. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. The flowers are white to purple. (Semi-)wild types can grow much . aubergine. or brinjal (Solanum melongena).Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. As a nightshade. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. It bears a fruit of the same name.

The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. The name eggplant. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. soft seeds. In the Caribbean http://www. Australia. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. The fruit is fleshy. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. which are edible.crazychefs. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman . Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. flower The plant is native to India. from Arabic al-badinjan. 1500 CE. which is used in British English. In Indian and South African English. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. but much larger in cultivated forms. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. The name aubergine. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids." Aubergine and brinjal.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. used in the United States. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and contains numerous small. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. New Zealand. History Solanum melongena.

There are even orange varieties. green. shape and color.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. especially purple. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. whiteskinned. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. and Black Beauty. Dusky. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Classic. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. Black Magic. Some cultivars have a color gradient.crazychefs. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. A much wider range of shapes. slightly pendulous cucumber. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. in white skin Dourga. Pingtung Long. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North http://www. and Tycoon. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a . Ichiban. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. Burpee Hybrid. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Traditional. or white. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers.

tahini. It. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. allowing for very rich dishes. along with the fish Hilsa. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. In some parts of India. battered. peanuts. and deep-fried. or other fillings and then baked. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. for example. as in the related tomato. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. as in the French ratatouille. complex flavor. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. rice. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. so that peeling is not required. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. It can be sliced. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka http://www. and achaar. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. It is often stewed. or tamarind. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. The fruit flesh is smooth. curries. In one . or Eggplant Parmesan. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. In the Caucasus. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. and garlic. for example in sambhar. it is called Begun ( ). Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. braised (紅燒茄子). the Arabian moussaka. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. tomatoes. In Bangladesh. In Iranian cuisine. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes.crazychefs. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. tahini. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. As a native plant. chutney. and masala and then cooked in oil. The thin skin is also edible. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. as they are far less bitter. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt.

Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. depending on cultivar. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. the most serious of which is Verticillium.) to 60 cm (24 in. such as tomato. (Adults can be removed by hand. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems.crazychefs. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease. flea beetle. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. pepper (capsicum). and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. containing both female and male structures. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first http://www. aphids. and potato. and spider mites.) between plants. Egypt. This is called Beguni ( ). Flowers are complete. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%).covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).net/ . a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. are also troublesome to eggplants. For this reason. showing the inside. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.) between rows. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing.

com http://www.Dietary fiber 3.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world. F = FAO estimate.039 mg 5. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.19 g 1.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .35 g .(2. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.crazychefs. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant. P = official figure. B1) 0. semi-official or estimates).[5] In the United States.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates . New Jersey is the largest producing state.Sugars 2.7 g 0. B2) 0.043.

Niacin (Vit.084 mg Folate (Vit.[8] On average. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. while 1. B3) 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines.01 mg/100g).281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 . but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. http://www. However.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.16 mg Manganese 0.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0.crazychefs.25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.

luteum. On the other hand. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. Dunal. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). Similarly. and (invalidly) by Sweet. aethiopicum.C. esculentum. racemiflorum. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. trongum.crazychefs.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. ovigera.-Lag. inerme.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. violaceum. variegatum. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. insanum. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been . that of Blanco to S. brownii. capsicoides). divaricatum. inerme and subinerme at that time. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. rumphii. edule. Solanum longum http://www. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. aethiopicum. subrepandum. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. ovigerum and S. stenoleucum. racemosum. But this is not correct.Varieties Solanum melongena var. lasiocarpum. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. globosi. leucoum. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. which used to include Dunal's S. violaceum and viride. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. multifidum.F. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. Scopoli's S. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. album. Names for various eggplant types. Solanum oviferum Salisb. sinuatorepandum. such as agreste. There is an actual S. giganteum. S. mainly by Dikii. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. oblongo-cylindricum. tongdongense. esculentum. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. ruber. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. H.

crazychefs. ^ Doijode. common. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. CRC .Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. D. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. and Engineering by Yiu H. Technology. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). (2001). ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Handbook of Food Science. Hui (2006). 2. Footnotes 1. http://www. ISBN 1574445510.

P. ^ Westerfield. Retrieved 2009-07-01. 273-6. Mahesh † and Y. ^ B. http://pubs. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". ^ Kabashima K. 2008-11-11.3. Toorenenbergen AW. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. Retrieved 2007-04-24. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). 2008 10.fao. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. Dieges PH. ^ Edward F. 6. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). 1993 Number 6 9. Harish Babu * . Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. ^ Health24. Andréa Thomaz. Miyachi Y. 7. The New England Journal of Medicine. 202 11. Arq Bras Cardiol. Tsenge Demana. ^ "FAOSTAT". N. Erich Hornbach. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça.133(42):2081-3 12. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. Bruno Caramelli. Robert (2008-11-14). http://faostat.* YP Venkatesh. Domino. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary . ^ SN Pramod. A. 18(1): 59-62 http://www. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. pp.pdf. volume 82 (nº 3). J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol Ebury Press. Vol. P.uga.Aubergine 8. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14. FAO. 5. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena . 2004. Volume 329:437 August 5.crazychefs.caes.) reveals female predominance. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. ^ Solanum melongena var.

net/ . Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. syn.crazychefs.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. with a serrated margin. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. One species. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. The tomato is native to South America. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. odd pinnate. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a http://www. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. Solanum lycopersicum. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. and have a weak. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. woody stem that often vines over other plants.8 in) across. see section Fruit or vegetable below). both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. yellow. It is a perennial. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption.4–0.

was the first European to take back the tomato. cerasiforme. a barber-surgeon. an Italian physician and botanist. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. earlier in 1493. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. smaller vegetable . The exact date of domestication is not known. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. such as Florence. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by http://www. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. They also took it to the Philippines. and cultivation began in the 1540s. who named it pomo d‘oro.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. ancestor of L. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. according to Smith. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. a mutation from a smoother. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed].[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. likely to be the original salsa recipe. in certain areas of Italy.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. tomatl. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. lycopersicum. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy.[4] The large. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. means "wolf-peach". golden apple. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination.crazychefs. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. corn and salt. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. the other by currant . The specific name. However. meaning plump thing with a navel.[6] Gerard's Herbal. lumpy tomato. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. However. now Mexico City in 1521.

and before the end of that century. particularly Florida and California. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. Over the past 15 years. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. but the fruit is safe).[6] Nonetheless. In Victorian times. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). British consul in Aleppo c. The Spanish tomato dish. Thomas Jefferson. California. By the mid-18th century.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. Gerard's views were influential. Rick. Charles M. The University of California. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies.[6] But by the mid-1700s. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well.M. and as a garnish.largely plagiarized from continental http://www. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to . They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. The C. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. 1799 – c. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. who ate tomatoes in Paris. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and in general. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr.crazychefs. broths. Currently. ―within the last forty years. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. sent some seeds back to America. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. most famously in Worthing. Paella.

black. through cherry .S. but a number of cultivars with yellow.8 in) size as the wild tomato. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. and have a lower water content. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1.crazychefs. production and 35% of world production. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. China. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. pink.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008.0–2.0 in) diameter. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. about 5mm in diameter.6–2.[12] According to FAOSTAT. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. purple. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the largest producer. orange.4 in) diameter range. followed by United States and Turkey. they are known as plum tomatoes. green.4–0. California accounts for 90% of U. It may be deleted after Friday. or white fruit are also available. For processing tomatoes. 18 September 2009. Most cultivars produce red fruit. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from http://www.

there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes.[18] and productivity. but unlike commercial hybrids. As in most sectors of agriculture. and are shaped like large strawberries.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications . since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed].crazychefs. plum http://www. as well as heirloom tomatoes. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers.[19] Hybrid plants remain . "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. along with zucchini.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds.their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. based mostly on shape and size.

A variety of specific cultivars. but are smaller than plum tomato. white. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. which usually discourages fruit set. pink. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads.cherry tomatoes are small and round. or bush. or home growers interested in canning. and purple. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. Red Boar).com http://www. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season.especially heirlooms . Determinate.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A.produce fruit in colors other than red. brown. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. orange. they are often good choices for container growing. et cetera. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. Burracker's Favorite. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. Green Zebra (top right). black. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. and lack of mealiness. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. some tomato cultivars .net/ . Lucky Cross). often via mail-order. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". low acidity. including Brandywine (biggest red). multiple colors (Hillbilly. disease and pest resistance. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. etc. ivory. they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. As an intermediate form. but must be bought as seed. including yellow.crazychefs. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. Black Krim (lower left corner). although some determinate heirlooms exist. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries.

flea beetles. carried by the beet leafhopper. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. F . Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. FF .[24] and Colorado potato beetles. whiteflies. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. and A . Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. and remain. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. N nematodes. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. entirely within the closed corolla. tomato fruitworms. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. The stamens were. As a floral device to reduce selfing. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. red spider mite. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. too. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. their traditional pollinators.crazychefs. tomatoes required cross-pollination. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic .tobacco mosaic virus. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes.alternaria. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. cutworms. slugs. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. original state. As the name implies. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. aphids. The most common letters are: V .fusarium wilt strain I & II. which interrupts the lifecycle.fusarium wilt strain I. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas.verticillium wilt. T . Another particularly dreaded disease is curly http://www.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. but manure or compost work well. In the wild. cabbage loopers.

Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. In more temperate climates. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future . 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. as with most species.crazychefs. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. However. Unripe tomatoes are http://www. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. depending on variety.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. This is not the same as self-pollination. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. by cultured bumblebees. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. In an outside setting. or more often today. They may be recognized by their color. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface.

a subset of fruit. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). carotene.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. They contain lycopene. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. especially in cooked tomatoes.Sugars 2. The tomato is acidic. in pieces.6 g 4g .crazychefs. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. or paste. as tomato sauce. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine".2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). one of the most powerful natural antioxidants.Recently. In some studies lycopene. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. Though it is botanically a berry. raw Nutritional value per 100 g ( http://www. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. anthocyanin.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97). These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term. and other antioxidants.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce .

[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. there are variations.5 °C (54. it will not continue to ripen. meaning covered with fine short hairs.make salsa. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. Tomato plants are dicots.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. fully functional.[28] In October 1965. vines. although erect bush varieties have been bred. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. annually celebrates La Tomatina. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. Spain. Known for its tomato growth and production. initially decumbent. lateral buds take over and grow into other. Determinate types are annual in all climates. and are called regular leaf (RL) . generally three feet tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials.crazychefs. When that tip eventually stops growing. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. They are bred to continue ripening. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. such as rugose leaves. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 °F). dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. often by sun. or pickled. Embracing it for this protest connotation. These hairs facilitate the vining http://www. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. Of regular leaves. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes).[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. whether because of pruning or flowering. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. The fruit is also preserved by drying. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. and grow as a series of branching stems.

peach. butterflies. angora leaves. have the anthers fused along the edges. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. Similarly.e. "wolf-peach").[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. other insects. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. variegated.) H. Technically. However. i. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. and be dried/fermented before germination. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture.deeply grooved.g. with both names found in the literature. which frequently used it and still do). Other species in that family are potatoes. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. This is because they are native to the Americas. 'lyco'. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus.. Therefore. These vary. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Some smaller varieties have two cavities.Karst. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. forming a column surrounding the pistil's . (derivation. chili peppers. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna.[31] Their flowers.crazychefs. according to type. while paste tomatoes have very few. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. plus 'persicum'. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. very small cavities. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). making the Linnaean name correct. appearing on the apical meristem. tobacco. would be more correct. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. moths. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. As a true fruit. its flesh comprising the pericarp http://www. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. genetic evidence (e. However. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. wolf. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. Despite this. called locular cavities. among cultivated species. or other external forces that present in the Americas. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world).

In 1887. Bejoseed.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. Monsanto. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. shape. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. disease tolerance. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. Livingston. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. corporations. 1883. a tomato is the ovary. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. The U. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. Hedden (149 U. cucumbers. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. color. BHNSeed. However. In 2006. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a http://www. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term.W. North Carolina. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. and organizations. University breeding programs are active in Florida.S. flavor. universities. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. pest tolerance. This argument has had legal implications in the United States.S. as are vegetables. AVRDC. As noted above. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. and numerous other traits. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. 304)). and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. Corporations including Heinz.S. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. size. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. from a culinary standpoint. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. etc. Ohio. nutritional value. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey.crazychefs. New York. U. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. U. . Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. Oregon. of Reynoldsburg.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. together with its seeds. A. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center.

Georgia. Minnesota. Vermont and Wisconsin. Speakers from the British Isles. Rhode Island. 2006. which is toxic to humans and animals."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). the U.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. Indiana. The fresh fruit is. Pennsylvania. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me.[36] The affected states included http://www. Massachusetts. Ohio. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . Michigan. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. Kentucky. Virginia. stems. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Connecticut. harmless. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. contain the poison Solanine. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). Tennessee.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .S. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak.crazychefs. North Carolina. Maine. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. however.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. New Hampshire. On October 30.

respectively. On August 30.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak.273 illnesses from this outbreak. UK. and fresh cilantro.151. and Arizona (49). 2008. 2007.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. fresh jalapeño pepper. one would arrive at an estimated 40. the District of Columbia. Florida. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. in 2000. Oklahoma in 1986. 40. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. the U.crazychefs. from April 10. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. and Canada. 2008.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). fresh serrano pepper.8 m (65 ft) length. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. New Mexico (98). The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder. of the cultivar 'Delicious'. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. Lancashire. such as raw tomato.S. it caused at least one death. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. with 49. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. Illinois (100).com http://www. Epcot's manager of agricultural science.6:1). Yong Huang. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases).000 kilograms (250." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. with a harvest of more than 32. Lake Buena Vista.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.7 and 16. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.1 reported cases per million. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death.84 pounds (522 kg). French and Germans. China. As of July 2008.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot.[38] As of July . It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985.

as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific.S. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fusarium.crazychefs. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.S. Derived from Cherokee Purple. indeterminate.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' . indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern http://www.

in Korea. Tomato slices. Tomato plants in the garden. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de http://www. Tomato .'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. pickling. Tomato fruit. good for Tomatoes on a vine. Young tomato plant. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

com .crazychefs.Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

et al. S..ucdavis. http://www. Yourarchives. ^ "C. . ^ The Friend.C. section Lycopersicon Mill. ^ Acquaah. ISBN 1-57003000-6." 15. Andrew F. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian http://www. D. ISBN 0252-07009-7. ^ a b Smith. E. (2002-0508)". it handles more than 1. page 57: ". 2002-05-08. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L.The East Hampton Star . Retrieved December 11 2009. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. ^ "http://www. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. A. 1876. http://yourarchives. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). 5. (2001). webpage: books-google-TTp17. p. Smith. M. I." See: Natural History Museum. 11. and 6. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo . ^ "http://www. Retrieved bid/6280/Default. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. University of Illinois Press. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. Appletons' journal Published by 1994.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. Universityofcalifornia. Culture.Your Archives". http://www. 223 10." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . October 26. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. Retrieved December 11 2009. (2002). 3.smithsonianmag..html". or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. G.aspx?PageID=567 14. Normania. 1881. and cookery. 2009-01-26. ^ Tomato history 4..five tons to the acre. The tomato in America: early history. Retrieved 2009-04-02. During the three months of the local harvest. Wettst. The Tomato in America.nationalarchives.17. F.smithsonianmag. Peralta. Easthamptonstar.aspx. ^ a b Hartz.smithsonianmag. Appleton and Co. and Triguera are nested within Solanum.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2009-04-02.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep 519 [1] 9. 13. p. Processing Tomato Production in California. ^ "UC Tgrc. Retrieved Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon.easthamptonstar. ^ http://faostat.nationalarchives. http://www. Andrew F (1994). (1994). In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian USA: University of South Carolina Press. & Spooner. http://tgrc.ucdavis. p. Columbia. 8. Footnotes 1. Subsection Lycopersicon). http://www.html.html".com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. 2. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. 12.Food & Wine".universityofcalifornia. 2008. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History.

smithsonianmag. 33. Retrieved December 11 2009. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home".edu.plants. ^ "Selecting.html.cornell.smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look Retrieved 2007-05-24.smithsonianmag. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat .html.ncsu." 18.osu. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips.html". ^ " Retrieved Retrieved June 30. Retrieved December 11 2009. HYG-5532-93". 26. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension.umn. Smithsonianmag.smithsonianmag.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.html. News. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes".mx.smithsonianmag. 30. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. Retrieved 2009-04-02. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa". and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. http://faq. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". Plb. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium. http://www. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. Retrieved July 27. Ohioline. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html 23. http://www. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".com/science-nature/ ^ "http://www. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".cornell. 31.html. http://ohioline. 29. Retrieved 200810-27. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. ^ 22. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. Retrieved 200705-24. ^ http://www.gob. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007). http://www." 19." 20.sinaloa. "Tomato genome project gets $1. Retrieved December 11 2009. page 57: "The plants are still growing. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. which are carried in the wind. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.eurekalert.html". of which there are many: beetles and ^ "http://www.8M" ^ http://www.Tomato".php.16. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only 28. Ncsu. http://www. 17.gardenweb. 2006. http://news. http://wwwplb.html". ^ "Crop Profiles .uk/2/hi/health/ ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention" and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. 21. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 24. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. http://www.

Foodsafetynetwork. Tomato Recipe". 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". California Master Gardener Handbook. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus". Tomato Nutrition. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul. ANR Publications. ^ "August 8. Retrieved 2009-0721. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . 35. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 38:S3.cdc. p. 38. (2002).com. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Dennis ^ " 2004. Retrieved .CBS News". Nationalpost. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005" http://www. Vegparadise. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"".html. ^ a b Pittenger.1086/ ^ ISBN 1879906546. 9781879906549. 41. http://www.vegparadise. Itn. et al. http://www. http://www.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ 39. Cdc. http://itn. Retrieved 2008-1027. http://www. United Clinical Infectious Diseases. 42.cbsnews. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States".cdc. by state".com. Retrieved 200904-02. 2007-08-30. http://www. 643. Cbsnews.foodsafetynetwork. (2004-04-15).

and nutmeg butter (see below). In Indonesia. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. malabarica from India. or sliced finely. It also grows in Kerala. fragrans products.2 and 0. or Spice http://www. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets").net/ . The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. the fruit is also made into jam. and Bombay Nutmeg M. called Jaiphal in Hindi. a state in the south part of India.6 to 0. argentea from New Guinea. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. extracted oleoresins. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans.7 in) wide. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean.4 oz) dried. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. both are used as adulterants of M. called selei buah pala. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source.crazychefs. nutmeg and mace. including essential oils. Species About 100 species. especially in Grenada.

In Arabic.crazychefs. In Penang cuisine. Painkiller. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. green. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. mulled wine. and eggnog. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. they are also used in soups. cauliflower. and Barbados rum punch. In Indian cuisine. and string beans. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater).[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury http://www. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. sauces. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the . In European cuisine. "Lau Hau Peng". and baked goods. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. In the Caribbean. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. saffronlike hue it imparts. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala.

and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked . Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. in toothpaste. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. beverages. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. and sweets. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The oil is colourless or light yellow.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. 758 – ca. reddish brown in colour. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. medicines. preserving agents. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. although this is disputed. It is semi-solid. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm http://www. for instance. which can be turned into myristic acid. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. syrups. used as flavourings. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. yeast extract.crazychefs. Canned. and protein isolate. steak sauce. frozen. hydrolyzed yeast. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs." However.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. based on anecdotal reports. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. However. sugar cane. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. Fermented products such as soy sauce. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. soy extracts. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. not reproducible. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. being an amino acid. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other . autolyzed yeast. with 4% annual growth expected. particularly processed foods. or http://www. it also said that.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sugar beets. About 1.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes.

"Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. 373-375. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. ^ Leung. concentration. toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. and crystallization. http://www.g. MSG. Albert Y. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. [monosodium glutamate].4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. References 1. New York: Wiley. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. acidification.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients.celiac. such as hydrolyzed protein. ^ http://www. age 40–59 years.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. and (3) microbial fermentation. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate].2. On Food and Cooking. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. In 1993. In the hydrolysis method.g. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. Foster. and converted to its monosodium salt.). This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48.html 2. Drugs. flavour enhancer). even in large amounts. 621.. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. followed by either the name of the food additive. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.7% women). For this . dextrose or citrate). "Monosodium Glutamate". the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. (2) synthesis. Steven (August 2003).crazychefs.".. pp. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). and mineral ions and growth factors. In the 2004 version of his book. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids.

274.x. Shigeru.5. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121.fda.2008. Dyer. http://www. ^ Moskin. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ^ http://vm. Yangfeng.1111/j. ^ Kawakita. PMID 18497735.nlm. doi:10. Wu. ^ Sand. ^ He. 11. Zhao.. Jordan (2005) 1875–1880. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (1993) Masahiro. (April 2000). Daviglus. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. Beiser A. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". doi:10. doi:10.1999. Zhu. PMID 8282275.celiac. ^ "Production process".2006. Martha L.a16 711. New York Times. J. Guo. Julia (2008-03-05). Pharmacol. http://www. Inc. et al. Jeremiah (August 2008). http://www.. Nutr. Kelly M.pdf 9.html 12.F.1337.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. Kimber L.2005. Liancheng. 277–282. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". Regul. Chiaki. MSG. Stamler. doi:10. PMID 16999713.nih.html. "Monosodium Glutamate".00160. doi:10.17457599. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6.4. Beifan.1006/rtph. 31 (12): 1019–1035. 5. 38–49. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". Van Horn. Case study: monosodium glutamate".1525/gfc.html 4. 16. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): Alan R. ^ Walker R (October 1999). Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.nutrition. Shizuko (2005).html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Linda. Sano. ^ a b Tarasoff L. Garside. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp.jstor. Shioya. PMID 10597625. 15. Dongshuang. Yamaguchi.3.1038/oby. ^ http://www. http://www.1002/chir. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study".1002/14356007. . ^ Freeman M. Ka. Tetsuya. (October 2006). Ren C. ^ a b Geha RS. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". "Yes. "A Short History of MSG". Zhou. Armstrong. 10. the Secret Behind the Savor". http://jn.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. Daniel W (1994). PMID 10736382. Food Chem. Toxicol. 14.ajinomoto.ajinomoto. Toxicol. ^ ^ a b Rundlett.crazychefs.530060410. ^ http://www. Daniel. Anjimoto Co. Chirality 6 (4): pp. "The significance of excursions above the ADI. 6.

酱油 2. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 荳油 3.crazychefs. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 醬油 http://www. 豉油 Simplified Chinese . 豆油 3.

Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared http://www. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. and salt. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands.crazychefs. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product.500 years. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). In its various forms.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan.[3] In the 18th century. Soy sauce was invented in . [4] By the mid-19th century. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. water.

all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the . Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. such as in giant urns and under the sun. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. Although there are many types of soy sauce. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. literally "delicious taste"). which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or http://www. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans. Today.crazychefs. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. sojae) and other related microorganisms. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese). These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring.

one of the two types. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. or 酱清 "jiàng qing".came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. like extra virgin olive oil. Despite their rather similar appearance. but it also adds flavour. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. ): A thin (nonviscous). Another . Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce.3-DCP (1. pinyin: jiàngyóu. Korean. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. fragrance and saltiness. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. consistency. with relatively low amounts of other grains. It has a richer. since it is saltier. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. opaque. An additional classification of light soy sauce. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. slightly sweeter. Since it is lighter in color. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. and Chinese cuisine. traditional Chinese: 頭抽).com http://www. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans.crazychefs. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. traditional Chinese: 醬油. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. Thai. In traditional Chinese cooking. shuānghuáng (雙璜). This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. lighter brown soy sauce. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. or a mixture of both.

lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. Usukuchi (淡口?.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi.crazychefs. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. due to the addition of alcohol in the http://www. where it is known as "shōyu". for example sashimi. It contains little or no wheat. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. or 醤油). Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. that is used in its production. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. Technically. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. Shiro (白?. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. In contrast to "tamari" soy . Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient.

this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. Amakuchi (甘口?. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with . but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized. not pasteurized. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce.Saishikomi (再仕込?. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented http://www.crazychefs. 1 litre bottles. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". Consequently.

it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred . In Indonesia. usually implies limited quantity. in a pinch. which has a thick. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. powder. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in http://www. It is a unique variety.

TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭).[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. (called Joseon ganjang. Later. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. Joseon ganjang. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. thin and dark brown in color. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). O'Long(黑龍). Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清).4% of soy sauce purchases. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. WanJaShan(萬家香). Founded in 1909. in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. is made entirely of soy and brine. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well.[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish . Malaysia. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in http://www. 조선간장. lit. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce.crazychefs. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months).

having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt.[6] Furthermore. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh). or sometimes simply tương.crazychefs. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines.3-DCP (1. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime).[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. . China. and caramel. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14].Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. salt. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called http://www. nước tương. It can also be very salty.2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. it is also a table condiment. pronounced SOO-kah). the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine.

Pearl River Bridge. pp. that affected the brands Golden Mountain.htm.[1] Notes 1. 2 (January 2000). the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. No. ^ http://www. http://www.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 3. http://www. ^ http://www.Kong and Taiwan. ^ Seong-Gook (2002). the leaflet does include oyster sauce. Golden marinades and other types of sauces. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). Individuals with a wheat allergy. 4. ^ http://www. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". Tung Chun and Wanjasham. 6. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). ^ Tanaka. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. Kimlan. 2. along with formaldehyde in the national dish . (1781).org. ^ Tanaka. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. ^ 6. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. Despite these being small in number in the UK. 7. Press release. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. Retrieved 200801-07. Soon Teck• and Kang. Jammy Chai. p."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted.) In March 2008. King Imperial. Norio. Lee Kum Kee. ^ Titsingh. 8.asp?id=7598 10. http://www. an increase over 23 to 5. p. Retrieved 2008-01-07.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with 9.317 OCLC 9752305 5. 2nd edition.miyajimasoy. including six samples with up to 11. Isaac.000 to 18.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. Vol. XXVII. Celiac disease.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat.[citation needed] In Vietnam. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. p. III. Sinsin. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. Golden they are the dominant brands in their respective

doi:10.crazychefs. 103. Food. 16. Charles W (2005). ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public scares hit Vietnam 20. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. chemical veggies . ^ Shahidi. Makio (2005-04-18). Retrieved 2008-01-07. 12. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals.201. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet.nutraingredients. Naczk. ^ Kobayashi. Florence.48. p. Marian (2003). PMID 16198255. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. Edition 2.2323/jgam. Stephen (2006-06-06). "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand".com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC Kentucky: CRC Press. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". ^ Bamford. doi:10. Hoboken. ^ Toxic soy sauce. ISBN 0632059877. 14. ^ Tanasupawat. ^ Daniells. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. Fereidoon.100. http://www.1263/jbb. http://books. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". fermentation and micro-organisms. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID 12469319. 13.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. Somboon (2002-06-18). nutraingredients. et al. 18. ISBN p.

4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5–5.4677–1.0–83.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.5–21.0% Arachidic acid: <0.9180 (@ 211 | P a g e http://www.5–20.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.0% Stearic acid: 0.9150–0.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: .0% yes Oleic acid: 55.3% Myristic acid: <0.crazychefs.5% Linoleic acid: 3.3–3.8% Behenic acid: <0.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.5 °C) 84 cP 1.

The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. Australia. family Oleaceae). a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. in France. In 2006. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. in Greece. Olive oil is used throughout the world. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. which receives about three-quarters of total exports.[1] It is commonly used in cooking.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. which produce approximately 350. . Koroneiki. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. North Africa and the Near East. Hojiblanca. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Alberquina.[3] Of the European production. Leccino Pendolino. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. Italy and Greece. and Moraiolo. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. 93% comes from Spain.crazychefs. principally Italy. pharmaceuticals. cosmetics. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees.6 (refined and pomace) http://www. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. as well as in Crete. Japan and China. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia.000 tons of olive oil annually. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. World production in 2002 was 2.4680–1. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. but especially in the Mediterranean. and Manzanilla de Jaén.6 million tonnes.

[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. The California Olive Oil Council. with production increasing to meet demand. Mission. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. often in "prestige" packaging. Olive oil is classified by how it was http://www. In North America. in Portugal.crazychefs. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. Galega. and Turkey. Spain. The US imported 47. a private trade group. The USDA uses a different system.000 m3) of olive oil in . Oblica and Leccino. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production.000 US gallons (131. of which 34. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules.800. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. by its chemistry.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest.California. called pomace. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). still contains a small quantity of oil. defining quality standards. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. and by its flavor. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). After extraction the remnant solid substance. Spain. Spain.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. with 23 member states.000 m3) came from Italy. in Croatia.600. and monitoring authenticity.000 US gallons (181. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. IOOC terminology is precise.

but safe. both in Italy and abroad. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. but there are no guarantees. for blended oils.[16] In April 2008. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's . The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section).[14] In February 2008. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). product as superior olive oil.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. 25. is extremely lax and corrupt. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. and by heat.[15] Under EU rules. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. This practice makes it difficult for high quality. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. Almost 700 people died. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation.[14] In March 2008.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.[12] In some cases. it is believed. EU officials took issue with the new law. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. however.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print.crazychefs. measured by weight. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). of free oleic acid it contains. mostly hexane. defined as the percent. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin http://www. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. particularly in Italy. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents.

Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. but may not be described simply as olive oil. absence of defects.5% acidity. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. expressed as oleic acid. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. The U. of no more than 1. It is fit for consumption. The US is not a member. It commonly lacks a strong flavor.the oil degrades. and is judged to have a good taste. contains no more than 0. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. In order to classify it by taste. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps.crazychefs. has an acidity less than http://www. It has a free acidity. This is also called its organoleptic quality.3 grams per 100 grams (0.8% acidity. and is judged to have a superior taste. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. Pure olive oil. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. of not more than 0. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. These grades were established in 1948.S. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing . odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. and are based on acidity. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. another cause of rancidity. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. Used on salads.

Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. (34 kJ/ml). U.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis. U. Grade C or U.S. Grade D or U.S. Grade A or U.5% and is "reasonably free from defects".U.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2.4% and is "free from defects". Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. Grade C". First of all.S. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". with less flavour.crazychefs.S.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures.S. which may be as low as 10-15 °C.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil.S. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.S. Grade B or U. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than http://www. All olive oil has 120 kcal/ . in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. This is incorrect.0% and is "fairly free from defects". It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used.S. U. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "cold" does not define any precise temperature.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled.[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.S.

around 14 .56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. around 0.8 7.7 l. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. Portugal and Lebanon. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.pressed". so the term "first press" is meaningless. Tunisia. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.crazychefs. over 26 liters per year. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] http://www.62 12.1 1. around 8 l. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. Spain and Italy.1 0.35 23.7 11. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.2 7 1. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.

suggesting a different taste. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. 1. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. no or very little organoleptic defects). This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. which is much faster and more accurate. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before.34 1. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. 4. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. not in the oil mills. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). After grinding. This is done in specialised chemical plants.crazychefs. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Green olives produce bitter http://www. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). If ground with mill stones. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. then placed into the . The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". 3. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). 2. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. After grinding.

including oleocanthal and http://www.7%) and sterols (about 0.monounsaturated 73 g . time of harvest. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. most notably oleic acid.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g .net/ .polyunsaturated 11 g .[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g ( fat 3. region.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. altitude. To achieve this possible fat <1.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. along with traces of squalene (up to 0. Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. and extraction process. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.5 g .Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. The composition varies by cultivar.crazychefs.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . In the United States.

the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. at least in part. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. This way. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic . The study was conducted in two stages. During the first stage. This could. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity.crazychefs. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. and oleuropein. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. rather than its fatty acid profile. It is theorized that. For example. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. 2004. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. During the second phase. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. antithrombotic. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity.This decision was announced November http://www. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. and that it exerts antiinflamatory.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. in the long term. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil.

its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. cookware. like salads. etc. blenders.[citation needed]. For example. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming.crazychefs. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. oils deteriorate and become stale. A very fresh oil. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. Used cold. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen ( http://www. not for foods to be eaten cold. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. as available in an oil producing region. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. Also. In time. Also. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated.

net/ .Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM).crazychefs. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. and mild laxative properties. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. It does have demulcent properties. It is also good for the management of pain. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like http://www. acting as a stool softener. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup.

and O. olive oil.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. olie. . from O.. Homer called it "liquid gold. from Anglo-Fr. soap-making. drawn and engraved by J.Fr. olio). from L. Besides food. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the http://www.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman." In ancient Greece. olive oil" (cf. Mod. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". olive oil has been used for religious rituals. medicines.crazychefs. as a fuel in oil lamps.N. and skin care application.Fr. It. 1175. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. oleum "oil. oile (12c. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. from Gk. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. elaion "olive tree". huile).

The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean http://www. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th .[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC). Bodrum.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.crazychefs.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey. olive presses became common. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. In the centuries that followed.

These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1.000 tons of olive oil per http://www. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. together with naked appearance of athletes. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. when the oil had risen to the top. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. allowing more time for more oil to be made. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. According to legend.[citation needed]. the fertile crescent. wrote of abundant olive trees. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and.crazychefs. stored in special containers.over 4. Lebanon. during the 13th century BC. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD.[46] Until 1500 BC. "the best in the Mediterranean". drained the water from the bottom.000 and 3.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. oil containers are . where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron).000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea..[dubious – discuss] During this time. Sinuhe. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. and Israel. According to the historian Pliny. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization. he maintained. and area consisting of present day Palestine. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. where it is thought to have represented wealth. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states.

References 1. and the Mount of Sinai. 4. To douse the flame. ^ USDA. Retrieved 2007-05-25. http://www. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit). and. Retrieved 2007-05-25. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. p. 3. http://www. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". "The Olive Tree. In Islam. 5. http://findarticles. ^ A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. originating from King David.crazychefs. ^ "findarticles. 2. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. http://www. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops. its oil almost glows. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a . One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath. and this secure city.internationaloliveoil. in the consecration of altars and churches.html. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. neither Eastern nor Western. the tourch is in a glass bulb. Joann L Coviello. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888.PDF. even without fire touching it. ANR the original Menorah. ^ International Olive Oil Council. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. Steven Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the". "Agricultural Statistics 2005". Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. Retrieved 2008-07-04. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. http://www. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash.usda. 158. ^ USDA." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. Louise Ferguson. light upon light. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. Margaret Lindstrand (2005).[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). Olive Production Manual."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). the float is carefully pressed down into the oil.

com News". ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. 25.23/. 13.xml.1079/NRR200495 24. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28.). http://news.telegraph. 23.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. 14.eubusiness. 15.southafrica. http://oliveoilonly. 20.46. Retrieved 2008-11-16.html". ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. http://query. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system".ams. http://aje. Menotti A. ^ Covas MI (March 2007).org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3776973. . Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. M.internationaloliveoil. 2004. ^ "Eubusiness. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". http://www. Pharmacol.southafrica. 19. John. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ S.6. ^ "www. ^ "EUbusiness.1016/j. 55 (3): 175–".com http://www. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)".eubusiness. 19 CFR 134. PMID 17321749.htm".org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institutionini. Tripoli.2007. Nutrition Research Reviews ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. November 2. ^ " 16.23/. (December 1986). 18. 2007-08-13.usda. http://www. http://www. 11.010. 98–112 (2005) DOI:". G. et al.internationaloliveoil. Giammanco. ^ a b McGee. doi:10. Epidemiol. Karvonen MJ. Res. ^ New York Times. ^ Mueller. Giammanco. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8.htm. Tom. http://www.nytimes.oxfordjournals. Retrieved 2008-11-09. D. Raymond & Co.htm.html. 124 (6): 903–15. and Maurizio La Guardia. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. United States Department of Agriculture.phrs. http://www.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105. 7. US Customs Department. ^ Durant.Scotsman. ^ a b "Telegraph article". Retrieved 2008-11-16. Am. PMID 3776973. Di Majo.4005000. ^ Keys A. The New York Times (H. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27.01.telegraph. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam . "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".Telegraph". Alan (1989-05-21). ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. ^ Riding.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 Slippery Business The New Yorker. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/ http://www. Dennis.scotsman. J.crazychefs. 21.

De Castro A (February 2007). 38.75. Osamu Nikaido. ^ Machowetz A. ^ http://www. pp. JDermatol-Sci. Mar. Toshihiko Osawa." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. 2000. ssp. Toshinori Bito. Guida L. PMID 17263460. Marotta T. 11. A : 45.tchain. http://www. Pagnol. T : Ueda.telegraph. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. ^ "www.ama-assn. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics".co. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000).jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. (January 2005). p. "[19 INSERT TITLE]".06-6328com. PMID 15830923. 10. 39. 34. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. A : Wu. 31. ^ Turner R. Brenes M. ^ Rosenblum. Raimondi AS. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. Faseb J.1024/0300-9831. Medina E. ^ Ferrara LA.61. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. Catherine Breton. 2000.v. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. doi:10. 43. 21 (1): 45–52. 19. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. No. d'Episcopo L. but cites no source. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. ^ Ehud Galili et al. 19. Nov. Etienne N." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. Vargas J. 2085-2090. Alonso MG. p. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. ^ Mayo Clinic.html". europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Nazim U.1.crazychefs. http://www. ^ "Quite Interesting . Masamitsu Ichihashi. et al. doi:10. PMID 10737284. 1: Prevent Cancer. ^ Romero C. An Wu. 44. André Bervillé. ^ a b Davidson. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. "olive" and "oil" 40. ^ [2] Ichihashi. doi:10. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). Use Olive Olives 41.xml. 19 November 2007 30. 37. 35. et al. Vol." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. "[10 INSERT TITLE]".". Masato Ueda. (January 2007). ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary.. Ahmed. T. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease.v. J Agric Food Chem. Suppl. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice".28. Israel".1021/jf0630217.videojug. Michel Tersac and André Bervillé.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". M : Ahmed. 23. "New Year's Resolution No. ". Gruendel S.1096/fj. ^ http://www.tchain. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. N U : Budiyanto. s. 55 (3): 680–6. Dello Russo A. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. Olea europaea L. Poulsen . Vol. M : Osawa. PMID 17110467. Carcinogenesis.. s. 1S45-50. 21. ^ Mayo Clinic 32.Telegraph". (27 March 2000).

^ "www. http://www. B.htm". Provencal.htm. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.crazychefs.reshafim. Riley. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". Harrington Park http://www. http://www. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. Kennell. ed.youngmuslims. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ F. 2005 49. ^ Thomas F.htm. pp119–33 50. 47. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. ^ Nigel M.). "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". Processing methods.youngmuslims. Scanlon. Verstraete and .org. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 2001.

these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus). 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. Saffron. sativus flower bears three stigmas.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia.[4][5] A carotenoid dye.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. A C. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C.crazychefs. crocin.Saffron Saffron crocus C. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. ən] / [ˈsæf.or hay-like fragrance. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. each the distal end of a carpel. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. Saffron has further medicinal .

It is a sterile triploid form.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants. purple buds appear. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C.2 in) in length. and replanted. Only in October. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.5 centimetres (1.crazychefs. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower.98–1. as was once generally believed. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. A corm survives for one season." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ).com http://www. Being sterile. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. which means "yellow. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. in Central Asia. In autumn. broken . after most other flowering plants have released their seeds.[11] Upon flowering.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. must be dug up.

Nematodes. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. they fare poorly in shady conditions. low-density.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. are critical factors affecting yields. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. maximizing sun exposure. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes. and birds. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms.[16] Furthermore.8–5. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. Planting depth and corm spacing. loose.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. well-watered. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. leaf rusts.e. and corm rot pose other threats. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Moroccan. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops.000–1. in concert with climate. Only in mid-autumn do they flower.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere).9 in) .500 mm (39–59 in). where annual rainfall averages 1. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. where hot. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. Greek. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal.. rats. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content.crazychefs. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral.

The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. and various α. It also has many nonvolatile active components.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.and β-carotenes.[19] Meanwhile. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.[19] many of which are carotenoids. a product results that is itself .0. However. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.8-carotenoic acid).[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.2 oz of dried saffron). The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars). saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.11 gr) of dried saffron.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic.8-diapo-8. including zeaxanthin. lycopene. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: http://www. and thus oil-soluble.crazychefs.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.

5 40.0 4.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 1.0 9.0 .0 8.0–14.0 6.0–15.0 http://www.5 10.Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0 6.0 12.0 2.0 3.0–7.0 10.crazychefs.0–1.0–8.0 11.0–13.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 12.0 6.0 1.0 0.

6.5-cyclohexadien-1-one. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. a volatile oil. dried hay like". combined with enzymatic action.6.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. When saffron is dried after its harvest. .3-diene-1.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. the scent of which has been described as " http://www. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels.6.0 Source: Goyns 1999. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal.crazychefs. p. the heat. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2.Fiber (crude) 5. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule.[18] Safranal.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7.6-trimethyl-2. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. Santorini. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri. Significantly. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal.4.

[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. Thus. mascaras.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. physicians in Gaza.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. ointments. and scabies. There. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. Since http://www. and in the mithridatium. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable . C. a sterile mutant form of C.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. divine offerings.[28][29] Later. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug. In late Hellenistic Egypt.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos. cough. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus.[33] potpourris. and medical treatments.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt.crazychefs. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. townspeople in Rhodes.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. cartwrightianus.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. colic. sativus.000 years.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered.

At such sites. rice.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. Wan Zhen. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. medicines. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia.[44] From there. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death.[53] On the other hand.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. dating to 978–993 AD.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. a less expensive dye. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) http://www. Isfahan.[42] ritually offered to divinities.Asia The 17. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri . saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. and body washes. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq.[51] However. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. or jackfruit. For example. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.[43] Thus. saffron threads were woven into textiles. and used in dyes. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara.crazychefs. a Chinese medical expert.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir.[44] During his Asian campaigns. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago.[39][40] Later. perfumes. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC.

[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold.crazychefs. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. coffee. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. and Italy. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. did significant cultivation endure. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. and then the saffron is obtained. under which saffron adulterators were fined.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes.saffron is in Kashmir. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. named for its new specialty crop. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. France. and executed. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. indeed. especially Norfolk and Suffolk.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. and Spain.[59][60] Only in southern France. which grew prosperous. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War".[58] Soon after.[62] By http://www. However. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to . an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. Italy. It can be used to aromatise wine.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. imprisoned. In Europe."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. tea.

net/ . Indian. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Pennsylvania. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. European.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. Confectionaries and liquors also often include http://www. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). and Cornish cuisines. and antioxidantlike properties.crazychefs.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. Medicinally. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). noodles. immunomodulating. and in perfumery.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. Central Asian.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. particularly in China and India.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. and chicken or trout dishes. Turkish. Arab.

[2] A pound comprises between 70. slight moistness.500 per kilogram.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2.000-170. elasticity. and other countries.100–11.000–75. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. flavour. they are graded by government-imposed standards. Vivid crimson colouring. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. France.500/€7.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram).000 and 200. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from http://www. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad. For example. England.100/€1. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.000 threads.200/£1. In Western countries. Spain's varieties. Annually.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin. in decreasing order of production. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. are generally mellower in colour. are the major producers of saffron.000 per pound (US$1.550 per kilogram).net/ . India.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. Switzerland. Aside from these. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. Spain. and aroma. Greece. Morocco. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. Azerbaijan. and Italy.[5] Iran. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. the United States.000 flowers. the average retail price is $1.000 flowers. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. A pound of dry saffron requires 50.

and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. contribute to its high prices. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. Repeated droughts. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. among the world's darkest.S.79 in). combined with an Indian export ban. near L'Aquila. Sardinia.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). shape. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. picrocrocin (taste).crazychefs. In the U. it also has very high crocin. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. and colourative effect. and crop failures in Kashmir. unusually pungent aroma. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation.some organically grown. . saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). is in San Gavino Monreale. for quality and quantity. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. aroma. picrocrocin. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Actual length is about 20 millimetres ( http://www. and safranal content. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. and safranal (fragrance) content. blights.

Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. with turmeric. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. and thus a greater colourative intensity. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. and other powders used as diluting fillers.[77] However. many growers. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of http://www. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. traders.[80] Thus.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. pliability. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. II. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I).crazychefs. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. and I (finest quality). Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. red-dyed silk fibers. paprika.national standards bodies.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. pomegranate fibers. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri . Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. However. aroma. III. in India.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters.

272. 8. p. p. 3–4. stigma extracts and their constituents.". 12. p. ^ DPIWE 2005. 422. ^ Kumar V (2006). 17.crazychefs. ^ Deo 2003. p. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev in . 16. Japan A saffron crocus flower http://www. Sterling. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. 423. 2. 1. 3. 18. Kansai. 3.cababstractsplus. pp. p. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 2–3. ^ Willard 2001. 53. http://www. http://books. Retrieved 2007-12-01. www. crocin and safranal. 4. 13. 6. 2. ^ Willard 2001. ^ a b McGee 2004. p. p. ^ McGee ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. ^ Harper 2001. ^ Rau 1969. 19. p. p. Grilli Caiola .Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). 3. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 9. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 3. 1. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.cababstractsplus. 21. ^ Grigg 1974. 7. 22. 287. p. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. 1. p.asp?AcNo=20043148643. p. p. ^ Willard 2001. Honshū. 20. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ a b Deo 2003. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. 103. 4. 24. p. 23. ^ a b Deo 2003. 4.Saffron reproductive biology 11. ^ a b c Hill 2004. 14. 15. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Dharmananda 2005. 5. ^ M.

1. 99. ^ Fotedar 1998–1999. ^ Lak 1998b. 68. ^ Willard 2001. 59. 55. . pp. 73. p.pdf 70. 39. p. 28. Victoria (30 December 2002). 273. 128. 17–18. 133. 11. transl. p. 48. ^ Hill 2004. 1935 [1] 38. 34–35. ^ Willard 2001. 41. 52. ^ a b Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 29. 42. 138–139. Random House. p. 244 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. p.pdf 71. p. ^ McGee 2004. ^ a b c Willard 2001. 49. 138. 63. ^ Deo 2003. p. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Chang. http://www. 2. 40. 61. p. 1. 72. p. p. ^ Willard 2001. p. Kuo & Wang 1964. 2. pp. ^ Willard 2001. p. 60. p. 51. 47. p. ^ Willard 2001. 64. 27. 63. ^ Dalby 2003. p. ^ Celsus. 2. 1. ^ Willard 2001. 50. p. ^ Honan 2004. 1. ca. pp. 37. Loeb Classical Library Edition. 58. ^ Willard 2001. p. ^ Hayes 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 58.crazychefs. ^ Willard 2001. 70. p. 32. 62. ^ Humphries 1998. 43. ^ http://www. ^ a b Willard 2001. 101. 256. ^ http://www. 142–146. p.iovs. 59. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Rau 1969. ^ Willard 2001. 36. ISBN 0-8129-7142-6 53. ^ a b Tarvand 2005. p. pp. 117. 31. p. 66. 65. p. 30 AD. 41. 69. p. ^ Ferrence 2004. ^ Willard 2001. 67. ^ a b Dalby 2002. ^ Goyns 1999. p. 45. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Willard 2001. pp. ^ Willard 2001. p. 34. 2–3. ^ Willard 2001. 46. 35. 54. p. p. Colour: A Natural History of the Palette. ^ Willard 2001. ^ Fletcher 2005. ^ Honan 2004. 30. 41. ^ Finlay. p. ^ Willard 2001. 54–55. 143. 132–133. p. ^ Dalby 2002. ^ Assimopoulou 2005. 55. 224. 57. de Medicina. pp. 6. p. 35. 422. ^ Willard 2001. 20. 26. 56. pp. ^ a b Willard 2001. 138. 103–104. ^ 1. p.

201. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on January 10 2006. "Kashmiri saffron producers see red over Iranian imports". W. ISBN S (2005).>. "Saffron: An Anti-Depressant Herb".)". P (2002).com http://www. 2006[dead link]. p.ebmonline. <http://www. Davies. ^ Tarvand 2005. 2008. 79. ^ Willard 2001. Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2003.cfm?displayID=22>. 20). Dalby. Courtney. Darling Biomedical Library (2002).htm>. 81.pdf>.au/news/newsitems/200311/s982047. "Growing Saffron—The World's Most Expensive Spice".cri.itmonline. pp. 78. "The pharmacological action of 藏红花 (zà hóng huā—Crocus sativus L. <http://www. "Effect of drying temperature and air flow on the production and retention of secondary metabolites in saffron". University of California Press. FI (2002). 53 (15). PMID 16028982 Deo. Dharmananda. A (2002). <http://www. 80. A (2003). References Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2003). 2006. p. NW. 245 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Phytotherapy Research 19 (11).nz/home/productsservices/publications/broadsheets/020saffron. 2006.crazychefs. "Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L. 274. "Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. ^ Willard 2001. 2006.htm>. Retrieved on July 27. ^ Hussain 2005. Crop & Food Research (New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research) (no. B (2003). VP Papageorgiou & Z Sinakos (2005). Darling Biomedical Library (UCLA). PY. Retrieved on January 10. Landline (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). ^ Hill 2004. ISBN 0-520-23674-2. Experimental Biology and Medicine 227 (1). CT Kuo & CK Wang (1964). PMID 11788779 102– . <http://www. Retrieved on January 10. Food in the Ancient World from A to Z. extract and its bioactive constituents". PMID 16317646 Chang. 8. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Liang. p. MJ Gregory & RC Menary (2005).): effect on the uterus and/or estrous cycle". "Tasmania's Saffron Gold".htm>.abc. Dalby. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 11. 75. ^ Lak 1998. <http://www. Retrieved on January 10.library.crop. "Saffron".>.abc. Routledge (UK). ^ Goyns 1999. Retrieved on January 10. <http://unitproj. <http://books. Institute for Traditional Medicine. AN.ucla.74. Retrieved on January 10. ^ a b Tarvand 2005b.

J (1998). Wiley. Retrieved on January 10. ISBN 2006. "Saffron Industry in Deep Distress". Retrieved on January 10. "Gathering Kashmir's Saffron". 246 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2006.php?search=saffron&searchmode=none>. 2006. < 2006.DPIWE (2005).bbc. 2006.pdf>. Lak. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. Fotedar. Goyns. A (2005). "Saffron". <http://books. Leffingwell. S (1998–1999). Ferrence. Saffron.stm>. N (2005). Vitasta (Kashmir Sabha) XXXII (1).dpiwe. Jessie. PMID 15259204 BBC News. Hussain. Retrieved on January 10. Grigg. 2006. D (2001). D (1998). Retrieved on January PMID 16180089 m>.stm>. JC (2002). Martin's Press. Retrieved on January 10. WH (2004).co. "Kashmiris Pin Hopes on Saffron". AW (2001). Charlemagne's Tablecloth: A Piquant History of Feasting. Retrieved on January <http://www. MH (1999).at/~katzer/engl/Croc_sat.ikashmir. "Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and membrane lipid peroxidation by food spice. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2). "Saffron (Crocus sativus BBC News. <http://news. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. G (2001).html?ex=1393563600&en =c3177ebac2572d43&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND>. "Emerging and Other Fruit and Floriculture: Saffron". T (2004). Honan. saffron".au/inter. PMID 8590890 Hayes. 2006[dead link]. ISBN 90-5702-394-6. The New York Times.pdf>. 2006. The Agricultural Systems of the World. D (1998b). Lak. <http://www. Leffingwell Reports 2 (5). < 2006. Hasegawa. "Cultural Heritage of India—Kashmiri Pandit Contribution". SC (2004).uk/2/hi/south_asia/4216493. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. "Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review". DB (1974).uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/ http://www. The Contemporary Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices: Seasonings for the Global .com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=l-QJaUp31T4C>. The Essential Saffron Companion. St.html>. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved on January 10.uni-graz. Hill. <http://www. ISBN 1-56032-814-2.)". Harper. Retrieved on January 10. Food & Agriculture. "Researchers Rewrite First Chapter for the History of Medicine". Ten Speed Press. <http://www. ISBN>. Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4). Online Etymology Dictionary. <http://news. 2006. "Saffron". SK Kurumboor & SC Nair (1995). Retrieved on January SW & TP Krishnakantha (2005). Humphries. Taylor & Francis. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2). Taylor & Francis. BBC News. ISBN "Therapy with saffron and the Goddess at Thera".crazychefs.leffingwell. ISBN 1-58008-024-3.

New Scientist. 2006. Retrieved on January>. Time Life Education. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. < USDA Phytochemical>. "Grading and Classification". P (2001). Retrieved on January 10. PMID 2025883 Park. Reconstructing ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005).html>. "Saffron". SC. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity".usda. Retrieved on January 10. H (2004). <http://www. Nair.html>. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. <http://books. Tarvand (2005b). < http://www. 2006. Tarvand Saffron Company. Pearce. Scribner.tarvandsaffron. <http://www. Retrieved on January 10. Beacon Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. Retrieved on January 10. McGee.barc. SR (1969). Retrieved on January 10. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. F (2005).crazychefs. Willard. The Cooking of India.htm>. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus).pl. 2006. 2006[dead link].cfm?chemic al_id=140>.htm>. "What is Saffron?".gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b. <http://books.tarvandsaffron. JB (2005).". Cancer Letters 57 (2).McGann. <http://www.reconstructinghistory. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". Tarvand Saffron Company. ISBN K (2003).net/ . 2006. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). Retrieved on January 2006. Rau.

Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. Dead Sea. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea http://www.crazychefs. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea . 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. by a spring.[9]. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. which he describes as very simple: "As for me. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean.The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). endives. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. two stamens and bifid stigma. olives. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 . referring to their wooden material. It is short and squat. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods.5 cm long. the olive suckers readily from the stump. In Homer's Odyssey.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. and smooth mallows provide sustenance."[7] indeed.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. called xoana. The small white flowers. Asia and parts of Africa. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla.(XVII. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars.crazychefs.[1] and in the Iliad. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. Theophrastus.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. ca 170 AD. from Lebanon. are borne generally on the last year's wood. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. Though. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. the http://www. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. Its fruit. they were reverently preserved for centuries. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD.

Today. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. kotinos. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees.16. power and pureness. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. play an important role in the Bible. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. . It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games.The leafy branches of the olive tree . glory and peace .10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. For example. the olive has been the symbol of peace. glory. Over the years. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. Theophrastus. indeed. spread far and wide by birds. but he makes clear (in 1.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. olives were grown commercially in Crete. in both the New and Old Testaments. http://www. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible.crazychefs. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. and then in the 18th century in California. As far back as 3000 BC.[12] After the 16th century. and its cultivation began in Mexico.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. and one of the most significant. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. the pits give rise to thorny. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. in On the Nature of Plants. As emblems of benediction and purification. Peru.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. wild-type olives. The Book of Jacob 5. as well as olive oil and olives. The olive tree itself. for which the Greeks had a separate name. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. Chile and Argentina.

crazychefs. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. disease.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman http://www. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14].and fire-resistant. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old.600 years old.000 years old. which is made into top quality olive oil. claimed to be over 2. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. Montenegro. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. named "Plato's Olive Tree". was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. The older an olive tree is. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy. One olive tree in Bar.[16] An olive tree in west Athens.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni). Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. Istria in Croatia. drought-. The age of an olive tree in Crete. has been calculated to be about 1. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year).net/ . and can live for very long. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed.

have been determined to be over 3000 years old. According to a recent scientific survey.6 km) as the limit. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. A supposedly even older tree. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. 1600-2000 years old. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. and the olive fruit. both in Galilee region. All seven trees continue to produce olives. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olive leaf. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. called the "Peisistratos Tree". though showing a preference for the coast. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies.400 years ago. and. Specifically. Cultivation and uses For more details on this . fine wood. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it. see Olive (fruit). Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia.2. Modern experience does not always confirm this. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv. In the same natural garden. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975.crazychefs. http://www.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. a few other millenary trees can be admired.

5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. Niger. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. Israel.crazychefs. Australia. laperrinei (Algeria. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. Olive plantation in Andalucia. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. Sudan.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. Argentina. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. Chile. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and . India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa).com http://www. such as South Africa. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. northwest Africa) where winters are mild.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. the Mediterranean Basin.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp.

com .crazychefs.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

net/ .com http://www. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.crazychefs.

efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. rounded-oval fruit. in southern Spain. originating in Dos Hermanas. grown around the world. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. Rich taste and thick pulp. often after being pitted. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary . excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. Seville. In recent times. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. It is used mostly for oils. which consists of http://www. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. The olive grove of Amfissa. anchovies. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. 'Bosana'. stuffed (with pickled pimento. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . the most common olive grown on Sardinia.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. a large. A prolific bearer. 'Manzanilla'.200. with purple-green skin. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so.Cailletier cultivar. but only a few are grown to a large extent. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction.crazychefs.

originating in Toledo. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. medium size.crazychefs. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. 'Empeltre'. http://www. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. and coastal climate conditions. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[21] 'Koroneiki'. 'Cornicabra'. originating in the south of France. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. 'Nabali'. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. 'Souri'. They grow in any light soil. disease-resistant. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. This small olive. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. They are black and generally used for table consumption. It has a strong but sweet flavour. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. 'Arbequina'. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. Moreover. good for eating and for oil. It is used both for oil and for table olives. large. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. They are green. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. good for eating and for oil. The flavour is mild and nutty. named after the city of Kalamata.[23] 'Barnea'. 'Picual'. 'Hojiblanca'. Spain. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. and elongated. another modern Israeli. and elongated. Greece. originating in the south of France (Aude département).[citation needed] 'Lucques'. used as a table olive. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. round. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. originating from the southern Peloponese. even on clay if well drained. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. a small. brown olive grown in Catalonia. Spain. The olive is medium sized. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. comprises about 12% of Spain's production.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. Spain. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. Due to their highly valued flavour. a large. It is green. It is mainly used for oil. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. 'Kalamata'.net/ . Their flavour is mild and nutty. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. though difficult to cultivate. originating in the province of Córdoba.

yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. This method is used for olives used for oil. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. it is valued by woodworkers. Another method uses an electric tool. and with the season and the cultivar. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. up to several centuries. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. embryonic buds. as in Languedoc and Provence. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. that has large tongs that spin around . Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. More specifically.poorer soil. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. removing fruit from the tree. P. In some places in Italy and Greece. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. soon vegetate. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. In Greece.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. 114). but they seldom bear well two years in succession. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. A. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. Occasionally. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. They tolerate drought well. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. the oliviera. Olives grow very slowly. the trees are regularly pruned. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February.crazychefs. but the time varies in each country. which form small swellings on the stems. Olives are propagated in various ways. to facilitate germination. However.) Olives like hot weather. In southern http://www. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. In Italy. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. being very hard and close-grained. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. and can remain productive for as long. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter.

Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. then drained. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water. which is a natural preservative. the fruit is not bruised.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. which is why they taste milder than green olives. a bitter carbohydrate. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. which leads to a superior finished product. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. or green with hints of colour). After some weeks. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. Olives can be used green. through to full purple black ripeness. Fresh are often sold at markets. which can be eaten fresh.2 kg of oil per tree per year. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. large fruit (e. the creation of lactic acid.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. Typical yields are 1. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the http://www. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. The method also involves sawing off branches. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water.. which is healthy for future production. The olives are soaked in water to wash. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds.crazychefs.g. As a result. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar.

olive oil. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. A species of bacterium. feta. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. The ten largest producing countries.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. lemon zest. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. garlic cloves. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. of which the water is changed http://www.6 to 8. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. induces tumour growth in the shoots. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor. causing great damage to plantations.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. Lye-curing. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. and weather A fungus. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. oleae[27]. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. spices. wine. especially to young . The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves.crazychefs. vinegar. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. capsicum (pimento). Popular flavourings are herbs. chili. their main predators are wasps. but can be left to cure for up to three months. or removing the pit and stuffing them. Cycloconium oleaginum. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. leaving sawtooth damage. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. diseases. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. an unnatural method. Sometimes. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. In France and north-central Italy. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. olives suffer occasionally from frost. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. salt-curing. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. Pests. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. juniper berries and anchovies. lemon juice. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives.

Bibliotheke.100 3. 1992. and to cultivate olive-trees. Description of Greece 1.064 2. An introduction. 3.crazychefs.[31] References 1.. 38. ^ Homer. On the Causes of Plants.4 30. 5. 3. book 5". ^ Theophrastus.140.300.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.000 1.000 1." (Herodotus.0 3.317. 2. 1 ).500.160.685 765.14. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.400. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.5 63. to make bee-hives.13. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 998.000 250. 4.988 500. 27.3 8.888 178. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.5 6.149. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.339 300.000 470.9 6. 6. 7. 4. 81..000 430.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.3 20.000 498.8 16. Odyssey. 1).089 6.000 275. ^ ".1). ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures. 82. 5.800. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation. Ancient Greek Agriculture.1 25.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.830 2. 4. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants..7 27. ^ Pausanias. most notably South Australia.000 49.. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees.6 31.000 550.000 20. p.597.000 280.5.000 318." (Diodorus .000 http://www. and was the first to instruct men in these matters. 1.000 8.981 1.

^ "FAO. Madrid. Volume 18:27-35 20. 28. http://www. p. 17. http://www. Epikouria Magazine. http://www. Volume 15. 4th edition. Processing methods. 13. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L.jsp. op. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. J.fao.W. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. ^ a b M. pp 110–113. (September 2002). 2001. Fall/Spring (2005) 12. ^ Gooch. Tabak & O. 1981. 35. EspasaCalpe there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15.cit. Syst. 1779. ^ Lewington.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". Epikouria Magazine. 32:166– & Parker.pasoroblesolivefestival. ^ http://www. ^ Riley. ^ Burr. ^ Fotiadi.fao. ^ Janse. ^ Lumaret. Brijuni National Park. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John 27. E. me cichorea levesque malvae. cited in F. Kislew. nov. Riley (2002). nom. 1996. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L.. Leshonenu (Hebrew). J. Rackham.279 18. p. Available through Google Books 11. Bacteriol.crazychefs.springerlink. Masuelli. J. Zatoun. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". ^ Muncipality Bar. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. (1999) Ancient Trees. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. 2004". 69. Odes 1. ^ Balfour. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. 105. N. http://www. A. 29 April. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. AGRISCIENTA. Juárez. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". Int. 24. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". Retrieved 2007-03-10. Spring/Summer 2006 26. vol.htm. 23.31.. 30. D.. ^ [1] 21. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. 29. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) ( Retrieved 2007-08-31. "Plants of the Bible" 1885.8. ^ "Old Olive Tree". Australian Olives.aspx?PageID=151. ^ "Me pascunt olivae.15." Horace. Ellen.zatoun. rev.A. & Ouazzani. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. R. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. R. 1999. 1982. ^ O. Retrieved 2009-05-18. ^ Belaj et . ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. Moody. Y. Number 4). ca 30 BC 9. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. M Bauza & R. 25. Cavagnaro P. Elena "Unusual Olives". John Hutton. http://apps3. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. Simhoni. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. J. Retrieved 2007-08-31. London: Collins & Brown Ltd.. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties.

with slender branched stems.31. western North America.R. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. glossy green. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. seldom produces flowers.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. however. with an entire margin. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. (French tarragon. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm . and south to northern Mexico. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. Corresponding to its species name. L. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves are lanceolate." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India.crazychefs. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889– http://www.

lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. Georgia and. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. without excessive watering.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. Russia and Ukraine. it normally goes dormant in winter. sunny .[1] Russian tarragon (A. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen.crazychefs.[1] http://www. A perennial. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. and particularly suitable for chicken. Persian and Russian word for . dracunculoides L. Fresh.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. Spreading plant can be divided easily. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] It likes a hot. It is normally purchased as a plant. due to the presence of estragole. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. which is the Armenian. but cannot be grown from seed. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. by extension. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. fish and egg dishes.

^ Gatfield IL. Johannes Panten (2006). ^ Surburg. 3. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Horst. Properties and . Krammer G. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. References 1. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. pp. The Bountiful Container. 233. Foerstner J. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. Rose Marie Nichols. Machinek A. Stuckey. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 9783527607891. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. Workman Publishing. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. ^ a b c d McGee. http://www. Ley JP. Maggie (2002).[3] In Slovenia.Cis-Pellitorin.

Dalmatian sage. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. grayish leaves. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. Lamiaceae. it is used when roasting mutton. Common sage. though other species. sage has a slight peppery flavor. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. Garden sage. Culinary sage. In the Balkans and the Middle East. Purple sage. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Broadleaf sage. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen . cheeses (Sage Derby). Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. In Western cooking. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). and some drinks. with woody stems. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. In French cuisine. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking.Salvia officinalis ( http://www.crazychefs. Britain and Flanders. It is a member of the mint family. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and blue to purplish flowers. In the United States. Kitchen sage.

[1] In a double blind.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. flavones. niacin. nicotinamide.trichomes are visible. cornsolic acid. oleic acid. caffeic acid. ursolic acid. hypoglycemic. and thujone. The underside of a sage leaf .crazychefs. antifungal.more trichomes are visible on this side. ursonic acid. Sage leaf contains tannic acid.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. antibiotic. and tonic. means ―to heal". astringent. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. http://www. chlorogenic acid. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. antispasmodic. The Latin name for sage. estrogenic. which contains cineole.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf .net/ . cornsole. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. and estrogenic substances. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. borneol. flavonoid glycosides. fumaric acid.

php. doi:10.1046/j.00463. a purple-leafed cultivar. Jamshidi AH. Retrieved 2008-02-04. Mohammadi M.1365-2710. and for low ground cover. increasing women's fertility. 'Berggarten'.com http://www. 2. Ohadinia S. considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. emmenagogue. 'Icterina'. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. snakebites. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. (2003). Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. salvatrix (Sage the Savior).x. a cultivar with white. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. 'Extrakta'. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Applied Health. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". and tonic. 'Lavandulaefolia'.com/nutri/page8453. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. OBeWise Nutriceutica. and more.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. Pliny. and for other uses. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. yellow and green variegated leaves. hemostatic.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. a small leaved cultivar. a local anesthetic for the skin. a styptic. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9.[4] It was sometimes called S. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. 'Tricolor'. http://www.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. Khani M. Dioscorides.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. PMID 12605619. Noroozian M. ^ a b c "Sage". especially in sunny dry environments.appliedhealth. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. References 1. a cultivar with large leaves. ^ Akhondzadeh S. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. a white-flowered cultivar. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'.crazychefs. 'Alba'.2003. and used as a diuretic. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus.

(2000). Sage: The Genus . ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. p. ISBN 9789058230058. ^ a b Kintzios. 4.3. http://www. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. pp. Spiridon E. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. CRC Press. Deni Bown (New York: DK.

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