Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]


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Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]


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Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]


Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.


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Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]


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Italian. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form. Spanish. assume that it means fresh. It tolerates drought well. . Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. the whole sprig may be used (e. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. Leaves are often chopped. fresh thyme is often available year-round. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof). It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. soups and stews. in a bouquet garni). In French cuisine. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial.g. It can be propagated by seed.Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Thyme is often used to flavour meats.crazychefs.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil. Dried. Syrian. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. or by the sprig. and Turkish cuisines. Libyan. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. and in those derived from them. and of herbes de Provence. while flavourful. storage life is rarely more than a week. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. Lebanese. Persian. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. Portuguese. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines.a little less if it is ground.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Depending on how it is used in a dish. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). In some Levantine countries. Greek. As a rule of thumb. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. tomatoes and http://www. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. Albanian. While summer-seasonal. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. Thyme. which is due to its content of thymol.

is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed]. it was used to medicate bandages.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. salve. hybrid T. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. an antiseptic. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol.estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. All thyme species are nectar sources.[5] As with bay. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed]. The dried equivalent is 1:3. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb.crazychefs. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full http://www.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. tisane. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth . but is grown as a ground cover. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. etc. It also has medicinal uses. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs.[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails.[6] Thymol. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. pulegioides × T.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. Because it is antiseptic.

8|Page Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.crazychefs. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.Variegated lemon . ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity.

Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/ .com http://www.

0 μg Calcium 138.3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. B2) 0. B3) . although parsley has a milder flavor. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B1) 0.1 mg Folate (Vit.0 mg Vitamin K 1640. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit.Sugars 0.1 mg recommendations for adults. often used as spice.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133.8 g 3.0 mg Iron 6. European.2 mg Magnesium 50. Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.Dietary fiber 3.0 mg Phosphorus 58.crazychefs. It is common in Middle Eastern. and American cooking.1 mg 6.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.3 g 0.9 g .com http://www.0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates .4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0.

Like many other umbellifers. used in soups and stews. or flat leaf (P. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. tuberosum).net/ . allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants. it attracts predatory insects. which then tend to protect plants nearby.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. neapolitanum). Although little known in Britain and the United States. even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. While parsley is biennial. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their http://www. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. it is not related to real turnips. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds.crazychefs. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. like flat leaf parsley or chervil. which helps accommodate the long taproot. Green parsley is often used as a garnish.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. not blooming until its second year. However.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The similarity of the names is a coincidence. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. reducing pest attraction.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. For example. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins.

Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries.crazychefs. ^ a b c John W. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. Parsley as an oil. Last retrieved April References 1. Jett.[4] The produce code for parsley is parsley is part of bouquet garni. "Parsley on plucodes. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women.. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and sauces. 2007. 2.drugs. 4. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon). leaf. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. with fish. In Southern and Central Europe. http://www.70% by mass. [1]) in oxalic acid. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs." West Virginia University Extension Service. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier.html. http://www. . fried chicken. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins. a mixture of parsley. steaks.[3] Parsley is high (1. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf).aspx?id=1075&s=4. Ossobuco alla milanese. on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. and lemon zest. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato).com http://www.g.".". a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. In addition. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads.plucodes. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. "That Devilish Parsley. or 4900. garlic. lamb or goose. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. Goulash or Chicken paprikash).

com .Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum .com http://www. 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.

Varieties There are a number of subspecies.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. 3-4 mm long. native to Europe. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and grilled meat. It is particularly widely used in Turkish.crazychefs.g. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. and to add a nice. and lovage leaves. which is popular in southern Italy. Oregano growing in a field. Spanish and in Italian . Unlike most Italian herbs. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. fried vegetables. It is a perennial herb. spicy flavor. Together with basil. growing to 20-80 cm tall. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. of the mint family. Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. O vulgare gracile. It is the leaves that are used in http://www.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. The flowers are purple. produced in erect spikes.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. Greek.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . e. each with distinct flavours. Oregano is an important culinary herb. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. as well as cultivars. capers.

Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. together with paprika. because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue.crazychefs. It has an aromatic. however. salt and pepper. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory http://www. warm and slightly bitter taste. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. The influence of climate.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Asia Minor) and O. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. It varies in intensity. Oregano growing in a pot. differs significantly in taste. useful for relieving children's coughs. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various . In the Philippines. heracleoticum (Italy. The related species Origanum onites (Greece.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. especially for mutton and lambs meat. it can be usually found on table. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. In Turkish Cuisine. Balkan peninsula. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖.[5][6] Additionally. West Asia) have similar flavors. which.

Plectranthus amboinicus. Aqueous extracts. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. stomachic and mildly tonic. cholagogue. In the Philippines.[7] and painful menstruation. carminative. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses.[12] References 1. including Poliomintha longiflora. also called Cuban fungal infections. mild fevers. influenza. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in".uni-graz.[8] Hippocrates. Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico. the father of medicine. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments.crazychefs. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. emmenagogue. enteric parasites. useful for relieving children's coughs. stomach upsets. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn.html. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. . ^ http://www. though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. ocimene. capsules. thymol. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. which simply referred to "an acrid herb".com http://www. Coleus aromaticus). this substitution would not work the other way round. Lippia berlandieri. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον.Main constituents include carvacrol. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content. pinene. stimulant. or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. but is usually stronger. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. ^ Organic Gardening 2. diaphoretic. antispasmodic. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. expectorant. oregano. A Cretan oregano (O. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. limonene.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. Used topically. especially in the United States. and caryophyllene. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano.

Fall/Spring 2007 5. Fall/Winter 2007 10.".uwe. 133 (5): 1286–1290. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants".crazychefs.nutrition. 11. http://jn. http://info. PMID 12730411. 28. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". et Agric. doi:10. draft revision for "origanum".1021/jf0510079. 7. Draft revision for "oregano". March 2009. ^ a b Faleiro. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. June 2008.medicalnewstoday.dmannose. (2005). ^ ["http://www. PMID 16218659.php. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".ac. Leonor. J. http://www. J Nutr. Retrieved 2008-11-26.2008.asp?item=1374&year=2008. (Cav. Retrieved (01 May 2003).uk/news/UWENews/article.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4.) and Origanum vulgare L.3. 53 (21): 8162–8168.10. 24 November 2008. 12. ^ Epikouria Magazine. Medical News ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. Food Chem. ^ Epikouria Magazine. draft revision for "organum".org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286. 6. et al. Steinar. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F. ^ Dragland. University of the West of http://www. ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano .

Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. meaning "hay". that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. umbelliferous herb. the diminutive of fenum or faenum. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). it seems. In Ancient Greek. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on http://www. however. It is a hardy. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel").[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .[2] In Greek mythology. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl.crazychefs. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian. Ferula communis. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). perennial. and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. recorded in the 10th century. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. it was from the giant fennel. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). The Latin word for the plant was ferula. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail. Also. This came from the Old English fenol or finol.

raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates .crazychefs. and grooved. B3) 0. and grows to heights of up to 2. bulb. but thinner.01 mg 7.29 g 0. they are finely dissected.5 mm wide.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 .24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike).032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. about 0.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.047 mg Folate (Vit.Dietary fiber 3.5 m.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide.[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. B2) 0. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long.20 g 1. It is erect. glaucous green. B1) 0. half as wide or http://www. with hollow stems.

syn. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel.Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. F.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. notably the Italian name finocchio.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it. in pastures. for its edible.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. but is more aromatic and sweeter. the United States. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. vulgare var.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. including northern Europe. Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. both in its native range and elsewhere. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. "bronze-leaved" fennel. it is often mislabelled as "anise" http://www.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group.20 mg Manganese 0. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island). In North American supermarkets. and in other open sites in many regions. by the late 19th century. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. which is also known by several other names. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. both raw and cooked. It is of cultivated origin. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. stronglyflavoured leaves and . though usually not as strong.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'. It propagates well by seed.

The bulb is a crisp. mouri in Bengali. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. stewed. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. often tossed with chicory and avocado. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves.Fennel. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. though smaller. in side dishes. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. where bulbs and fronds are used. pastas. grilled.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. variyali in http://www. Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. or eaten raw. foliage. green seeds are . or cooked in risotto. For cooking. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. and risottos. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). Many egg.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. sompu in Telugu. salads. which are very similar in taste and appearance. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. anise-flavoured spice. both raw and cooked. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece.crazychefs. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. badesoppu in Kannada. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. braised. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. fish. but also the most expensive. It may be blanched or marinated. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. brown or green in colour when fresh.

net/ . Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. sometimes with some sweetener.Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a http://www. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. although not supported by direct evidence. This use. used to ease flatulence in infants.[12] For adults.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. act as phytoestrogens.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. as it is said to improve eyesight. Fennel tea. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. or its polymers.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'.crazychefs. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. also employed as a carminative.

Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. badian (star anise). Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue.[17] http://www.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J. which promote growth of breast tissue. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. fennel and coriander.crazychefs.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of .[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. followed by India.

[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum. which are often called cinnamon too. karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai. native to Sri Lanka. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. the "real' cassia. it is called Dalchina Chakka. in the original http://www. In Telugu.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. In Urdu. In Farsi (Persian).)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and in Gujarati taj. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them. itself ultimately from Phoenician.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni.[3] In Sri Lanka.crazychefs. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā.net/ . zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. Chakka meaning bark or wood. it is known as "DalChini ( )". Ceylon.[2] In Marathi. it is called darchin (‫. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫.C. In Bengali. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera. synonym C. Hindi.[5] In Malayalam. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. cinnamon is known as kurundu. it is called "Darchini" ( ).

but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. aloe and cinnamon. to protect their monopoly as suppliers. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248.crazychefs. and in Song of Solomon. in Proverbs. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt. but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at .com http://www. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade.

such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire. http://www. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years.crazychefs.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. in a letter of about 1292. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining. "The shores of the island are full of it". Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. sugar." (Braudel 1984.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. although in the first century. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. have a greenish color. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32.1 inches) . The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers.2 feet) tall. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. a Dutch captain reported. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. They established a trading post in 1638. and have a distinct odor. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. 7–18 cm (2. which are arranged in panicles. took control of the factories by 1640.75–7. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. The flowers. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. p. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices. and used them to construct their nests. and coffee. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. tea.Ages.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis.8–49.

M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. Java. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. Madagascar. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma.[15] According to the FAO. Zanzibar. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's http://www. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. verum).Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. Chips are trimmings of quills. Bangladesh.crazychefs. The next year. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. eg. According to the International Herald Tribune. Brazil. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. Only the thin (0. the West Indies. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. the outer woody portion is removed.5 mm) inner bark is used. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. India. which is left to . Vietnam. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Sumatra. followed by China. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin. and Egypt. and Vietnam. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka.

also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. hard and woody in texture. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu . "Vietnamese cinnamon".Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon". or "Indonesian cinnamon". using only the thin inner bark. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). has a finer. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. and more crumbly http://www. and is considered to be less strong than cassia. as all of the layers of bark are used. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. the related species.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. is generally a medium to light reddish brown. Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi).[16] Ceylon cinnamon. many websites. less dense. and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon. However. for example. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani .crazychefs. zeylanicum).

are easily distinguished.5% to 1% of its composition. tea. and liqueurs. such as apple pie. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). drinks. ‫. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. a deep-blue tint is produced. rather than cassia. and then quickly distilling the whole.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. In the Middle East. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. and sweets. but when cassia is present. especially in Mexico.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. whereas cassia sticks are much harder. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. hot cocoa. It is of a golden-yellow color. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. bread-based dishes. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. especially apples. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. when whole. and fruits. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. used in a variety of thick soups. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark. macerating it in . It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. The two barks. In the United States. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark.crazychefs. True cinnamon. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of http://www. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia.

However. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). love. In Hoodoo. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. cinnamaldehyde. and money. eugenol. although it remains untested. cinnamyl acetate. Encyclopaedia Britannica.[34] Notes 1. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. and Myanmar (Burma). http://www.[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. Sri Lanka (Ceylon).[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent.crazychefs. cassia.[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. linalool.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant . The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance.[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. and anethole. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). who failed. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits). luck. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. few seem able to succeed. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts.[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. The Cinnamon Challenge. 2008.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the neighboring Malabar Coast of India.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. ^ a b "Cinnamon". and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark.and a very hot aromatic taste. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes.0. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777. in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification.

Corke H (October 2005). 9.theepicentre. Food Chem.crazychefs. p.henriettesherbal. J. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour. http://www. 437f. ^ http://www. "Solid. http://dsr. revised ed. Cozzolino FF. Food Chem. Col.htm 20. tr.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14. Encyclopedia of Spices. Account of the Island of Ceylon.php?storyId=6672644." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat. ^ http://www. Sánchez C. The History of Food. retrieved 200705-01 21. ^ http://findarticles.2. p. ^ [1] retrieved 2008-07-15 11. p. ^ http://links. PMID 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's 13. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. Torres RP (December 1998). p. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon. http://lakdiva.html#pg598.CO%3B2-N 15. Nerín C (August 2005).jstor. retrieved 2007-05-01 10. 8. retrieved 200807-15 17. ^ "Cassia. Emily.html. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. Batlle R. Henry. http://www. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ .com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009.437.nii. Cai YZ. p. PMID 10077878. Breyne) extracts". ^ Knox. Agric.0.. ^ Harris.fao. doi:10. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents".—Cinnamon. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. Van-Koiij A. ^ Toussaint-Samat Harvey. http://www. ^ The Epicentre. ^ Mancini-Filho J. ^ http://news. Robert. retrieved 2008-07-15 12. Agric. 437 437). ^ Shan B. Mancini DA. Cathay and the Way Thither.1021/jf050709v.1021/jf051513y. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. 4. _of_life/html/1. http://www. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.thespicehouse. 2009. ^ [2] 18. Cinnamon. Anthea Bell.html.stm 3. 53 (20): 7749–59. ^ López P. Sir James Emerson.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains".com/eclectic/kings/cinnamomum.htm. 53 (17): 6939– Sun M.en. PMID 16190627. ^ http://www. 22. ^ Tennent. ^ Yule.

html?source=r_health. http://care. retrieved 200705-01 25. ^ Khan A. Archer (1988).. ^ Taher. Anderson RA (December 2003). doi:10. July 2000. Akram et al.diabetesjournals. http://jn.26. 27.sciencedaily. http://www. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients". Research: Thalido. http://eprints.. s_have_been/index. Cat. Retrieved 200808-05. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food. Ali Khan MM. ^ George Mateljan Foundation. Eleventh Edition. retrieved 200705-01 32. Alan W.. Cinnamon. Retrieved 2008-05-11.pdf. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade.php?featured_food=80. ^ Vanschoonbeek. http://www.1. ^ Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. ^ Ranjbar.1.nutrition. 34. http://www. www. New York: Kodansha International. Leslie. doi:10.1002/ "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". ^ [3].futuremedicine. The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr.crazychefs.whfoods. The Perspective of the World. doi:10.luckymojo. Kristof et al. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). Eugen J.sciencedaily.24. Braudel. Retrieved 2007-12-17. Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. Corn.3215. 33. ^ Yronwode. 30. Muhammad et al.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". Retrieved 2008-05-11. doi:10. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. Retrieved 200805-11. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007). ^ Beck. a publication now in the public domain.utm. Agricultural Research magazine. (2005). et al. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica.12.2217/14750708.113. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism.1016/00219673(88)90035-0. Safdar M.2217/14750708.2337/diacare. http://www.3. Medicinal Seasonings. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206.lesliebeck.redorbit.. .com. Charles (1998).com. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life".. Fernand (1984). "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study". Khattak KN. PMID 14633804. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".com/releases/2004/07/040716081706. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www. .crazychefs. which it is not. used without qualifiers. and Allium asarense R.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. and dehydrated forms. It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage. They are known by the common name "onion" but. Onions can be used. canned. pickled. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. chopped. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. They are now available in http://www. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it usually refers to Allium cepa.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. frozen.M. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. one of the oldest vegetables. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures.Department of Export Agriculture."[3] Uses Onions.

traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. snakebite and hair loss. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy http://www. an onion can be sharp. spicy. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. and also to relieve headaches.[5] . coughs.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection. In ancient Greece. and other animals should not be given onions in any form. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. recent evidence has shown that dogs. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life.[5] The onion is easily propagated. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola. However. due to toxicity during digestion. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions.crazychefs. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. Depending on the variety. transported and stored. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions".[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. In Bronze Age settlements. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage. cats.chopped or sliced.

046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.polyunsaturated 0.34 g 0. 0 μg 9.Dietary fiber 1.Sugars 4. B1) 0.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.4 mg Vitamin E .1 g 1.monounsaturated 0.crazychefs.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron http://www.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.24 g .12 mg Folate (Vit.013 g .129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0. B3) 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.1 g 89.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates . B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.21 mg Magnesium 0.02 mg Vitamin K 0.116 mg Vitamin B6 0.042 g . B2) 0.7 g Fat .Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.saturated 0.

[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. and Vidalia. Western White. Western Yellow. followed by Western Yellow.crazychefs. osteoporosis. and Vidalia. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. Shallots have the most phenols. Empire Sweet. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. Peruvian Sweet. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. However. Peruvian Sweet. For all varieties of onions. onions are used to heal blisters and boils.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. Texas 1015. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. anticholesterol. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. Empire Sweet. eleven times the amount found in Western White. Texas 1015. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. Western White. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits. anticancer. Empire Sweet.[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids. the variety with the lowest phenolic content. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. Mexico.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. Texas 1015. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. In general. Northern . Mexico. In the United States. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mexico. Imperial Valley Sweet. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. and other diseases. Northern Red. Imperial Valley Sweet. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). Peruvian Sweet.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. Imperial Valley Sweet.[10] In many parts of the world.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. diabetes. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. pungent yellow (New York Bold). If you are allergic to http://www. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings.

allylpropyldisulfide. therefore. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. differs among Allium species. and in rare cases anaphylaxis.[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. allylmercaptan and allicin. limiting the amount of gas generated. The volume of sulfenic acids released. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. breathing difficulties.include reactions to onions. 2008. Eye irritation http://www. chives.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the irritation effect. garlic. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. it can lead to an allergic . mouth and throat ulcerations. creating a stinging sensation. diarrhea. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. ginger. As onions are sliced or eaten.crazychefs. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. leeks. and bananas. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. garden lilies. where it binds to sensory neurons. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. cells are broken. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. On January 31. shallots. all present in garlic.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. nausea.

which have been developed in more recent times. more commonly today. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. Allium fistulosum.crazychefs. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. which can be planted directly in the ground. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. Finally. the Welsh onion.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions. from sets started from seed the previous year. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. "short-day" onions. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following http://www.

764 Pakistan 1. Vale.Produce bulblets in the flower head.149 Spain World Total 64. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.302 1. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest.750 South Korea 1. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion. such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .758 Russia 1.220 Turkey 1.637 Japan Egypt 1. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9. The second type is often referred to as a Potato http://www.500 China United States 3. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.346 2. each of which forms a bulb. Oregon (USA).101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.793 India 5. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.crazychefs.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets). bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet . a hybrid of Allium cepas.

It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. passed in 1958. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced . bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.The Onion Futures Act. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. It remains in effect as of http://www.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba.

It has a characteristic pungent.crazychefs. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. the most commonly used part of the plant. and chive. from William Woodville. Its close relatives include the onion. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L. Medical . Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1793.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum. leek. shallot. is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A. Allium sativum. known as garlic.[1] A bulb of http://www. commonly known as garlic.

known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". according to Zohary and Hopf. is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis. In cold climates. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. The papery. with approximately 10.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. Garlic plants can be grown close together.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[5] The "wild garlic".1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. for consumption (raw or cooked). stems (scape). softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". Garlic is grown globally. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become http://www. the so-called elephant garlic. accounting for over 77% of world output. with Russia (1. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. and Allium oleraceum. Allium vineale. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. "crow garlic". which grows wild in southwestern Asia. are common weeds in fields. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. It is called "Sudu Lunu" in . In North America. and for medicinal purposes. India (4.crazychefs. The leaves. respectively.Yunnan province of China. The cloves are used as seed. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. They can suffer from pink root. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates.

Alaska) in fifth place (1.000 142. southern Europe. California. or ginger.088. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world". northern Africa. or estimates). The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. It is often paired with onion. and parts of South and Central America. C = calculated figure.000 128. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.000 221. south Asia.000 325.000 125.000 645.400 140. F = FAO estimate. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions.000 254.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output. tomato. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press.810 168.crazychefs. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. semiofficial. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12. Southeast Asia.000 15. including eastern http://www.686.310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . A = aggregate (may include official. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data. P = official figure.4%). An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb. the Middle East.

They are also known as "garlic spears". almond. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. breads and pasta. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. Immature scapes are tender and edible. crostini and canapé. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. and spices. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. and is now being sold in the United States. is sweet and syrupy. bruschetta. oil. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. or vegetables. In eastern . garlic toast. 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The leaves are cut. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. Blending garlic. and roast them in an oven. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. or "tops".crazychefs. In Japan and Korea. Garlic. United Kingdom and Australia. and then stir-fried with eggs. cleaned. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. http://www. In some cuisine. salt. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. meats. meat. and a chunky base produce skordalia. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. the resulting product. "stems". called black garlic.


Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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and worms from eating the plant. Since digestion takes several http://www. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. Among the members of the onion family.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. ginger. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. or leeks. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden. thus mellowing its spiciness. forming allyl methyl sulfide. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking.crazychefs. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. however.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. garlic could be worn. insects. However.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where it is excreted. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. making garlic much more potent than onions. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. such as pistou. deterring animals like birds. including onions. shallots. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. garden lilies. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic. hung in windows.[48] Due to its strong odor. and cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. all present in garlic.[51] To ward off vampires. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. and bananas. persillade. and release of AMS several hours more. Because of the AMS in the . included in many garlic recipes. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. werewolves. The herb is. allylpropyldisulfide. When eaten in quantity. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time.[50] In Europe. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood. chives. therefore. Humans. garlic. However. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. usually enjoy these sensations. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. shallots. leeks. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. allylmercaptan and allicin. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose".

suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi". sweating.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for http://www. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. indicated Muhammad.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. calcium channel blockers.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and . Editing help is available. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. similar to the effect of aspirin. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). You can help by converting this article to prose. In connection with the odor associated with garlic.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. bleeding.[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. However. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms. and diarrhea. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. minimal risks to normal individuals. at worst. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque". if appropriate. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. nausea. dizziness. Garlic can thin the blood. if any exist. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated.crazychefs. allergic reactions. indigestion. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth. and menstrual irregularities. antiplatelets. particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. are largely unknown.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. saquinavir. antihypertensives. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. as well as other medications. antiparasitic value of garlic. emesis.In Daoism mythology.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. and hypoglycemic drugs.

com/warrenreporter/index. The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs. Ethiopia". ^ a b c d Tabor. 4. http://www. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. 197 5. In particular. (2004). so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of . J. is discouraged. Retrieved 5 June 2009.nj. bigger. third edition (Oxford: University Press.html 8. Retrieved 2007-08-28.unigraz.jhortscib. et al. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. 9. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium 112 7.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". p. 2000). 3. garlick)". G. one the bulbs will grow peeled.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container. http://www. including burns to children. (2005). "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. http://hdl. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment.crazychefs. A bulb of garlic. topical use of raw garlic. Domestication of plants in the Old World. Retrieved 5 June.) cultivars at Debre http://www. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p.htm. ^ http://www. ^ McGee p. ^ maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L.natural-holistic-health. Notes as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities. et al. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. 397 6. ^ a b Lee.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. 2.

J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. Sylva. http://personalpages.1001/archinte. PMID 17918162. 17.ama-assn. Maud. 15. Herald Publishing Co. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets.).A 400 Year History. 2006. Sova P (May 2004). ^ Goodbye. Ramacciato. doi:10. PMID 2291748. et al (November 2007). McFerren M (February 2007).University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". Med. (p. PMID 15218732. Daryn (2003). PMID 17951430.4. Hyg. Acad. Better Nutrition. Güven C (2002). (Mrs. 18.01.325. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats".net/ .. Intern. http://archinte. A Modern Herbal. ^ a b Steiner M. doi:10. 20.. 34.200700058. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. Yin MC. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". July 1.1002/mnfr.1186/1476-511X-6-5. Vosoughi AR.346.ama-assn. N. 35. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial". Sartoratto. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". P.167. 167 (4): 346–53. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44. 32. doi:10.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". Akrami M (March 2007). Nutr. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. Proc. ^ Kojuri J.10. PMID 17325296. 11. Olcay E. PMID 15277094. Paul B. Arch. 19. et al (February 2007). 104 (46): 17977–82. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients". 5:109–115. ^ Borrelli F.1162/ Med.0705710104." Int. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. Oztürk HS. and Empiricism" (PDF). 33.S. 22. Chao WJ (March 2007). Natl. ^ Durak I. et al (June 2004). J.C. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . Capasso R. [2] ^ Hamel. PMID 17328819. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. and Mary U.A. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". ^ Charlson M. Biochem. Squadrito GL. ^ Mader FH (October 1990). Intern. Lawson LD. 13. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23. 2005 ^ Groppo. 21. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502– 54 | P a g e http://www. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -.manchester. Lin RS (June 1998).1016/j. F. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. 23. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". Izzo AA (November 2007). PMID 17325291.lehoux/Tropes.. U. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. doi:10. Motta.005. J. 31. PMID 15157944. Arch. J. doi:10. R. garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. Kavutcu M. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . 28. ^ Benavides GA. Sci. doi:10. Dent. PMID 17966136. 12. doi:10. PMID 9641475. 26. 30.jnutbio.2004. 5.1001/archinte. ^ Gardner CD.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. 29. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. ^ Chan KC. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". http://archinte. Accessed: December 18. 16. ^ Durak I.. 15 (6): 373–7. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology"..167. 24. 167 (4): 325–6. Block E. 14.1002/mnfr. PMID 17123684. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). Mills RW. Garlic.pdf. 27. Aytaç B. "Tropes. 25.1073/pnas.1097/00005344-199806000-00014. A. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). Ferraresi.

go.crazychefs. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. 66. et al (October 2005). 58. Imafuku M. "Allixin. 39. 1988. http://mic. Sagi A. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats". Summer 2005 .Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. ^ a b c d Hogg. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms".". Slattery M. 38.elsevier. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association. Yoshida S.0.sgmjournals. 52.. ^ Kodera Y. ^ Baruchin AM. 37. doi:10. Lau B.goldbamboo. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF). Shishido C. ^ a b McNally. David (2003). http://joi.) 62. ^ Pickering.. Chesson C. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. Kominato Y. Complementary Medicines Summary. http://linkinghub.1128/AAC.Garlic-in-Oil 61. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. Microbiology (Reading. ^ http://www. 53.Vol 9 No. Jennifer (2002-12-13). 310–311 47. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. Lett. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. 40. Nishimura S. section "Conclusion" 48.html 54. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993).jlc. Engl. p. ^ Shuford JA. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 049 . 49. "Effect of allixin.1. Sanders N.nhs.. ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. National Health Service. Houghton Mifflin. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans".com http://www.".. Itakura Retrieved December 7. Book 65 57. Steckelberg JM. 120. "Garlic burns". ^ Macpherson et al. Iwai K. Yoffe B. Volume 7.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. Retrieved 2007-0707. Thomson M.36.49. "Garlic burns". 2007. 41. 43. PMID 46. ^ Macpherson et al.ukmi. a stress compound from garlic. UK Medicines Information.2005. Toxicol. Scolaro M. Jordan W. 122. Ali M (June 1996).28095-0. 211. PMID 8441577.elsevier.html 45. Long D. ^ In Search of Dracula.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.go. PMID 15616341. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. http://joi. (2001). doi:10. Patel R (January 2005).Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59. ^ Fareed G. 85 (3): 157–64. Sterling Publishing. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Aon MA.economicexpert.1099/mic.jst. (1991-08-01).com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582.. http://www. 64. ^ McGee p. ^ Health Canada . on mutagenesis. Raymond T (1994). ^ http://lem. ISBN 0-30436561-0. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. Ronen M (November 2001). ^ Lemar KM. garlic advisory 63. W. Agents Chemother. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56. http://linkinghub. Pickering p.htm 44. 42. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. ^ Garlic . PMID Sumida T. Antimicrob. Nishino H. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 49 (1): 473. Passa O. Teel R. PMID 8644128. 4 .jlc..) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65. NLM Gateway. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. ^ John S. Matuura H.blogspot. ^ http://washokufood.jst. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30" . Castro C.January 29. 2007.. http://aac. ^ McNally James. Retrieved December 7. 65. Fuwa ^ Oi Y. ^ Bukhari. PMID 16207909. 211 51. Bordia (1989-01-30). PMC: 538912.

I. Efendy JL. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. Naoki Kashimoto. Campbell GR. 3rd ed. Masanori Ayabe.. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts.References Japanese garlic. Block. Balch. Naoto Uda. Zemah. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. D. PMID 8441577. Breithaupt-Grögler K. Garlic. K. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. PMID 9355906. M. Vol. Pharm. "Garlic burns". Vargas R. D. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. E. and H. Susumu Yoshida. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. Rabinowitch (2004). ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. 405-407 (2002). Ling M.elsevier. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Lawson. 129: 144–151. A. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". Retrieved 1 May . Chatterjee. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Block. (1985). Hort. Jain AK.-Z. E. C. Belz GG (October 1997). Williams & Wilkens. Sci. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. (2001). A. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. Hile. (2000). Block. Vol. Lemar. and Related Species (Second Edition). Turner. (1992). (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs.[青森県産]. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". Block. Med. PMID 9247357. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Garlic..crazychefs. (1996). (2004). Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203. 50. J. Barzilay. http://www. R. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖... E. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. 'Kyolic'.. Gotzkowsky S. Am. L.. 50.にんにく専門のにんにく屋. McMahon FG (June 1993). H. Kamenetsky. New York: Avery. Z. P. H. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. Simmons DL. J. Chem. Kraemer. L. Jiro Yoshida.P. Hamilton. Selfsufficientish . Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. R. Balise. Pharm. Bull. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. PMID 8506890. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. S. Koch. Lloyd. Campbell JH (July 1997). http://circ. 94 (6): 632–5. The chemistry of garlic and Garty BZ (March 1993). C... M. L.. D.. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. E.. Lawson. Chem. Z. [4] Lawson. A. Makoto Ichikawa. L. Kozue Ogasawara. P. Shan. D. Andy (2004). D.. Yukihiro Kodera. Shafir. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. D. H. R. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.M. Bull. 354-363 (2002). Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. http://linkinghub. L. Boudoulas H.ahajournals. Isao Sumioka. G. Wang. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). Gardner. Am. Kiazand. J.

McGee. "The Onion Family: Onions. (eds). Neil A (1994).K. Veena Viswanath.1. Patel R (January 2005). Abstract. et al. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". (1997).Lindsey J. Geierstanger. Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. Scribner. Garlic. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.2005.wkhealth. 310–3. Harold (2004). SunWook Hwang. Pharmacol. D. Agents Chemother. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets.asm. PMC: 538912. H. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. et al. J. Shuford JA.crazychefs. Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Yeh. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Marcel Dekker. doi:10. Bernhard H. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Yeh. (1998). (1999).com/pt/pt-core/templatejournal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage. Antimicrob. Steckelberg JM.. http://aac.. 31 (6): 904–8. Salunkhe. Leeks". http://www. pp. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". Michael Bandell. 49 (1): 473. PMID 9641475..473. http://meta. Steiner M. PMID 8169881. Y-Y. Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. Kadam. PMID 2291748. Macpherson. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition).net/ .htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. Y-Y. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". S.12. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). In: Ohigashi. Mader FH (October 1990). Eid. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. PMID 15616341.49. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Lin RS (June 1998).org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473.1128/AAC. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Silagy C.. et al. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. Samer R. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study".

it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. Madagascar. and Sri Lanka. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www. terminating in four spreading sepals. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu. In Vietnam. when they are ready for collecting. Cloves are harvested when 1. Zanzibar.5-2 cm long. it is called đinh hương.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. syn. after which they develop into a bright red. Pakistan. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre.crazychefs.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. and consist of a long . Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae.

In Vietnamese cuisine. Cloves are used as a carminative. but with the addition of other spices). and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. In south Indian cuisine. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. especially for digestive problems. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice.[1] In north Indian cuisine. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like http://www. cloves are often used to season pho broth. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon.crazychefs. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. often in combination with cumin.000 tonnes).Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but as they are extremely strong. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands.[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. they are used sparingly. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. Cloves are used in cheeses. entering the kidney. along with other spices. it is used in almost all dishes. spleen and stomach meridians. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. warm and . Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. which sells Djarum Black. During Christmas. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form.

60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. RH (AHG). cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. most of the West Indies. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe. including for multiple sclerosis. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. mainly from the Maluku Islands. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD. including Bacan. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. Subsequently. and Tidore. pimples etc. Brazil. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. It is also used in severe burns.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. and Zanzibar.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria.crazychefs. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate.[7] Nevertheless. Moti. Ayurvedic herbalist K.[5] In West Africa.[6] History Until modern times. Khalsa. In the late fifteenth century. were highly prized in Roman times. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces.[7] Cloves. along with nutmeg and pepper. Makian. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune stomach qi downward.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. This is also found in Tibetan http://www. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). a kg costing around 7 g of gold. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. vomiting and diarrhea. Ternate. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. including cloves.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands.P. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 .

Erich Stoger. ^ Balch. crategolic acid. ISBN 0-375-70705-0.squarespace. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. stigmasterol and campesterol. Steven Clavey. Spice: The History of a Temptation. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. Special Diets for Illness 6. due to the high price of importing http://www. Medicine Multiple Sclerosis". 94.. http://www. Karen. gallotannic acid. Avery Publishing.htm. xv. the flavonoids eugenin. ^ a b Turner. 2. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. pg. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. and several sesquiterpenes. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. comprising 72-90%. ^ Dorenburg. Phyllis and Balch. and eugenitin. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. rhamnetin. Steven Clavey. methyl salicylate (painkiller). Jack (2004). Andrew and Page. Erich Stoger. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. 8. James. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties.[8] Notes and references . Vintage Books. ^ http://oneearthherbs. Alan.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. pp.nlm. ^ "TibetMed .. ©2000. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. and Andrew Gamble.tibetmed.html Tilotson. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. John Wiley and Sons Inc.crazychefs. ^ http://www. 3. ©2003. 5.html National Institutes of Health. 3rd ed.nih. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7.



Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]


Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.


Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer., 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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et al. Retrieved 8 June 2009.1542/peds. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角".net/ . "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook. Vaishali C. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706. Retrieved 8 June 2009. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography".atypon-link.88.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. Retrieved 8 June 2009. doi:10. http://www.5555/ while Lederer et al. ^ International Organization for Standardization.htm?csnumber =4844.chinaios.Botanical nomenclature".) -.[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise".com/BZ-shuju/standshow. Retrieved 10 November.a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . f. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. (2005). f. 18 May 2009 2. http://www. ^ Louisa Lim.iso.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. NPR. PMID 15492355.2005. Ines et al.Specification".Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook.htm?csnumber=19183. 4. ^ International Organization for Standardization. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species.2004-0058. (2006). "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice".1021/jf058156b. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. ^ Joshi. Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Lederer. 3. http://www. doi:10.3. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. http://www. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974.

and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ . cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. native from the east Mediterranean to East India. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/.com http://www. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/.[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C.

Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. Kerman. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. cumin is known as kimyon. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. maduru. and yellow-brown in colour.crazychefs. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. in northwestern China. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. being oblong in shape. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni . in Iran and Central Asia. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . in Sri Lanka it is known as . In Arabic. a member of the parsley family. longitudinally ridged.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. In Northern India and Nepal. parsley and dill. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. including kamūnu in Akkadian. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun.)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. locally called "Kermun".com http://www. cumin is known as zireh. the story goes. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin".(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). in Turkey.

History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. and this practice continues in Morocco. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Syria. Tajikistan.crazychefs. In Sri Lanka. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). when added to hot milk and consumed. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. today it is mostly grown in Iran. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. Uzbekistan. Seeds. . Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. Turkey. http://www. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. In South Asia. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region. Morocco. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. India. toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. and Chile.

cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. but are smaller and darker in colour. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden . Middle Eastern. and other Middle-Eastern. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. Northern Mexican cuisines. It is traditionally added to chili. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. pinnate or bipinnate. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. thread-like leaflets. Sri Lankan. curries. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content.crazychefs. The flowers are small. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. enchiladas. containing a single seed. Contrary to popular belief in the US. and borne in umbels. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. Today. sofrito. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common http://www. Indian. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. white or pink. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. adobos. and in some traditional breads from France. Cuban. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. Cumin can be used to season many dishes. It is an herbaceous annual plant. tacos. and is found in achiote blends. popular in Indian. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). curry powder. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. Pakistani. and bahaarat. garam masala. either ground or as whole seeds. North African.

24 g 22. and is mostly grown in mediterranean .7 mg Vitamin E 3.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66.crazychefs. it is drought-tolerant.27 g 17. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. However.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cultivation of cumin requires a long.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.435 mg Folate (Vit. sown in spring.very common in Mexican cuisine. hot summer of 3–4 months. well-drained soil.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine.579 mg Vitamin B6 0. and needs fertile. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Dietary fiber 10.saturated 1. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman http://www. B2) 0.33 mg Vitamin K 5.25 g . B3) 4. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. It is grown from seed. 64 μg 44. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F). the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates .Sugars 2.5 g Fat .81 g 8.

Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron.a small cat).v. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron.Zinc 4.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. lighter in colour. In Polish the difference is even less . another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. to eat.). in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin. a chemical found in turmeric. Not related to curcumin. as in 'kot' . The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin). while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin. from the Swedish word "spisa". In Swedish. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste.a cat and 'kotek' .8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). For example. However.

html 6. ^ a b c Li.1302. Domestication of plants in the Old World." premiumwanadoo. Rong. ^ "KMN. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition). ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN". "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. 8. ^ http://www. Retrieved 2008-03-13. et al. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi 2000).030.1002/ffj. ^ Growingtaste.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 .crazychefs. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. doi:10. www.".com. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . 3. ^ "Kamū .arsgrin. 206 Nicola 7.aca. (2005).2009.1021/jf0487351.1016/j. 2000. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1. http://www. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). doi:10. 4.313.foodreference. 9. from China". doi:10. p. ^ a b Iacobellis. (2009). Essential Oils". 2. Lu et al. third edition (Oxford: University Press. ^ a b Wang. http://www. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.

West Africa and the Caribbean. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. and citral) have also been identified. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). antipyretic and antibacterial properties. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh http://www. and galangal. the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have .[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy. cineol. In laboratory animals.crazychefs. or spice. cardamom. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. medicine. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. sedative. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. shogaols and gingerols. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene.

Additionally.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. crackers and cake. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. in Gujarati. [edit] Regional use In India. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. in Tamil Nadu. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process. Ginger is also made into candy. which makes swallowing easier. Adrak. For storage.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. salt. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. cookies. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. ghee. to which honey is often added. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Alay in Marathi. ginger ale. and Aduwa in Nepali. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. and tender green chili peppers. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Ginger has a sialagogue action. and sugar. particularly gingerols and shogaols. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Inji in Tamil. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. stimulating the production of saliva. enchi in Malayalam.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella. ginger is called Aada in http://www. nuts. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. In South India. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. Allam ( ) in Telugu. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. and ginger beer. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. or frozen for longer term storage. especially in the Tanjore .crazychefs. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days.

In the Caribbean. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. On the island of Corfu. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. a type of ginger beer.crazychefs. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. and a variety of nuts and seeds. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. In Western cuisine. gingerbread. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. However. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. In Burma. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. In Japan. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. In the Ivory Coast. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from . Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. In the traditional Korean kimchi. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. http://www. parkin and ginger biscuits. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. during their occupation of the islands. and making drinks such as sorrel. ginger snaps. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. is made. In Arabic. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. France. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. In Vietnam.Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. In China. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. ginger is called gyin.

Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list. though it does interact with some medications.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by . Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger.crazychefs. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made. though studies been inconsistent. morning sickness and http://www. which several scientific studies support. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. cough and cold.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. including warfarin.

clotting. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the .[14] In Congo. In Indonesia. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. and individuals who have had ulcers. In Burma. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. which is considered a panacea. ginger can cause heartburn. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. reducing "winds" in the blood. belching and nausea. bloating. and although it's generally recognized as safe. In China. and heart rhythms. gas.crazychefs. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. in food etc. In India.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. In the United States. it is considered good for a sore throat. particularly if taken in powdered http://www.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. people use ginger for making tea. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue.

applied generally to the older and poorer roots. followed by Indonesia(~12.5%). Traditionally. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. which has slipped to the second position ( http://www. Scalding.7%). in order to kill it and prevent sprouting. produces black ginger. with over 30% of the global share.crazychefs. Nepal(~11. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates.000 F 177.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.5%) and Nigeria(~10%).000 158. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. Production trends India. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. washing and scraping gives white ginger. replacing China. or washed and scraped. but this generally reduces its value. it is often whitened by bleaching or . the root is gathered when the stalk withers. it is immediately scalded. now leads in global production of ginger.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff.

pl?42254. Also referred to as galangal. but it is not related to true ginger. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family. is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine.Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan .000 28. Asarum canadense.ars-grin.270 .000 34. A = Aggregate(may include official.arsgrin. the flower buds are the part eaten. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. and its root has similar aromatic properties. The plant also contains aristolochic acid. semiofficial or estimates). Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. Retrieved 2008-03-03. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. galangal. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan . ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". is used in cooking and www. a carcinogenic compound.000 42.contains ginger material References 1.387.000 8. F = FAO estimate. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda). is also known as "wild ginger". Galangal is also called Thai ginger.000 http://www.

edu/biomed/spice/index. 425-426. Retrieved 5 November. Susan (2007-01-15).org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online& ^ Al-Achi. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. Kathi Kemper.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ http://archfami.). Retrieved . (01 Mar 2000). Retrieved 2007-08-02. http://timeblog.1016/j. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. ^ Jakes. http://www.amaassn. Antoine. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. 11.cfm?displayID=15.1001/archfami. Retrieved 2007-08-02. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. Zainab M. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". & MSt. 5. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. E. http://journals. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– http://www. doi:10.1021/jf071460f. Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). ^ Al-Amin.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). MD. David Kiefer. Retrieved 2007-0808. 6. New York: Scribner pp. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.cambridge.. 14. & Pittler. ^ Afshari. 15. Li-Jiau Huang.H.uspharmacist. Kim Farrell.ucla.7. Shih-Lu Wu.htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772.crazychefs. "Beverage of Champions". ^ Chen. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". (2006). ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. http://bja. PMID 10793599. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". 8. PMID 9821826. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. MD. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. http://unitproj. Tin-Yun Ho. Mary. et al. 4.oxfordjournals. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006).com 7.013. Ali Taghizadeh et al. 3. Retrieved 2007-08-06.01. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). ^ MD O' Hara. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). MPH (1998). ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". MD. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. doi:10.html.umm. Jaw-Chyun. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Sheng-Chu Kuo. doi:10. ^ Ernst.523.html. ^ McGee. http://www. "Ginger". Harold (2004). (2007). M.2006. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". Retrieved 2007-08-02. 13. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy.

Zingiberaceae. after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern .Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C.crazychefs. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. for dyeing. In medieval Europe. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Erode. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. and to impart color to mustard condiments. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed]. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. slightly bitter. For these http://www.

rendang.Yellow City. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric). Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. sauces. and mustard.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. It is used in canned beverages and baked products. powdered form. ice . Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes.crazychefs. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. gelatins. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. or Textile City. cake icings. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. dairy products. cereals. In non-South Asian recipes. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. popcorn color. yellow cakes. Turmeric City. sweets. etc. biscuits.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry http://www. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. turmeric is also used fresh. but also in masak lemak. Over-coloring. much like ginger. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. not only in curry. such as in pickles. custardlike yellow color. yogurt. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products.[citation needed] Sangli. relishes. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia. and many more. orange juice. Although usually used in its dried.

arthritis [5] and liver disorders. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts. Within one week of using turmeric. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards.In combination with annatto (E160b). turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. salad dressings. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). It is popular as a tea in Okinawa.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease.[4] cancer. yogurt. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. It is unknown why it works. Japan. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a http://www. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. winter butter and margarine. dry mixes. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent. Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. and other digestive disorders.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. burns and bruises. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. an uncurable and debilitating disease. use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. are spiced with . Indians. is also treated with turmeric powder. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron).crazychefs. a traditional dish in South Asia.

improves the absorption of turmeric. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. and Pakistan. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. and colorectal cancer. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. research activity into curcumin is exploding. Snake Bite Anti venin. Bangladesh. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin . with no adverse effects. Alzheimer's. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. In 1998 researchers at St. which supports nerve growth. Bangalore. or BDNF. multiple myeloma. National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. John‘s Medical College.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. and the http://www. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites.S. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. found in black pepper.

It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations.[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. and it is used for power and purification rites. This happens in economically lower situations. as a part of the marriage ritual. fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. such as saris. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures. and coconut and cooked in steam. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently.crazychefs. Also. jaggery. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. http://www. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. part of the Bengali wedding. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. During the south Indian festival . Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. In southern India. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure).

Notes 1. Joseph T. a Planta Med.ars-grin. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. | accessyear = 2009}} 3. Srinivas PS. The systematic chemical name is (1E. ^ http://news. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain".7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) . 75300.090. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN".1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. doi:10. or Natural Yellow Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin. Rajendran R. Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . 64(4):353-6. ^ Joy D. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms.2008.1016/ AOL Health. Retrieved 2008-03-04. ^ Chan. keto and Judy] (June 2009).thieme-connect. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". Majeed M.ars-grin.crazychefs. E. http://www. 1998 May. Retrieved June 2009. www. (2009). 2. et al. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Shoba G. http://www.W. ^ [|Ketteler.

The nut is round. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. is a flowering tree in the spurge family. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. 4–6 centimetres (1.crazychefs. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A.) Willd. with an acute apex. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. also known as Candleberry. which allows its use as a candle (see below). 10–20 centimetres (3. flowers.9 in) long. hence its http://www. Indian walnut.9–7. Euphorbiaceae. and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics.6–2. simple and ovate. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The leaves are pale green.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) .4 in) in diameter. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). Kemiri.

[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine. giving them greater underwater visibility. the nuts. swollen joints. named kukui were burned to provide light. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. and gonorrhea. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. is quite different. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. Outside of Southeast Asia. This led to their use as a measure of time. they are mildly toxic when raw. a varnish with the oil. lit one end. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. including: leis from the shells. pounded seeds. ulcers. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. In Java.crazychefs. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. are applied around the navel for costiveness. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. In Hawaiʻi. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. The flavor. leaves and flowers. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Malaya. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. fevers. as the candlenut is much more . On the island of Java in Indonesia. In Sumatra. however. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. burned with charcoal. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona.

used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). ^ Krauss. Beatrice H. 50-51. used as soap or shampoo. http://canoeplants. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a. Honda. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. Bess Press. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. Susan. University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved 2009-03-06. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. http://books. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants. http://books. ^ Dunford. Liana I. the god of agriculture. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). 5. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). In plantations. Being a kind and just woman. Julie Stewart Williams (2002).google. One of the legends told of a woman pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[citation needed] References 1. ISBN 9781573061377. Craig Thomas (2000). p. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. despite her best efforts to please her husband.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing. "Chapter 4: Canoes". she was given new life. was routinely beaten. University of Hawaii Press. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. protection and . the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. Betty. Mikiala Ayau.). and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil.html. (1993). ^ "Kukui". Finally. 4. 122. ripe nuts.[5] In Tonga. named tuitui are pounded into a Lilinoe Andrews. and the husband was eventually killed. This larva is eaten by some people. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. http://www. http://books. ^ Scott. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. ISBN 9780824822514. still nowadays. tukilamulamu.

com http://www. . .crazychefs. Kannada:meNasu. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. white pepper. . green pepper. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. red pepper (as in bell or chile).[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. The . The terms pink peppercorns. 97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. unrelated plants. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Peppercorns. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. However. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them. Telugu:miriyam. nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. may be described as black pepper. Malayalam:kurumulaku. Konkani:miriya konu. containing a single seed.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other. dark red when fully mature. known as a peppercorn when dried. cultivated for its fruit. and very often simply pepper. .

this was shortened to pep. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. French poivre. with the skin of the pepper removed. White pepper consists of the seed only. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. In the 16th century. and the naked seed is dried. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out..crazychefs.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper http://www. often alongside table salt. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. and other similar forms. wrinkled black layer. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant.[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week.S. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world. chemical or biological methods.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the . the spice is called black peppercorn. in the early 20th century. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. Once dried. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes.[4] In the U. Dutch peper. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. including decortication. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper.

[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. particularly Thai cuisine. Schinus terebinthifolius. largely unknown in the West. made from the http://www. and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. with a bright aroma. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. Pickled peppercorns. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. also green. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. from Bangka Island. is made from the unripe berries. which is mostly no longer an issue.Black. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius).net/ . like black. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. the Peruvian pepper tree. green. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns". Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. Schinus molle. unpreserved green pepper berries. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns. are used in some Asian cuisines. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product.crazychefs.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. Fresh.

The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn http://www.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. The leaves are alternate. and ultimately fall off and are lost.crazychefs. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. It is a spreading vine. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum. The flowers are small. Competing plants are cleared away. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart. poles. or . the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. the berries lose pungency. if allowed to ripen. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. entire. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. and before the fruit is mature.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. The cuttings are usually cultivars.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure.[11] Black pepper is native to India. selected both for yield and quality of fruit. moist. but when full grown and still hard. well-drained and rich in organic matter. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes.

The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper".[14] J. particularly the Malabar Coast. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 http://www. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper.crazychefs. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia. its most important source was . In fact.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. in what is now the state of Kerala. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Chile peppers. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined.

barged to Alexandria. or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River.Until well after the Middle Ages. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. Returning from India. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. Sumatra. but these areas traded mainly with China. By the 16th century.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. plus long pepper's greater spiciness. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. or used the pepper locally. pepper was also being grown in Java. the Middle East. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire. . Long pepper. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean http://www. this trade advantage. growing in the north-western part of India.crazychefs. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. Black pepper.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. changed the course of world history. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. nor how it reached the Nile from India. Madagascar. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. Sunda. Trade routes of the time were by land. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia.

pepper was a luxury item. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages. who travelled east to India. I wonder. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency. the banquets of kings.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast.H.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. whereas. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. and the prices reflected it. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. first the Persians and then the Arabs. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. I season delicacies. clad in a wrinkled cover.[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. Once into the http://www. There is no evidence to support this claim. four. and of black. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. affordable only to the wealthy. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the luxuries of the table. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes.. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. After the fall of Rome. Apicius' De re coquinaria. seeing that in other substances which we use. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control.. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. Similarly. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. it is sometimes their sweetness. Edward Gibbon wrote. while that of white pepper is seven. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper .net/ .[22] In addition. if expensive. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. 12. especially Venice and Genoa." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. seasoning in the Roman Empire.crazychefs. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. is fifteen denarii per pound. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century".

his representative replied. "we seek Christians and spices." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India.crazychefs. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. In the 17th .[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as well as around Africa. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. Today.compound that gives pepper its spiciness. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and http://www. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. However. In 1498. the effect is small. has some antimicrobial properties. A depiction of Calicut. especially in winter. Pepper harvested for the European trader. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. and salt-cured meats were common fare. Pepper. which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats.

pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. an area in what is now the Sichuan province."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. hernia. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. oral abscesses. joint pain. was often the preferred medication. indigestion. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time.000 pounds ( . sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. but both were used. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper.[25] In the 3rd century CE. earache. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves.[26] By the 12th century. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. lung disease.. http://www.crazychefs. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. either long or black. gangrene. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation.500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth. Note the cook's pepper mill. being stronger. heart disease. Long pepper.. Like many eastern spices. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. however. including long pepper. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. but if this estimated 10. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. as well as she could for sneezing. liver problems.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE. insomnia. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. insect bites. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". hoarseness. each load being equal to 223 lbs.

[31] Also.sunburn.crazychefs. and toothaches. left on black http://www. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. The outer fruit layer. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye.[31] As a medicine. chapter five. and floral notes. tooth decay. limonene. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. woody. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. Some sources say that piperine. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging. a substance present in black pepper. Refined piperine. causing the sneezing. which is stripped of the fruit layer. vitamin B. milligram-for-milligram. and linalool. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene. a mildly carcinogenic compound. sabinene. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of . controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. if any. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. which give citrusy. irritates the nostrils.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. Few. caryophyllene. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound.

producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through . Brazil (13%). Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of http://www.[33] Once ground. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. but has fallen to just over 271.[35] By weight. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light.000 short tons). pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. the most widely traded spice in the world. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). by monetary value.000 t (299. The price of pepper can be volatile. Thailand (4%). so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. Sri Lanka (6%). which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. Malaysia (8%). slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi. are used for this. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well. India.000 t (391.crazychefs. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). sometimes instead of pepper shakers.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and China (6%).[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. India (19%). for example. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. As of 2008.

12. ^ Peppercorns. . Vietnam dominates the export market. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. and Builder. 7. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. 6. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 17 October 2006. Using fresh green peppercorns. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. M. 8. Retrieved 2008-01-29.efloras. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus". p.poor crop management. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. Flora of China. Retrieved 13 November 2005. 17. Black pepper is marica.000 short tons). using almost none of its production domestically. ^ Translation from 9. Retrieved 6 November 2005. 11. ISBN Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. 18. Retrieved 6 November 2005. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). http://www. 13. ISBN 0375407219. 200803-27. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. p. ^ J.ars-grin. http://www. p.arsgrin. 88.thehindubusinessline. The Spice Trade. Pepper. 19. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08).000 t ( 10. 1969). Retrieved 80 16. Retrieved 2008-03-02. ^ a b Jaramillo. Spice. doi:10.crazychefs.da. Retrieved 12 August ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN".pd f. Alejandra (2001). ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. p 94.[36] Notes ^ Dalby p. Innes Miller. Text online. ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. ^ Katzer. 4. disease and weather.amjbot. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). http://www. http://www.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". PMID 11302858. The Philippine Department of http://www. Ramses II. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. 83 21.2307/2657072. Warrior.M1. Retrieved 2009-01-29. from Penzey's 14. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". Retrieved 6 November 2005. http://www. 2. 2006-1120. Random House. Gernot (2006). Compass Point Books. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. 20. The Hindu Business line. ^ Ochef. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Egyptian Pharaoh. www. ^ Innes Miller.

though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. Dorman and S. ^ H. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. 160. J.1365-2672.ch05. 36. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 33. Dover. 10. OCLC 47231315 50747863 25. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). 12. 35. http://books. Dangerous TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 27. 2. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash ds/IndiaSpices. 2005. http://books. ^ a b James A. Cambridge University Press. ^ Dalby p. ISBN 9781580084178. 2008-05-15. http://siteresources. purchase required. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . Karvy Comtrade Limited. 77.1046/j. ^ Dalby p. Larousse Gastronomique.pdf. ISBN 0600-60235-4. . p. ^ Jaffee p.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". D.karvycomtrade. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 31. ^ Dalby pp. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. Full text at Blackwell website. 156.worldbank.S. "Mill". Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. 30. ^ a b McGee p. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. Duke (1993-08-16). "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". 29. p. G. doi:10.crazychefs. 726. 108–109. Vol.accesstoinsight. ISBN 0521367085.00969. ISBN 0849336201. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 32." 24. "Spices. http://www. ^ Montagne. Hamlyn. 395. 171.. 34. Davidson. Retrieved November 12.pdf. ^ Jaffee p. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. CRC Press. table 2. pp. 28.html. ^ Turner p. References Dalby. ^ Turner p. ISBN 0520236742. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". Steven (2004).com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01. Deans (2000). Buddhist Monastic Code II. 428.x. 204. Why does pepper make you sneeze?.google. Prosper (2001). ^ U. 23. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. Alan (2002).com http://www. Andrew (2002). Berkeley: University of California Press.22. also Turner pp. 74–75. An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank).

com http://www. 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 427–429. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. Harold (2004). Bell pepper Bell pepper Red. Spice: The History of a Temptation. Jack (2004). OCLC 56590708. London: Vintage Books. "Black Pepper and Relatives".McGee. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition).crazychefs. ISBN 0375707050. Scribner. pp. Turner. OCLC . annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.

224 mg Folate (Vit. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". sweet.40 g . including red.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0. Today. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. yellow.64 g 0. B1) . green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. B3) http://www. green and orange. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. Central America and northern South America. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.Pepper. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Sugars 2.34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.Dietary fiber 1. B2) 0.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.057 mg 4. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors.crazychefs.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.17 g 0.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates . Peppers are native to Mexico.

were a highly prized condiment. At that time peppercorns. whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. With the similar meaning. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. "groene paprika". It is eaten with fried noodles. like pasta. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika".g. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. Sweden. India. meaning Bulgarian pepper. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw.. g. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions. with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). the word ピーマン ("pîman. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. they are called "capsicum". which has its roots in the word for pepper. "green pepper"). In France it is called "poivron". In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. which are green and yellow. "red pepper". an unrelated plant. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled'). rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. "Miris" is Chilli. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. the fruit of Piper nigrum. When cut off. the term "paprika". the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper". the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. respectively). hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy http://www. Grilled. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. meaning Big pepper. meaning pepper-fruit.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of . In British English. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão. Across Europe. In parts of Ohio. regardless of their color. green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. in Dutch.crazychefs. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. "gele paprika". or "piment. and Pennsylvania. " In Japan. Malaysia and New Zealand. The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. such as Australia. whereas パプリカ ("papurika. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. In the United States and Canada. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. Indiana." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. instead of using as a spice. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". In Norway.

pink. yellow.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. It is eaten as a raw snack. depending on when they are harvested and the specific http://www. violet. orange and. white. in . black and brown. blue. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. more rarely. yellow or orange peppers. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. Varieties The color can be green. purple. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. maroon. where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. rainbow. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. red. in various soups and stews. aqua.

html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. indigenous to Europe. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). also known as M. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita. balsamea Willd. The .Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1. [1]) is a hybrid http://www. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2].foodreference. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. ^ http://www.

with smooth stems.5–4 cm (0. 84. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. The chromosome number is variable.59–1. 72. Flowering is from mid to late summer. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0. including stream sides and drainage ditches.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall.6–3.20 in) diameter. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1. If placed.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. forming thick. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. square in cross section. Being a hybrid. fleshy. 6–8 mm (0.31 in) long. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. spreading by its rhizomes. and 120 recorded. it is usually sterile.24– 0. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. and bare fibrous roots. dark green with reddish veins. with 2n counts of http://www. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed .5 in) long and 1.6 in) cm broad. blunt spikes. it can grow anywhere. noted since 1843[8].Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. he treated it as a species. with a few exceptions. The flowers are purple.

com .Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content. thus promoting belching. and is often used as a flavouring in tea. ice cream. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. confectionery.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery. and toothpaste.[10] Similarly. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. particularly menthyl acetate.1. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin.crazychefs. chewing gum. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago.

and it is considered invasive in Australia. the Galápagos Islands. and contribute only their own spearmint genes. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. it is advisable to plant it in a container. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Eau De Cologne Mint). Foliage lime-scented.[13] and in the United States. The true peppermint might rarely produce . If you choose to grow peppermint. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. hairless. Stems reddish. which they then call "after-dinner mints. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow. as a natural insecticide.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. [18]. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. Leaves aromatic. It needs a good water supply. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. New Zealand. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. Leaves wrinkled. [21].[12] Outside of its native range. [16]. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators.crazychefs. In addition to that. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15]. A mild. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15]. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them http://www.

^ Linnaeus.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . C. C. (1989). Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. ^ a b Akdogan. Retrieved 3 June 2009.who. et al. ed. 4th Edition. 2. A. M.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1. Thomson Healthcare. ^ Cappello. & C.2007. ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. Mentha L. (1753). A.02. ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. page 640.Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. Retrieved . 9. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.. a popular confection. M. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. 7. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 6. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". G.1016/j. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15.glu. (2007). ^ World Health Organization..pdf. ^ Harley. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. 11. reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 . Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. http://whqlibdoc. Mehmet (2004). ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. Flowers open from bottom up. doi:10.crazychefs. 5. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . ^ a b Huxley. R. ^ a b http://www.dld. http://www. ed. (1992).. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". ISBN 978-1563636783 10. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". In: Stace. (1975).

sagepub. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint".crazychefs.10): 119 .com http://www. (2007). Retrieved 3 June..)". and Mentha spicata L. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)". 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Adamovic. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. 17.159.interscience. http://het. 23.iso. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 .)". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 .. http://www. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide.122.wiley. Derek R.16. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature".E. . 22. Bienvenu (1998). Retrieved 3 June.224. Mehmet (2003). Retrieved 7 June 2009.1023/A:1006185103897. ^ Farley. Retrieved 3 June. F. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . Ambika et al. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 .2740311104. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.1002/ 27. ^ Akdogan. 25. ^ Akdogan.htm?csnumber=32041. Bienvenu (1999).htm. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. doi:10.sagepub.htm. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e ^ Sharma. doi:10. D.D. Retrieved 7 June 2009. populations. on kidney tissue in rats".28.Specification". Mehmet et al. 19. http://www.S. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats" J. Frédéric et al.219. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria.actahort. F. Plant Cell. S. Valerie Howland (2006).. ^ Edwards. Retrieved 8 June 2009. "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". (2004). and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". Retrieved 3 June.htm?csnumber=11633. ^ International Organization for Standardization. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 .actahort. ^ International Organization for Standardization.1071/AP99036..iso. http://het. 24. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 .iso. http://www. http://tih. 21. et ^ a b c Jullien. http://www. ^ International Organization for Standardization. Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .. Retrieved 6 June paraquat.htm?csnumber=4844. Retrieved 6 June 2009. doi:10. V. Australia". 18. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. http://www3. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars.

Gay The . along with the onion and garlic. Allium ampeloprasum var. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk.) J. ampeloprasum var. Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var.crazychefs. are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. also sometimes known as Allium porrum. to the Alliaceae family. although different in their uses as food. the elephant garlic and http://www. porrum (L.).Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. is a vegetable which belongs. Two related vegetables. porrum (L.

They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. Once established in the garden. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn . many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. intended for harvest in the season when planted. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways.crazychefs. and they have few pest or disease problems. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended http://www. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). to be planted out as weather permits. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and overwintering leeks. leeks are hardy.

while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. Lamb is the most popular. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient. Fried. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. The onion-like layers form around a core. having been overlooked for several centuries[1].Cuisine Leeks for sale. The tender core may be eaten. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. but. the vegetable is crunchy and http://www. although less bitter than scallion. which turns it soft and mild in taste. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. as the leek ages. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. along with leek soup. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. carrots and potatoes and different meats. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. due to the layered structure of the leek. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. In its raw . Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. Raw.crazychefs. which can be used in salads. The slices have a tendency to fall apart.

onwards. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.9 g . providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" http://www.8 g Fat .4 mg Vitamin B6 0. who consumed it most often in soup. In her book.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .saturated 0.C. as well as wall carvings and .Dietary fiber 1. Cultural significance Raw Leeks. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 83 μg 14.15 g 0. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.polyunsaturated 0.04 g .004 g .C.233 mg Folate (Vit. B1) 0.E.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B. B3) 0.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero. as well as other recipes with leeks.E.‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.monounsaturated 0. B2) 0.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit.3 g 1.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3.crazychefs.Sugars 3.

you know.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. David‘s http://www.12 mg recommendations for adults.Vitamin E 0. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. good countryman. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field.crazychefs. In the . Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army. According to one legend. Shakespeare. for example. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. representing Wales. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time.92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton.

Domestication of plants in the Old World. 1978.. 2000) . (Penguin Books. Mireille. ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. 3. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. ^ Jane Grigson.Notes 1. third edition (Oxford: University Press. Knopf.crazychefs. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book. French Women Don't Get Fat. ^ Guiliano. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

2 g http://www. dulce) or celeriac (var.crazychefs. with fewer than 100 individuals left. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .6 g Fat Protein Water 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. . 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A.Dietary fibre 1.Sugars 2 g 3g .7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe.

30 AD. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. and in Old Bay . and small rodents. celery is also grown for its seeds. onions. birds. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails).[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. dogs. Actually very small http://www. Celery is a staple in many soups. onions. Celery. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. squirrels. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. on the Chicago-style hot dog. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt.In temperate countries. and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. as celery salt. such as chicken noodle soup. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. horses. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. Celery. often used as a base for sauces and soups.crazychefs.

Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC. M. making avoiding such foods difficult. Celery contains androstenone.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. Lemnos and Thebes. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. however. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. have to be clearly marked as such. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac.[8] In the European Union. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. father of the Cabeiri. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. In Homer's Iliad.[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. foods that contain or may contain celery. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. they note "since A. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of . In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC).com http://www. where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. However. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. even in trace amounts. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery.crazychefs. for people with celery allergy. at Kastanas.

apium Italicum. In the past. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. Under optimal conditions. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. the whole plant having a coarse. at our Great Mens tables. earthy taste. and Praetors feasts.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage. cracks. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic.5–2 mm long and wide. fields are harvested only once. due to extremely uniform crop growth. from the Latin selinon. In North America. splits. sweetish. seleri. 2–3 mm diameter. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. The plants are raised from seed. shape. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. produced in dense compound umbels.[14] With cultivation and blanching. white and red. 1.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. but the leaves may be used in salads. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring.. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease. many of which differ little from the wild species. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. as the Grace of the whole Board". borrowed from Greek. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. to last from the beginning of September to late in April. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine).com http://www.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. insect damage and rot). They are ranged under two . and the most crisp and tender.crazychefs. straightness and thickness of petiole. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term..and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet. The flowers are creamy-white. and a distinctive smell. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery.

^ Pliny. http://postharvest. Heiner DC. M. ^ "Smallage". (3rd ed. 14. West Celery and Negative Calories 6. p. 227. 2003. ^ OED. Holmiae. Post-harvest technology research and information center.v. (2005).L. Ko SN. . 3. M. Hopf. http://www.shtml.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F).com http://www. Retrieved 2008-03-04.[16] References 1.. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. 9. and proper sanitation.ucdavis. Thayer translation [1] 4. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5.crazychefs. C (1753). ^ snopes. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82.practicallyedible.. Zohary and M. "Celery". ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-05-03. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". ^ William Robinson and W.6 (June 1993): 610-611. ^ a b Fragiska. 15.nsf/pages/smallage. 10.. ^ D. (2002-06-10). s. Scheiner O. et al. 2000) Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. Natural History XIX. 12. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. Radauer C. de Medicina. ^ R. 11. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41. (Laurentii Salvii). 1920). Lee LG.17:1697-1699. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 8. Thomson. 13. ^ Celestin J. ^ Cantwell. ^ Bublin M. gentle handling.46. Western Journal of Medicine 158. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". T. Wilson IBH. ^ Calcium sources 7. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". Kraft D. Suslow. P. ^ Celsus. ^ Teng CM. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality".

(Discuss) For other uses.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Magnification of grains of sugar. Sugar. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% . see Sugar (disambiguation).com http://www. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3. For the common table sugar. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure.Sugars 96. B2) 0.Sugars 99.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97.98 g 0g 0g 0.5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates . see sucrose.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.21 g .91 g .crazychefs.03 g Riboflavin (Vit.5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. sugar maple (in maple syrup). and in many other sources. It forms the main ingredient in candy.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. mainly sucrose. but also appears in fruit.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit. sorghum.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined http://www. B2) 0.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. B3) 0. B1) 0.026 mg Folate ( . Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions.Water 1. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1.crazychefs. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption. and fructose.77 g Thiamine (Vit. obesity and tooth decay.082 mg Vitamin B6 0. honey. lactose.

133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. . generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. including palm sugar and fructose. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. such as glucose.[4] It came to English by way of French. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide.) The Greek word for "sugar". the Italian word zucchero. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). (Compare the OED. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. Scientific Scientifically. Etymology In the case of sugar. "dextrose". means "pebble". the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy.crazychefs. Generically known as "syrups". Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6.) will likely denote a sugar. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. "fructose". and texture) of beverages and food. In this informal sense. etc. http://www. they may also have other more specific names such as "honey". sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. In a list of ingredients. molasses or treacle.Popular In non-scientific use. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. Spanish and/or Italian. the Spanish word azúcar. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist.

This includes all the sugars referred to above. cook or consumer.containing 1. syrups and fruit juices. important molecules in the . The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. 2. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right).com http://www. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. making the sugars reactive. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). deoxyribose.crazychefs. raw sugar. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. 3. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. Sugars include monosaccharides. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. Natural sugars come in fruit. disaccharides. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. as its name suggests.Culinary sugars Grainier. plus sugars naturally present in honey. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption. A notable exception. has a "missing" oxygen atom.

Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. which has the formula C6H12O6. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. In these closed-chain forms. with less than http://www. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. and galactose.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. or DNA. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. This resulting syrup. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance. proteins connected to one or more sugars. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. fructose. After digestion and absorption. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose.crazychefs. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose.[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. which form part of nucleic acids. producing invert sugar. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. glucose. including NADH and ATP.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). sugar will burn with a blue flame. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose.made from one glucose and one fructose). sweeter than the original . lactose (milk sugar . which is made of glucose. Note for example glycoproteins. If combined with fine ash.water (H2O) per bond. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Monosaccharides include fructose. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. galactose and mannose.

"Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. ^ International sugar statistics http://www.80 g/ml Notes 1. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ 5. ISBN 063205476X. Temple University http://www.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. ISBN 1566398320.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. Cambridge: Woodhead." Powder and Bulk References Adas.Bulk Density Chart. Glyn (2004). Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. History of Science and Technology in Islam. James. Sugarcane. A C Hannah. Blackwell Publishing. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. OCLC 51837990 84251137. . Michael (January 2001).illovosugar. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty. ^ "Engineering Resources . 4. ^ scientificpsychic.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan.htm 2. Sugar Blues." link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. OCLC 44493265.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. Joseph and Mike Carlson. The International Sugar Trade. ^ Wuebben.webmd.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0.

Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products. Brown sugar contains from 3. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. especially in the Netherlands. without mixing them separately. for light brown sugar.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed.25% of the total volume). It is.5% molasses (dark brown sugar).5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6.35 mm. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. sugar beet molasses is used." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. however. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking. Although in some areas. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft.g. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the http://www. Products for industrial use ( .

and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. History In the late 1800s. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. in his studies (cited in "Pure. White and Deadly" .net/ . One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar. apart from pure carbohydrate.[2] John Yudkin. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown http://www. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. Nutritionally. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. The effort was so successful that by 1900. much like adding molasses would do.[1] However.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. as opposed to white sugar."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In other applications.

Retrieved 2008-09-20. 32-33 5. 2003. http://www. http://www. light brown. an island off Africa. binado_Sugar. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.fao. ^ New Scientist.3 fao. 7. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed. 2.1. Muscovado. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. crystals. Retrieved 2008-09-20. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. resulting in the characteristic large. Retrieved 2008-09-20. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown http://www.htm#bm07. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics.wholesomesweeteners.html. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals. where sugar cane was grown. and are sold as Turbinado . or Demerara sugar. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar.".csrwire.wildernessfamilynaturals. Demerara is another unrefined. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar.php?id=3026.htm#sugarmade. Harvey. ^ ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar".[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. which is then crystallized. References 1. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. giving it a higher mineral content.crazychefs. centrifuged.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). but most is now produced in Mauritius.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. light brown. 3. cane sugar. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar".

net/ .com http://www. including high blood pressure. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. Chloride and sodium ions. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. It is a crystalline solid. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. and iodized salt. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. including humans. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content.[citation needed] Conversely. refined salt (table salt). but toxic to most land plants.Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). 140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. white. the two major components of salt.crazychefs. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. which some use to prevent caking. pale pink or light gray in color.

however.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC. China dates back to at least 6000 BC. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.[2]:44 Along the Sahara.000 tons of salt. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure. especially for . the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar. In 1960. as were salted birds and salt http://www.[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in the millennia before then. glass.crazychefs.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. salt provided the best-known food preservative. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire. the caravans still transported some 15. and the dye Tyrian purple.

In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah.) In the Sermon on the Mount. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error. During the first millennium BC. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. began open pan salt making. water. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. In religion According to Strong's Concordance. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city". (Judges 9:45.[citation needed] The root hal(l). and Egyptian. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). the Roman exonym for the Celts.[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". as it avoided paying the "salt tax".net/ . and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. Greek. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. which was illegal under British rule. In many Pagan religions esp.[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100.also gave us Gaul. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it.Salzburg. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings. seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). Hallstatt. though incorrectly. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". salz. who had heretofore mined for salt.crazychefs. the Hallstatt Celts. Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. taking their names from hal(l)-.[1] It is widely. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. a root for salt found in Celtic. God sent down four blessings from the sky ." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. the earliest being the story of Lot's http://www. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. Halych in Ukraine.

com http://www.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea.In the native Japanese religion Shinto.crazychefs. which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.[10] Salt is used for Snow . Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water.[9] The Ancient Egyptians. Halite. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt. In Aztec mythology. such as in Sumo Wrestling. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Today. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Different natural salts have different mineralities.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes. Fleur de sel. natural sea salt harvested by hand. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper.5% of salt production.[12] However.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. One example are bath salts. which is most widely used presently.crazychefs. which are kiln-dried. After the raw salt is obtained. giving each one a unique flavor. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. has a unique flavor varying from region to region.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. and thus is rarely eaten. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical . it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics. Refined salt. Purification usually involves recrystallization. and the making of soaps and detergents.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. Injected water dissolves the salt.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. food uses account for 17.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. In recrystallization. is mainly sodium chloride.

com http://www. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.154 g/cm3. and a bulk density (dry. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals. and calcium aluminosilicate.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.165 g/cm3. condiments such as soy sauce. Table salt has a particle density of 2. silicon dioxide. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. however. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. sodium aluminosilicate. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. Table salt Table salt is refined salt.crazychefs. but was determined to be unnecessary. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. calcium silicate.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. magnesium oxide. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity.[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom. calcium or magnesium carbonates.[29] However. fatty acid salts (acid salts).[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. Some people also add a . Single-serving salt packets.

and myxedema in adults. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems. In Canada. In the United States. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. dizziness. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. especially important for pregnant . which can cause severe.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. and calcium) are available in unrefined salt.[31] Today. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. which can cause goitre.[32] Another additive. even fatal. The reason for this is unclear.[33] Drinking too much water. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. with insufficient salt intake. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. cretinism in children. fluorinated table salt is available. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. specifically endemic goiter. or even an electrolyte disturbance. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sodium iodide. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. potassium. In France. neurological problems. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table http://www. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced. magnesium. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. or sodium iodate.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. which gives the table salt a yellow color. iodized salt is more common in the United States. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used.

person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia).[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium. independently of blood pressure effects. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women.[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. salt consumption is higher. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy. forced salt intake. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process.crazychefs. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health. It can exacerbate renal disease.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid." ([41]. can cause hypernatremia. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility. combined with an inadequate intake of water.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake." ([41] p3).[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment.[38] heartburn. such as in treatment of dysautonomia." ([41]. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. in Japan. p18) http://www." ([44].net/ . the risks have been exaggerated for most people. since salt was quite valuable). Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal.

for a typical adult. but achievable population goals.[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. Some isolated cultures. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that. have been found to consume little .[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. such as the Yanomami in South America. However. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels.[50].com http://www."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.crazychefs. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. A salt mill for sea salt. SACN states.

[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1.[57] In March 2007. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures." In the UK. or Green (Low). heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute.300 mg of sodium (= 2. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. calories.g. LoSalt. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". One manufacturer.[51] In the United States. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt.'[55] Campaigns In .8 g salt) per day. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996.The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI).[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania. without recourse to salt substitutes. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).com http://www. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.5g salt per 100g (or 0. Those who have kidney failure. Australia. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia.crazychefs.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0.6g sodium). When other health claims are made about a food (e. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". etc. which will increase potassium intake. low in fat. Amber (Medium). actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.). It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. "low". Low is 0.1g sodium). Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. then that is a medium level of salt.3 g sodium = 5. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.

called halite. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. 2. such as brine wells and salt lakes. and Hall in Austria. In 2002.wikisource. 4. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test.7). Catholic Encyclopedia. less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l). Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. ^ "Salt".answers. New York: Robert Appleton Company. China (32. 4th edition". Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone).[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general.3 million tonnes). the top five producers being the United States (40. Answers. Costs can reach staggering amounts. 6. India (14. Germany (17. 7. http://www. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. Dytac. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Notes 1.crazychefs.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride.9). Retrieved 2008-12-14.5).net/ . The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. and Canada (12. http://en. 5. http://www. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and 3. and by mining rock salt. Eplerenone and Inspra. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.3).

^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35. salt 38. p. pp.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. ISBN 9780309056663. 281. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38. Mason (2006-12-19).9% sodium by weight which equals 98. salt ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30.9. 14. salt manufacture. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ What is Salt?. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations.907 Kuemmel (1994). ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. ^ David "The (Political) Science of Salt".interscience. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www. Salt Institute. Ask a salt uses. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. salt uses. 11. ^ Nauticus . Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page ^ Table 27.pdf 33. 2008 29. 5379. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26.crazychefs. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". ^ a b http://news.anl. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39. ^ Iodized Salt 31.Weather Curriculum 16.saltsense. no. ^ References on food salt & health issues. ^ http://www. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense.htm ^ Roskill Information Services http://www. Retrieved Epikouria Magazine. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt. Salt Institute. Fall/Winter 2006 10. 14 August 1998. Science.newton. J. http://books. Vol. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. http://www. sodium. ^ HE-620 24. Transportation Research Board. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result& . sodium. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.afssa. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www.htm 15.9% sodium chloride 25. Victoria) Salt Retrieved 2009-0708. ^ Iodized Salt 32. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 28. ^ B.dep. 898 . ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". ^ Gary Taubes. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt". salt http://www. http://www3.

NY: G. Feldman. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45. Obarzanek E et al.legalmed. Sodium chloride. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. New York: W. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. http://www. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. Inc. Salt: A World History. Erwin Koops. 2007. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 . Cutler JA. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study.005 48. http://www. Norton & http://www. The Mummies of Ürümchi. 62. Sodium 52.2004. OCLC 48573453. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43. Mark.334(7599):885. John Wiley & Sons.crazychefs.a01. 7. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values. doi:10. Elizabeth Wayland (1999). Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos.1016/j.hyp. 28 January 2008. 47-50. Putnam's Sons. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50.. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel ( New York. ^ Cook NR.06. and S.healthandwellbeing. Published online 2005. The Story of Salt. ISBN 0802713734. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy ^ Susan R. 2006. Friedrich Schulz. doi:10. OCLC 48426519.. ^ Understanding labels 55. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63.40. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". Mark (2002). Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 61. Barber. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51.1915040902051820. References Kurlansky. ^ U. D. ^ Salt TV ads 59. Further reading Kurlansky. New York: Walker & Co. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). Legal Medicine 2005.1002/0471238961. S. ISBN 0393320197. ^ Salt Matters 60. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. Schindler. (accessed13 January 2007) 49.W.

Salt: Grain of http://www.crazychefs. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy . 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pierre. 2001. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. New York: Columbia University . The Stationery Office. Arts and traditions of the table. Department of Health. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ by Dr Trevor Beard. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters .

crazychefs. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. the Philippines and Singapore. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. Indonesia. It can also be found in India. as well as in neighbouring countries. such as Cambodia.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. http://www. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . mainly Kerala. phrik khi nu(lit. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Malaysia. found commonly in Thailand. phrik thai. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu).

the chili padi is relatively strong at 50.000 to 100.000 on the Scoville pungency scale. often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili." which can best be described by the English equivalent. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian . "Big things come in small packages.crazychefs. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger http://www." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Although small in size compared to other types of chili.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia.

Ladâ. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental.crazychefs.As well as the Malay word. Thai). These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. phrik khii nuu ( . Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. and go from green to yellow. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). orange. but slightly less pungent variety. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.wikipedia. has peppers that point upward on the plant. Thai hot. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. and then . and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name). Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). and among the group of capsicum http://www. essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. creating a rainbow effect. Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. The more decorative.

It has a tough. it can also be used on its . usually mashed. furrowed. Unlike other root vegetables. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. gratins and baked http://www.crazychefs. graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. or used in casseroles. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. which store a large amount of starch.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. It is a kind of celery.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. Celeriac has a celery flavour. about the size of a large potato.

which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000.crazychefs. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail. especially in Europe. and 'Kojak'.com http://www. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 'Ibis'.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Celeriac soup.3 g 1.Dietary fiber 1. Celeriac. rinsed.Sugars . perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean.2 g . There are a number of cultivars available. Among them are 'Prinz'.8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths.6 g 9. 'Diamant'.

The flowers are white to purple. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. It bears a fruit of the same . and see text The eggplant. aubergine. As a http://www.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir. it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). The stem is often spiny. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad.

The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. but much larger in cultivated . it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". soft seeds. flower The plant is native to India.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and contains numerous http://www.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. History Solanum melongena. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. which are edible. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. from Arabic al-badinjan.crazychefs. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. The fruit is fleshy. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. which is used in British English." Aubergine and brinjal. The name aubergine. In the Caribbean Trinidad. In Indian and South African English. Australia. The name eggplant. 1500 CE. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia. used in the United States. New Zealand. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family.

egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers.crazychefs. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Classic. Black http://www. There are even orange varieties. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. A much wider range of shapes. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Dusky. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. or white. Traditional. Burpee Hybrid. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze. and Tycoon. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. and Black Beauty. and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. shape and color. Some cultivars have a color gradient. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. whiteskinned. Pingtung Long. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. slightly pendulous cucumber. especially purple. Ichiban. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. in white skin Dourga. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple . green.

It. tomatoes. as in the French ratatouille. tahini. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). as they are far less bitter. rice. the Arabian moussaka. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. In Iranian cuisine. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. In one http://www. In the Caucasus. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. or Eggplant Parmesan. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. complex flavor. chutney. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. it is called Begun ( ). for example in sambhar. along with the fish Hilsa. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. and achaar. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. for example. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. or tamarind.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha.crazychefs. as in the related tomato. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. curries. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. allowing for very rich dishes. battered. the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. so that peeling is not required. and garlic. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. braised (紅燒茄子). In Bangladesh. It is often stewed. or other fillings and then baked. peanuts. and masala and then cooked in oil. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and . The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. It can be sliced. tahini. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. In some parts of India. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. and deep-fried. The thin skin is also edible. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. The fruit flesh is smooth. As a native plant. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste.

The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free http://www. (Adults can be removed by hand. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. This is called Beguni ( ). showing the inside. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half. depending on cultivar. the most serious of which is Verticillium.crazychefs. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).) between plants. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. For this reason. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. Egypt. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in. and spider mites. Flowers are complete. and potato. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease.) to 60 cm (24 in. pepper (capsicum). containing both female and male structures. and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. flea beetle. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. such as tomato.) between rows. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. aphids. are also troublesome to eggplants. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a .

B1) 0.Sugars 2.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.Dietary fiber 3.039 mg 5.043. B2) 0. New Jersey is the largest producing state.crazychefs. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine ( http://www.01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.[5] In the United States.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates . P = official figure. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant.037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.35 g .7 g 0. F = FAO estimate. semi-official or estimates).19 g 1. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.( . raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure.

[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant.084 mg Folate (Vit. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines. Brazil. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking. while 1.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.01 mg/100g).Niacin (Vit. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.crazychefs. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State .25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.16 mg Manganese 0. However.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or http://www. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0. B3) 0. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed].[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens.[8] On average.

multifidum. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var.crazychefs. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. capsicoides).C. ovigerum and S. luteum. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. Scopoli's S. divaricatum. aethiopicum. Solanum oviferum Salisb. such as agreste. which used to include Dunal's S.-Lag. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. racemiflorum. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. There is an actual S. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S.[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. mainly by Dikii. lasiocarpum. subrepandum.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). tongdongense. inerme and subinerme at that time. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. violaceum and viride. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. trongum. An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. an unrelated plant described by Ortega. inerme. insanum. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. S. aethiopicum. On the other hand. sinuatorepandum. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. variegatum. Names for various eggplant types. . album. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. Dunal. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties. rumphii. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill.F. that of Blanco to S. ovigera. stenoleucum.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. racemosum. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. giganteum. oblongo-cylindricum. But this is not correct. H. and (invalidly) by Sweet. http://www.Varieties Solanum melongena var. Solanum longum Roxb. globosi. brownii. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. violaceum. esculentum. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. edule. ruber. leucoum.

(2001). The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". CRC Press.crazychefs. Hui (2006). ^ Doijode. ISBN 1574445510. http://www. S. Footnotes 1. common. and Engineering by Yiu H. Handbook of Food Science. Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157).net/ . Technology.Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. D.

Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. Miyachi Y. 2008-11-11. http://pubs. 18(1): 59-62 13. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum ^ . pp. 5. Retrieved 2009-07-01.) reveals female predominance.fao. P. Dieges PH. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L. Volume 329:437 August 5.pdf. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. ^ Gerth van Wijk R. ^ Solanum melongena var. Tsenge Demana.Aubergine 8. Erich Hornbach. Ebury Press. Retrieved 2007-04-24. A. Domino. 7. N.3. 2004. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14.50(2):101-102 11. ^ Edward F. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. FAO.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. Occupational pollinosis in commercial http://www. ^ Westerfield. Harish Babu * . The New England Journal of Medicine. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008.crazychefs. ^ SN Pramod. ^ "FAOSTAT". P. 273-6. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite.* YP Venkatesh. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). 6.caes. 202 Robert (2008-11-14). Mahesh † and Y. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels".uga. Toorenenbergen . 1993 Number 6 9. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Arq Bras Cardiol. Vol. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25. http://faostat. Bruno Caramelli.133(42):2081-3 12. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. Andréa Thomaz. volume 82 (nº 3). ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). ^ Health24. 2008 10. ^ Kabashima K.

and have a weak. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. Solanum lycopersicum. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. odd pinnate. The tomato is native to South . woody stem that often vines over other plants.4–0. One species.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum http://www. they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. with a serrated margin. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. syn. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0.8 in) across. It is a perennial. yellow. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. see section Fruit or vegetable below).crazychefs. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long.

net/ . lycopersicum. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. who named it pomo d‘oro. golden apple. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe.[6] Gerard's Herbal. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. was the first European to take back the tomato. corn and salt. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. However. tomatl. likely to be the original salsa recipe. smaller vegetable . a mutation from a smoother. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. according to Smith.[4] The large. the other by currant tomatoes. in certain areas of Italy. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli. ancestor of L. a barber-surgeon. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. such as Florence. now Mexico City in 1521. meaning plump thing with a navel. They also took it to the Philippines. However. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. Two modern tomato cultivar groups.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. lumpy tomato. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century.crazychefs. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. earlier in 1493.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates.was grown and consumed by prehistoric http://www. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. means "wolf-peach". The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. The specific name. and cultivation began in the 1540s. cerasiforme. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. an Italian physician and botanist. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. The exact date of domestication is not known.

sent some seeds back to America. Charles M. broths. The University of California. Over the past 15 years. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. The Spanish tomato dish. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. but the fruit is safe). when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and as a garnish. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. Rick. and in general. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. ―within the last forty years.[10] The Center is named for the late . they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. In Victorian times. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. The C.M. California. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives.[6] Nonetheless. and before the end of that century. most famously in Worthing. Thomas Jefferson. British consul in Aleppo c. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. Currently. Gerard's views were influential.[6] But by the mid-1700s. particularly Florida and California. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. By the mid-18th century. 1799 – c. Paella. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop.crazychefs.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed].largely plagiarized from continental sources. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. who ate tomatoes in Paris.

and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions.S. pink. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits.4–0. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. about 5mm in diameter. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. China. purple.0 in) diameter. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. followed by United States and Turkey.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. orange. California accounts for 90% of U. through cherry . green.crazychefs.6–2. but a number of cultivars with yellow. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. black. or white fruit are also available. Most cultivars produce red http://www. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0. 18 September 2009.4 in) diameter range. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the largest producer. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries.8 in) size as the wild tomato. they are known as plum tomatoes. production and 35% of world production.[12] According to FAOSTAT. and have a lower water content. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. It may be deleted after Friday.0–2. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. For processing tomatoes.

their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. as well as heirloom tomatoes. plum tomatoes. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong.[19] Hybrid plants remain common.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. particularly among home gardeners and organic . since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance.2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes.crazychefs.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. and are shaped like large strawberries.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. along with zucchini. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly http://www. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. As in most sectors of agriculture. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed]. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. based mostly on shape and size. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. but unlike commercial hybrids.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications .[18] and productivity. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce.

cherry tomatoes are small and round. but must be bought as seed. disease and pest resistance. Black Krim (lower left corner). but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. black. ivory. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. Burracker's Favorite. orange. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their . or home growers interested in canning. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. As an intermediate form. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. etc. or bush. although some determinate heirlooms exist. brown. including Brandywine (biggest red).[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. pink. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. white. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate". Determinate. et cetera. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. multiple colors (Hillbilly.crazychefs. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. and purple. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. Red Boar). they are often good choices for container growing.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. Lucky Cross). but are smaller than plum tomato.especially heirlooms . Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. often via mail-order. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads.produce fruit in colors other than red. A variety of specific cultivars. including yellow. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. and lack of mealiness. Green Zebra (top right).com http://www. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. low acidity. which usually discourages fruit set. some tomato cultivars . they are bigger then cherry tomatoes.

[24] and Colorado potato beetles.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. and . Some common tomato pests are stink bugs. flea beetles. As the name implies.verticillium wilt. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. entirely within the closed corolla. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. which interrupts the lifecycle. original state. cabbage loopers.fusarium wilt strain http://www. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. but manure or compost work well. aphids. N nematodes. The most common letters are: V . [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. slugs. too. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety.crazychefs. The stamens were. red spider mite. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. FF . ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. In the wild. F . it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. their traditional pollinators. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. and A .tobacco mosaic virus. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. carried by the beet leafhopper. tomatoes required cross-pollination. Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant.alternaria. As a floral device to reduce selfing. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. tomato fruitworms. T .[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus.fusarium wilt strain I & II. cutworms. whiteflies.

despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. by cultured bumblebees. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). depending on variety. Unripe tomatoes are firm. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the . Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. However. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the http://www. or more often today. They may be recognized by their color. This is not the same as self-pollination. 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. In more temperate climates. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. as with most species. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. In an outside setting. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing.

Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. a subset of fruit. stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine".net/ . which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine.crazychefs. as tomato sauce. The tomato is acidic. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene).Sugars 2. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. in pieces. one of the most powerful natural antioxidants.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. Though it is botanically a berry. In some studies lycopene. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. especially in cooked tomatoes.6 g 4g . Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. anthocyanin. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97).Recently. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). http://www. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). and other antioxidants. They contain lycopene. or paste.

but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12. it will not continue to ripen. generally three feet tall or shorter. whether because of pruning or flowering. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. Of regular leaves. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. vines. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests. meaning covered with fine short hairs. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. Embracing it for this protest connotation. a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). Tomato plants are dicots. These hairs facilitate the vining process. there are variations. Determinate types are annual in all climates. fully functional. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported.crazychefs.[citation needed] Once fully ripe. initially decumbent. often by sun. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. Known for its tomato growth and http://www. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century. such as rugose leaves. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. They are bred to continue ripening. When that tip eventually stops growing. and grow as a series of branching . with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. Spain.make salsa.5 °F). today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). The fruit is also preserved by drying.[28] In October 1965.5 °C (54. lateral buds take over and grow into other. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. Cultural impact The town of Buñol. annually celebrates La Tomatina. which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. although erect bush varieties have been bred. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. or pickled.

The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008.. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs. As a true fruit. making the Linnaean name correct. plus 'persicum'. would be more correct.. with both names found in the literature.deeply grooved. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). 'lyco'.[31] Their flowers.crazychefs. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum). peach. very small cavities. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Similarly. Other species in that family are potatoes. wolf. moths. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. chili peppers. appearing on the apical meristem. while paste tomatoes have very http://www. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. These vary. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit.g. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. . its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. called locular cavities.) H. among cultivated species. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. This is because they are native to the Americas. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. i.Karst. tobacco. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.[32] while others are pollinated by flies.e. which frequently used it and still do). "wolf-peach"). according to type. Despite this. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. Therefore. However. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. However. have the anthers fused along the edges. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. and be dried/fermented before germination. or other external forces that present in the Americas. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. angora leaves. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. Technically. other insects. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. (derivation.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. genetic evidence (e. butterflies.

These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. http://www. and organizations. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. cucumbers. Oregon. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals. of Reynoldsburg.S. As noted above. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. disease tolerance. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. A. Monsanto. nutritional value. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production. a tomato is the ovary. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. universities. Ohio.S. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. University breeding programs are active in Florida. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. flavor. U. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. In 1887.S. the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. etc. Bejoseed. together with its seeds. 304)). The U. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. However. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants. AVRDC. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. Livingston. shape. New York. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. as are vegetables. BHNSeed. 1883. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same . making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. corporations. color. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. U. North Carolina.W. from a culinary standpoint. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. and numerous other traits. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. In 2006. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. size. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. Hedden (149 U.crazychefs. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey.S. pest tolerance. Corporations including Heinz.

while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. Ohio.crazychefs. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ .com http://www. On October 30. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. contain the poison Solanine."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Kentucky.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. Maine. The fresh fruit is. harmless. which is toxic to humans and animals.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Indiana. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. Georgia. New Hampshire. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. Connecticut. Minnesota. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth. North Carolina. Pennsylvania. however. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network).[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). Speakers from the British Isles. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Massachusetts. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 . Virginia. Michigan. Rhode Island. 2006. Vermont and Wisconsin. stems. Tennessee. the U.

Lake Buena Vista.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19. and Arizona (49). As of July 2008.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported.84 pounds (522 kg).000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. On August 30. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States. the District of Columbia.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. and fresh cilantro." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. one would arrive at an estimated 40. of the cultivar 'Delicious'.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada. .51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.6:1).000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. the U. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. fresh serrano pepper. Oklahoma in 1986. 2008. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot.[38] As of July 8. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. Yong Huang. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2008. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. with 49. China. it caused at least one death. from April 10. UK. 2007.8 m (65 ft) length. such as raw tomato. with a harvest of more than 32. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley. 40. fresh jalapeño pepper. Florida. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. in 2000. Lancashire. New Mexico (98). French and Germans.151. Illinois (100). The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at http://www.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.000 kilograms (250. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow.273 illnesses from this outbreak.1 reported cases per million.7 and 16. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder.S. and Canada.

but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing . Derived from Cherokee Purple. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. Fusarium.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium.crazychefs.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the http://www. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry. indeterminate.S. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink. cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.S. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W.

net/ . Tomato plants in the garden. in http://www. pickling. Young tomato plant. Tomato slices.crazychefs. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine. Tomato fruit. 'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tomato Flower. good for Tomatoes on a vine.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo.

net/ .Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ http://www.

223 10. (2002). The tomato in America: early history. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. 8. F. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. Processing Tomato Production in California. and Cookery. p. Retrieved 2009-04-02. (2001). ^ a b Smith. Retrieved December 11 2009. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world. ^ Easthamptonstar. et al. E. 1994. D. 519 [1] 9.easthamptonstar. page 57: "." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.universityofcalifornia. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. and cookery. Universityofcalifornia.aspx?PageID=567 14. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo .ucdavis. section Lycopersicon Mill. 3.html. Footnotes 1. During the three months of the local harvest. Cyphomandra.nationalarchives.Smith. it handles more than 1. Tgrc. 2008. University of Illinois Press.. Retrieved 2009-04-02.aspx. 6. 12. ^ "http://www. Retrieved 2009-04-02. culture.crazychefs.. webpage: books-google-TTp17..five tons to the acre. Andrew F. 2009-01-26. http://www. http://tgrc." See: Natural History Museum. ISBN 0252-07009-7. UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". Smith. I. http://yourarchives. 1881. Appletons' journal Published by http://www.Your Archives".edu. ^ "UC Newsroom. & Spooner.17. (2002-0508)".html.C. (1994).ucdavis. 13. T. ^ a b Hartz. p. Andrew F (1994). ^ Tomato history American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online).com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Yourarchives.Food & Wine". Culture. Peralta.nationalarchives. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ The Friend. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 5. ^ Acquaah. USA: University of South Carolina or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one .fao. p.smithsonianmag. G." 15. ^ "C. A. 2002-05-08.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. Wettst.The East Hampton Star .edu/. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum. Normania. 7. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . Appleton and and Triguera are nested within". ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. http://www. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera 1876. The Tomato in America. Columbia.html".smithsonianmag. http://www. ^ "http://www. ISBN 1-57003000-6. October 26. Subsection Lycopersicon). 2. bid/6280/Default. Retrieved December 11 2009. Horticulture: Principles and Practices. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans.

Retrieved 2008-10-27.html. http://www. ^ http://www. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once. http://www. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.cornell." 19.eurekalert. http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-27.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44. page 57: "The plants are still http://www. Retrieved December 11 2009. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or".org/pub_releases/2007-05/aafc-nmt051607. 33." 18.html. 2006. 27. Retrieved 2007-05-24. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens. HYG-5532-93".com/science-nature/ http://www. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'" Smithsonianmag. 29. http://ohioline. Retrieved June 30." 20. Retrieved 2008-10-27. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian ^ "http://www.html".html. Faq.php. Retrieved July ^ Retrieved 200705-24.umn. ^ "http://www. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. 2006. ^ http://www.Tomato". ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension.gob.plants. Retrieved they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. http://www. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa".news. 17. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007) the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?". 28.smithsonianmag.html. 25. Retrieved December 11 ^ "Crop Profiles .8M".html.sinaloa. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home". ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". Retrieved 2008-10-27. 32. Ncsu.gardenweb. ^ "http://www. 22.umn. http://www. Ohioline.gardenweb. .osu.html 23.ufseeds.osu. http://www. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention".edu.html.html". 31. Retrieved 2008-10-27. which are carried in the wind. Retrieved "Tomato genome project gets $1. Retrieved December 11 2009. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat ^ "Selecting. fungi such as fusarium and ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine". Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like.

Retrieved 2008-10-27. ^ "ITN. 36. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC".co.CBS News".com/books?id=WhWjHB1Zjf8C&pg=PA643.crazychefs. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.shtml. Retrieved http://www. .foodsafetynetwork. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Nationalpost. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". ISBN 1879906546. et al. http://www. Dennis Cdc. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak. http://www.html. Retrieved 2009-0721. ANR Publications. Retrieved 9781879906549. 42. ^ a b Pittenger. 38:S3. http://www. (2004-04-15). Retrieved 2008-10-27. United States. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005". http://www. Itn. Retrieved 2008-1027.1086/381578.cdc. (2002). http://itn. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. Tomato Recipe". http://www. Vegparadise. ^ "August Retrieved 2009-0402. 643. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus".html. California Master Gardener 41.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. 2007-08-30.journals. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul.html. 40. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce .com/highestperch8. 37. ^ Voetsch. by state". 35. Tomato Nutrition.cdc. 38.

or Spice Islands. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0. 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees. especially in Grenada. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. both are used as adulterants of M. a state in the south part of India. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. argentea from New Guinea. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans.crazychefs. It also grows in Kerala.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree.7 in) wide. called Jaiphal in Hindi. extracted . Other species include Papuan Nutmeg http://www. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. nutmeg and mace. or sliced finely. and nutmeg butter (see below). and Bombay Nutmeg M.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov.4 oz) dried. malabarica from India. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. called selei buah pala. including essential oils.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). In Indonesia. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. fragrans products.6 to 0.2 and 0. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. Species About 100 species. the fruit is also made into jam.

it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products.crazychefs. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. In European cuisine. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. and baked goods. and Barbados rum punch. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). and string beans. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. saffronlike hue it imparts. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes. "Lau Hau Peng". In Arabic. In the Caribbean. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. green.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. sauces. Painkiller. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. In Penang cuisine. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. and eggnog. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. In Indian cuisine. they are also used in soups. .com http://www. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. mulled wine. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine).

reddish brown in colour. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. although this is disputed. and sweets. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. for instance. in toothpaste. beverages. . It is semi-solid. 758 – ca. syrups. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. which can be turned into myristic acid.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. preserving agents. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive http://www. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The oil is colourless or light yellow. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. used as flavourings.crazychefs. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". 5. ^ "Erowid". 6. ^ "MDMA". 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. About 1. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other . Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. hydrolyzed yeast. Canned. frozen. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. based on anecdotal reports. it also said that.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form. sugar http://www.crazychefs.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99. autolyzed yeast. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. yeast extract.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. being an amino acid. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. However." However. Fermented products such as soy sauce. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. particularly processed foods. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings. sugar cane. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions. with 4% annual growth expected. soy extracts. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes. not reproducible. or molasses. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants. and protein isolate. steak sauce.

followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. acidification. and crystallization. Foster. and mineral ions and growth http://www. Albert Y. the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. and converted to its monosodium salt. Drugs. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture.g.g. purified. even in large amounts." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. flavour enhancer). toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies].net/ . randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product.. (2) synthesis.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. ^ http://www. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes.celiac. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and (3) microbial fermentation.html and Cosmetics (2nd ed. age 40–59 years.. On Food and Cooking. Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. 621. the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. followed by either the name of the food additive. In the 2004 version of his book.crazychefs. New York: Wiley. ^ Leung. In the hydrolysis method. dextrose or citrate). [monosodium glutamate]. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled.". or its International Numbering System (INS) number. References 1. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids.). In 1993. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e. 373-375.7% women). "Monosodium Glutamate".2. Steven (August 2003). such as hydrolyzed protein. For this reason. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. MSG. pp. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea. concentration.

Linda. Sano.2006.html 4.. ^ "Production process". Linguang. ^ Sand. Daviglus. Anjimoto Co. Zhu. Martha L. ^ http://vm.4. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Kelly M. http://jn. Van Horn. Dyer. PMID 18497735. Regul. Shioya. 1875–1880. Yangfeng. Stamler. (April 2000) ^ http://www. Food Chem. doi:10. doi:10.2008.pdf 9. ^ http://www. Toxicol. ^ a b Geha RS. "A Short History of MSG". J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. 16. Yamaguchi.nytimes. ^ Walker R (October 1999).gov/entrez/ Jordan (2005) 5.jstor. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S.nih.crazychefs.1016/02786915(93)90012-N.274. ^ a b Rundlett. Zhou. http://www. ^ He. New York Times. Guo. et al. doi:10. Inc. Dongshuang. 31 (12): 1019–1035. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". doi:10. Toxicol. Shigeru. Beifan.nutrition.x. "Monosodium Glutamate". PMID 8282275. Kimber Nutr.nlm. Tetsuya.. doi:10. http://www. Chirality 6 (4): pp. Case study: monosodium glutamate". 30 (2 Pt 2): S119– http://www. "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". 11. Jeremiah (August 2008).html. Zhao.1038/oby.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. 6. PMID Julia (2008-03-05). Chiaki. 8. Ren C.F. 10. doi:10. Daniel. 7. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. MSG. 277–282. Daniel W (1994). 13.cfsan. "Yes. doi:10. PMID 10597625. ^ Moskin.530060410.html 12. 15. Garside. (1993).1002/chir. ^ Freeman M. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. ^ a b Tarasoff L.17457599. ^ http://www. Beiser A. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.a16 711.1002/14356007. Takehara. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. (October 2006).1006/rtph. Shizuko (2005). "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study".38. "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". Ka.ajinomoto.fda. Armstrong.ajinomoto. Liancheng.5. the Secret Behind the Savor". "The significance of excursions above the ADI.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127& . Masahiro. J.1999. ^ Kawakita.3.00160. Alan R. Pharmacol. PMID 16999713. 38–49. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review".

酱油 2. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce.crazychefs. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 醬油 2. 荳油 3. 豆油 http://www. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji. water. [4] By the mid-19th century. and salt. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods. In its various forms.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). Soy sauce was invented in China. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market.500 . where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West.[3] In the 18th century. this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands.crazychefs.

Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans.crazychefs. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or http://www. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. Although there are many types of soy sauce. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese).net/ . which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. Today. such as in giant urns and under the sun. literally "delicious taste"). Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. sojae) and other related microorganisms. all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring.

like extra virgin olive oil. In traditional Chinese http://www. or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. consistency. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. opaque. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. with relatively low amounts of other grains.3-DCP (1. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. An additional classification of light soy sauce. Another type. and Chinese cuisine. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It has a richer. but it also adds flavour. fragrance and saltiness.crazychefs. it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. Despite their rather similar appearance. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. since it is saltier. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. traditional Chinese: 醬油.net/ . or 酱清 "jiàng qing". The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. shuānghuáng (雙璜). or a mixture of both. lighter brown soy sauce. pinyin: jiàngyóu.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. Korean. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. Since it is lighter in color. ): A thin (nonviscous). Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油. slightly sweeter. Thai. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). one of the two types.

Usukuchi (淡口?. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of http://www.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). Technically. where it is known as "shōyu". It contains little or no wheat. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. or 醤油).[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. Shiro (白?. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. Japan is the leading producer of tamari. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi. as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it . which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. due to the addition of alcohol in the product.crazychefs. that is used in its production. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. for example sashimi.

but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. 1 litre bottles. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy .com http://www. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized.crazychefs. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. Consequently. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. 205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. Amakuchi (甘口?. "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?.Saishikomi (再仕込?. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". not pasteurized.

net/ . which has a thick. powder. It is a unique variety. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in http://www. in a pinch. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. In Indonesia.crazychefs. usually implies limited quantity. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. 206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce.

in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. Malaysia. uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. O'Long(黑龍).[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1.[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is made entirely of soy and brine.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. 조선간장. or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean . which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭). According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce.crazychefs. soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. Later. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce. lit. which has language and cultural links with http://www. WanJaShan(萬家香). Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油). Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊).4% of soy sauce purchases. Founded in 1909. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. thin and dark brown in color. (called Joseon ganjang. Joseon ganjang. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin.

is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. nước tương. China. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic http://www. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. pronounced SOO-kah). Low-sodium soy sauces are produced. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food.3-DCP (1. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. or sometimes simply tương. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand. wheat. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce.crazychefs.[6] Furthermore. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. salt. It can also be very salty. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). and caramel. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh).2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. it is also a table condiment.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking.

or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy).000 to 18. (1781).htm.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. Celiac disease. including six samples with up to 11. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20). ^ Tanaka. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations.317 2. ^ Tanaka. Pearl River Bridge. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. 7.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. III. Golden 2nd edition. OCLC 9752305 http://www. Despite these being small in number in the UK.tcoc. http://www. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In .tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9. Press release. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho.crazychefs. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed".org. 2 (January 2000). ^ Titsingh." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. Soon Teck• and 6. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption. ^ http://www.smartfood. XXVII. Retrieved 2008-01-07. Retrieved 200801-07.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. ^ http://www.[1] Notes 1. 4. 2.gmp. p. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001. Norio. Individuals with a wheat allergy. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. ^ Jung. No. Jammy Chai. p. Golden Swan.Kong and Taiwan. ^ http://www.) In March[citation needed] In Seong-Gook (2002). King Imperial. Kimlan. ^ http://www. Lee Kum Kee. Vol. pp. Sinsin.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. the leaflet does include oyster sauce. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. 6. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD. 7. an increase over 23 to 5. 8. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce").asp?id=7598 10. that affected the brands Golden Mountain. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. marinades and other types of sauces. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application.

103. et Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. ISBN 0632059877. Kentucky: CRC Press. Makio (2005-04-18).food scares hit Vietnam 20. http://books. fermentation and micro-organisms. 16. Somboon (2002-06-18). http://www. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. 13. Florence. ^ Toxic soy sauce.144. http://www.1263/jbb. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. PMID doi:10.201. ^ Shahidi. Charles W (2005). Naczk. 186. chemical veggies -. 14. p. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209. ISBN 1587161389.crazychefs. p. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. nutraingredients. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. ^ Bamford. Hoboken. ^ .com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". PMID 16198255. ^ Kobayashi. Edition 2. Stephen (2006-06-06). ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151. Marian (2003).100. ^ Tanasupawat.48. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce". 12.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. Retrieved 2008-01-07. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". Fereidoon. doi:10.

5% Linoleic acid: 3.5–21.4677–1.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.3% Myristic acid: <0.0% Stearic acid: 0.0% yes Oleic acid: 55.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/ 211 | P a g e http://www.0–83.9180 (@ 15.0% Arachidic acid: <0.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.crazychefs.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.9150–0.8% Behenic acid: <0.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.5 °C) 84 cP 1.3–3.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.5– .0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.5–20.

[1] It is commonly used in cooking. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. North Africa and the Near East. Australia. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio.000 tons of olive oil annually. Koroneiki.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. In 2006. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms).net/ . Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. World production in 2002 was 2.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. and Manzanilla de Jaén. and Moraiolo.6 million tonnes. in France. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. 93% comes from Spain.6 (refined and pomace) 0. family Oleaceae). but especially in the Mediterranean. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}. as well as in Crete. cosmetics.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is http://www.4680–1. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees. Japan and China. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. Leccino Pendolino. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Italy and Greece. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. Hojiblanca. principally Italy. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. Olive oil is used throughout the world. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. which receives about three-quarters of total exports.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. pharmaceuticals.[3] Of the European production. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. which produce approximately 350. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. in Greece. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. Picholine. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. Alberquina.crazychefs.

[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. of which . Spain. http://www.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil.000 US gallons (181. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production. The USDA uses a different system. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. The California Olive Oil Council.000 US gallons (131. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. Spain. Oblica and Leccino. with 23 member states. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices. often in "prestige" packaging. in Croatia. in Portugal. and monitoring authenticity. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. with production increasing to meet demand. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. IOOC terminology is precise.000 m3) came from Italy.crazychefs.600. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. and Turkey. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method).[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil).800. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. After extraction the remnant solid substance.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. Spain. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. Galega. a private trade group. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. by its chemistry. and by its flavor. still contains a small quantity of oil. In North America.California. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). called pomace. The US imported 47. defining quality standards.

both in Italy and abroad. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. EU officials took issue with the new law. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical http://www.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids).[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. however. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. mostly hexane.[14] In February 2008. particularly in Italy. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). measured by weight. 25. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome).[15] Under EU rules. another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. product as superior olive oil. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil.crazychefs. colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. of free oleic acid it contains.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. for blended oils. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being .[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer.[14] In March 2008. but safe. is extremely lax and corrupt. lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but there are no guarantees. This practice makes it difficult for high quality.[16] In April 2008. it is believed. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. Almost 700 people died. defined as the percent.[12] In some cases. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. and by heat.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil. and for genuine Italian producers to compete.

3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. It is fit for consumption. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. In order to classify it by taste. of no more than 1. but may not be described simply as olive oil. The US is not a member. and is judged to have a superior taste. It has a free acidity. These grades were established in 1948. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production http://www. another cause of rancidity. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. of not more than 0. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. Pure olive oil. expressed as oleic acid. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. The U. increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. This is also called its organoleptic quality. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. and is judged to have a good taste. has an acidity less than 2%.8% acidity. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides.5% acidity. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants. absence of defects.S. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country.crazychefs.3 grams per 100 grams ( . Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. Used on salads. and are based on acidity. contains no more than 0. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps.the oil degrades. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means.S. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.0% and is "fairly free from defects". While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.4% and is "free from defects".S.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled.S.5% and is "reasonably free from defects".[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.S. Grade B or U. "cold" does not define any precise temperature.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning.S. with less flavour. Grade C".crazychefs. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label.S.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. Grade A or http://www. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed". (34 kJ/ml). Grade C or U. U. This is incorrect. U.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental .S.S. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. Grade D or U. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.S.U. U. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. which may be as low as 10-15 °C. First of all.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.

56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.62 12.8 http://www. around 8 l.35 23.7 11.crazychefs. Portugal and Lebanon.7 l. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. so the term "first press" is meaningless. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13. over 26 liters per year. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. around 14 l. Tunisia.pressed". Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin .[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide.1 1. Spain and Italy. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.1 0. around 0. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there.2 7 1.

4. which is much faster and more accurate.34 . Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. suggesting a different taste. This is done in specialised chemical plants. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms. Green olives produce bitter oil.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation. where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction. and overripe olives produce rancid oil.crazychefs. 2. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. After grinding. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. After grinding. 1. 3. which are stacked on top of each other in a column.France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. not in the oil mills. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. no or very little organoleptic defects).com http://www. If ground with mill stones. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. then placed into the press. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes.

[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . To achieve this possible fat 3.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g http://www.2% phytosterol and tocosterols).monounsaturated 73 g .omega-3 fat <1.5 g .7%) and sterols (about 0.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat . including oleocanthal and oleuropein. time of harvest. along with traces of squalene (up to 0. region. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. and extraction process.[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.polyunsaturated 11 g . Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. most notably oleic acid. In the United States. The composition varies by cultivar. olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. altitude.

crazychefs. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil. in the long term. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. 2004. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. The study was conducted in two stages.This decision was announced November 1. It is theorized that.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood http://www. at least in part. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol. and oleuropein. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. This could. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. For example.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. During the first stage. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. This way. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. rather than its fatty acid profile. antithrombotic. During the second .

Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on.Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking.[citation needed]. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big . In time. as available in an oil producing region. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. cookware. etc. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. Also. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils.crazychefs. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. not for foods to be eaten cold. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. like salads. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. Also. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. blenders. oils deteriorate and become stale. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. A very fresh oil. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. For example. Used cold. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated.

Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. It is also good for the management of http://www. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. acting as a stool softener. and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. and mild laxative properties. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp . It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM).Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. It does have demulcent properties.crazychefs.

Besides food. oile (12c. and skin care application. medicines. Homer called it "liquid gold..N. elaion "olive tree". olio). Mod. olie. from O. as a fuel in oil lamps.Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal.Fr.Fr.Fr. olive oil.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman. from L.crazychefs. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. magical. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. http://www.[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". olive oil" (cf. It. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. ." In ancient Greece. from Gk. and O. probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. drawn and engraved by J. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. huile). oleum "oil. from Anglo-Fr.

It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium.crazychefs.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. In the centuries that followed. .com http://www.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC).[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. olive presses became common.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region.[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times). and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.

The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. and area consisting of present day Palestine. allowing more time for more oil to be made. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive http://www. during the 13th century BC. Sinuhe. he maintained. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt.000 and 3.crazychefs. According to the historian Pliny. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan.[citation needed]. together with naked appearance of athletes. drained the water from the bottom. and Israel. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. "the best in the Mediterranean". when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to. According to legend. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy.000 tons of olive oil per season.over 4. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish . Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. where it is thought to have represented wealth. stored in special containers.[46] Until 1500 BC. olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. when the oil had risen to the top. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. Lebanon. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. the fertile crescent. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization.[dubious – discuss] During this time. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff).000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia.. oil containers are preferred. wrote of abundant olive trees.

4. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit).imitate the original Menorah. ANR http://www. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the References 1. http://findarticles. and. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. even without fire touching it. in the consecration of altars and churches. Steven Sibbett." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. Joann L Coviello. "Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). and this secure". To douse the flame. http://www. 158.crazychefs. traditionally. Olive Production Manual. Retrieved 2007-05-25. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. ^ USDA. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. light upon light.gourmetretailer. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Louise Ferguson. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree.html. 5. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree"." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. the tourch is in a glass bulb. ^ USDA. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism.internationaloliveoil. ^ "findarticles. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. Retrieved 2008-07-04. Margaret Lindstrand (2005).PDF. 2. and the Mount of Sinai.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. In Islam. its oil almost glows. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. "The Olive Tree. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. Retrieved 2007-05-25. neither Eastern nor Western. http://www. 3. ^ International Olive Oil Council."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and originating from King David. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. p. "Agricultural Statistics 2005". Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches. ^ .

"Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. http://www.nytimes. 15. Dennis. http://www. Giammanco. 21. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27.crazychefs. United States Department of Agriculture. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27.southafrica. Di Majo. http://aje. 23. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".com/world/Forty-arrested-in-new-39fake39. 11.1016/j. (December 1986).jp. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260.usda. Tripoli. ^ Mueller. November 2. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam .htm.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/ The New York Times (H. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis. ^ "EUbusiness. ^ New York Times. ^ "www. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. Raymond & Co. ^ a b "Telegraph article".scotsman.xml.23/. J.Scotsman. ^ a b McGee.oxfordjournals.).htm". G.telegraph. Nutrition Research Reviews 18. 2004. 55 (3): 175–86.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889.01. ^ "www. http://oliveoilonly. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 10. Tom.". J.telegraph. Menotti A.2007. Epidemiol. D. John.eubusiness.southafrica.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105.internationaloliveoil.eubusiness. ^ Durant.23/. US Customs ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Riding. 124 (6): 903–15. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. Slippery Business The New Yorker. 19 CFR "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)".6. http://www.htm. Giammanco. M. http://www.". Tabacchi. 18. Alan (1989-05-21). http://www. http://www. .html. News". ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. http://www. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. et al. ^ "Eubusiness.html".010. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". ^ Covas MI (March 2007). Karvonen MJ. 17. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. PMID 3776973.". Retrieved 2008-11-09. http://query. ^ Keys A. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil".org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini. 14. and Maurizio La Guardia. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure. 16. http://www. http://news. 20. PMID 17321749.phrs.xml.

19. 37.tchain. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. Medina E. Masato Ueda. doi:10. (27 March 2000). Carcinogenesis. Guida L. 2000. ^ Ehud Galili et al. Ahmed.xml.tchain. http://www.75. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". Olea europaea L. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. ^ Pagnol.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. says the 6th millennium in Jericho.1. PMID 15830923. 43. Pagnol. http://www. ^ Machowetz A. Vol. "olive" and "oil" 40. Toshinori Bito.1024/0300-9831. ^ [2] Ichihashi. ssp. Israel".06-6328com. M : No. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. "New Year's Resolution No.1096/fj. doi:10. 19. Nov. ^ Romero C. ^ Rosenblum. 21. ^ a b Davidson. et al. Marotta T.telegraph. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Brenes M. 45.videojug. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 19 November 2007 30. 11. 2085-2090. Osamu Nikaido. 21 (1): 45–52. Alonso MG. 44. s. "[19 INSERT TITLE]".61. 34. "[10 INSERT TITLE]".. 38. 1: Prevent Cancer. Vargas J. De Castro A (February 2007). Poulsen HE. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. ". p. Mar. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". 2000. (January 2005). T : 31.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). Nazim U.". Toshihiko Osawa." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. doi:10. 55 (3): 680–6. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. p. Olives 41. Vol. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. 1S45-50. M : Osawa. ^ http://www. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000).crazychefs.v. T." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. ^ Mayo Clinic. ^ "Quite Interesting . but cites no source. "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster. Masamitsu Ichihashi. André Bervillé.html. Catherine Breton. Raimondi AS. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L.28.ama-assn. PMID 17110467. JDermatol-Sci. ^ "www. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. Use Olive Oil. A : Wu. (January 2007). http://www. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms". PMID 10737284. 23.html".uk/portal/main. Suppl. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?. J Agric Food Chem. An Wu. Dello Russo A. 39. 10. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. ^ Guillaume Besnarda.1021/jf0630217.. ^ Ferrara LA. N U : Budiyanto.Telegraph". Gruendel S. PMID 17263460. Etienne N." ScienceDaily 12 December . A : Bito. Faseb J. 29. et 36. ^ Turner R. d'Episcopo L.v. pp.

47. http://www. pp119–33 50. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece".R. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Kennell. 2001. Processing methods. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48.youngmuslims. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe".org.). ^ Nigel M. Verstraete and V. ^ F. Riley. Harrington Park Press. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. ^ " http://www. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". C.".htm. .46. ^ Thomas F. Scanlon. 2005 in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. http://www.

Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf. Saffron has further medicinal applications. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Saffron.Saffron Saffron crocus C. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. sativus flower bears three stigmas. crocin. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus).net/ .[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. each the distal end of a carpel.or hay-like fragrance. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. ən] / [ˈsæf.[4][5] A carotenoid dye.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and http://www. sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. A C.

Only in October. broken apart.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A corm survives for one season. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants.[11] Upon flowering.5 centimetres (1. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves.crazychefs.98–1. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ). Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. and replanted. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. which means "yellow.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable http://www.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. as was once generally believed. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. It is a sterile triploid form.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. purple buds appear. in Central .2 in) in length. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. must be dug up. In autumn. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve. Being sterile.

Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. in concert with climate. low-density. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes.e.[16] Furthermore. Greek. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2. where annual rainfall averages 1. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. where hot.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. they fare poorly in shady conditions. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields. Nematodes.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight.9 in) deep.. and corm rot pose other threats. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm . Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at http://www.000–1. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). loose. Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands.crazychefs. Planting depth and corm spacing.035 oz) of dry saffron threads. are critical factors affecting yields. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. Only in mid-autumn do they flower.500 mm (39–59 in). whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. and birds.8–5. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). leaf rusts. well-watered. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. maximizing sun exposure. rats. Moroccan. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron.

46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0.8-diapo-8. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8.[19] Meanwhile.[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds.8-carotenoic acid).net/ .11 gr) of dried saffron.crazychefs. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. including zeaxanthin. However.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. lycopene. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).and β-carotenes. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin.[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.2 oz of dried saffron). and various α. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes.0. It also has many nonvolatile active components.[19] many of which are http://www. and thus oil-soluble. a product results that is itself water-soluble.

Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.0– .0 1.0– http://www.0–15.0 4.0–8.0 6.0 3.0–14.0 1.5 40.0 6.0 6.crazychefs.0 11.0 12.0 10.0 1.5 10.0 9.0–7.0 0.0 12.0 2.0 6.0 8.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.

When saffron is dried after its harvest.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4.3-diene-1. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.0 Source: Goyns 1999. p.6.5-cyclohexadien-1-one.6. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing http://www. dried hay like". picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal.4.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. combined with enzymatic . Santorini. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7.[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.6-trimethyl-2. The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. incidentally.[18] Safranal. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2. Significantly.crazychefs.Fiber (crude) 5.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.6. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. a volatile oil. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. the heat.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal.

Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. townspeople in . cartwrightianus. physicians in Gaza. In late Hellenistic Egypt. Thus.000 years. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC. and in the mithridatium.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. colic. and medical treatments. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. divine offerings. a sterile mutant form of C.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall. mascaras.[33] potpourris.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds. and scabies. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia.[28][29] Later.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. There. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. C.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. ointments.crazychefs. Since then. sativus.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and http://www. cough.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.

[43] Thus. a Chinese medical expert. perfumes.[42] ritually offered to divinities. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac. At such sites. and baths as a curative for battle wounds.[51] However.[53] On the other hand. For example. a tome dating from 200–300 BC.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. Isfahan.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. or jackfruit.Asia The 17.[44] From there.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara.[46][47][48] Meanwhile. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal". the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. Wan Zhen. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[44] During his Asian campaigns. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. a less expensive dye. medicines. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's . the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC.[39][40] Later. dating to 978–993 AD. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) http://www. saffron threads were woven into textiles.crazychefs.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts. rice.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. and used in dyes. and body washes. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy.

and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold. imprisoned. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. which grew prosperous. under which saffron adulterators were fined. saffron cultivation spread throughout England." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour.[62] By 1730.[59][60] Only in southern France. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code. did significant cultivation endure. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[58] Soon after. an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. indeed. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination.crazychefs. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. and Italy. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War".net/ . In Europe. However. tea.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812. and Spain. and executed. named for its new specialty crop. Italy. France.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. It can be used to aromatise wine. and then the saffron is obtained.saffron is in http://www. coffee. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. especially Norfolk and Suffolk.[55] During the 14th century Black Death.

and chicken or trout dishes. and in perfumery. saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa).com http://www. and Cornish cuisines. particularly in China and India. noodles.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring. Arab.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Turkish.crazychefs.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). Pennsylvania.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing). Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. Medicinally. immunomodulating. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. European. Central Asian.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes. and antioxidantlike properties.[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. . Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron.

India. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. France. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.000 flowers. elasticity.550 per kilogram).[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.000 threads. are generally mellower in colour.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram). Switzerland.100–11. slight moistness. they are graded by government-imposed standards. the United States.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.100/€1. Spain.000 per pound (US$1.[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.000 and 200. For example. Annually. and Italy.000-170. Morocco.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$ .crazychefs.500/€7. Vivid crimson colouring. Greece. in decreasing order of production. England. Azerbaijan. and aroma. are the major producers of saffron. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron http://www.000 flowers.200/£1. Spain's varieties.[5] Iran. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. In Western countries. the average retail price is $1. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. and other countries. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide.000–75. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand. Aside from these.500 per kilogram.[2] A pound comprises between 70. flavour.

blights. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization.79 in). The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content.. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). near L'Aquila. among the world's darkest. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. unusually pungent aroma. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" . for quality and quantity. Repeated droughts. In the U. combined with an Indian export ban.crazychefs. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. and safranal (fragrance) content. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production). Sardinia. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. and safranal http://www. it also has very high crocin. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. contribute to its high prices. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. aroma. and crop failures in Kashmir.S.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. and colourative effect. picrocrocin. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. There. shape. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue. is in San Gavino Monreale.some organically grown. picrocrocin (taste).

pomegranate fibers. pliability. aroma. and thus a greater colourative intensity. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron http://www. paprika. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. III. these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri . powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. II. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250.[77] However. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0.[80] Thus.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. and I (finest quality). in India. traders. Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. with turmeric.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation. red-dyed silk fibers. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). and consumers reject such lab test numbers. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. many growers. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide.crazychefs. However. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and other powders used as diluting fillers. when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code.national standards bodies. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports.

Sterling. p. ^ a b McGee 2004. 14. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. 16. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. ^ Willard 2001. 422. p. 1. pp. 18. 272. 423. 4. 6. 53. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. 3. ^ DPIWE 2005. ^ a b c Hill 2004. 2–3. http://www. ^ Deo 2003. p. 1. ^ Willard 2001. 4. p. 2.crazychefs. 3– 24. Retrieved 3. ^ Willard 2001. p.Saffron reproductive biology 11. ^ Rau 1969. ^ McGee 2004.". 3. pp. 20. 1. 8. ^ Willard 2001. http://books. 5. 23. crocin and safranal. p. 15. p. 19. ^ Grigg 1974.cababstractsplus. www. ^ Harper 2001. Honshū. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 2.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). 22.cababstractsplus. 7. p. 12. 287. 21. ^ a b Deo 2003. ^ Kumar V (2006). ^ M. 9. ^ a b Leffingwell http://www.asp?AcNo=20043148643. p. ^ Dharmananda 2005. p. 3. . stigma extracts and their constituents. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 17. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. p. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. p. p. Grilli Caiola . ^ a b Deo in mice. Retrieved 2007-12-01. pp. Kansai. p. 13. 4.

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"What is Saffron?". <http://www. Rau. Tarvand (2005b).reconstructinghistory. P (2001). 2006. Tarvand Saffron Company. Retrieved on January <http://books. Tarvand Saffron Company.". 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. <http://books. K (2003). H (2004). SR (1969). New Scientist.htm>.net/ . Retrieved on January 10. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. Time Life "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus). Retrieved on January ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 2006. JB (2005).tarvandsaffron.htm>. <http://www. "Saffron". Reconstructing History. 2006[dead link]. <http://www. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). Willard. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). Retrieved on January 10.tarvandsaffron.000.html>. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". Nair. Retrieved on January 10. <http://www. F (2005). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the SC. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. 2006. McGee.cfm?chemic al_id=140>. Beacon>. PMID 2025883 Park. The Cooking of India.crazychefs. Pearce. http://www. "Grading and Classification".html>.com/channel/earth/mg18524831. 2006. Cancer Letters 57 (2).>.usda. Retrieved on January Retrieved on January 10. < USDA Phytochemical Database. Scribner.newscientist.

Dead . 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea. europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L.crazychefs. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea http://www.

Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. olives. they were reverently preserved for centuries. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. which he describes as very simple: "As for me.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens.5 cm long. Asia and parts of Africa. from Lebanon. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. Its fruit. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian .The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In Homer's Odyssey. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2. are borne generally on the last year's wood. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. Theophrastus. referring to their wooden material.(XVII.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. and smooth mallows provide sustenance. ca 170 AD. The small white flowers.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth."[7] indeed. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded http://www.[9].[1] and in the Iliad. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. two stamens and bifid stigma. by a spring. the olive suckers readily from the stump. It is short and squat. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. Though. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. the olive. endives. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive)."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down. which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. called xoana. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet.crazychefs. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars.

the pits give rise to thorny. As far back as 3000 BC. it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures.16. the olive has been the symbol of peace.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious . As emblems of benediction and purification. glory and peace . The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World. Over the years. in On the Nature of Plants.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance. Today. for which the Greeks had a separate http://www. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb.[12] After the 16th century. fertility. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. Peru. The olive tree itself. but he makes clear (in 1. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Theophrastus. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. wild-type olives. glory. and then in the 18th century in California. For example. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. power and pureness. olives were grown commercially in Crete. wisdom. spread far and wide by birds. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. Chile and Argentina. kotinos. and one of the most significant.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. in both the New and Old Testaments. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. and its cultivation began in Mexico. as well as olive oil and olives. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. play an important role in the Bible.The leafy branches of the olive tree . Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. indeed. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible.crazychefs.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. The Book of Jacob 5.

which is made into top quality olive oil. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. Montenegro. drought-. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The age of an olive tree in Crete. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. disease. Istria in http://www. and can live for very long. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). has been calculated to be about 1.and fire-resistant. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. named "Plato's Olive Tree".Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. The older an olive tree is. claimed to be over 2. although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy.600 years .crazychefs.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. One olive tree in Bar. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated.000 years old.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni).

is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. A supposedly even older . Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive http://www.crazychefs. Italy. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. 1600-2000 years old. According to a recent scientific survey. All seven trees continue to produce olives. Modern experience does not always confirm this. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. a few other millenary trees can be admired. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. both in Galilee region. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. In the same natural garden. and the olive fruit. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. and. have been determined to be over 3000 years old.6 km) as the limit. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River. though showing a preference for the coast. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olive leaf.2. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan.400 years ago. see Olive (fruit). there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel. Specifically. and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC. fine wood.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia. called the "Peisistratos Tree". Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it.

laperrinei (Algeria. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia. such as South Africa.crazychefs. Argentina. Australia. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. the Mediterranean Basin. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas. The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. Olive plantation in Andalucia. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. Niger.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates. Chile. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. Sudan. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa). guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. northwest Africa) where winters are mild. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives. using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces . europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of http://www. Israel. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates.

net/ .com http://www.crazychefs.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive http://www. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ .

In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so. A prolific bearer. grown around the world. a large. often after being pitted. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi.Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive.crazychefs. In recent times. rounded-oval fruit. 'Bosana'. stuffed (with pickled pimento. Rich taste and thick pulp. but only a few are grown to a large extent.Cailletier cultivar. with purple-green skin. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. Seville. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins. The olive grove of Amfissa. originating in Dos Hermanas. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. 'Manzanilla'.com http://www. It is used mostly for oils. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. which consists of 1. anchovies. in southern Spain.200.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region .net/ . excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions.

is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. They are green. It has a strong but sweet flavour. even on clay if well http://www. It is used both for oil and for table olives. originating in Toledo. another modern Israeli. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. 'Picual'. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a small. Moreover. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. disease-resistant. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil.crazychefs. black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. originating in the south of France. They grow in any light soil. a large. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. and elongated. This small olive. named after the city of Kalamata. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags. large. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). 'Souri'. originating in the south of France (Aude département). Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. round. Their flavour is mild and nutty. The flavour is mild and nutty. and coastal climate conditions. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. Greece. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. though difficult to cultivate. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. They are black and generally used for table consumption. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. Spain. good for eating and for oil. used as a table olive. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. Spain. 'Arbequina'. which. good for eating and for oil. originating in the province of Córdoba. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. and elongated.[21] 'Koroneiki'. 'Hojiblanca'. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. It is mainly used for oil. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. 'Empeltre'. It is green. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. originating from the southern Peloponese. medium size. Due to their highly valued flavour. brown olive grown in Catalonia. 'Cornicabra'.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. Spain. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil.[23] 'Barnea'. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. 'Kalamata'. 'Nabali'.[citation needed] 'Lucques'. The olive is medium .

which form small swellings on the stems. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. Olives are propagated in various ways.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. In Italy. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early http://www. the trees are regularly pruned. Olives grow very slowly. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. However. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down.crazychefs. removing fruit from the tree. to facilitate germination. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline . A. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. They tolerate drought well. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. and can remain productive for as long. soon vegetate. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. the oliviera. More specifically. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots.) Olives like hot weather. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. In southern Europe. This method is used for olives used for oil. 114). de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. being very hard and close-grained. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. P. up to several centuries. embryonic buds. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. Where the olive is carefully cultivated. as in Languedoc and Provence. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. but the time varies in each country. it is valued by woodworkers. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. Occasionally. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. Another method uses an electric tool. In some places in Italy and Greece. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker. and with the season and the cultivar. In Greece. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice.poorer soil. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but they seldom bear well two years in succession.

then drained.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. which leads to a superior finished product. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. The olives are soaked in water to wash. or green with hints of colour). the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. a bitter carbohydrate. which is healthy for future production. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. the fruit is not bruised. which is a natural preservative.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. As a result. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the . The method also involves sawing off branches. which is why they taste milder than green olives. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of http://www.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. through to full purple black ripeness. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar.2 kg of oil per tree per year. 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. Typical yields are 1.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. large fruit (e. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein.. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. American black ("California") olives are not fermented.g.5-2. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olives can be used green. After some weeks. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. the creation of lactic acid. Fresh are often sold at markets. which can be eaten fresh. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution.

net/ . according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. olive oil.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. oleae[27]. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. their main predators are wasps. of which the water is changed daily.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. diseases. feta. spices. The ten largest producing countries. Sometimes. brine-curing and fresh watercuring.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. but can be left to cure for up to three months. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. leaving sawtooth damage. causing great damage to plantations. A species of bacterium. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cycloconium oleaginum. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. garlic cloves. an unnatural method. especially to young trees. In France and north-central Italy. juniper berries and anchovies. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful. and weather A fungus. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit.6 to 8. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. chili. wine. capsicum (pimento). This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. Lye-curing. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. vinegar. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. or removing the pit and stuffing them. http://www. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. Popular flavourings are herbs.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. olives suffer occasionally from frost. lemon zest. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. lemon juice. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. induces tumour growth in the shoots. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. salt-curing. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor.crazychefs.

14. 4. Ancient Greek Agriculture. ^ Theophrastus.888 178.0 3." (Diodorus Siculus.000 470.8 16.1 25.000 430. ^ Homer. Odyssey.000 8.149. ^ Pausanias.5 6.000 998. and to cultivate olive-trees.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.000 280.1).300. 1). http://www.000 .000 275.5." (Herodotus. 5.000 250. On the Causes of Plants. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens. 38.000 318.. An introduction.3 8.000 498.988 500.6 31.064 2. 5.830 2. 81. 3. 7. 4.597.crazychefs. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves.160. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. most notably South Australia.000 550. 3. 1992.000 1.. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus.317. to make bee-hives. 6.089 6. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.13.3 20.500..Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17. 82. 4. ^ ". Description of Greece 1.140. Bibliotheke.685 765.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.4 30. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.5 63.[31] References 1. p.400.9 6.000 594.000 1. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.800.000 20. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures.339 300. and was the first to instruct men in these matters.981 1..7 27. 1 ). book 5". 27.100 3. 1.

^ http://www. R. ^ Burr. p. Brijuni National Park. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". Leshonenu (Hebrew).8.. 13. savastanoi (ex Smith) ^ a b M. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Bacteriol. Fall/Spring (2005) 1982. Juárez.. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. J. 29 April. J. (September 2002). John Hutton. 23. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. Ellen. J. M.. R. ^ Lewington. ^ [1] 21. 35. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina". Retrieved 2007-03-10. Processing methods. J. E. Retrieved 2007-08-31. http://www. 30. EspasaCalpe S. ^ O. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. 29. Masuelli. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares. Tabak & O. Number 4). http://www. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. Int. ^ Belaj et al. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana.31. ca 30 BC 9. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine". (1999) Ancient Trees. 24. 27.fao. & Ouazzani. ^ Balfour. vol.aspx?PageID=151. 1999. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. Volume 18:27-35 20. & . ^ "FAO. http://www.A.W. Kislew. N. rev. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. Spring/Summer 2006 26. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil.cit. Madrid. Moody.279 18. D. op. "Plants of the Bible" 1885.zatoun. Rackham. Elena "Unusual Olives". Volume 15. nov. 4th edition. ^ Lumaret. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". 69. 1996. ^ Janse. 32:166–169. Epikouria Magazine. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. Cavagnaro P. M Bauza & R.pasoroblesolivefestival. Riley (2002). ^ "Old Olive Tree". 28. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests.15. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. AGRISCIENTA. A. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander 1981. ^ Fotiadi. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. Zatoun. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 2001.jsp. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. Epikouria Magazine.brijuni. Apps3.htm. ^ Gooch. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. Simhoni. p. 105..) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA".springerlink. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils.crazychefs. 1779. http://apps3. 2004".com/ 25. pp 110–113. http://www.. ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. Australian Olives. 17. ^ Muncipality Bar. me cichorea levesque malvae. Odes 1.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. Available through Google Books 11." Horace. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. Retrieved 2007-08-31. Syst.fao. cited in F. ^ Riley.

L. glossy green. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb.31.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus http://www. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. (French tarragon.crazychefs. and south to northern Mexico. Corresponding to its species name. seldom produces flowers. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. The leaves are lanceolate. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm .R. with an entire margin. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. however.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. western North America. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. with slender branched stems." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901.

due to the presence of estragole. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). Spreading plant can be divided easily. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. dracunculoides L. it normally goes dormant in winter.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. A perennial. Persian and Russian word for .[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. fish and egg dishes. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect.[1] However. It is normally purchased as a plant. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. Russia and Ukraine. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute.[1] It likes a hot. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. sunny http://www. without excessive watering. which is the Armenian. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor.[1] Russian tarragon (A. Georgia and. and particularly suitable for chicken. but cannot be grown from . by extension. Fresh. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant.

officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Ley JP.Cis-Pellitorin. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. Horst.crazychefs. Foerstner J. 2. Workman Publishing. 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Wiley-VCH. Machinek A. ^ Gatfield . 233. pp. 3. Properties and Uses. ISBN 9783527607891. References 1. Johannes Panten (2006). Krammer G. has been isolated from Tarragon plant. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. Maggie (2002). ^ a b c d McGee. ^ Surburg.[3] In http://www. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Rose Marie Nichols. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Stuckey. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. The Bountiful Container.

and blue to purplish flowers. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. Broadleaf sage. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. it is used when roasting mutton. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire http://www. In the Balkans and the Middle East. Purple sage. with woody stems. Dalmatian sage. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant. Garden sage. Culinary sage. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. It is a member of the mint family. sage has a slight peppery flavor. Common sage. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. Kitchen sage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. cheeses (Sage Derby). though other species. grayish leaves. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and some drinks. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Lamiaceae. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil.Salvia officinalis (Sage. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). Germans often use it in sausage dishes. In the United States. In French cuisine. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of . Britain and Flanders. In Western cooking.crazychefs. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp.

borneol. fumaric acid. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate. chlorogenic acid. The Latin name for sage. and thujone. flavonoid glycosides. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. hypoglycemic. salvia. caffeic acid.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. cornsole. niacin. nicotinamide. and estrogenic http://www. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic.trichomes are visible.more trichomes are visible on this side. Sage leaf contains tannic acid.crazychefs. antibiotic. means ―to heal". which contains cineole. randomized and placebo-controlled trial. and tonic. cornsolic acid. ursolic acid. astringent. The underside of a sage leaf . .Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf .[1] In a double blind. ursonic acid.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. oleic acid. antifungal. antispasmodic. flavones.

snakebites.[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. Retrieved 2008-02-04. http://www. and more. Dioscorides.appliedhealth. especially in sunny dry environments. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. yellow and green variegated http://www. salvatrix (Sage the Savior). Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. ^ Akhondzadeh During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. a cultivar with large leaves. 'Berggarten'. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. and for low ground cover. Ohadinia S. a local anesthetic for the skin. 'Tricolor'. a purple-leafed cultivar.1046/j. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[4] It was sometimes called S. 2. OBeWise Nutriceutica. Khani M. Applied Health. 'Lavandulaefolia'. (2003). considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages. Mohammadi M. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. and tonic. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. References 1. ^ a b c "Sage". 'Icterina'. increasing women's fertility.x.crazychefs. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. 'Alba'. Pliny. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine.php. a cultivar with white. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. Jamshidi AH.Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. a styptic. a small leaved cultivar. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value. and used as a diuretic. Noroozian M.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. PMID 12605619. doi:10. hemostatic. randomized and placebo-controlled trial". Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. 'Extrakta'. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from .1365-2710.2003. a white-flowered cultivar. and for other uses. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs.00463. emmenagogue.

com http://www. pp. Spiridon E. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses.3. 4. Deni Bown (New York: DK. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/ . Sage: The Genus Salvia.crazychefs. p. ISBN 9789058230058. (2000). 10-11. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. CRC Press. ^ a b Kintzios.

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