COOKING INGREDIENTS

Bay leaf
Bay leaf

Laurus nobilis, known as bay leaf, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Magnoliophyta (unranked): Magnoliopsida Order: Family: Genus: Species: Laurales Lauraceae Laurus L. nobilis

Binomial name Laurus nobilis Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaf of the Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance in Mexican food, one example is Red Snapper Veracruzana. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean Cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavor until several weeks after picking and drying.[1]

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Taxonomy
Several other plants use the term "bay leaf," but do not refer to the leaves of the Bay Laurel. They include: California bay leaf The leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica), also known as 'California laurel', 'Oregon myrtle', and 'pepperwood', is similar to the Mediterranean bay but has a stronger flavor. "Indian bay leaf" (also tej pat, tejpat, tejpata or palav aaku in Telugu) or Tamalpatra

The leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar in fragrance and taste to cinnamon bark, but milder. In appearance, it is similar to the other bay leaves but is culinarily quite different, having an aroma and flavor more similar to that of Cassia. It is inaccurately called a bay leaf because while it is in the same family, it is of a different genus than the bay laurel. "Indonesian bay leaf" or "Indonesian laurel" (salam leaf) The leaf of Syzygium polyanthum. Not commonly found outside of Indonesia, this exotic spice is applied to meat and, less often vegetables. Like Indian bay leaf, it is also inaccurately named because the plant is actually a member of the Myrtaceae family.[2]

History/Region of Origin
The bay leaf originated in Asia Minor, and spread to the Mediterranean and other countries with suitable climates. Bay leaf is not grown in Northern regions, as the plants do not thrive in cold climates. Turkey is one of the main exporters of bay leaves, although they are also grown in areas of France, Belgium, Central and North America, Italy, Russia and India.[1] The laurel tree that the bay leaf comes from was very important both symbolically and literally in both Greece and Rome. The laurel can be found as a central component found in many ancient mythologies that glorify the tree as a symbol of honor. This association continues today.[3] Bay leaves are one of the most widely used culinary herbs in Europe and North America. The bay laurel tree has been cultivated since the beginning of recorded history.[4]

Taste and aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavorings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable in cooked foods than the taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Bay leaves also contain the essential oil eugenol.[3]

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Uses
Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as bouillabaisse and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet garni), and removed before serving. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine bay leaves are often used in biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. In Japan, too, it has a long history as a herbal ingredient. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger due to the increased surface area and in some dishes the texture may not be desirable. Bay leaves can also be used scattered in pantries to repel meal moths[5] and roaches.

Medicinal Value
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.

Safety
A number of members of the Laurel family (including mountain laurel and cherry laurel) have leaves that are poisonous to humans and livestock. While these plants are not sold anywhere for culinary use, their visual similarity to bay leaves has led to the oft-repeated belief that bay leaves should be removed from food after cooking because they are poisonous. This is not true - bay leaves may be eaten without toxic effect. However, they remain very stiff even after thorough cooking, and if swallowed whole or in large pieces, they may pose a risk of scratching the digestive tract or even causing choking. Thus most recipes that use bay leaves will recommend their removal after the cooking process has finished.[6]

Cultivation
Gardeners in frost-free or light frost areas will find that Bay Laurel seedlings planted in the ground willingly grow into large trees, 38 feet and taller; but when kept pruned the Bay
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Laurel tree can thrive as a small bush. Bay Laurel can also be grown in containers, the size of which limits the ultimate size of the trees. New plants are often started via layering, or from cuttings, since growing from seed can be difficult. Bay trees are difficult to start from seed, due in part to the seed's low germination rate, and long germination period. Fresh seeds with the pericarp removed typically have a 40% germination rate, while dried seeds and/or seeds with an intact pericarp have yet lower germination rates. In addition, the Bay Laurel seed germination period can be 50 days or more, which increases the risk of the seeds rotting before they germinate. Treating the seeds with gibberellic acid can be useful in increasing seed yield, as is careful monitoring of moisture levels in the rooting media.[7]

Gallery

Fresh leaves and flower buds of Laurus dried bay leaves nobilis

leaf of Laurus nobilis A Laurus nobilis bush.

A close-up of several Laurus nobilis leaves.

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Thyme

Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris.

Shavings of the thyme herb. Thyme (pronounced /ˈta m/) is a well known herb; in common usage the name may refer ɪ to any or all members of the plant genus Thymus, common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes.

History
Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing that thyme was a source of courage. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".[1] In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares.[2] In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life.[3]

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Albanian. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. In French cuisine.g. It tolerates drought well. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. Spanish. 6|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Lebanese. Libyan. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. In some Levantine countries. storage life is rarely more than a week. Dried. It can be propagated by seed. Usually when a recipe specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig' it means the whole form.com http://www. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant. fresh thyme is often available year-round. Greek. which is due to its content of thymol.net/ . Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. Thyme is a basic ingredient in French. Substitution is often more complicated than that because recipes can specify sprigs and sprigs can vary in yield of leaves. assume that it means fresh. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. the condiment za'atar (Arabic for thyme) contains thyme as a vital ingredient. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. so less of it is required when substituted in a recipe. It is also widely used in Arab and Caribbean cuisines. While summer-seasonal. If the recipe does not specify fresh or dried. Culinary use Thyme is a good source of iron and is used widely in cooking. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Depending on how it is used in a dish. It is composed of a woody stem with paired leaf or flower clusters ("leaves") spaced ½ to 1" apart. Persian. cuttings.a little less if it is ground.[2] Thyme is best cultivated in a hot sunny location with well drained soil.[citation needed] Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. in a bouquet garni). and in those derived from them. As a rule of thumb. A recipe may measure thyme by the bunch (or fraction thereof).Cultivation Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavour. or the leaves removed and the stems discarded. Italian.crazychefs. soups and stews. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. tomatoes and eggs. along with bay and parsley it is a common component of the bouquet garni.[4] The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife. use one third as much dried as fresh thyme . Portuguese. It is perfectly acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. and Turkish cuisines. and of herbes de Provence. Assuming a 4" sprig (they are often somewhat longer). Thyme. or by the sprig. and especially powdered thyme occupies less space than fresh. Leaves are often chopped. while flavourful. the whole sprig may be used (e. Syrian. when it specifies spoons it means the leaves.

salve. The dried equivalent is 1:3. as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire Mountains and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash.com http://www. Medicinal use The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. hybrid T.crazychefs. Because it is antiseptic. Popular cultivars 7|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.) Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) is not a culinary herb. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby[citation needed].[7] Before the advent of modern antibiotics.[citation needed] The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days.[8] A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. Thymus herba-barona (Caraway Thyme) is used both as a culinary herb and a groundcover. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. thyme is slow to release its flavours so it is usually added early in the cooking process. with cultivars selected with aromas of various citrus fruit (lemon thyme. It also has medicinal uses. syrup or by steam inhalation[citation needed].estimate that 6 sprigs will yield one tablespoon of leaves. it was used to medicate bandages. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta but this was said by Sheila Kitzinger[citation needed] to cause an increased prevalence of retained placenta. pulegioides × T. but is grown as a ground cover. All thyme species are nectar sources. Thymus serpyllum (Wild Thyme) is an important nectar source plant for honeybees. vulgaris) is also a popular culinary herb. rocky soils in southern Europe (Greece is especially famous for wild thyme honey) and North Africa. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. Important species Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme or Garden Thyme) is a commonly used culinary herb. so substitute 1 teaspoon of dried or ¾ tsp of ground thyme for 6 small sprigs. etc.net/ .[1] It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. tisane.[citation needed] In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. Thymus × citriodorus (Citrus Thyme.[5] As with bay. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled.[6] Thymol. and has a very strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone.[6] Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. an antiseptic.

Variegated lemon thyme. ground cover thyme that smells like orange Creeping thyme—the lowest-growing of the widely used thyme.crazychefs. There are a number of different cultivars of thyme with established or growing popularity. including: English thyme—the most common Lemon thyme—smells of lemons Variegated lemon thyme—with bi-colour leaves Orange thyme—an unusually low-growing.com http://www.net/ . 8|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. good for walkways Silver thyme—white/cream variegate Summer thyme—unusually strong flavour Caribbean thyme—Same flavor as English thyme but 10 times stronger.

crazychefs.com http://www.Parsley Parsley Parsley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum Subspecies Petroselinum crispum var.net/ . neapolitanum curly leaf parsley 9|Page Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

3 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.0 mg Iron 6.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 150 kJ Carbohydrates . Parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro).0 g 8% Riboflavin (Vit.0 mg Potassium 554 mg Zinc 1.3 g 0.com http://www.1 mg 6.8 g 3.2 mg 13% Niacin (Vit. and American cooking. B9) 152 μg Vitamin C 133. 10 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . often used as spice. B3) 1.9 g .0 μg Calcium 138. Source: USDA Nutrient database 8% 38% 222% 1562% 14% 50% 14% 8% 12% 11% Percentages are relative to US Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green biennial herb.Sugars 0.1 mg recommendations for adults. B1) 0.1 mg Folate (Vit.Dietary fiber 3. although parsley has a milder flavor.4 mg 8% Vitamin B6 0. European. B2) 0.crazychefs.Parsley (raw) Nutritional value per 100 g (3. It is common in Middle Eastern.3 mg 9% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.2 mg Magnesium 50.0 mg Vitamin K 1640.0 mg Phosphorus 58.

For example. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley.[1] Germination is inconsistent and may require 3-6 weeks. which helps accommodate the long taproot. Usage Culinary use In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. Parsley grows best between 72 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (22 to 30 degrees Celsius). The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock.crazychefs. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. parsley itself may be affected by the furanocoumarins. or flat leaf (P. as with hamburg root parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. Although little known in Britain and the United States. The similarity of the names is a coincidence.Varieties Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf and Italian. Root parsley Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable. it is not related to real turnips. used in soups and stews. Like many other umbellifers. This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. However. reducing pest attraction. parsnip meaning "forked turnip". even in its first year it is reputed to help cover up the strong scent of the tomato plant. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. neapolitanum). many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. which then tend to protect plants nearby. root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisine. Though it looks similar to parsnip it tastes quite different. Parsnips are among the closest relatives of parsley in the umbellifer family of herbs. These compounds may inhibit the germination of other seeds. Soaking parsley seeds overnight before sowing shortens the germination period. Parsley grown indoors requires at least five hours of sunlight a day. allowing parsley to compete with nearby plants.net/ . While parsley is biennial.[1] Parsley grows well in deep pots. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. like flat leaf parsley or chervil.com http://www. Cultivation Parsley's germination is notoriously difficult to achieve.[1] Furanocoumarins in parsley's seed coat may be responsible for parsley's problematic germination. it attracts predatory insects. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. not blooming until its second year. Companion plant Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. The fresh flavor 11 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. tuberosum).

a bundle of fresh herbs used to flavor stocks. ^ Health effects:Furanocoumarins.com/PLUdetails. Persillade is mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in the French cuisine. 2007. "Parsley on plucodes.com". and sauces. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups like chicken soup. and lemon zest.aspx?id=1075&s=4. ^ "Parsley information on Drugs. ^ a b c John W. e. In addition. steaks. meat or vegetable stews[2] (like Beef Bourguignon. Ossobuco alla milanese.html. soups.com/npc/parsley. http://www. ^ June Meyers Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook 3. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. or 4900.com".g. Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used orally. In Southern and Central Europe. leaf. green salads or salads like Salade Olivier.net/ . on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads.plucodes.70% by mass. parsley is part of bouquet garni. 2. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. Goulash or Chicken paprikash). Parsley as an oil.." West Virginia University Extension Service. 4. garlic. lamb or goose. Last retrieved April 26. root. the consumption of parsley is thought to contribute to sweet smelling breath. http://www. fried chicken. Health risks Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. a mixture of parsley.crazychefs.of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. References 1. with fish. with rice dishes (risotto or pilaf). "That Devilish Parsley. tabbouleh (the national dish of Lebanon).drugs. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato). [1]) in oxalic acid. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies. Jett. chemical photosensitivity & photodermatitis 12 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.[4] The produce code for parsley is 4899.[3] Parsley is high (1. Gremolata is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew.

Gallery Parsley Bush Curled Parsley Flat Parsley flower Flat Parsley white flower Parsley bush 13 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.net/ .crazychefs.

Oregano Oregano Flowering oregano Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Origanum O.crazychefs.net/ . 14 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. vulgare Binomial name Origanum vulgare L.com http://www.

crazychefs. O vulgare gracile.com http://www. It is commonly used by local chefs in southern Philippines when boiling carabao or cow meat to eliminate the odor of the meat. and lovage leaves. Oregano is an important culinary herb. Greek. and grilled meat.[citation needed] oregano works with hot and spicy food. it contributes much to the distinctive character of many Italian dishes. fried vegetables. O vulgare hirtum (Greek Oregano). Oregano combines nicely with pickled olives. 15 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The flowers are purple. native to Europe. Oregano growing in a field. It is a perennial herb. British English: ɒ rɪ ˈg :nəʊ ) or (Origanum vulgare) is a ʊ ɑ species of Origanum. spicy flavor. 3-4 mm long.Oregano (IPA: əˈregəno . It is the leaves that are used in cooking. Spanish and in Italian cuisine. produced in erect spikes. growing to 20-80 cm tall. of the mint family. e. and to add a nice. Together with basil. which is popular in southern Italy.[2] Oregano[3] is often used in tomato sauces. and the dried herb is often more flavourful than the fresh. with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long.net/ . Varieties There are a number of subspecies. the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia.[1] Uses Culinary Dried oregano for culinary use. It is particularly widely used in Turkish. as well as cultivars. capers.g. Unlike most Italian herbs. each with distinct flavours.

because phenolic compounds are missing in its essential oil. season and soil on the composition of the essential oil is greater than the difference between the various species.crazychefs. The related species Origanum onites (Greece. good quality oregano is so strong that it almost numbs the tongue. salt and pepper.net/ . Its variations have probably been eaten in Southern Italy for centuries. warm and slightly bitter taste. differs significantly in taste. Balkan peninsula. but the cultivars adapted to colder climates have often unsatisfactory flavor. It has an aromatic.Oregano is an indispensable ingredient in Greek cuisine. It varies in intensity. due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. In Turkish Cuisine. together with paprika. Asia Minor) and O. Oregano adds flavor to Greek salad and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies many fish or meat barbecues and some casseroles. heracleoticum (Italy. Some breeds show a flavor intermediate between oregano and marjoram. especially for mutton and lambs meat. useful for relieving children's coughs.[5][6] Additionally. The influence of climate. oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat.[5] Both of these characteristics may be useful in both health and food preservation. West Asia) have similar flavors. oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. 16 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[4] Health benefits Oregano is high in antioxidant activity. A closely related plant is marjoram from Asia Minor. Oregano became popular in the US when returning WW2 soldiers brought back with them a taste for the ―pizza herb‖. Oregano growing in a pot. In barbecue and kebab restaurants. which. In the Philippines. it can be usually found on table.com http://www. oregano (Coleus aromaticus) is not commonly used for cooking but is rather considered as a primarily medicinal plant. however. Pizza The dish most commonly associated with oregano is pizza.

though mild teas have a soothing effect and aid restful sleep. influenza. indigestion. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico. used oregano as an antiseptic as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. and caryophyllene. and was itself a derivation from the Greek origanon ὀ ρίγανον. especially in the United States. antispasmodic. In the Philippines. showing a higher effectiveness than 18 currently used drugs. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece to soothe a sore throat. cholagogue. but the Oxford English Dictionary notes that it is quite likely a loanword from an unknown North African language.html. diaphoretic. Aqueous extracts. carminative. the father of medicine. but is usually stronger. Used topically.[8] Hippocrates.crazychefs. It is a highly studied herb that is said to be of some medical use and is common in curandera female shamanic practices in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. Plectranthus amboinicus. Lippia berlandieri. The leaves and flowering stems are strongly antiseptic.Main constituents include carvacrol. or oil extracts of oregano are taken by mouth for the treatment of colds. ^ http://www. Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae) is closely related to lemon verbena. also called Cuban oregano. ^ Organic Gardening 2. stimulant. limonene.[7] and painful menstruation. thymol. mild fevers. The etymology of the Greek term is often given as oros ὄ ρος "mountain" + the verb ganousthai γανοῦ σθαι "delight in". capsules.net/ . Several other plants are also known as oregano in various parts of Mexico.uni-graz. A Cretan oregano (O. It is strongly sedative and should not be taken in large doses. oregano. stomach upsets. and Plectranthus amboinicus (syn.com http://www. expectorant. enteric parasites. It is sometimes used as a substitute for epazote leaves[citation needed]. including Poliomintha longiflora.[10][11] Other plants called oregano Mexican oregano. oregano is one of the best antiseptics because of its high thymol content.at/~katzer/engl/Orig_vul. Oregano leaves are more flavorful when dried 17 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mexican oregano has a very similar flavour to oregano. useful for relieving children's coughs. pinene. fungal infections. ocimene. Both were drawn from Classical Latin term origanum.[12] References 1. this substitution would not work the other way round. this latter is used in at least one Old English work. Coleus aromaticus). is not commonly used as a cooking ingredient but is primarily considered a medicinal plant. stomachic and mildly tonic.[9] Oregano has recently been found to have extremely effective properties against methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). emmenagogue. which simply referred to "an acrid herb". or possibly of the medieval Latin organum. which probably referred specifically to sweet marjoram. Etymology Oregano is the anglicized form of the Italian word origano.

Retrieved 200811-26. Food Chem. Agric. J Nutr. ^ "Himalayan Oregano Effective Against MRSA".ac. http://jn. et al. vulgare Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.uwe. "Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants". draft revision for "origanum".co. ^ "Scientists win SEED award for Himalayan oregano project". March 2009. et al.com http://www. J. doi:10.3. Medical News Today. 12. Fall/Spring 2007 5.nutrition. http://info. 11. 133 (5): 1286–1290. 7.net/ . ^ Inhibition of enteric parasites by emulsified oil of oregano 8. PMID 12730411. Draft revision for "oregano". University of the West of England. ^ Epikouria Magazine.".php. Steinar.2008. 24 November 2008. (01 May 2003). ^ Dragland. Fall/Winter 2007 10. ^ ["http://www. Leonor. 53 (21): 8162–8168.uk/news/UWENews/article. ^ a b Faleiro.uk/wild-oregano-oil-carvacrol. ^ Oregano Herb Profile 9. 28. Retrieved 2008-11-26.org/cgi/content/abstract/133/5/1286. ^ Epikouria Magazine.dmannose. (Cav.asp?item=1374&year=2008.1021/jf0510079. http://www. PMID 16218659. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online. 6.) and Origanum vulgare L. June 2008 Fennel Fennel Fennel in flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: 18 | P a g e Apiales Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Foeniculum F.medicalnewstoday.10.php" Wild oregano oil from the high mountains of the Mediterranean] 4. "Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Isolated from Thymbra capitata L. June 2008.com/articles/130620. draft revision for "organum".crazychefs. (2005).

It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. Also. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. John Chadwick notes that this word is the origin of the place name Marathon (meaning "place of fennel"). the diminutive of fenum or faenum.crazychefs. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. fennel was called marathon (μάραθον). perennial. Ferula communis. and is pronounced finocchio in Italian.com http://www. is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists).[2] In Greek mythology. It is a hardy. recorded in the 10th century. In Ancient Greek. The Latin word for the plant was ferula. which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen.Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. site of the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Chadwick wryly notes that he has "not seen any fennel growing there now". This came from the Old English fenol or finol. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere (particularly. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. it was from the giant fennel.[3] 19 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Prometheus used the stalk of a fennel plant to steal fire from the gods. As Old English finule it is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm. that the Bacchanalian wands of the god Dionysus and his followers were said to have come. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on river-banks. umbelliferous herb. meaning "hay". and is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Etymology and history The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. however. it seems. and is attested in Linear B tablets as ma-ra-tu-wo. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Mouse Moth and the Anise Swallowtail.net/ . It is a member of the blunden family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). areas colonized by the Romans[1]) and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world.

73 mg Magnesium 17 mg Phosphorus 50 mg 20 | P a g e 4% 7% 20% 5% 6% 5% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. half as wide or less.047 mg Folate (Vit.29 g 0. they are finely dissected. glaucous green.64 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. and grooved.5 mm wide. about 0. bulb. B2) 0. and grows to heights of up to 2. It is erect.1 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit.5 m. each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels.crazychefs.01 mg 7.Appearance Fennel flowerheads Fennel is a perennial herb.com http://www. B1) 0. with hollow stems. with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike).5 oz) Energy 30 kcal 130 kJ Carbohydrates .[4] Cultivation and uses Fennel. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long.20 g 1.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide. B9) 27 μg Vitamin C 12 mg Calcium 49 mg Iron 0.Dietary fiber 3. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill.net/ . B3) 0.032 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. but thinner.24 g 1% Riboflavin (Vit.232 mg 5% Vitamin B6 0. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.

In North American supermarkets. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. notably the Italian name finocchio. Its aniseed flavour comes from anethole. by the late 19th century.191 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. for its edible. an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States[8] (see Santa Cruz Island).Potassium 414 mg Zinc 0. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type.[citation needed] Culinary uses 21 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. including northern Europe.[6] and has a mild anise-like flavour. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became.[7] Fennel has become naturalised along roadsides. and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs. in pastures.[citation needed] Their inflated leaf bases are eaten as a vegetable. southern Canada and in much of Asia and Australia. stronglyflavoured leaves and seeds. the United States. which is also known by several other names.[citation needed] Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum'.com http://www.[9] although many modern preparations marketed under the name "absinthe" do not make use of it.[5] The Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group. but is more aromatic and sweeter. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries.crazychefs. Fennel itself is known to be a stimulant.net/ . vulgare var. it is often mislabelled as "anise". Source: USDA Nutrient database 9% 2% Fennel is widely cultivated. is widely available in the UK where it is grown as a decorative garden plant. though usually not as strong. It is of cultivated origin. Florence fennel bulbs Florence fennel was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. There are several cultivars of Florence fennel. syn. both raw and cooked. both in its native range and elsewhere. "bronze-leaved" fennel. and in other open sites in many regions.20 mg Manganese 0. It propagates well by seed. F.

which are very similar in taste and appearance. anise-flavoured spice. It is known as saunf or mauti saunf in Hindi and Urdu ( Devanagiri ). Razianeh or ‫ ر ر ر ر‬in PersianJintan Manis in Malay. though smaller.[10] Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise. Many egg.com http://www. Many cultures in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. and risottos. sompu in Telugu. green seeds are optimal. foliage. from Koehler's Medicinal-plants (1887) The bulb. braised. brown or green in colour when fresh. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed.Fennel. fish. badesoppu in Kannada. mouri in Bengali.net/ . pastas. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. or eaten raw. It may be blanched or marinated. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. but also the most expensive. in side dishes. 22 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. badeeshop or badeeshep in Marathi and barishap in the Malay language. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpaste. In many parts of Pakistan and India roasted ‫ر رر‬ fennel seeds are consumed as an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. For cooking. shombu or peruncheeragam ( ) in Tamil and Malayalam language. salads. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. It is an essential ingredient of the Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. often tossed with chicory and avocado. grilled. or cooked in risotto. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads.crazychefs. both raw and cooked. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. stewed. The bulb is a crisp. Farming communities also chew on fresh sprigs of green fennel seeds. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. where bulbs and fronds are used. variyali in Gujarati.[5] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages.

com http://www. as it is said to improve eyesight. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. Fennel tea. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. also employed as a carminative.[citation needed] Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. to reduce soreness and inflammation of the eye. Eyes In the Indian subcontinent. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup.[citation needed] Fennel tea can be used as an eye tonic.[11] Intestinal tract On account of its carminative properties.crazychefs.[12] For adults. used to ease flatulence in infants. is sometimes 23 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[13] Blood and urine Some people use fennel as a diuretic. applied directly like eyedrops or as a compress. these waters constitute the domestic 'Gripe Water'.[citation needed] and it may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. which can explain some of its medical effects: it.[14][15] Breastmilk There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. although not supported by direct evidence.net/ .Medicinal uses Fennel seeds Fennel contains anethole. sometimes with some sweetener. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. Fennel seeds are also eaten raw. This use. or its polymers. act as phytoestrogens.[16] improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother.

followed by India. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child.justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens.[19] Plain water drunk after chewing and consuming fennel seeds tastes extremely sweet. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. badian (star anise).crazychefs. which promote growth of breast tissue. normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue.net/ .com http://www. Cinnamon Cinnamon Cinnamon foliage and flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Laurales Lauraceae Cinnamomum C. verum Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.[18] Other uses Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs.[17] However. Fennel is also largely used for cattle condiments. fennel and coriander. Production Syrian Arab Republic is leader in production of anise. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas.Presl Synonyms 24 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

karugapatta and in Tamil pattai or lavangampattai or karuvappattai.C. native to Sri Lanka. In Telugu. and Hindustani cinnamon is called darchini ( ni . zeylanicum Blume Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum.(‫دارچ ی نی‬Assamese it is called alseni.[5] In Malayalam. In Farsi (Persian). in the original Sinhala.[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. it is called darchin (‫. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā.net/ . which are often called cinnamon too. it is called Dalchina Chakka.[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. In Bengali.com http://www.crazychefs. synonym C. such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii. Ceylon. In Arabic it is called qerfa (‫. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name. It is often confused with other similar species and the similar spices derived from them.)ةفرق‬ History 25 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cinnamon is known as kurundu. it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera.[2] In Marathi. Nomenclature and taxonomy The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae. it is known as "DalChini ( )". and in Gujarati taj. where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra. itself ultimately from Phoenician. Chakka meaning bark or wood. it is called "Darchini" ( ). In Urdu.[3] In Sri Lanka.)نیچراد‬ In Indonesia. Hindi. the "real' cassia.

but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil. Through the Middle 26 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia. he reported what he had been told— and believed— that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in 65 AD. aloe and cinnamon.Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005 Cinnamomum verum.[7] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. a song describing the beauty of his beloved. cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon. where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt.[6] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade. cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on Crusade in 1248. 24) where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew . It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome.net/ . to protect their monopoly as suppliers. and in Song of Solomon.[8] Before the foundation of Cairo. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity.crazychefs.com http://www.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC. the first mention of a particular spice in the Old Testament is of cinnamon (. in Proverbs. Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon.

Ages. which are arranged in panicles.[10] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino. and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658.com http://www. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape. and coffee." (Braudel 1984. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy.75–7. 7–18 cm (2. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt. the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. "The shores of the island are full of it".8–49. the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers. and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. sugar.2 feet) tall. was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed.[9] In Herodotus and other authors. the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining.1 inches) long.net/ . 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild. who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. The flowers. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years.[11] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar albilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270.literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa. although in the first century. a Dutch captain reported. and have a distinct odor. and used them to construct their nests. 27 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. in a letter of about 1292. took control of the factories by 1640. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers. as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas. where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. p. where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. They established a trading post in 1638. have a greenish color. In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala and this estate become Asia's largest cinnamon estate. "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796.crazychefs. Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew. The plant Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32. However. one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea. tea. and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices.[12][13][14] See also Rhapta. such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire.

Vietnam. These shoots are then stripped of their bark. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. the outer woody portion is removed. about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India. India. eg. Java. there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka 28 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These quills are then cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka.net/ . outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs. smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. which is left to dry. leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. the West Indies. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups: • Alba less than 6 mm in diameter • Continental less than 16 mm in diameter • Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter • Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter These groups are further divided into specific grades.[15] According to the FAO. Zanzibar. each dried quill comprises strips from numerous shoots packed together. Madagascar. followed by China.com http://www. and Egypt. According to the International Herald Tribune. Mexican is divided into M00 000 special. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin.crazychefs. The next year. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Only the thin (0. Brazil. Associated species There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia.5 mm) inner bark is used. Chips are trimmings of quills. in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon. and Vietnam. Bangladesh. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. Sumatra.Cultivation Leaves of a wild Cinnamon Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. verum). M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon.

for example.[17] 29 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu Cinnamon and cassia True Cinnamon (on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cassia) quills (Cinnamomum burmannii) side-by-side The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon. zeylanicum). and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon.com http://www. also known as "true cinnamon" (from the botanical name C. However. is generally a medium to light reddish brown. describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia. less dense. sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon".crazychefs. has a finer. or "Indonesian cinnamon". and more crumbly texture.rare) Cinnamomum rivulorum[citation needed] Cinnamomum sinharajense[citation needed] Cinnamomum capparu-corende (Sinhala: Kapuru Kurundu)[citation needed] There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark. using only the thin inner bark. and thicker (2–3 mm thick). (Sinhala: Kudu Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum citriodorum (Sinhala: Pangiri Kurundu .net/ . Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). many websites. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon. Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum). and is considered to be less strong than cassia. "Vietnamese cinnamon". as all of the layers of bark are used. the related species. hard and woody in texture.[16] Ceylon cinnamon.Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum dubium (Wight) (Sinhala: sewel Kurundu or wal Kurundu)[citation needed] Cinnamomum ovalifolium (Wight)[citation needed] Cinnamomum litseafolium Thw. Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu.

It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia. and fruits. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin. ‫.Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin. tea. Uses Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. It is of a golden-yellow color. is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. especially apples. whereas cassia sticks are much harder.5% to 1% of its composition. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. especially in Mexico.[19] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts.crazychefs. In the United States. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. which is the main importer of true cinnamon. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch). True cinnamon. hot cocoa. donuts and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies.[citation needed] Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi). It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. used in a variety of thick soups. as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Sholezard Per. and liqueurs. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality. and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct.com http://www. The two barks. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. and then quickly distilling the whole. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. In the Middle East. bread-based dishes. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. but when cassia is present. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon 30 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia. and sweets. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark.)درز هلش‬ Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling.net/ . when whole. capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. drinks. a deep-blue tint is produced. rather than cassia.[18] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. such as apple pie. are easily distinguished. macerating it in seawater. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder.

cassia.[32] It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. Encyclopaedia Britannica. beta-caryophyllene. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. although it remains untested. and money.[30] Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent. love. luck. the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits).[21][22] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties.[23] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.crazychefs.0. eugenol.[29] Cinnamon is used in the system of Thelemic Magick for Solar invocations. cinnamyl acetate.[33] Popular culture Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme." 31 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and Myanmar (Burma).[28] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.and a very hot aromatic taste. it is a multipurpose ingredient used for purification. were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae. However.[20] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity.[24] Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. and anethole. 2008. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes. and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. few seem able to succeed. Sri Lanka (Ceylon). the neighboring Malabar Coast of India. according to the correspondences listed in Aleister Crowley's work Liber 777.net/ . In Hoodoo. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. linalool. that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil.com http://www.[25][26] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves).[27] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C.[32] The compounds cinnamaldehyde. who failed. bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh. cinnamaldehyde. The Cinnamon Challenge. and methyl chavicol[citation needed]. ^ a b "Cinnamon".[31] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum). in which one is to attempt to simply eat a whole tablespoon of cinnamon without vomiting.[34] Notes 1. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages.

^ Yule. Anthea Bell. ^ [1] 16.org/docrep/007/ae017e/ae017e12.crazychefs.en.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/south_asia_sri_lanka0s_spice _of_life/html/1.thespicehouse.nii.jstor. ^ http://links. Encyclopedia of Spices. J. J. 22. 32 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Henry. 53 (20): 7749–59. ^ http://findarticles.iol. 437 7. retrieved 200807-15 6.html. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009.html#pg598.za/index. Account of the Island of Ceylon.1021/jf051513y. PMID 10077878. ^ http://www. ^ Tennent. "Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum.com http://www. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. ^ López P.htm. Torres RP (December 1998). retrieved 200705-01 21. tr. retrieved 2007-05-01 19.stm 3. Agric. http://lakdiva.net/ . Sun M. p. http://www. ^ Knox.htm 20.org/sici?sici=00754358(1970)60%3C222%3ATSTOTR%3E2. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report.org/tennent/v1_p5_c02. also known as bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour.org/templates/story/story.henriettesherbal. Batlle R. Sir James Emerson. retrieved 2008-07-15 12.—Cinnamon. p.com/spices/vietnamese-cassia-saigon-cinnamon-wholecracked-ground thespicehouse. Robert. Harvey. Mancini DA. Breyne) extracts". ^ "Cassia. 437f. Van-Koiij A.html. 2009. Cinnamon. PMID 16104824. ^ http://news.com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of _the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_June/ai_3289703 13. ^ Shan B.437. ^ Felter. retrieved 2008-07-15 5. "Solid.php?storyId=6672644. The History of Food. doi:10. Cathay and the Way Thither. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. http://www.com/Spices/cinnamon. German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger. Col. http://www. Nerín C (August 2005). Corke H (October 2005). Sánchez C.CO%3B2-N 15.theepicentre.1021/jf050709v. Cozzolino FF. p. ^ The Epicentre. doi:10. 9. "Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents". PMID 16190627." remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat.php?click_id=588&art_id=iol1078376795319P146&set_i d=1 14.0. Boll Chim Farm 137 (11): 443–7. retrieved 2008-07-15 11.2. p..bbc.co. Agric. revised ed.com/eclectic/kings/cinnamomum.html.ihaystack. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009. An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon.ac. ^ Mancini-Filho J.com 17. 23.and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains". ^ Harris. 53 (17): 6939–46.fao. ^ http://www. Cai YZ. Food Chem.npr. http://www. 10. Food Chem. Emily. Cinnamomum. 437). p. 8.jp/toyobunko/III-2F-b-2/V-1/page/0487. ^ http://www. ^ [2] 18. http://dsr. 4.

luckymojo. doi:10. doi:10.2217/14750708.redorbit..futuremedicine. ^ [3]. "Chillies Are the Spice of Life". http://www. The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. 28. http://www. Vol III of Civilization and Capitalism. Agricultural Research magazine. doi:10. Muhammad et al. doi:10.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/977.2217/14750708.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14633804. coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". Charles (1998). a publication now in the public domain. Retrieved 200805-11.113. ^ a b "Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes".whfoods.2337/diacare. 27.my/3661/1/JTJun44F%5B5%5D_FADZILAH_ADIBAH.lesliebeck. Eleventh Edition. Anderson RA (December 2003). Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. et al.com/genpage.. retrieved 200705-01 32.12. ^ Alice Hart-Davis (16 January 2007).com. Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203– 206.com http://www. The Perspective of the World. ^ Vanschoonbeek.3215. Eugen J.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=68.php?featured_food=80. 30.1. http://www.diabetesjournals. Khattak KN. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF).com.. July 2000.html?source=r_health. ^ Yronwode. "Cinnamon Supplementation Does Not Improve Glycemic Control in Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetes Patients".1002/ptr. Alan W.utm.crazychefs.com/doi/abs/10. Kristof et al.1016/00219673(88)90035-0. References This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 33.com/news/health/803646/chillies_are_the_spice_of_life__pepper s_have_been/index. "Determination of cinnamaldehyde. 34. "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000).1643. www. Archer (1988).com/ingredient_index. Fernand (1984). ^ Ranjbar. Cinnamon.net/ . Research: Thalido. Cat. http://care. http://jn. Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. (2005). The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. 29. Retrieved 200808-05.. retrieved 2007-12-12 31. Safdar M. ^ Khan A. "Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: a comparative cross-sectional clinical study".. Keith Scott 33 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.3.com/releases/2004/07/040716081706. ^ Beck. http://eprints.htm. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".3. Medicinal Seasonings. http://www.24. Ali Khan MM. http://www.113. ^ George Mateljan Foundation. Corn. PMID 14633804.sciencedaily. Leslie. retrieved 200705-01 25.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-17. 26. ^ Verspohl. New York: Kodansha International. Cinnamon — December 2006's Featured Food.nutrition. ^ Taher. Braudel.26. Retrieved 2008-05-11.1. Akram et al. ground. http://www.sciencedaily. "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro"..

It is grown underground by the plant as a vertical shoot that is used for food storage."[3] Uses Onions. usually 34 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. and Allium asarense R.[2] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop.com http://www. cepa Binomial name Allium cepa L. used without qualifiers. it usually refers to Allium cepa. frozen. They are now available in fresh. Sri Lanka Onion Onion Onions Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. Onions can be used.crazychefs. and dehydrated forms. Fritsch & Matin from Iran. pickled. chopped. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. powdered. leading to the possibility of confusion with a tuber. Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium.[1] but related wild species occur in Central Asia. which it is not.Department of Export Agriculture. Allium Cepa is known only in cultivation. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion. one of the oldest vegetables.net/ .M. canned. They are known by the common name "onion" but.

Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women. recent evidence has shown that dogs. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and are referred to simply as "Pickled Onions". However. They are commonly used as a base for curries or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish.[5] However. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt. transported and stored.[4] Historical uses It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. due to toxicity during digestion. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. and also to relieve headaches. tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. Depending on the variety. snakebite and hair loss. cats.com http://www. Onions are widely-used in India and Pakistan and are fundamental in the local cuisine. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay their rent with onions and even give them as gifts. athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. coughs.[6] believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life.[6] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection.chopped or sliced. and other animals should not be given onions in any form.[5] The onion is easily propagated. spicy. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Hispaniola.[7] 35 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage.net/ . In Bronze Age settlements. in almost every type of food including cooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish.crazychefs. They are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. an onion can be sharp. at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. In ancient Greece. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it.

027 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.34 g 0.Dietary fiber 1.116 mg Vitamin B6 0. B2) 0.Sugars 4.013 g . B3) 0.7 g Fat . B1) 0.1 g 89.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ Carbohydrates . 0 μg 9.24 g .1 g 1.4 μg Calcium 23 mg Iron 0.12 mg Folate (Vit.02 mg Vitamin K 0.046 mg 4% Riboflavin (Vit.017 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.17 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.4 mg Vitamin E 0.polyunsaturated 0.crazychefs.net/ .042 g .21 mg Magnesium 0.saturated 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 9% 5% 0% 12% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 4% 3% 0% 2% 36 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.129 mg Phosphorus 29 mg Potassium 146 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0. B9) 19 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7.Medicinal properties and health effects Raw Onions Nutritional value per 100 g (3.11 g 0% Thiamine (Vit.com http://www.monounsaturated 0.

However. Imperial Valley Sweet. Western White. Empire Sweet. An American chemist has stated[17] that the pleiomeric chemicals in onions have the potential to alleviate or prevent sore throat. diabetes.[8] They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]). and Vidalia. Texas 1015.crazychefs. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells. by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. In the United States. Texas 1015. Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity. onions are used to heal blisters and boils.[16] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. In general. If you are allergic to onions. then you can be allergic to all plants under the family liliaceae (lilies). For all varieties of onions. the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. Mexico. However onion in combination with jaggery has been widely used as a traditional household remedy for sore throat in India. Western White. the variety with the lowest flavonoid content.com http://www. and Vidalia. Imperial Valley Sweet. eleven times the amount found in Western White. Empire Sweet. six times the amount found in Vidalia onion.[18] Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. it has not been conclusively demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits.[9] In India some sects do not eat onion due to its alleged aphrodisiac properties. and antioxidant properties such as quercetin.[15] Onions may be especially beneficial for women. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White. Northern Red. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. anticancer. products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars. followed by Western Yellow. the variety with the lowest phenolic content.net/ .[11][12][13] while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic[14] and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. Shallots have the most phenols. Peruvian Sweet. the more phenols and flavonoids they contain. pungent yellow (New York Bold[18]) and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. Mexico.[18] Allergies and eye irritation Some people suffer from from allergies to plants in the allium family. some studies have found their action to be ineffective. and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. anticholesterol. Northern Red. Western Yellow. Texas 1015. and other diseases. This can 37 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mexico. Peruvian Sweet. Some studies have shown that increased consumption of onions reduces the risk of head and neck cancers. pungent yellow (New York Bold).[10] In many parts of the world. Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids.Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease. Imperial Valley Sweet. Empire Sweet. An application of raw onion is also said to be helpful in reducing swelling from bee stings. Peruvian Sweet.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow. the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. osteoporosis.

net/ .[19] Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective.crazychefs. Symptoms can include irritable bowel. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling. and the irritation effect. allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids.include reactions to onions. Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. it can lead to an allergic reaction. garden lilies. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. garlic.[20] Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. differs among Allium species. shallots. It is also possible to avoid eye irritation by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye.[19] Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. Contact lens wearers can experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves. and bananas. The volume of sulfenic acids released. allylpropyldisulfide. diarrhea. ginger. all present in garlic. nausea. As onions are sliced or eaten. cells are broken. allylmercaptan and allicin. leeks. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating. It may also be that lens wearers are familiar with controlling the more reflexive actions of their eyes with regards to irritation. chives. as this is an ability they require when manipulating the lenses to prevent blinking. limiting the amount of gas generated. as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes.com http://www.[21] Propagation Onion and shallot output in 2005 38 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last). and in rare cases anaphylaxis. breathing difficulties. On January 31. Eye irritation can. where it binds to sensory neurons. mouth and throat ulcerations. creating a stinging sensation. 2008. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount. therefore.

more commonly today. requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. Finally. Green onion is a name also used to refer to another species. "short-day" onions. are planted in mild-winter areas in the fall and form bulbs in the early spring. which is said not to produce dry bulbs. the Welsh onion. The tree onion produces bulbs instead of flowers and seeds. producing bulbs only after 15+ hours of daylight occur. resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. which are the leaves and/or immature plants. Most traditional European onions are what is referred to as "long-day" onions.net/ . from sets started from seed the previous year. Varieties Brown and white onions Yellow onions Flower head of a yellow Red onions onion 39 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Allium fistulosum. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate day" types. which can be planted directly in the ground. Seed-bearing onions are day-length sensitive. which have been developed in more recent times. Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions.com http://www.crazychefs. and require only 9–10 hours of sunlight to stimulate bulb formation. but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year. their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year.Onion growing shoots Onions may be grown from seed or.

such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.149 Spain World Total 64.764 Pakistan 1.637 Japan Egypt 1.346 2.crazychefs. each of which forms a bulb. or to onions raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots.302 1.Bulb onion – Grown from seed (or onion sets).758 Russia 1.101 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[22] 40 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions. Leek Production trends Onion field during harvest. The second type is often referred to as a Potato onion. Oregon (USA).com http://www. Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005 (1000 tonnes) 9. a hybrid of Allium cepas. Vale.Produce bulblets in the flower head. Multiplier onions – May refer to perennial green onions.500 China United States 3. Welsh onion – Sometimes referred to as green onion or spring onion. Tree onion or Egyptian onion .750 South Korea 1. although these onions may refer to any green onion stalk.793 India 5.net/ .220 Turkey 1.

com http://www. bans the trading of futures contracts on onions in the United States.crazychefs.The Onion Futures Act. passed in 1958. It provides economists with a unique case study in the effects of futures trading on agricultural prices.net/ . It remains in effect as of 2009. after farmers complained about alleged market manipulation at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Onions cooked in a New York frying pan Onion weighing and packing in The Netherlands Cut onion Spring onion 41 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Aroma attributes 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol[23][24] Potential medicinal use 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol in onion was found to have an antioxidant potent which inhibites peroxynitrite induced diseases.[25] Pictures Red onion Onion fields near Elba.

is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves.net/ . 1793. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. commonly known as garlic. shallot. from William Woodville. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists—it originates in the 42 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. sativum Subfamily: Allioideae Binomial name Allium sativum L.crazychefs. Allium sativum. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allieae Allium A.[1] A bulb of garlic. It has a characteristic pungent. known as garlic. Its close relatives include the onion. the most commonly used part of the plant.com http://www. and chive. leek. Medical Botany.Garlic Garlic Allium sativum.

leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. In cold climates.Yunnan province of China. protective layers of "skin" over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the chocie of type as garlic can be daylength sensitive. India (4. is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). for consumption (raw or cooked). It is called "Sudu Lunu" in Sinhalese.[5] The "wild garlic". is not definitely established: "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars. The papery. There are different types or subspecies of garlic. most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. Garlic plants can be grown close together. Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense. which grows wild in southwestern Asia. Lehsun in Urdu and Hindi.6%) in fourth place and the United States (where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for 43 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "crow garlic". the so-called elephant garlic. and "field garlic" of Britain are the species Allium ursinum."[4] Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender.1%) and South Korea (2%) follow. are common weeds in fields. accounting for over 77% of world output. The cloves are used as seed. according to Zohary and Hopf. known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion". softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. Velli ullipaaya in Telugu and Vellai poondu in Tamil. The leaves.net/ . respectively. Cultivation Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. Origin and distribution The ancestry of cultivated garlic.crazychefs. stems (scape). Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates. and Allium oleraceum. Garlic is grown globally. it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis.[6] One of the best-known "garlics". and for medicinal purposes.com http://www. but China is by far the largest producer of garlic. with Russia (1. In North America. They can suffer from pink root. with approximately 10. a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red.[7][8] Production trends Garlic output in 2005. and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. Allium vineale. cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually.

including eastern Asia. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division Uses Culinary uses Garlic being crushed using a garlic press. California. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. southern Europe.000 128. A = aggregate (may include official. or estimates).000 221. F = FAO estimate. south Asia.000 325. Top Ten Garlic Producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India South Korea Russia United States Egypt Spain Argentina Myanmar Ukraine World Production (Tonnes) 12.810 168. and parts of South and Central America.com http://www. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered on Gilroy.000 645. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb.4%). P = official figure. northern Africa.crazychefs. coat the cloves by dribbling olive 44 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 254.000 142.000 125. Southeast Asia. * = unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data.686.400 140.088. It is often paired with onion.Alaska) in fifth place (1.000 15. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. or ginger. semiofficial.net/ . tomato. the Middle East. The parchmentlike skin is much like the skin of an onion and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. which calls itself the "garlic capital of the world".310 F F F A F Footnote F F F F No symbol = official figure. C = calculated figure.[9] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produce less than 2% of global output.

Immature scapes are tender and edible. and is now being sold in the United States. "stems". In eastern Europe. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables. They are also known as "garlic spears". 45 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. breads and pasta. the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic. Garlic may be applied to breads to create a variety of classic cuisines such as garlic bread. Garlic powder has a different taste than fresh garlic. meats. and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. In Japan and Korea. or "tops". is sweet and syrupy. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. cleaned. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb.oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them. Blending garlic. and a chunky base produce skordalia. bruschetta.com http://www. crostini and canapé. or vegetables.crazychefs. United Kingdom and Australia.net/ . salt. heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli. and spices. the resulting product. Garlic being rubbed using a garlicboss Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. The leaves are cut. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. and roast them in an oven. called black garlic. oil. garlic toast. Garlic. and then stir-fried with eggs. almond. meat. oil. In some cuisine. 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is equivalent to one clove of garlic. or individually by squeezing one end of the clove.

Storage

Ready peeled garlic cloves sold in a plastic container Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18°C [64°F]) and dry to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands, called "plaits" or grappes. Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavoured oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling. Untreated garlic kept in oil can support the growth of deadly Clostridium botulinum. Refrigeration will not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil. Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator.[10] Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing and storing garlicinfused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[11] Commercially, garlic is stored at −3°C, also dry.[12][13]

Historical use
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating at least as far back as the time that the Giza pyramids were built. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.

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In the account of Korea's establishment as a nation, gods were said to have given mortal women with bear and tiger temperaments an immortal's black garlic before mating with them. This is a genetically unique six-clove garlic that was to have given the women supernatural powers and immortality. This garlic is still cultivated in a few mountain areas today. In his Natural History, Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale). Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic demagnetizes lodestones, which is not factual.)[14] The inhabitants of Pelusium, in lower Egypt (who worshiped the onion), are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely meant the development of small, less potent bulbs).

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Medicinal use and health benefits
Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 150 kcal 620 kJ

Carbohydrates - Sugars 1.00g - Dietary fiber 2.1 g Fat Protein - beta-carotene 5 μg Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.2 mg Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.11 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.7 mg

33.06 g

0.5 g 6.39 g 0% 15% 7% 5%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg 12% Vitamin B6 1.235 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg Vitamin C 31.2 mg Calcium 181 mg Iron 1.7 mg Magnesium 25 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 401 mg Sodium 17 mg Zinc 1.16 mg Manganese 1.672 mg Selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

95% 1% 52% 18% 14% 7% 22% 9% 1% 12%

In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. However, these actions are less clear in humans and do not suggest that garlic is a substitute for antibiotics or antifungal medications. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.[15] Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested
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possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals.[16] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing aortic plaque deposits of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[17] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[18] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.[19] Although these studies showed protective vascular changes in garlic-fed subjects, a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels.[20][21]

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides… The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.
—theheart.org, 2007-02-26[22]

There are critics of the NIH, and its pharmaceutical lobby, who believe their study intended to confuse those prior findings that had shown protective vascular changes for withstanding high cholesterol levels (and not, as in the NIH study, the cholesterol levels themselves). In 2007, the BBC reported that Allium sativum may have other beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[23] This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine, which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs.[24] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[25] Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation[26][27][28][29] and hyperlipidemia.[29][30][31] Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[32][33] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[34] More recently, it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[35] In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for

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infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[36][37] Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[38] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[39] Garlic supplementation in rats, along with a high protein diet, has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[40]

Side effects
Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell which is caused by Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a gas which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth causing bad breath) and skin where it is exuded through skin pores. Washing the skin with soap is only a partial and imperfect solution to the smell. Raw garlic is more potent and therefore cooking garlic reduces the effect. The green dry 'folds' in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lack allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. Some people suffer from allergies to plants in the allium family. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and in rare cases anaphylaxis. Even if garlic is present in a very small amount, it can lead to an allergic reaction. When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. Furthermore a phytoalexin called allixin (3hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one) was found, a non-sulfur compound with a γ-pyrone skeleton structure with anti-oxidative effects,[1] anti-microbial effects,[41] anti-tumor promoting effects,[42] inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding,[42] and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, inhibiting skin tumor formation by TPA in DMBA initiated mice.[42] Analogs of this compound have exhibited anti tumor promoting effects in in vitro experimental conditions. Herein, allixin and/or its analogs may be expected useful compounds for cancer prevention or chemotherapy agents for other diseases. The composition of the bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter.[43][44][45] The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored
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Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. all present in garlic. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley.com http://www. garlic. however. shallots. werewolves. and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours. The herb is. People who suffer from garlic allergies will often be sensitive to many plants in the lily family (liliaceae). hung in windows. allylpropyldisulfide. and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood.[50] In Europe.[48] Due to its strong odor. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden.[47] A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. included in many garlic recipes. and vampires.[46] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic. these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism. leeks. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. garden lilies. such as pistou.crazychefs. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. shallots. garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose".net/ . and worms from eating the plant. ginger. garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products. Among the members of the onion family. many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic.[51] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons. Spiritual and religious perceptions Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. or leeks. including onions. and bananas. Garlic-sensitive patients show positive tests to diallyldisulfide. garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. and release of AMS several hours more. usually enjoy these sensations. where it is excreted. thus mellowing its spiciness. garlic could be worn. Since digestion takes several hours. eating parsley provides only a temporary masking.[52] 51 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. insects. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. allylmercaptan and allicin. therefore. forming allyl methyl sulfide. perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin. However. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized. When eaten in quantity. However. persillade. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. making garlic much more potent than onions. chives.in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids.[49] Toxicology Some people can have allergic reactions to garlic. deterring animals like birds. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods.[51] To ward off vampires. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream. It is carried to the lungs and the skin. Humans. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent.

if appropriate. Consult a health professional before taking a garlic supplement[57] or consuming excessive amounts of garlic. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. In connection with the odor associated with garlic.[63] 52 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and hypoglycemic drugs. It supposedly endows the users immortality by intensifying their vital energy or "chi".[56] Miscellaneous This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose.[57] Garlic may interact with warfarin. Editing help is available. emesis.net/ . particularly in extremely large quantities exceeding those that a rat would consume under normal situations. However. It is recommended to not keep home preparations for more than a week.[54][55] In both Hinduism and Jainism. Some Hindus generally avoid using garlic and the related onion in the preparation of foods for religious festivities and events.[59][60] While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption. if any exist.[53] The association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial. antiplatelets. You can help by converting this article to prose. which could prevent infections that lead to delusions and other related mental illness symptoms.[57][62] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children. dizziness. antiparasitic value of garlic. garlic is considered to stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's desires. six-clove black garlic is used as part of the process of modifying a Daoist's physiology. minimal risks to normal individuals. Islam views eating garlic and subsequently going to the mosque as inappropriate.[58] Two outbreaks of botulism have been caused by consuming commercially produced garlic-in-oil preparations that were not properly preserved.[62] The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation. similar to the effect of aspirin. sweating. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort. particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and childbirth.com http://www. calcium channel blockers. Followers of the Jain religion avoid eating garlic and onion on a daily basis. It is especially important for home preparation to use safe and tested food preservation methods to retard bacterial growth. nausea. and no FDA-approved study has been performed. such as including sufficient salt or acidity and keeping the mixture refrigerated. antihypertensives. (August 2009) Known adverse effects of garlic include halitosis (nonbacterial bad breath). and menstrual irregularities. as well as other medications. at worst. indigestion. "Whoever has eaten (garlic) should not approach our mosque".In Daoism mythology. very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding. are largely unknown. saquinavir.[57][61] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic. allergic reactions. indicated Muhammad. Garlic can thin the blood.crazychefs.[61] Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats. bleeding. and diarrhea. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects.

including burns to children. maturity and yield of some garlic (Allium sativum L. 397 6. et al.handle. "Influence of storage duration on field sprouting. ^ a b c d Tabor. Domestication of plants in the Old World. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). so care must be taken to test a small area of skin using a very low concentration of garlic. p. J.jhortscib. ^ [1] 53 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L. Retrieved 2007-08-28. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. one the bulbs will grow peeled. Ethiopia".) cultivars at Debre Zeit. 197 5. (2004). In particular. bigger. 2000).com http://www. http://hdl. 112 7. ^ http://www. http://www.html. Retrieved 5 June. et al.net/10113/877.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection". (2005). ^ McGee p. split. is discouraged. third edition (Oxford: University Press.html 8. Retrieved 5 June 2009. Garlic scapes are often Garlic bulbs and harvested early so that individual cloves.crazychefs. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. A bulb of garlic.unigraz. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.net/ . The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 79 (6): 871-876.htm.at/~katzer/engl/Alli_sat. topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable. 2.[66] Gallery Garlic Bulbs and cloves Garlic growing in a container.nj. http://www.There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. "Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum.[64] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns. Notes 1. topical use of raw garlic.com/alternative-therapies/herbs-for-health/medicinal-garlic/ 9.com/warrenreporter/index. G.[65] Garlic and onions might be toxic to cats or dogs.org/Vol79/79_6/8. ^ a b Lee. garlick)".ssf/2008/12/farmers_forum_it_probably_came. ^ http://www. as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities.natural-holistic-health. 3. 4.

.4.com 54 | P a g e http://www. ^ Durak I. 17. PMID 17966136.ac. 33. http://archinte. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. Garlic.0705710104. Kavutcu M." Int. Lawson LD. J Herb Pharmacother 2 (2): 19–32. Ramacciato.manchester. Acad. Arch. Paul B. 35. 22. 23. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. U. Maud. 2006. ^ Benavides GA. doi:10. "Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits". 19. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -.Garlic-In-Oil ^ Garlic Produce Facts ^ Garlic Information: Storage ^ Lehoux. Capasso R. "Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology".crazychefs. Chao WJ (March 2007). garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007 ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007 ^ Grieve. ^ University of Maryland Garlic ^ Sovová M.10. "Garlic (Allium sativum L. doi:10. 13. ^ Mader FH (October 1990). Med. 21. Facts. "Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats". Akrami M (March 2007).ama-assn. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado.1002/mnfr.200700072. Preserve and Enjoy ^ It's Your Health . N..org/cgi/content/full/167/4/346. 5.200700058. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1386–97. 26. 104 (46): 17977–82. [2] ^ Hamel. 34.4. 15. 16. doi:10. 18. Sartoratto. 20. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. ^ Durak I. Aytaç B.jnutbio. Better Nutrition. J.167. 12.University of Maryland Medical Center ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman. PMID 17918162. Daryn (2003). 24. doi:10. Arch. 28. 5:109–115. and Empiricism" (PDF).S. Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.pdf. Motta. Vosoughi AR. 30. 31.ama-assn. (Mrs. ^ Chan KC. Natl.1016/j. PMID 2291748. ^ Charlson M. Olcay E. http://archinte. "Tropes. doi:10. Izzo AA (November 2007). Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo]" (in Czech). Ferraresi. Mills RW. F. Block E. A Modern Herbal.1186/1476-511X-6-5. R. PMID 9641475.1001/archinte. A. "Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial".1002/mnfr. Sept 1996 ^ Garlic . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31 (6): 904–8. Biochem. "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". P. Lin RS (June 1998). PMID 15277094. 2005 ^ Groppo. ^ Gardner CD.1073/pnas. Güven C (2002). ^ Borrelli F. "Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol". 27. Nutr. doi:10. PMID 17325296. "Garlic: what we know and what we don't know". Med. and Mary U. PMID 17123684. Food Chem Toxicol 45 (3): 502–7.2004. (p. 167 (4): 346–53.C.A.1097/00005344-199806000-00014.lehoux/Tropes. doi:10. Lipids Health Dis 1 (6): 5. J. Oztürk HS. 15 (6): 373–7.net/ . Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (11): 1335–44.167.. 35) ^ Rahman K (November 2007). Proc. Perspectives on Science 11: 326–345. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled doubleblind study". PMID 17951430. PMID 17325291. Ceska Slov Farm 53 (3): 117–23.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans". doi:10. Intern. ^ Goodbye.005.. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store. Sylva. 167 (4): 325–6.org/cgi/content/extract/167/4/325.1162/106361403773062678.). PMID 17328819.uk/staff/daryn. PMID 15157944. et al (November 2007). et al (February 2007).A 400 Year History. Yin MC. PMID 15218732. Squadrito GL. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients".325. July 1. Sova P (May 2004). "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Herald Publishing Co. ^ Kojuri J. 14. "[Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L.346. Intern. Accessed: December 18.01. 29. 25. Hyg. 32. et al (June 2004). McFerren M (February 2007). http://personalpages. Dent.. Sci. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". ^ a b Steiner M. doi:10.1001/archinte. 11. J.

Ronen M (November 2001). ^ Kodera Y. http://linkinghub.jp/JST.1099/mic. 2007. a stress compound from garlic. Summer 2005 . ^ a b MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L. Iwai K. a phytoalexin produced by garlic. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. Agents Chemother. Retrieved December 7.jst. Long D.com/a/Garlic. p. Retrieved 2009-01-30.nhs. "Garlic Supplements" (PDF).. ^ Macpherson et al. ^ Oi Y.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. ^ Garty BZ (March 1993). Retrieved 2007-0707. Jennifer (2002-12-13). 52. Engl. Yoffe B.blogspot. 122.0. PMID 16207909. Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. Lau B. 2007. Antimicrob. doi:10. 4 . Slattery M.com/topic-t6335-a1-6Allium_sativum. (2001).jp/JST. http://www.) 62. "Effect of allixin. ISBN 0-30436561-0. PMID 8644128.. "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". ^ Neurodegenerative diseases 56.Garlic-in-Oil 61. "Garlic burns". James. NLM Gateway. Houghton Mifflin.".ch. Nishino H. Burns 27 (7): 781– 2. et al (October 2005). ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter.html 54.elsevier. PMID 11481410. ^ McNally p. 66. Nishimura S. "Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans". ^ McGee p. Volume 7. Bordia T.. 049 . on mutagenesis. Teel R. AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No.org/cgi/content/full/151/10/3257. UK Medicines Information. David (2003). PMC: 538912. Sumida T. Passa O. "Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and lung of rats". Thomson M.. 40. 1988.January 29.". 58. http://joi. ^ http://www. Patel R (January 2005). Lett. 39. PMID 11600262. 120. ^ Garlic . Book 65 57. ^ a b c d Hogg. Itakura Y.economicexpert. 211. p. H. ^ http://washokufood.htm 44. 37. ^ Shuford JA. ^ John S. "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. ^ Mosquito Repellents 50. Scolaro M.Botulinum Toxin: Friend or Foe 60. (1991-08-01). PMID 8441577. "Allixin. Steckelberg JM. Imafuku M.49. 42. ^ Health Canada .html 45. 310–311 47.28095-0. Complementary Medicines Summary. doi:10.com/retrieve/pii/S0305417901000390. Matuura H. PMID 15616341. ^ Lemar KM.com http://www. 55 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. section "Conclusion" 48.it/didattica/infochimica/2006_aglio/pagine/agronomy. Castro C. http://linkinghub.jlc. Chesson C. National Health Service. Raymond T (1994).) 151 (Pt 10): 3257–65. Fuwa T.JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7c72bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en.Vol 9 No. ^ Fareed G. 64. ^ Pickering.asm..Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 59.unito. ^ http://lem.net/ .html 46. Sagi A.com/2009/03/ninniku-garlic. http://aac. 43.elsevier. ^ University of Maryland Garlic 55..473.go. ^ What you should know about household hazards to pets brochure by the American Veterinary Medical Association.ukmi. 53.goldbamboo. "Garlic burns".JLC/AID/6d45e46d45c048c9062c390a58734a7228bf?from=JSTAGE&type=list&lang=en. ISBN 0-395-65783-0.1. ^ Alnaqeeb MA. Pickering p.pdf. http://joi. 38. ^ a b Mayo Clinic. 85 (3): 157–64. (1989-01-30). ^ Macpherson et al. 49 (1): 473..1128/AAC. Retrieved December 7. ^ a b c Yamasaki T. Toxicol. 65. ^ Bukhari. 211 51.com/retrieve/pii/0378427496036582. garlic advisory 63.36. Shishido C. Jordan W.2005. 41.uk/Med_info/documents/GarlicSuppsCMSFinal2. W.. 49.crazychefs. Sanders N. Aon MA. Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. ^ http://www. Sterling Publishing.go.jlc. In Search of Dracula. ^ a b McNally. Microbiology (Reading.jst. Kominato Y. Ali M (June 1996). Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection. Yoshida S. DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 = 2009-01-30". http://mic.sgmjournals. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. ^ Baruchin AM.

and H. Kamenetsky. a Phytoalexin Produced by Garlic‖. Jiro Yoshida. 50. A. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. Koch. 3rd ed. Shafir. E. Selfsufficientish . "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353. (1985).. R. Sci. Shan.. D. Chatterjee. Naoto Uda. Breithaupt-Grögler K. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. L. L. (1996). Gotzkowsky S... M. L. Wang. Masanori Ayabe. Belz GG (October 1997). Kiazand. Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. Efendy JL.. Circulation 96 (8): 2649–55. Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. (2004). D. D. Rabinowitch (2004). 354-363 (2002). The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. Williams & Wilkens. M. Lawson. P. Zemah.com http://www. Block. Nagatoshi Ide and Kazuhisa Ono. Bull. PMID 8506890. I. C.-Z. R.. Zhang. Pharm. PMID 8441577. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203.. PMID 9355906. 398–405 Abstract 56 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 94 (6): 632–5. Med. H. Makoto Ichikawa. The chemistry of garlic and onions. (2001).. Turner.References Japanese garlic. McMahon FG (June 1993).elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9150(97)00078-6. A.net/ . Simmons DL. [3] Yukihiro Kodera. Campbell GR. "Garlic burns".P. Pediatrics 91 (3): 658–9. Kozue Ogasawara. Vargas R. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–6. "Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study". P. Atherosclerosis 132 (1): 37–42. Hile. R. Am..Garlic.crazychefs. Vol.. Soc. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. "Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly". 129: 144–151. Hamilton. 'Kyolic'. Isao Sumioka. Block. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis". Susumu Yoshida. The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Gardner.. Block.. Lloyd. K. S. Andy (2004). Garlic. 405-407 (2002).にんにく専門のにんにく屋. E..M.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9355906. Bull. L. Chem. E. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3). Z. G. Vol. Ling M. Retrieved 1 May 2005. H. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an antiCandida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. E. Pharm. A. http://circ. Yukihiro Kodera. H.ahajournals. 50. C. Norihiro Hayashi and Kazuhisa Ono. D. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. Block. ―Pharmacokinetic Study of Allixin. J. Hort. J. Lawson. PMID 9247357. ―Allixin Accumulation with Long-term Storage of Garlic‖. J. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. L. Balise.jp[青森県産]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599. Z.. "The effect of the aged garlic extract. Garty BZ (March 1993). Naoki Kashimoto. Boudoulas H. Am. (1992). Scientific American 252 (March): 114–9. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. (2000). and Related Species (Second Edition). Chem. A. Jain AK. Barzilay.. [4] Lawson. http://linkinghub. Campbell JH (July 1997). D. Lemar. Kraemer. Balch. D. New York: Avery.

49. SunWook Hwang.htm?issn=01602446&volume=31&issue=6&spage=904. Eid.S. "The Onion Family: Onions. Y-Y. Steckelberg JM. Mader FH (October 1990). FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.K. D.crazychefs.. McGee.473. 310–3.2005. doi:10. Veena Viswanath. Bernhard H. et al. PMC: 538912. Yeh. Y-Y. PMID 9641475. et al. Shuford JA. Michael Bandell. and Ardem Patapoutian (2005).Lindsey J. (1998).com http://www. PMID 2291748. 49 (1): 473. S. "Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis". Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. (eds).wkhealth. http://aac. Leeks". Scribner.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/473. "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". PMID 8169881. Lin RS (June 1998). "Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms". Salunkhe. Kadam. "Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract". Harold (2004).12. "Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. In: Ohigashi. J R Coll Physicians Lond 28 (1): 39–45. Abstract. Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–34. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4.. H. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebocontrolled double-blind study". Clove Clove 57 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (1997). J.. Agents Chemother. 31 (6): 904–8. http://meta. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). (1999). pp. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Yeh. Cardiovasc. Marcel Dekker. Geierstanger.com/pt/pt-core/templatejournal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage. Pharmacol.1128/AAC.1. Arzneimittelforschung 40 (10): 1111–6. Silagy C. Steiner M. Garlic. Antimicrob. PMID 15616341.. Neil A (1994). Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. Macpherson.net/ .asm. et al. Samer R. Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Patel R (January 2005).

The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also origin of French clou 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. Cloves are native to Indonesia and India and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. called "lavanga" ( ) in Telugu.Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Plantae Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. terminating in four spreading sepals. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia.com http://www. Madagascar. when they are ready for collecting. and Sri Lanka. Zanzibar. after which they develop into a bright red. Cloves are harvested when 1.net/ . having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. In Vietnam.5-2 cm long. it is also grown in India under the name Lavang. Uses 58 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Pakistan.crazychefs. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. aromaticum Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L. and consist of a long calyx.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. syn. it is called đinh hương.

[2] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. Its essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. Cloves are also said to be a natural antihelmintic. which sells Djarum Black. It is also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamom. but as they are extremely strong.net/ . 59 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. along with other spices. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form.com http://www. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. Cloves are used in cheeses. cloves are often used to season pho broth. where it is often paired together with cumin and cinnamon. Due to the Indonesean influence the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. In south Indian cuisine. Furthermore cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee. During Christmas. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian) as well as Mexican cuisine (best known as "clavos de olor"). In Vietnamese cuisine. spleen and stomach meridians. Medicinal and Nostrums Cloves are used in Ayurveda called Lavang in India. they are used sparingly. warm and aromatic. A major brand of kreteks in the United States is Djarum. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. Cloves are used as a carminative. it is a tradition in some European countries to make a pomander from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. especially for digestive problems. and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. it is used in almost all dishes. but with the addition of other spices). The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and the oranges themselves act as Christmas decorations. Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. and are notable in their ability to warm the middle. it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf. often in combination with cumin. entering the kidney.000 tonnes).Dried cloves Global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia 110. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid.crazychefs. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis.[1] In north Indian cuisine.

mainly from the Maluku Islands. including cloves.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands. RH (AHG). Fernando e Isabela sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Cristobal Colon (Columbus). This is also found in Tibetan medicine. pimples etc.[6] History Until modern times. were highly prized in Roman times. due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate.[7] Nevertheless. Brazil. The fleet led by Magallanes reached the Maluku Islands after his death.net/ . Ayurvedic herbalist K. and their grandson Carlos I sponsored the voyage of Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan). Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain.[3] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. along with nutmeg and pepper. and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. including for multiple sclerosis. cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands). 60 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe.The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi.[7] Cloves.crazychefs. they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the first century AD.com http://www. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices. Makian. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. and Zanzibar." Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. In the late fifteenth century.P. and Tidore. which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. Subsequently. Ternate. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. vomiting and diarrhea. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli.[4] Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson. a kg costing around 7 g of gold. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC. the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets. RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. Khalsa. Moti. It is also used in severe burns. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. including Bacan. their cultivation was introduced into Guiana. most of the West Indies.direct stomach qi downward.[5] In West Africa. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade. uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. and to a lesser extent for fever reduction. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation.

Special Diets for Illness 6. ^ Balch. Alan. The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. Steven Clavey.htm. ^ a b Turner. Erich Stoger. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol. ^ http://www. Third Edition by Dan Bensky. Karen. cloves were worth at least their weight in gold. Erich Stoger. Andrew and Page. Spice: The History of a Temptation.. beta-caryophyllene and vanillin. pg. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. and several sesquiterpenes. Jack (2004). It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves. methyl salicylate (painkiller).net/ .nlm.. and Andrew Gamble 2004 4. pp. xv. triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. crategolic acid. 3. 8.html Tilotson.In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.nih. tannins. the flavonoids eugenin. Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and Clove oil (Eugenol) 7.[8] Notes and references 1.Question: Multiple Sclerosis". kaempferol. http://www.org/questions/question_44. Medicine Plus. 94. Vintage Books. Steven Clavey. 2004 61 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. James. John Wiley and Sons Inc. and Andrew Gamble. ^ "TibetMed . 3rd ed. ©2003. Avery Publishing. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. rhamnetin. due to the high price of importing them. ^ a b Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.crazychefs. Phyllis and Balch. 5.com http://www. stigmasterol and campesterol.squarespace. ^ Dorenburg.html National Institutes of Health. comprising 72-90%. 2. ©2000. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.tibetmed. ^ http://oneearthherbs. Prescription for Nutritional Healing.[citation needed] Active compounds The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. "The New American Chef: Cooking with the Best Flavors and Techniques from Around the World". Third Edition by Dan Bensky. gallotannic acid. and eugenitin.com/diseases/special-diets-for-illness.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-clove.

Shallot
Shallot

Shallots

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. oschaninii

Binomial name Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the ―true shallot‖ by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum.[citation needed] The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Details
Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name ―shallot‖ comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white
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flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor. This ambiguity[clarification needed] is further confused with scallions, also known as spring or green onions. In some countries, green onions are called shallots, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.

Shallots for sale in Southern France The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1] Shallots are extensively cultivated and much used in cookery, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005 Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1] In Australia, shallots are sometimes referred to as eschalottes or eshalotts. The latter names are preferred by those living in the city of Sydney.
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The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed] There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking
The shallot in Persian is called ‫( ریسوم‬Mûsîr), which is often crushed into yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking
Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite. It is widely used in the southern part of India. In Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu(curry).

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Cardamom
Cardamom

True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Genera Amomum Elettaria

The name cardamom is used for herbs within two genera of the ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum. Both varieties take the form of a small seedpod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green in color, while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown.

Types and distribution
The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows: Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia.

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Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom(沙仁), brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia. The Sanskrit name for cardamom is "elā" or "truṭ ī." In Urdu/Hindi/Gujarati and some Southern Indian languages, it is called "elaichi" or "elchi." In Malayalam, it is "Aelam". In Telugu & Tamil, it is "elakkai" and in Kannada it is "yelakki"

Varieties
There were initially three natural varieties of cardamom plants. 1. Malabar (Nadan/Native) - As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have pannicles which grow horizontally along the ground. 2. Mysore - As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have pannicles which grow vertically upwards. 3. Vazhuka - This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the pannicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between. Recently a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is Njallani. Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t" is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer Sebastian Joseph at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala. Sebastian Joseph and his son Regimon let bees cross-pollinate the cardamom plants and came up with a new high-yielding variety that he named Njallani, after his ancestral home. This variety yields 1500 kg/hectare as compared to the conventional 200 kg/ha. The increased yield revolutionised cardamom cultivation in the state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4]

Uses

Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a

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masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes; it is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.

Food and drink
Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with a coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking, and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1½ teaspoons of ground cardamom. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is also used in some extent in savoury dishes. In Arabic, cardamom is called alHayl. In Persian, it is called hel. In Hebrew, it is also called hel (‫ .)לה‬In Gujarati (a derivative of Sanskrit), it is "Ē-lī-chē". In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar and cooked together in a mihbaz, an oven using wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due its size ('Moti Elaichi'). Individual seeds are sometimes chewed, in much the same way as chewinggum. It has also been known to be used for gin making.

In traditional medicine
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach-aches, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until
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recently, Nepal has been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's largest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.

Gallery

Green cardamom pods and seeds Cardamom fruit and seeds A jar of green cardamom

Notes
1. ^ Unsung Hero: Tale of an ingenious farmer. Rediff.com, 30 May 2007 [1] 2. ^ New cardamom variety. Njallani. National Innovation Foundation [2] 3. ^ Poor rainfall may hit cardamom crop. The Hindu Business Line, 06 July 2007 [3] 4. ^ Cardamom: Scientists, Njallani developers fight. CommodityOnline, 08 Jan 2008 [4]

Bibliography
1. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages: Cardamom 3. Plant Cultures: botany and history of Cardamom 4. Pham Hoang Ho 1993, Cay Co Vietnam [Plants of Vietnam: in Vietnamese], vols. I, II & III, Montreal. 5. Buckingham, J.S. & Petheram, R.J. 2004, Cardamom cultivation and forest biodiversity in northwest Vietnam, Agricultural Research and Extension Network, Overseas Development Institute, London UK. 6. Aubertine, C. 2004, Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future of an agroforest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia. 7. Álvarez, L., Gudiel, V. 2008. 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]

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Star anise
Star anise

Star anise fruits (Illicium verum)fdaf

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Magnoliopsida Austrobaileyales Illiciaceae Illicium I. verum

Binomial name Illicium verum
Hook.f.

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn"; Malayalam: ) or hoa hồi (Vietnamese) is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay–Indonesian cuisine. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup. It is used as a spice in preparation of Biryani in Andhra Pradesh, a state of southern India. In Marathi, it is called BarDan ( ) which literally means "spice with twelve( ) seeds ( )".

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Usages
Culinary uses
Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient which gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of Sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe.

Medicinal uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. As a warm and moving herb, Ba Jiao is used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao, according to TCM. Shikimic acid, a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu, is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. In 2005, there was a temporary shortage of star anise due to its use in making Tamiflu. Late in that year, a way was found of making shikimic acid artificially. Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermenting E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to another series of shortages as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.[1] Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. Its also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a ten-stage manufacturing process which takes a year. Reports say 90% of the harvest is already used by the Swiss pharmaceutical manufacturer Roche in making Tamiflu, but other reports say there is an abundance of the spice in the main regions - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin); instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs. Using Star Anise as a remedy for colic is dangerous as referenced here.

Standardization of its products and services
ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [2]

Identification
Refer to the 4th edition of the European Pharmacopoeia [1153].

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net/ .[4] Specifications ISO 11178:1995 . http://www. ^ International Organization for Standardization. ^ Joshi.1542/peds.com http://www. (2006). 4.) -. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院.htm?csnumber =4844.asp?table=gbtwo&id=18357. 6.1021/jf058156b.com/AOAC/doi/abs/10. 3. 5.com/BZ-shuju/standshow.2004-0058.2005. NPR. ^ Louisa Lim.Specification".703. have tried the techniques of fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[3] to distinguished the species. PMID 15492355.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. ^ Lederer. "Rapid and Easy Identification of Illicium verum Hook.org/iso/catalogue_detail. while Lederer et al.a Chinese standard of the product[6] Notes & References 1. f.Differentiation with other species Joshi et al. http://www.88. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -.Botanical nomenclature". Vaishali C. Approach to a Rational Quality Control of Chinese Star Anise".3.chinaios. Retrieved 8 June 2009. "ISO 11178:1995 Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. and Its Adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. doi:10. doi:10.htm?csnumber=19183.iso. "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS Methods. http://www. Retrieved 8 June 2009. et al. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". Bibliography ITIS 505892 FDA Issues Advisory on Star Anise "Teas" 71 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. employed the state of the art which combines the technology of TLC with HPLC-MS/MS. http://www. Ines et al. (2005).a specification for its dried fruits[5] GB/T 7652:2006 . "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice". Retrieved 8 June 2009. by Fluorescent Microscopy and Gas Chromatography". f. ^ International Organization for Standardization. 18 May 2009 2.crazychefs.atypon-link. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970– 1974. Retrieved 10 November.5555/jaoi. Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706.iso.

crazychefs.net/ .[1] Cumin (Cuminum cyminum. cyminum Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L.com http://www. pronounced /ˈkjuˈm n/ or UK: /ˈk mɪ n/. 72 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family ɪ Apiaceae.Cumin Cumin Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Cuminum C. ɪ ʌ US: /ˈkuˈm n/. native from the east Mediterranean to East India.

crazychefs. a member of the parsley family. in Sri Lanka it is known as duru. Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον.Etymology The English "cumin" derives from the French "cumin". in Iran and Central Asia.[3] A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where. the story goes. Like many other Arabic words in the English language. parsley and dill. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced.com http://www. like other members of the Umbelliferae family such as caraway. which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic "‫ "نومك‬Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. locally called "Kermun". Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites. cumin is known as zireh. and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere. In Arabic. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. and yellow-brown in colour. Description Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. 73 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cumin is known as kimyon. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds.(‫زي ره‬India it is called Jeerige ( in (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil ( / )) or jilakarra (Telugu). In Northern India and Nepal. cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari ) or jira. The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. Kerman. cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages. longitudinally ridged. in northwestern China. would have become "Kumun" and finally "cumin" in the European languages. the white variety being suduru and the large variety. while in Iran and Pakistan it is known as zeera (Persian nrehtuoS ni .)نومكلا‬Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian. it is known as al-kamuwn (‫ . including kamūnu in Akkadian.[2] The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun. in Turkey. cumin is known as ziran (孜然). maduru. being oblong in shape.net/ .

They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Mexico. excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der. Folklore Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. today it is mostly grown in Iran. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. In South Asia. 74 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Since returned to favour in parts of Europe. Seeds. Egypt. Medical Usage Cumin is said to help in treatment of the common cold. cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour. Turkey. In Sri Lanka.crazychefs. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists.com http://www.net/ . and this practice continues in Morocco. when added to hot milk and consumed. cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). India. Syria. Morocco. have been dated to the second millennium BC. Uzbekistan. Tajikistan. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today). toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems.[4] Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region.History Cumin Seeds Cumin has been in use since ancient times. and Chile.

Cumin can be used to season many dishes. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder. tacos. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. sofrito. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese. Today. Pakistani. Cuban and Mexican-style foods. and borne in umbels. as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. The flowers are small. curries.net/ . enchiladas. The leaves are 5-10 cm long. thread-like leaflets. Middle Eastern. It is also commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine.Cultivation and uses Cuminum cyminum Linn. curry powder. garam masala. popular in Indian.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. 2-ethoxy-3isopropylpyrazine. Contrary to popular belief in the US. and is found in achiote blends. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel and anise seeds in appearance. Cuban. white or pink. and bahaarat. Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines. the spice is not 75 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. adobos. Sri Lankan. and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long. and in some traditional breads from France.com http://www. but are smaller and darker in colour.crazychefs. It is an herbaceous annual plant. North African. containing a single seed. with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. Northern Mexican cuisines. Indian. 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine. pinnate or bipinnate. It is traditionally added to chili. Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong. cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper. warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. and other Middle-Eastern. and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. either ground or as whole seeds. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde).

the spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes. However.81 g 8. and needs fertile. B9) 10 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 7. hot summer of 3–4 months.net/ .27 g 17. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups as well.435 mg Folate (Vit. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.very common in Mexican cuisine.5 g Fat .7 mg Vitamin E 3.327 mg 22% Niacin (Vit. B2) 0. it is drought-tolerant.33 mg Vitamin K 5.25 g . Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F). and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. sown in spring.535 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv.Dietary fiber 10. 64 μg 44.579 mg Vitamin B6 0.4 μg Calcium 931 mg Iron 66. well-drained soil.saturated 1.Sugars 2.com http://www. Nutritional value Cumin seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Cultivation of cumin requires a long. B3) 4.36 mg Magnesium 366 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Potassium 1788 mg Sodium 168 mg 76 | P a g e 31% 33% 3% 0% 13% 22% 5% 93% 531% 99% 71% 38% 7% Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.24 g 22.06 g 7% Riboflavin (Vit.crazychefs. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1570 kJ Carbohydrates . Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish. It is grown from seed.

Source: USDA Nutrient database 48% Cumin seeds contain a relatively large percentage amount of iron. lighter in colour.[6] The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q. in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway". to eat. as in 'kot' .com http://www.v. Confusion with other spices Black Cumin seeds Cumin is hotter to the taste. which is even more confusing as 'kminek' is a diminutive of 'kmin' (notice the -ek suffix.net/ . Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as a ground cumin.8 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. a chemical found in turmeric. Not related to curcumin. and larger than caraway (Carum carvi). caraway is called "kummin" while cumin is "spiskummin". In Swedish.a cat and 'kotek' . However.a small cat). The distinction is practically the same in Hungarian ("kömény" for caraway and "római kömény" [Roman caraway] for cumin).crazychefs.caraway is 'kminek' and cumin is 'kmin rzymski'. from the Swedish word "spisa". another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. cumin is not likely to be a significant dietary source of iron.). Aroma profile beta-Pinene[7][8][9] Cuminal[7][clarification needed] Gamma-terpinene[7][8][9] Images 77 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. For example.Zinc 4. unless one would eat about 15 grams (1/2 oz) per day. Many European languages do not distinguish clearly between the two. In Polish the difference is even less significant. while in German "Kümmel" stands for caraway and "Kreuzkümmel" denotes cumin.

from China".1016/j.crazychefs. 4." premiumwanadoo. Nicola S. doi:10. whole cumin fruit seeds packaged whole (or seed) and ground cumin seeds Notes and references 1.1021/jf0487351.".foodreference.com.arsgrin. www. ^ Growingtaste. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (1): 57 – 61.1302.313.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. doi:10. and Carum carvi L. ^ a b c Li.aca. ^ "KMN. Analytica Chimica Acta 647 (1): 72 . ^ a b Iacobellis. ^ "Cuminum cyminum information from NPGS/GRIN".com http://www. (2009). ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf. 8. Rong. 2000. Retrieved 2008-03-13. Domestication of plants in the Old World. "Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. 78 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2000). 9.030." American Heritage Dictionary (Fourth Edition).1002/ffj. doi:10. 2. Essential Oils".05. "Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L.77. 3.gov.Whole cumin seeds and Close up of dried cumin Commercially ground cumin Dry. ^ a b Wang. p. http://www.ars-grin. et al. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (4): 311 .com/html/fcumin. third edition (Oxford: University Press.com 7. Lu et al. (2005). ^ "Kamūnu.2009.pl?12617.net/ .html 6. 206 5. Zi-Tao Jiang (2004). ^ http://www. "Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L.

net/ .Ginger Ginger Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.crazychefs.com http://www. Conservation status Secure Scientific classification Kingdom: Division: Plantae Magnoliophyta (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae 79 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

medicine. West Africa and the Caribbean.[3] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[4] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. antipyretic and antibacterial properties. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). and galangal. sedative. Ginger cultivation began in Asia and is now also grown in India. cineol. Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric. or spice. Ginger section Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids.com http://www. with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene. 80 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. shogaols and gingerols. bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene. It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. In laboratory animals.crazychefs.Genus: Species: Zingiber officinale Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe [1] Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger. Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone. volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. cardamom.net/ . the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic. and citral) have also been identified.

Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Adrak. and Aduwa in Nepali. this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. nuts. Allam ( ) in Telugu. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. crackers and cake. ginger is used in the production of a candy called Inji-murappa meaning ginger candy in Tamil. sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. [edit] Regional use In India. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. to which honey is often added. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1. Alay in Marathi. and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing.The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. It is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. cookies. stimulating the production of saliva. Use Culinary use Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. and ginger beer. and sugar. the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin. This candy is mostly sold by vendors to bus passengers in bus stops and in small tea shops as a locally produced item. In South India. a variety of ginger which is less spicy is used when tender to make fresh pickle with the combination of lemon juice or vinegar. the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread. For storage. Shunti in the Kannada language of Karnataka. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea. enchi in Malayalam. or frozen for longer term storage.net/ . Candied or crystallised ginger (ginger cured with sugar) is also common. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. in Gujarati. although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. The pickle gains a mature flavor when the juices cook the ginger over the first day. Additionally. and tender green chili peppers. particularly gingerols and shogaols. This kind of pickle was generally made before the invention of refrigeration and stored for a maximum of 4–5 days. Inji in Tamil. salt.crazychefs. ginger ale. Ginger has a sialagogue action. which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. 81 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in Tamil Nadu. Ginger is also made into candy. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process.[5] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant. which makes swallowing easier. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. ginger is called Aada in Bengali. ghee.[6] and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria salmonella.com http://www. Fresh ginger may be peeled before being eaten. especially in the Tanjore belt.

Ginger is also added as a flavoring in tea. traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. a type of ginger beer. and a variety of nuts and seeds. candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger as well. In Japan. gingerbread. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands picked up the drink from the British. which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil. Dried ginger (sukku coffee and also in siddha medicine. the fresh leaves finely chopped can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. called jahe as a common ingredient in local recipes. Greece. ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic. In Burma. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger. ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee. In the Caribbean. Indonesians also use ground ginger root. In China.com http://www. a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsimpira). A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac. during their occupation of the islands. Green ginger wine is a ginger flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom. ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles.crazychefs. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea. ginger snaps. 82 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke. sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish. is made. parkin and ginger biscuits. and making drinks such as sorrel. In Vietnam. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. In Western cuisine. France.net/ . ginger is called gyin. In the traditional Korean kimchi. However. ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale. ginger is a popular spice for cooking. a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. ) is used in tea or In Bangladesh. pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called Nyamanku. ginger is ground and mixed with orange. In Arabic. ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. In the Ivory Coast. On the island of Corfu. In Indonesia a beverage called Wedang Jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar.

[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis. and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. morning sickness and chemotherapy.[8] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes.net/ .com http://www.[8] Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy[11]. Three to four leaves of Tulsi taken along with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. though studies been inconsistent. it was classified as a stimulant and carminative.[9] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness.[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea. which several scientific studies support. though it does interact with some medications. including warfarin.crazychefs. though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.Medicinal use The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. Folk medicine A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list.[12][13] 83 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cough and cold. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made.

gas.crazychefs. In Burma. which is considered a panacea. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. ginger ("Jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue.[8][15] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure. and individuals who have had ulcers. In India.[14] In Congo. and heart rhythms. powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold. In China. clotting. ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache and consumed when suffering from the common cold.net/ . reducing "winds" in the blood. Reactions Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (Htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu.com http://www.[15] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones.[15] 84 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. prevent and cure rheumatism and controlling poor dietary habits. In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar. In Indonesia.Regional medicinal use A pack of ginger powder In the West. particularly if taken in powdered form. and although it's generally recognized as safe. ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice. inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. it is considered good for a sore throat. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage. people use ginger for making tea. bloating. belching and nausea. in food etc. ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. ginger is included in several traditional preparations. ginger can cause heartburn. In the United States.

in order to kill it and prevent sprouting.000 F 177. it is immediately scalded. Production trends India. Scalding. Nepal(~11.7%).crazychefs. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates.com http://www.5%) and Nigeria(~10%). It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems. or washed and scraped. about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. The natural color of the white scraped ginger is a pale buff. produces black ginger.Horticulture Ginger field Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. applied generally to the older and poorer roots. it is often whitened by bleaching or liming. Traditionally. which has slipped to the second position (~20. but this generally reduces its value. the root is gathered when the stalk withers. with over 30% of the global share.905 F 85 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.000 F Country India People's Republic of China Indonesia Nepal 285.5%). now leads in global production of ginger. ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. followed by Indonesia(~12. washing and scraping gives white ginger. replacing China.net/ .000 158. Top Ten Ginger Producers — 11 June 2008 Production Footnote (Tonnes) 420.

is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine.pl?42254.000 34.270 1. A = Aggregate(may include official. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Similar species Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family.gov. F = FAO estimate. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN".gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.ars-grin. galangal.000 28.000 42. semiofficial or estimates). is also known as "wild ginger". The plant also contains aristolochic acid. but it is not related to true ginger.net/ .arsgrin.000 57. or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai. 86 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. the flower buds are the part eaten.contains ginger material Kaempferia galanga List of plants used as medicine Xiao Yao Wan . A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America. Galangal is also called Thai ginger.387.com http://www. Asarum canadense. See also Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan .Nigeria Bangladesh Japan Thailand Philippines Sri Lanka World 138. Also referred to as galangal. www.contains ginger material References 1. http://www. Retrieved 2008-03-03. a carcinogenic compound.000 8.445 F F F F F A No symbol = official figure. is used in cooking and medicine. and its root has similar aromatic properties. fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda).

MD. 13. 3.crazychefs. "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". http://timeblog. 425-426. ^ Al-Amin. 8. ^ MD O' Hara. David Kiefer. Sheng-Chu Kuo. ^ Al-Achi.org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367. ^ Chen. 6. "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs".1016/j. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". (01 Mar 2000). Retrieved 2007-0808. 11.com 12.html.ucla. ^ "Spices: Exotic Flavours & Medicines: Ginger". Tin-Yun Ho.523. Retrieved 2007-08-02.1001/archfami..edu/biomed/spice/index. "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia. Ali Taghizadeh et al. Retrieved 2007-08-02. "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). 15. http://www. MPH (1998). ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed. Kim Farrell.cfm?displayID=15.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=928716.). E.org/cgi/content/full/7/6/523. 10. MD. et al. ^ McGee. Harold (2004). ^ Ernst.mayoclinic. Kathi Kemper.html. (2007).01. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. (2006). M.1079/BJN20061849 (inactive 2008-06-25). Susan (2007-01-15).umm.7. Mary. MD.H.com/health/ginger/NS_patient-ginger. http://journals. http://www. http://www. Retrieved 2007-08-02. British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. ^ Jakes.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01).htm&pub_i d=8&article_id=772. PMID 9821826.com/oldformat. 9.com/china_blog/2007/01/the_beverage_of_champions_1.com 5.net/ .2.foodchem. "Beverage of Champions".2006. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. doi:10.library.com 7. "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". ^ Afshari. Zainab M. Retrieved 5 November. New York: Scribner pp. PMID 10793599. doi:10. Retrieved 2006-09-06.6. Retrieved 2007-08-06.oxfordjournals.1021/jf071460f. http://unitproj. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. doi:10. Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148– 153.edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/Gingerch. http://bja. Jaw-Chyun. British Journal of Nutrition (Cambridge University Press) 96: 660–666. http://archfami.013. 87 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.amaassn. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper. "Ginger". Retrieved 2007-08-02.uspharmacist. doi:10. "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". Li-Jiau Huang. 4. Shih-Lu Wu. Antoine. 14. & Pittler. & MSt. plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007).com http://www.

after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. In medieval Europe. is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy. and to impart color to mustard condiments. For these reasons. Zingiberaceae. Erode. The rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens. Erode is also known as 88 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.Turmeric Turmeric Curcuma longa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Family: Genus: Species: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Curcuma C. longa Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus[1] Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes. since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. turmeric became known as Indian Saffron. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive[citation needed].com http://www. slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20°C and 30°C.crazychefs.net/ . for dyeing. slightly bitter.

sweets. a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra. but also in masak lemak. cake icings. cereals. turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich.crazychefs. It is used in canned beverages and baked products.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. Although usually used in its dried. It has become the key ingredient for many Malay dishes. popcorn color. is sometimes used to compensate for fading. yogurt. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. and mustard. or Textile City. dairy products. ice cream. and many more. custardlike yellow color. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. 89 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Commercially packaged turmeric powder Turmeric is found everywhere and grows wild in the forests of Malaysia. yellow cakes.Yellow City. Over-coloring. turmeric is also used fresh. much like ginger. rendang. orange juice. biscuits. In non-South Asian recipes.net/ . powdered form. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes. Turmeric City. such as in pickles. is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia.[citation needed] Sangli. relishes. gelatins. sauces.[3] Usage Culinary uses Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. etc. as well as some sweet dishes such as the cake Sfouf. not only in curry. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes. such as fresh turmeric pickle (which contains large chunks of soft turmeric).com http://www.

In combination with annatto (E160b). Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. a traditional dish in South Asia. Indians. are spiced with turmeric. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings). Japan. an uncurable and debilitating disease.net/ . Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards. In South Africa turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome. dry mixes. in addition to its Ayurvedic properties. these same people have reported almost a complete reduction of boils and purple scarring. is also treated with turmeric powder.com http://www. and other digestive disorders. It is unknown why it works.[citation needed] Hidradenitis Suppurativa or Acne Inversa. which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. burns and bruises. It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement. Pakistanis also use it as an anti-inflammatory agent.[4] cancer. In Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. Medicinal uses Turmeric plant Main article: Curcumin In Ayurvedic practices. Within one week of using turmeric. salad dressings. turmeric has been used to color cheeses. and placed over a wound to cleanse and stimulate recovery. yogurt. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease. canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). use turmeric in a wide variety of skin creams that are also exported to neighboring countries.crazychefs. arthritis [5] and liver disorders. winter butter and margarine. turmeric is applied to a piece of burnt cloth.[citation needed] 90 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa. but people[who?] who have suffered from HS for 30–40 years have reported almost an immediate improvement after consuming one teaspoon in 1/4 cup of warm water three times a day. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts.

which supports nerve growth. curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric.S. with no adverse effects. which is also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India.Turmeric rhizome In the latter half of the 20th century. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. Cosmetics Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. The government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol. or BDNF. research activity into curcumin is exploding. and Pakistan. where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body.[citation needed] There is evidence that piperine. Snake Bite Anti venin. This if adopted around the world could turn out to be the simplest cure for snake bites. Bangalore. Bangladesh. Steve Backshall's venom: poisonous animals in the natural world . National Institutes of Health had four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer. and the U. making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations.com http://www.net/ . Dye 91 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal. In 1998 researchers at St. Alzheimer's.crazychefs. John‘s Medical College. multiple myeloma. Curcuram Longa has been identified as acting as an anti venin for King Cobra snake bites by Dr Eric Lattman of Aston University. found in black pepper.[6] This means that a low dose of curcumin (or turmeric for that matter) could have a greater effect in terms of health benefits when combined with piperine than a large dose of curcumin or turmeric would. In that year supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. improves the absorption of turmeric. and colorectal cancer. Curcumin also enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. India found that curcumin taken with 20 mg of piperine increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000%.

In Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state. a whole turmeric plant with the root is placed as part of the ceremonial decorations. but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. Modern Neopagans list it with the quality of fire. and coconut and cooked in steam. and it is used for power and purification rites. It is also used in Pujas to make a form of the elephant God Ganesha. However.crazychefs. It is made by mixing turmeric with water and forming it into a cone-like shape. This happens in economically lower situations. Automotive Turmeric is one of the main ingredients in leading radiator stop-leak sealant mixtures.com http://www. jaggery. a piece of dried turmeric tied with string is sometimes used to replace the Thali necklace temporarily or permanently.net/ .[citation needed] Chemistry Curcumin Keto form 92 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). fresh root is some times tied around the pot boiling the ceremonial rice. such as the turmeric ceremony or gaye holud. Also. such as saris. part of the Bengali wedding. particularly in North India and the Deccan Plateau. India) turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes by covering rice flour. turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing.[citation needed] Ceremonial uses Turmeric is also used in various rituals. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown. During the south Indian festival Pongal. It is widely used in all parts of India during wedding ceremony. In southern India. Gardening Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. as a part of the marriage ritual.

et al.090. ^ [|Ketteler. Notes 1.1016/j. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. The systematic chemical name is (1E.C. Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166 . ^ http://news. See also Alpinia zerumbet Etlingera elatior Kaempferia galanga 93 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. doi:10. Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers.07.stm 5. www.foodchem.gov. ^ http://www.ars-grin. Judy] (June 2009). ^ Chan. keto and enol. Retrieved June 2009. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C. Srinivas PS.net/ .de Shoba G. "Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". Retrieved 2008-03-04.com/condition-center/heart-disease/surviving-a-heart-attack.172. or Natural Yellow 3. Joy D. a polyphenol.crazychefs.I.2008. http://www. | accessyear = 2009}} 3.6-heptadiene3.6E)-1.1055/s-2006-957450 thiemeconnect. Rajendran R.pl?12676. (2009). Turmeric can also be used as an indicator of acidic or basic properties of a substance.de/DOI/DOI?10. 75300. AOL Health. 1998 May.thieme-connect. http://www. E.ars-grin.aolhealth.bbc.uk/1/hi/health/1668932.W. ^ Sangli: The Turmeric City of Indian home of brights 4. Joseph T. Planta Med.7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1.com http://www.Curcumin Enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin.co. 6.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. Majeed M. 2. "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species".5-dione. 64(4):353-6.

which allows its use as a candle (see below). with an acute apex. The leaves are pale green. Its native range is impossible to establish precisely because of early spread by humans.9 in) long. Indian walnut.crazychefs.6–2. with wide spreading or pendulous branches. moluccana Subfamily: Crotonoideae Binomial name Aleurites moluccana (L. or trilobed or rarely 5-lobed.) Willd.net/ . Kemiri. Euphorbiaceae.Candlenut Candlenut Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) foliage. The Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). and the tree is now distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. It grows to a height of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft). 10–20 centimetres (3. also known as Candleberry. is a flowering tree in the spurge family.com http://www. hence its name.9–7. simple and ovate. 94 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.4 in) in diameter. Varnish tree or Kukui nut tree. and nut Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Class: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae Aleuritideae Aleuritinae Aleurites A. flowers. the seed inside has a very hard seed coat and a high oil content. 4–6 centimetres (1. The nut is round.

Hawaiians also extracted the oil from the nut and burned it in a stone oil lamp called a kukui hele po (light. and gonorrhea. are applied around the navel for costiveness. It is the state tree of Hawaiʻi. is quite different. ink for tattoos from charred nuts. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors. they are mildly toxic when raw. Candle nuts are also roasted and mixed into a paste with salt to form a Hawaiian condiment known as inamona. including: leis from the shells.[2] Hawaiians also had many other uses for the tree. pounded seeds. On the island of Java in Indonesia. and burned one by one every 15 minutes or so. darkness goes) with a wick made of kapa cloth. the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache. burned with charcoal. In Hawaiʻi. where it is called kemiri in Indonesian or buah keras in Malay. a varnish with the oil. giving them greater underwater visibility. Inamona is a key ingredient in traditional Hawaiian poke. the nuts. macadamia nuts are sometimes substituted for candlenuts when they are not available. A red-brown dye made from the inner bark was 95 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the flowers and the sap at the top of the husk (when just removed from the branch) were used to treat eʻa (oral candidiasis) in children. In Malaya. and fishermen would chew the nuts and spit them on the water to break the surface tension and remove reflections. it is used to make a thick sauce that is eaten with vegetables and rice. named kukui were burned to provide light. Aleurites moluccanus flowers In Ancient Hawaiʻi. Because the nuts contains saponin and phorbol. The oil is an irritant and laxative and sometimes used like castor oil. The seed kernels have a laxative effect. lit one end. The nuts were strung in a row on a palm leaf midrib. Outside of Southeast Asia.[1] Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native.com http://www. In Sumatra.Uses The nut is often used cooked in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisine.crazychefs. ulcers. This led to their use as a measure of time. leaves and flowers. as the candlenut is much more bitter. In Java. The flavor. swollen joints.net/ . however. the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery. It is also used as a hair stimulant or additive to hair treatment systems. fevers. as they have a similarly high oil content and texture when pounded. One could instruct someone to return home before the second nut burned out.

Betty. pale (gunwales) of waʻa (outrigger canoes) were made from the wood. The candlenut was considered to be the physical form of Kamapua'a.[3] The nohona waʻa (seats). Craig Thomas (2000). ISBN 9781573061377. (1993). Finally. protection and peace. Hawaiians of Old (3 ed. Bess Press. 50-51. ^ Krauss. 26. This larva is eaten by some people. Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii. p.).google. 96 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://books. each tree will produce 30–80 kilograms (66–180 lb) of nuts. http://canoeplants. University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved 2009-03-06. still nowadays.com/books?id=PpKyFZXO_jEC. tukilamulamu. was routinely beaten. the hog-man fertility demigod associated with Lono. Liana I. http://books. University of Hawaii Press.used on kapa and aho (Touchardia latifolia cordage). Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Plants.com/books?id=WOdrGIP3zksC&client=firefox-a. ISBN 9780824822514. 4. 2. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. ^ "Kukui". Honda. ^ Dunford. One of the legends told of a woman who. whose symbolic color is the silvery green of the kukui leaf. A coating of kukui oil helped preserve ʻupena (fishing nets). Susan. ripe nuts. used as soap or shampoo.crazychefs.com/books?id=99Dr7v8JOKAC&client=firefox-a. http://books. In plantations.html. she was given new life. Beatrice H. Modern cultivation is mostly for the oil. Julie Stewart Williams (2002). named tuitui are pounded into a paste. "Chapter 4: Canoes". Being a kind and just woman. and the husband was eventually killed.com http://www. Mikiala Ayau. the god of agriculture. Most of the oil is used locally rather than figuring in international trade. and the nuts yield 15 to 20% of their weight in oil. 122.com/kukui.[5] In Tonga. Dead wood of candlenut is eaten by a larva of a coleoptera called Agrionome fairmairei. ^ State tree of Hawaii 3. p. despite her best efforts to please her husband. Kukui represents the island of Molokaʻi. pp. Mythology In Hawaiʻi the candlenut tree is a symbol of enlightenment. the husband beat her to death and buried her under a kukui tree. Lilinoe Andrews. 5. ^ Scott.google.[4] The trunk was sometimes used to make smaller canoes used for fishing.google.net/ .[citation needed] References 1.

97 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Peppercorns. and green pepper (as in bell or chile) are also used to describe the fruits of other.Black pepper Black pepper Pepper plant with immature peppercorns Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. green pepper. Telugu:miriyam. Konkani:miriya konu. green peppercorns are simply the immature black peppercorns. .crazychefs. Marathi: Miri ) and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. is a small drupe approximately five millimetres in diameter. . nigrum Binomial name Piper nigrum L. cultivated for its fruit. The fruit. However.com http://www. and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them.net/ . Malayalam:kurumulaku. . known as a peppercorn when dried. dark red when fully mature. . white pepper. Black pepper is native to South India (Tamil:milagu. Kannada:meNasu. The terms pink peppercorns. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka. containing a single seed. and very often simply pepper.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae. red pepper (as in bell or chile). which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. unrelated plants. may be described as black pepper.

Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit. In the 16th century. French poivre.S.Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants. Once dried. during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. and other similar forms. 98 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. often alongside table salt. The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali. in the early 20th century. the spice is called black peppercorn. chemical or biological methods. This is usually accomplished by process known as retting. where fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about a week. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes.[4] In the U.. and the naked seed is dried. wrinkled black layer. speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. Dutch peper. with the skin of the pepper removed. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin.[3] Varieties Black and white peppercorns Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. the word for long pepper[2] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper. where ground black pepper would visibly stand out.crazychefs.net/ .[citation needed] The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. White pepper consists of the seed only. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world.com http://www. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. this was shortened to pep. including decortication. the removal of the outer layer from black pepper from small peppers through mechanical. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water. having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavor and its use as a medicine. They have differing flavor due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed.

which is mostly no longer an issue. are used in some Asian cuisines. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns.crazychefs. and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree. pink (Schinus terebinthifolius). and white peppercorns Ground black pepper and pepper shaker Green pepper.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. A product called orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. from Bangka Island.[10] 99 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. also green. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. the Peruvian pepper tree.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo. with a bright aroma. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product. ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry. particularly Thai cuisine. green. unpreserved green pepper berries. Schinus molle. like black. Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper. which are the fruits of a plant from a different family. Fresh. Schinus terebinthifolius. largely unknown in the West.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns".net/ . is made from the unripe berries. Ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. Pickled peppercorns.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. made from the largest.com http://www.Black. such as treatment with sulfur dioxide or freeze-drying.

The cuttings are usually cultivars. rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. selected both for yield and quality of fruit.[11] Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red.com http://www. poles. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year. tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart.[12][13] Within the genus Piper. and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. The leaves are alternate. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. the berries lose pungency. as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily.[13] 100 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure. and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. moist. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long. it is most closely related to other Asian species such as Piper caninum.Plant Piper nigrum from an 1832 print The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees. but when full grown and still hard. and before the fruit is mature. or trellises. well-drained and rich in organic matter. entire. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun. and ultimately fall off and are lost.[11] Black pepper is native to India. leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. It is a spreading vine. the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. Competing plants are cleared away.crazychefs.net/ . if allowed to ripen. trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark. The flowers are small. five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes.

particularly the Malabar Coast.[15] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good. 101 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. in what is now the state of Kerala.com http://www.[14] J. Chile peppers. Pepper is native to India and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE.crazychefs. some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper. often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. In fact. it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. its most important source was India. The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia.net/ . The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe.History Pepper before ripening High resolution picture Peppercorn close-up Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper".

or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. According to the Roman geographer Strabo. Long pepper. A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India By the time of the early Roman Empire.[16] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE.[17] Ancient times Black peppercorns were found stuffed in the nostrils of Ramesses II. but these areas traded mainly with China.com http://www. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River. plus long pepper's greater spiciness.crazychefs. the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. the ships travelled up the Red Sea. growing in the north-western part of India. By the 16th century. this trade advantage. pepper was also being grown in Java. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.Until well after the Middle Ages. Sumatra. or used the pepper locally. and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. changed the course of world history. as well as the European discovery and colonisation of the Americas. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country. was more accessible than the black pepper from further south. Black pepper. Sunda. probably made black pepper less popular at the time. barged to Alexandria. Malaysia.[18] Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt. especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. the Middle East. along with other spices from India and lands farther east. 102 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. nor how it reached the Nile from India. Trade routes of the time were by land.net/ . Madagascar. Returning from India. virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe. placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE.

net/ . who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well. the 103 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm. Once into the Mediterranean. Postclassical Europe Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency.H.com http://www. Apicius' De re coquinaria. pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry. as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century". the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. Similarly. clad in a wrinkled cover. Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen. There is no evidence to support this claim. Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow. includes pepper in a majority of its recipes." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces. and the luxuries of the table. others took over the middle legs of the spice trade. and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who. in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. is fifteen denarii per pound. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper . the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. four. I wonder. black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper. pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. pepper was a luxury item. that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers. sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: I am black on the outside. especially Venice and Genoa. and the prices reflected it." and further moralises on pepper: It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion. Edward Gibbon wrote. if expensive. 12. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. affordable only to the wealthy. and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages.With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast.. whereas. and of black. it is sometimes their sweetness.[22] In addition. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. the banquets of kings. a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne. who travelled east to India. people of the time certainly knew that eating spoiled food would make them sick. I season delicacies. its only desirable quality being a certain pungency.crazychefs. After the fall of Rome. while that of white pepper is seven..[21] It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages. a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE. seeing that in other substances which we use.[20] By the end of the Dark Ages. Yet within I bear a burning marrow. first the Persians and then the Arabs. But you will find in me no quality of any worth. and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice. Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes.14)[19] Black pepper was a well-known and widespread. was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N. seasoning in the Roman Empire.

which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich. and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy. Pepper harvested for the European trader. "we seek Christians and spices." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success. In 1498. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not).compound that gives pepper its spiciness. started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages—and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy— was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. A depiction of Calicut. In the 17th century. has some antimicrobial properties. Pepper. and salt-cured meats were common fare. pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade.[24] 104 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated.net/ . Today. but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade. his representative replied.[23] Salt is a much more effective preservative. from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo) As pepper supplies into Europe increased. pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of longpreserved meats. asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. Vasco da Gama became the first person to reach India by sailing around Africa. the effect is small. the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. especially in winter.crazychefs. as well as around Africa. the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English.com http://www. However.

was often the preferred medication. failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border. but if this estimated 10..500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth."[27] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China. joint pain. As medicine 'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself. sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation. Like many eastern spices. as well as she could for sneezing. diarrhea. Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves. Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. Siddha and Unani medicine in India. liver problems. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China. an area in what is now the Sichuan province. including long pepper. insomnia. Long pepper.net/ . lung disease. pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine.com http://www. but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper. and this second-hand data may be even more suspect. heart disease.China It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE.000 pounds (4.crazychefs. Note the cook's pepper mill. either long or black. Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads. but both were used. indigestion. each load being equal to 223 lbs. China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's.[26] By the 12th century. insect bites. oral abscesses. being stronger. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). hoarseness. black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts. Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful. if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. It does not appear to have been widely known at the time. He was told it came from the markets of Shu. earache. gangrene.[25] In the 3rd century CE. as hujiao or "foreign pepper". hernia. Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): ". 105 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.. however.

milligram-for-milligram.[28] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems.[29] Pepper is known to cause sneezing. vitamin B.[31] Also. woody.[31] As a medicine. a mildly carcinogenic compound. Flavor A handheld pepper mill Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound. often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. left on black pepper.crazychefs. and floral notes.sunburn. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper. It has been shown that piperine can dramatically increase absorption of selenium. tooth decay. causing the sneezing. chapter five. which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. Few. beta-carotene and curcumin as well as other nutrients. and linalool. controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. Some sources say that piperine. it is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit. which give citrusy. pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging.[33] 106 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. limonene. being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet. pepper appears in the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. a substance present in black pepper. irritates the nostrils. Refined piperine. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage.net/ . The outer fruit layer. as one of the few medicines allowed to be carried by a monk. is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chilli peppers. and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. sabinene.[30] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper. also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene.[32] Pepper contains small amounts of safrole. if any.com http://www. and toothaches. caryophyllene. which is stripped of the fruit layer.

most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. Thailand (4%). India (19%). Global pepper production peaked in 2003 with over 355. India. are used for this. producing 34% of the worlds Piper nigrum crop as of 2008. which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine. and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year. accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. the most widely traded spice in the world. Pepper can also lose flavor when exposed to light. for example. which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns. but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well.[35] By weight. by monetary value.crazychefs. pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998.000 short tons) by 2008 due to a series of issues including 107 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. Brazil (13%).com http://www.000 t (391. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. Other major producers include Indonesia (9%). Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"). and China (6%).net/ . The price of pepper can be volatile. Pepper loses flavor and aroma through evaporation. sometimes instead of pepper shakers. Malaysia (8%). so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century. but has fallen to just over 271.000 t (299.Pepper tree in Kolli Hills in India. dispensers of pre-ground pepper. Sri Lanka (6%). As of 2008.000 short tons).[34] World trade Black peppercorns Peppercorns are. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi.[33] Once ground. pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly.

83 21.ars-grin. 12. The Philippine Department of Agriculture. 20. 19. 88. Retrieved 13 November 2005. ^ Ochef. Retrieved 2009-01-29. however its 2007 crop fell by nearly 10% from the previous year to about 90. 13. Egyptian Pharaoh. Warrior.000 t (99. ISBN 0375407219.org/cgi/content/full/88/4/706 14. http://www. http://www. ^ Innes Miller. ^ Jack Turner (2004-08-10). 18. p 94.2307/2657072.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon. The Hindu Business line. http://books. 10. p. 17. "Phylogeny and Patterns of Floral Diversity in the Genus Piper (Piperaceae)". ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. ^ Peppercorns. ^ "Piper nigrum Linnaeus".thehindubusinessline. ^ Dalby p.com http://www.crazychefs. http://www.pd f. ^ Katzer. from Penzey's Spices. Ancient Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either. Flora of China. www. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Retrieved 6 November 2005. ^ Translation from Turner. 108 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. PMID 11302858. p. ^ a b "BLACK PEPPER" (PDF). and Builder.[36] Notes 1. ^ J. http://www. Text online. 200803-27. Using fresh green peppercorns. 3.arsgrin.ph/wps/wcm/resources/file/ebb81841763712b/black%20pepper. Innes Miller. 80 16. American Journal of Botany 88: 706. Ramses II.pl?28589.poor crop management. Gernot (2006).M1.gov. ^ Stephanie Fitzgerald (2008-09-08). Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Alejandra (2001). The Spice Trade.efloras.net/ .com 9. using almost none of its production domestically. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005581. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper. Similar crop yields occurred in 2007 across the other pepper producing nations as well. ^ "Cleaner technology for white pepper production". Black pepper is marica. 6. ^ a b Jaramillo. p. 2006-1120. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 1969). ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. 8. Random House.gov.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-29.org/florataxon.000 short tons). Pepper.com/2008/03/27/stories/2008032751741300. The riddle's answer is of course pepper. ISBN 075653836X. Retrieved 2008-03-02. Vietnam dominates the export market. disease and weather. doi:10.com/books?id=J8mGcvFkatIC&pg=PT24&lpg=PT24&dq=Rame ses+Peppercorn&source=web&ots=5YpEReILiF&sig=6ESXxaWNnR8x7tpapT1Y7I32P0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPT24. 7. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious. 4. 93. Compass Point Books. ^ Davidson & Saberi 178 15. http://www. 2. Retrieved 17 October 2006. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. Retrieved 6 November 2005. Retrieved 12 August 2006. 5. ^ "Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN". Spice. M.amjbot. 11.da.google.

^ Turner p.net/ . 2005. ^ Turner p. Prosper (2001). An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank). also Turner pp. http://books.pdf. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han. ISBN 0520236742. 31.google. ^ Dalby p. Deans (2000).google. CRC Press." 24. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. http://www.crazychefs. Berkeley: University of California Press. though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale. 2. ^ Jaffee p.2000. http://siteresources. Jaffee.1365-2672. ^ "Karvy's special Reports . "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". table 2. Why does pepper make you sneeze?.worldbank. Davidson. Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum. 77.accesstoinsight. 109 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 32. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. 26. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1990-11-30). Retrieved 2009-01-29. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ^ Montagne. p. ^ Jaffee p.x. ISBN 0849336201. 36. 25. J. ^ a b James A. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition. Larousse Gastronomique. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. ^ a b McGee p.22.Seasonal Outlook Report Pepper". 2008-05-15. Karvy Comtrade Limited. 156.1046/j.karvycomtrade.com/books?id=7IHcZ21dyjwC.com/books?id=tg7R4hU8hkC&pg=PA395&lpg=PA395&dq=Pepper+safrole&source=web&ots=38F TJNPPOy&sig=JDE99CMOeifZNgGPIhJoscno5kA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=3&ct=result. ISBN 0600-60235-4. 30. Wilder Shores of Gastronomy: Twenty Years of the Best Food Writing from the Journal Petits Propos Culinaires. Full text at Blackwell website. G. Dangerous Tastes.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2/bmc2. http://books.ch05. ISBN 9781580084178. 160. Steven (2004). 171. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries". 29. 395. 428. ^ Dalby pp. "Mill". 10. 204. 34. References Dalby. 12. ISBN 0521367085. pp. 74–75. Dorman and S.com http://www. Retrieved November 12. 108–109.com/downloads/karvySpecialReports/karvysSpecialReport s_20080515_01. D. "Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards" (PDF). Alan (2002)..pdf. purchase required. 28. 23.html. OCLC 47231315 50747863 83960122. "Spices. Duke (1993-08-16). 35.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Standar ds/IndiaSpices. 27. 726. 33. Vol.00969. Retrieved 2008-01-29. ^ U.S. Buddhist Monastic Code II. ^ Dalby p. http://www. are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant. Hamlyn. which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavoring agents to foods. p. Dover. Andrew (2002). doi:10. ^ H.

Harold (2004). Turner. Jack (2004). "Black Pepper and Relatives". OCLC 56590708. pp. yellow and green pepper Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C. ISBN 0375707050.McGee. Spice: The History of a Temptation. OCLC 61213802. London: Vintage Books. Scribner.crazychefs. annuum Binomial name Capsicum annuum L.com http://www. On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). ISBN 0-684-80001-2.net/ . 110 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 427–429. Bell pepper Bell pepper Red.

Dietary fiber 1.13 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. green raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Mexico remains one of the major pepper producers in the world.64 g 0.4 mg Calcium 10 mg Iron 0.Pepper.099 mg 2% Vitamin B6 0.057 mg 4. including red.crazychefs.028 mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B2) 0.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .40 g . Central America and northern South America.224 mg Folate (Vit. sweet.86 g 4% Riboflavin (Vit.480 mg 3% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.com http://www.7 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. Peppers are native to Mexico.Sugars 2.net/ . Today. Source: USDA Nutrient database 17% 3% 134% 1% 3% 3% 3% 4% 1% Bell pepper is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. B1) 0. B9) 10 μg Vitamin C 80. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European and Asian countries. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".34 mg Magnesium 10 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 175 mg Zinc 0. 111 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.17 g 0. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors. green and orange. yellow. B3) 0.

net/ . green and red bell peppers are usually found in small grocery stores. hence "Maalu Miris" indicates the less spicy version. In Costa Rica it's called "chile dulce" or sweet chili and many typical dished include it as part of it's ingredients. Paprika also refers to the powdered spice made from the same fruit. like pasta. Across Europe. With the similar meaning. "green pepper"). in Dutch. although the more specific term "bell pepper" is understood in most regions.. the yellow ones tend to be in the supermarket. the meat is simply referred to as a "pepper"." In Russia it is commonly called болгарский перец (bolgarskiy perets). The term "bell pepper" or "pepper" or "capsicum" is often used for any of the large bell shaped capsicum fruits. bell pepper is called "kaRi miLakaay" ( ) in Tamil language. In British English. India. meaning Bulgarian pepper. " from the French) refers only to green bell peppers. an unrelated plant. g.g. In Norway. such as Australia. the word ピーマン ("pîman. 112 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and "Maalu" means Vegetable. In Denmark the bell pepper is referred to as "peberfrugt". meaning Big pepper. In Brazil it's commonly called Pimentão.Nomenclature The term "bell pepper" is the American name for some fruits of the Capsicum annuum species of plants. In Sri Lanka it is called "Maalu Miris" in Sinhalese language and used in "curries" as a vegetable. but are generally considered in culinary contexts to be vegetables. "red pepper". meaning pepper-fruit. they are called "capsicum". whereas パプリカ ("papurika. In parts of Ohio. called "Asado" (Castilian Spanish for 'roasted' or 'grilled').com http://www.crazychefs. or "piment. which has its roots in the word for pepper. the term "paprika". whereas in many Commonwealth of Nations countries. " from paprika) refers to bell peppers of other colors. but bhede khursani is never eaten raw. At that time peppercorns. "gele paprika". and Pennsylvania. In Argentina it's called "Morrón". "groene paprika". were a highly prized condiment. It is eaten with fried noodles. " In Japan. is used—sometimes referred to by their color (e. Sweden. rice and other dishes from Cuisine of Brazil. respectively). When cut off. regardless of their color. which are green and yellow. In Nepal it's called "bhede khursani". The misleading name "pepper" (pimiento in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. It's widely used in a variety of dishes. In the United States and Canada. Indiana. Grilled. Bell peppers are botanically fruits. and is cooked and eaten with any vegetable. the fruit of Piper nigrum. which is suitable for cooking as a vegetable. Malaysia and New Zealand. In France it is called "poivron". with the same root as "poivre" (meaning "pepper"). instead of using as a spice. the top of the bell pepper is referred to as a "pepper pan. the fruit is often referred to simply as a "pepper" or referred to by color (e. they may form part of the traditional barbecue of this country. the fruit is called a "mango"[1]. the hotter variety which is used as a hot spice. former Yugoslavia and the Netherlands it is known as "paprika". "Miris" is Chilli.

in salads. while fruit harvested green and after-ripened in storage are less sweet. The taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions and postharvest storage treatment. orange and.com http://www.crazychefs. depending on when they are harvested and the specific cultivar. blue. and is also cooked stuffed with a rice and beef filling. white. maroon. purple. yellow. more rarely. Gallery Green Bell Peppers on display at a Grocery A variety of colored bell peppers Store A whole and halved red bell pepper A whole purple pepper Red bell peppers Group of yellow peppers Japanese green pepper Green. It is eaten as a raw snack. Varieties The color can be green. red.In Egypt it is commonly called "filfil akhdar". in various soups and stews.net/ . where "filfil" means pepper and "akhdar" means green. yellow and red peppers 113 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. rainbow. aqua. Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter than red. the sweetest are fruit allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine. yellow or orange peppers. violet. black and brown. pink.

html How to Roast Peppers Stuffed Peppers Growing Peppers Peppermint . Peppermint Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Lamiales Lamiaceae Mentha Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. balsamea Willd.Quadrato_d'Asti_Giall o bell pepper flower References 1.[2][3] 114 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.foodreference. [1]) is a hybrid mint. ^ http://www. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world[2].com http://www.net/ . The plant. a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata).crazychefs. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita.com/html/fmango. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. indigenous to Europe. also known as M.

he treated it as a species. blunt spikes. producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively. The rhizomes are wide-spreading. 115 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. it can grow anywhere. and 120 recorded. forming thick.crazychefs. 6–8 mm (0.6 in) cm broad.20 in) diameter. fleshy.Botany Peppermint flowers Peppermint was first described by Carolus Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England. with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0.31 in) long.5 in) long and 1. with smooth stems.6–3. they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem. and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins.[4] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid. dark green with reddish veins. 84. The flowers are purple. If placed. Flowering is from mid to late summer. with a few exceptions. square in cross section. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1.59–1.net/ . it is usually sterile. and bare fibrous roots.[5] It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall.5–4 cm (0.[3][6][7] Ecology Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. 72. noted since 1843[8]. [3][7] It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region. The chromosome number is variable. Being a hybrid. with 2n counts of 66. including stream sides and drainage ditches. spreading by its rhizomes.com http://www. The leaves and stems are usually slightly hairy.24– 0.

and is often used as a flavouring in tea. and toothpaste. chewing gum. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3.[10] Similarly.[11] but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine.com http://www.[citation needed] Peppermint has a high menthol content.crazychefs. confectionery. Freeze-dried leaves In 2007. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. particularly menthyl acetate. thus promoting belching. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms.net/ . ice cream.1. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. Restaurants usually take advantage of this effect by 116 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[9] It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mintflavoured confectionery.Uses Peppermint is sometimes regarded as 'the world's oldest medicine'.

and contribute only their own spearmint genes. otherwise it can rapidly take over a whole garden.taking advantage of its use as a confectionery ingredient. the Galápagos Islands. Stems reddish. List of the cultivars A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use:[6] Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. Foliage lime-scented. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. but only by fertilization from a spearmint plant. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. It needs a good water supply. In addition to that. Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'." Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. New Zealand. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. The true peppermint might rarely produce seeds. Leaves aromatic.net/ . Eau De Cologne Mint). in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Mentha × piperita 'Citrata' (Orange Mint.com http://www.[13] and in the United States. 117 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. as a natural insecticide. Toxicology The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. and is ideal for planting in part-sun to shade areas. [21]. A mild.[14] Cultivation Peppermint generally thrives in shade and expands quickly by underground stolons. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone [19]. Leaves wrinkled. The leaves and flowering tops are the usable portion of the plant. but into a particularly poor-scented spearmint plant. hairless. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow.[12] Outside of its native range. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides [20]. and it is considered invasive in Australia. which they then call "after-dinner mints. [16]. the toxicities of the plant seem to variate from one cultivar to another [17] and are dose dependent [15].crazychefs. Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. If you choose to grow peppermint. [18]. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. it is advisable to plant it in a container. They are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions [15].

R. http://whqlibdoc. (1989).Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'.pdf. (2007). Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. ^ a b Blamey.. A. Mentha L. page 640.com http://www.1016/j.. 5.net/ .02. Mehmet (2004). ^ Linnaeus. ^ a b Huxley. a popular confection. ^ a b Akdogan. ed. (1753). Flowers open from bottom up. 7. In: Stace. et al.org/en/node/199. ed. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles page 387.. (1992). ^ "List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". Species Plantarum 2: 576–577. ^ PDR for Herbal Medicines. 11.a specification for its dried leaves of Mentha piperita Linnaeus [26] Aromatherapy Candy cane Chewing gum Peppermint oil . ^ Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: Mentha x piperita 14. A.dld.contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars [25] ISO 5563:1984 .crazychefs. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita 4. C. & Grey-Wilson.2007. Thomson Healthcare. Human & 118 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Retrieved 3 June 2009. Digestive and Liver Disease 39 (6): 530–536. ^ World Health Organization. C. 2. http://www. ISBN 0-34040170-2 8.006.int/publications/2002/9241545372.ISO 856:2006 [27] Insect repellent Mint chocolate Peppermint tea Peppermint candy Notes 1.glu. 6.who. G. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Retrieved 2009-02-07. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperitaLabiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats". M. ISBN 978-1563636783 10. (1975). ^ Bandolier Journal: Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome 12. ^ Harley. C. 9. M.[22] Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole [23] Zefir [23] Bulgarian population #2 [23] Clone 11-6-22 [23] Clone 80-121-33 [23] Mitcham Digne 38 [24] Mitcham Ribecourt 19 [24] Todd's#x2019 [24] Standaridization of its products and services ISO 676:1995 . reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints. "WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Volume 2". ^ EcoSMART Product label 13. ^ USDA Plants Profile: Mentha x piperita 15. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. doi:10. ^ Cappello. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita 3. "Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial". 4th Edition.

iso. 22. ^ International Organization for Standardization. http://het.. 25.htm?csnumber=4844. "Effect of Mentha piperita (Labiatae) and Mentha spicata (Labiatae) on iron absorption in rats".org/books/249/249_8. Retrieved 7 June 2009. ^ International Organization for Standardization.actahort. "Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L. "ISO 5563:1984 Dried peppermint (Mentha piperita Linnaeus) -. http://www. paraquat. Chocolate Mint ^ a b c d e Stanev.sagepub.net/ . http://www. http://www. (2004).E.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/6-10/119.htm. Retrieved 7 June 2009..10): 119 .com/journal/118500486/abstract.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. Retrieved 6 June 2009.2740311104. Mehmet (2003). Retrieved 3 June. http://www. Mehmet et al. J..htm. Retrieved 3 June. populations. "Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L.iso. ^ Mountain Valley Growers: Mentha piperita cv. ^ Edwards.Specification".org/iso/catalogue_detail. 27. http://www. 26. doi:10.D. Bienvenu (1998).1002/jsfa. V. Valerie Howland (2006). 23.crazychefs. Human & Experimental Toxicology 22 (4): 213 . Ambika et al. "Study on essential oil and free menthol accumulation in 19 cultivars. D.E.S. Zheljazkov. S.28.159. Plant Cell. F.sagepub. http://het. to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria. 119 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. http://www3.com/cgi/content/abstract/23/1/21. Experimental Toxicology 23 (1): 21 . Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 (11): 1143 .com http://www. "ISO 676:1995 Spices and condiments -Botanical nomenclature". F.actahort. (2007). "Protective Effect of Mentha piperita against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Swiss Albino Mice". Retrieved 3 June.htm?csnumber=11633. http://tih. doi:10. Australia".219. ^ a b c Jullien. Frédéric et al.. Tissue and Organ Culture 54 (3): 153 .224.com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/213.122. and Mentha spicata L. 24. Retrieved 6 June 2009.org/books/629/629_21. doi:10.)". 20. "The natural variation of the pulegone content in various oils of peppermint".257. Bienvenu (1999). Toxicology and Industrial Health 20 (6 .interscience. and clones of peppermint (Mentha X Piperita)". 21. ^ Akdogan. ^ Adamovic. ^ Sharma.1071/AP99036. "Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide. ^ Farley.wiley.iso.1023/A:1006185103897.sagepub.)". "ISO 856:2008 Oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. et al..htm?csnumber=32041. on kidney tissue in rats". ^ International Organization for Standardization. 17.1151. Retrieved 8 June 2009. "An optimising protocol for protoplast regeneration of three peppermint cultivars ( Mentha x piperita)".16. ^ Akdogan. Derek R. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212 . Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (4): 249 . 18.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. 19. Retrieved 3 June.

The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes called a stem or stalk. ampeloprasum Subspecies: A. porrum (L.com http://www.Gay The leek. porrum (L. the elephant garlic and kurrat. Allium ampeloprasum var.Leek Leek Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Alliaceae Allium A. also sometimes known as Allium porrum.) J.crazychefs. although different in their uses as food.net/ . are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum.). Form 120 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is a vegetable which belongs. ampeloprasum var. along with the onion and garlic. to the Alliaceae family. porrum Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. Two related vegetables.

to be planted out as weather permits. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil. and overwintering leeks. Varieties include King Richard and Tadorna Blue. but the most common types are ―summer leeks‖. or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. overwintering types are generally more strongly flavored.Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion.net/ . many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. Growing Leek field in Houthulst. Belgium Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest. leeks are hardy. They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses. the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. Summer leek types are generally smaller than overwintering types. intended for harvest in the season when planted. and they have few pest or disease problems. 121 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Leeks usually reach maturity in the autumn months. meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting.crazychefs. Cultivars Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways.com http://www. Once established in the garden.

although less bitter than scallion. 122 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. due to the layered structure of the leek.crazychefs. which can be used in salads. along with leek soup. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup. The slices have a tendency to fall apart. The taste might be described as a mix of mild onion and cucumber. The tender core may be eaten. but. the core becomes woody and very chewy and better replanted than eaten. the cawl is made using root vegetables such as swede. Leek has a mild onion-like taste. having been overlooked for several centuries[1]. The edible portions of the leek are the white onion base and light green stalk. Fried.net/ . Raw. Lamb is the most popular. the vegetable is crunchy and firm. while in the rest of Britain leeks have only come back into favour in the last fifty years or so. carrots and potatoes and different meats. they have come to be used extensively in that country‘s cuisine. leek and potato soup and vichyssoise. A traditional Welsh cawl (a form of soup) is made with leek. The onion-like layers form around a core.com http://www. Leek is typically chopped into slices 5-10mm thick. which turns it soft and mild in taste.Cuisine Leeks for sale. It has a fresh smell similar to scallion. There are different ways of preparing the vegetable: Boiled. Because of their symbolism in Wales (see below). In its raw state. which leaves it more crunchy and preserves the taste. Cawl has been enjoyed by the nation since the 14th century and has great significance to the ancient Welsh King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. as the leek ages. doing especially well when they are the prime ingredient.

C. 83 μg 14. bulb & lower leafs Nutritional value per 100 g (3. led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet ―from at least the 2nd millennium B.monounsaturated 0. onwards.8 g Fat . providing a now famous "Magical Leek Soup" recipe. as well as wall carvings and drawings.5 g 83 g 9% Thiamine (Vit.com http://www.233 mg Folate (Vit.polyunsaturated 0.crazychefs. B1) 0. Cultural significance Raw Leeks.Dietary fiber 1.saturated 0. B3) 0. pointing out that leeks are a mild diuretic as well as highly flavorful and nutritious.Sugars 3.net/ .4 mg Vitamin B6 0. Guiliano claims that leeks are an important part of the French woman's diet.9 g .04 g .C. [2] Historical consumption Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt.E.5 oz) Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ Carbohydrates .‖ They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.06 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit. B9) 64 μg Vitamin B12 0 μg Vitamin C 12 mg 3% 18% 16% 0% 20% 123 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.004 g . who consumed it most often in soup.[3] The leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero. as well as other recipes with leeks.Health Benefits Mireille Guiliano sang the praises of leeks in her #1 bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat.03 mg 2% Niacin (Vit.E.3 g 1.166 g Protein Water Vitamin A equiv. In her book.15 g 0. B2) 0.

good countryman. Henry tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek ―for I am Welsh. 124 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. for example. King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 45% 6% 17% 8% 5% 4% 1% 1% Percentages are relative to US The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales. David‘s Day. representing Wales.net/ .92 mg Vitamin K 47 μg Calcium 59 mg Iron 2.‖ The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton. and is worn—or the daffodil—on St. In the play. refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ―ancient tradition‖ in Henry V. Gallery Two blooming flower heads A largely spent flower head showing open flowers as well as developing seed pods. you know. Perhaps most visibly however is the leek‘s use as the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.com http://www. Shakespeare.Vitamin E 0.12 mg recommendations for adults. According to one legend.1 mg Magnesium 28 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 180 mg Sodium 20 mg Zinc 0.crazychefs. but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time.

2000). ISBN 0140468595) p 291 2. third edition (Oxford: University Press. 3. ^ Guiliano. Mireille.com http://www. 195 Celery Celery Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots 125 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 1978. ^ Jane Grigson. French Women Don't Get Fat. Domestication of plants in the Old World..p. Jane Grigson's Vegetable Book.Notes 1.net/ . ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf.crazychefs. (Penguin Books. Knopf.

rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten. Celery.crazychefs.net/ . Source: USDA Nutrient database See also: Vallisneria americana Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var.com http://www.Sugars 2 g 3g . raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. with fewer than 100 individuals left.(unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A.[2] Uses Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy taproot.Dietary fibre 1. graveolens Binomial name Apium graveolens L. dulce) or celeriac (var.5 oz) Energy 10 kcal 60 kJ Carbohydrates .2 g 0.7 g 95 g Vitamin C 3 mg 5% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. 126 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.6 g Fat Protein Water 0.[1] The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe. Taxonomy Celery was described by Carolus Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753.

and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. as celery salt. Celery. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. 30 AD. birds. onions. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. Medicine Celery seeds Cross-section of a Pascal celery rib. and small rodents. Celery is an important ingredient in Indian cuisines including in Indian Curry[citation needed]. often used as a base for sauces and soups. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). on the Chicago-style hot dog.com http://www. horses. and in Old Bay Seasoning.[3] Celery seeds contain a compound called 3-N-butyl-phthalide that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats.net/ . They also contain an organic compound called apiol. Celery is a staple in many soups. The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ca.crazychefs. 127 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. squirrels. such as chicken noodle soup. Celery. Actually very small fruit.In temperate countries. celery is also grown for its seeds. dogs. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. onions. and carrots make up the French mirepoix.

[10] Cultural depictions A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks. and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. even in trace amounts. foods that contain or may contain celery. however. graveolens grows wild in these areas it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms. have to be clearly marked as such. celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe. the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy: they can act as a uterine stimulant. Celery contains androstenone.crazychefs. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. History Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[9] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC). where it provides low-calorie dietary fiber bulk. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. for people with celery allergy. In classical Greece celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC.[10] 128 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. There is a common belief that celery is so difficult for humans to digest.[6] Allergies Celery is amongst a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions.net/ . at Kastanas. and celery mericarps dated to the 7th century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. However.com http://www.[8] In the European Union. chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace. According to Pliny the Elder[11] in Achaea the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery. Lemnos and Thebes. the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock.[4] Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US. celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. and in Odyssey there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso. making avoiding such foods difficult.Nutrition Celery is valuable in weight-loss diets. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery. and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products.[5] Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides. In Homer's Iliad. so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. that it has negative calories because human digestion burns more calories than can be extracted. they note "since A.[7] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated. M. father of the Cabeiri.

By 1699 John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. splits. insect damage and rot). apium Italicum. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. cracks. shape. produced in dense compound umbels. to last from the beginning of September to late in April.crazychefs. and the most crisp and tender. and a distinctive smell. due to extremely uniform crop growth. many of which differ little from the wild species. celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring. fields are harvested only once.. In North America. as the Grace of the whole Board". earthy taste. and after one or two thinnings out and transplantings they are. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose. sweetish. planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching. white and red. In the past.[15] Harvesting and storage Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage.[14] With cultivation and blanching.The name celery retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. Cultivation Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. Petioles and leaves are removed and harvested celery are packed by size and quality (determined by color. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. the whole plant having a coarse. which is affected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. The plants are raised from seed. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. The flowers are creamy-white. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine).net/ . A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery. 2–3 mm diameter. stalk and midrib length and absence of disease.[13] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. mainly in having stouter leaf stems.[12] Celery's Mediterranean origins are still commemorated in the French expression céleri d'Italie. They are ranged under two classes.and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet.com http://www. from the Latin selinon. Celery's surprisingly late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. it was perceived as a cleansing tonic. on attaining a height of 15–20 cm. sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year. but the leaves may be used in salads. at our Great Mens tables. 1. as the English celery (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term. straightness and thickness of petiole. celery can be stored for up to seven weeks 129 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. and Praetors feasts.. By the 19th century the season for celery had been extended. welcomed to counter the salt-sickness of a winter diet. seleri. borrowed from Greek. Under optimal conditions.5–2 mm long and wide.

Zohary and M.6 (June 1993): 610-611. The Vegetable Garden (3rd ed. Hopf. (2005).com: Celery and Negative Calories 6.202. Radauer C. West J. 130 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables. Scheiner O. (2002-06-10). (3rd ed. 2. Ko SN. Wilson IBH.nsf/pages/smallage. s.v.. ^ IUCN Redlist: Apium bermejo. ^ Pliny. et al. http://postharvest. (1985) "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by apigenin from Apium graveolens". Heiner DC. 8. Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". and proper sanitation. ^ Celsus. Breiteneder H and Hoffmann-Sommergruber K Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus. Retrieved 2009-05-03. P. C (1753). (Laurentii Salvii). 12. p. M. 15. ^ William Robinson and W. ^ snopes. Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73-82. 2000) p. Post-harvest technology research and information center. Kraft D. Lee LG. 2003. Suslow.com/edible. Retrieved 2008-03-04. ^ R. http://www. a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery. M. "Allergy and Immunology: Food-Induced Anaphylaxis". ^ a b Fragiska. ^ Cantwell. Freshly-cut petioles of celery are prone to decay. "Celery: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality". Thomson.[16] References 1. Western Journal of Medicine 158.practicallyedible. Practically Edible: The World's Biggest Food Encyclopedia.L. Thayer translation [1] 4. Natural History XIX.crazychefs. Species Plantarum: Tomus I. de Medicina. ^ OED. are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients The FASEB Journal. T. 3.. which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing. ^ "Smallage". ^ D. 13. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0°C (32°F). 14. "Celery". 11. 9. ^ Bublin M.com http://www. 16. de Vilmorin (1950) Pascal celery and its origin Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 51 pp 39-41.net/ . Domestication of Plants in the Old World. gentle handling. ^ Teng CM.ucdavis.17:1697-1699. Holmiae. ^ Celestin J.between 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F).46. 227.. Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology 3:85 5. ^ Calcium sources 7. 10.edu/Produce/ProduceFacts/Veg/celery. 1920).shtml.

5 oz) Energy 380 kcal 1580 kJ Carbohydrates .Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein 97. B2) 0.98 g 0g 0g 0.Dietary fiber 0 g Fat Protein Water 99.net/ . see sucrose. granulated Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Sugar It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sucrose. Source: USDA Nutrient database 0% 0% 0% Sugars. see Sugar (disambiguation).21 g .5 oz) Energy 390 kcal 1620 kJ Carbohydrates .03 g Riboflavin (Vit. Sugar.91 g .com http://www.crazychefs.33 g 0g 0g 131 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Sugars 96. Magnification of grains of sugar.01 mg Potassium 2 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. (Discuss) For other uses.019 mg 1% Calcium 1 mg Iron 0.Sugars 99. For the common table sugar. showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. brown Nutritional value per 100 g (3.

mainly sucrose. sugar maple (in maple syrup). and in many other sources.91 mg Magnesium 29 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 346 mg Sodium 39 mg Zinc 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database 1% 2% 0% 9% 15% 8% 3% 7% 2% 2% Magnified crystals of refined sugar. It forms the main ingredient in candy.008 mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit.77 g Thiamine (Vit. Sugar is a class of edible crystalline substances. Human taste buds interpret its flavor as sweet.crazychefs. sorghum. Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2 diabetes. B9) 1 μg Calcium 85 mg Iron 1.net/ .082 mg Vitamin B6 0.[2] Terminology 132 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. lactose. B1) 0. obesity and tooth decay. B2) 0.007 mg 0% Niacin (Vit.[1] Sugar consumption varies by country depending on the cultural traditions. honey. Brazil has the highest per capita consumption and India has the highest per-country consumption.18 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. B3) 0.026 mg Folate (Vit.com http://www. and fructose.Water 1. Sugar as a basic food carbohydrate primarily comes from sugar cane and from sugar beet. but also appears in fruit.

and texture) of beverages and food. In this informal sense. the term sugar refers to sucrose (also called "table sugar" or "saccharose") — a white crystalline solid disaccharide.com http://www. zahari. the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre). 133 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. etc. preservation. In a list of ingredients. The English word "sugar" originates from the Arabic and Persian word shakar. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"). molasses or treacle. generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. alternative non-sugar-based sweeteners exist. Etymology In the case of sugar.[3] itself derived from Sanskrit Sharkara. Note that the English word jaggery (meaning "coarse brown Indian sugar") has similar ultimate etymological origins (presumably in Sanskrit). the Italian word zucchero. and saccharin (produced from naturally occurring but not necessarily naturally edible substances by inducing appropriate chemical reactions). store chemical energy which biological cells convert to other types of energy. Culinary/nutritional In culinary terms. means "pebble". the Spanish word azúcar. Apart from the many forms of sugar and of sugar-containing foodstuffs. any word that ends with "-ose" (such as "glucose". Spanish and/or Italian.) The Greek word for "sugar". Generically known as "syrups".net/ .[4] It came to English by way of French. Commercially produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. Scientific Scientifically. which derived their word for sugar from the Arabic and Persian shakar (whence the Portuguese word açúcar. Sugar may dissolve in water to form a syrup. Glucose (a type of sugar found in human blood plasma) has the molecular formula C6 H12 O6. and these particularly attract interest from people who have problems with their blood sugar level (such as diabetics) and people who wish to limit their calorie-intake while still enjoying sweet foods. the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. such as glucose.crazychefs. Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties (such as mouthfeel. "fructose". (Compare the OED. the foodstuff known as sugar delivers a primary taste sensation of sweetness. including palm sugar and fructose. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars.Popular In non-scientific use. A great many foods exist which principally contain dissolved sugar. the word "sugar" principally refers to crystalline sugars. "dextrose". sugar refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. Both natural and synthetic substitutes exist with no significant carbohydrate (and thus low-calorie) content: for instance stevia (a herb). they may also have other more specific names such as "honey".) will likely denote a sugar.

cook or consumer. important molecules in the body. where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds. raw sugar. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (CHO) or ketone groups (C=O). Biochemists regard sugars as relatively simple carbohydrates. trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides . This includes all the sugars referred to above.containing 1. syrups and fruit juices.crazychefs. 3. making the sugars reactive. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of 134 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 2. has a "missing" oxygen atom. and 4 or more monosaccharide units respectively. grains and vegetables in their natural or cooked form. plus sugars naturally present in honey. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) defines free sugars as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer. Natural sugars comprise all completely unrefined sugars: effectively all sugars not defined as free sugars. A notable exception. The WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet.net/ . Natural sugars come in fruit. The term distinguishes these forms from all other culinary sugars added in their natural form with no refining at all. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to (CH2O)n where n is between 3 and 7. Sugars include monosaccharides. disaccharides.Culinary sugars Grainier.com http://www. as its name suggests. deoxyribose. The World Health Organisation and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations expert report (WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet. Chemistry Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right). Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases approves only natural sugars as carbohydrates for unrestricted consumption.

which uses deoxyribose as a backbone. Through photosynthesis plants produce glucose. Derivatives of trioses (C3H6O3) are intermediates in glycolysis. or DNA. Pentoses (5-carbon sugars) include ribose and deoxyribose. proteins connected to one or more sugars. including NADH and ATP. sugar will burn with a blue flame. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium. creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch).[5] has uses in making confections because it does not crystallize as easily and thus produces a smoother finished product. After digestion and absorption. galactose and mannose. These disaccharides have the formula C12H22O11. a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides. which has the formula C6H12O6. Baking weight/mass volume relationship Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. If combined with fine ash. which form part of nucleic acids. with less than 0. 135 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Hydrolysis can convert sucrose into a syrup of fructose and glucose. The prefix "glyco-" indicates the presence of a sugar in an otherwise non-carbohydrate substance.made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses). producing invert sugar.water (H2O) per bond.made from one glucose and one fructose). Note for example glycoproteins. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. Monosaccharides include fructose. Measuring sugar See also International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis The purity (sucrose content) of table sugar by polarimetry — the measurement of the rotation of planepolarized light by a solution of sugar. or (as in cane and beet) as sucrose (table sugar). Disaccharides occur most commonly as sucrose (cane or beet sugar . sweeter than the original sucrose. In these closed-chain forms. the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose. fructose. and galactose.crazychefs. This resulting syrup. Sugars can also be used as monomers to create biopolymers such as cellulose. As well as using classifications based on their reactive group. Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. lactose (milk sugar . chemists may also subdivide sugars according to the number of carbons they contain.com http://www.net/ . which is made of glucose. Hexoses (6-carbon sugars) include glucose. Enzymes must hydrolyse or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolised. the aldehyde or ketone group remains unfree. Ribose also forms a component of several chemicals that have importance in the metabolic process. and convert it for storage as an energy reserve in the form of other carbohydrates such as starch. glucose.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form.

Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West.06 oz Powdered sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 120 g = 4.80 g/ml Notes 1.Bulk Density Chart.56 g/ml Beet Sugar 0. ^ "Engineering Resources .illovosugar. ^ scientificpsychic. "Sugar: What Kinds to Eat and When. Blackwell Publishing.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 g = 7. ISBN 0-446-34312-9 136 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.62 g/ml Granulated Sugar 0. History of Science and Technology in Islam.23 oz Bulk Density[6] Dextrose Sugar 0.70 g/ml Powdered Sugar 0.webmd. Cambridge: Woodhead.htm 3. Sugar Blues.crazychefs. ISBN 063205476X. 4. Michael (January 2001). Sugarcane. OCLC 51837990 84251137. Joseph and Mike Carlson. ^ International sugar statistics http://www.com/worldofsugar/internationalSugarStats.com/features/sugar-what-kinds-eat-when 2. 5. The International Sugar Trade." Powder and Bulk References Adas.The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions: Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6. James. ^ Wuebben. Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. ^ Compare the OED and the Online Etymology Dictionary. ISBN 1566398320. Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. A C Hannah. ISBN 185573-069-3 William Dufty.com: link inaccessible as of 2008-06-04 6. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. OCLC 44493265. Glyn (2004). Temple University Press. 1996.net/ .com http://www." http://men.

" The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. especially in the Netherlands.crazychefs. using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products.Brown sugar Brown sugar crystals. Although in some areas. sugar beet molasses is used. without mixing them separately. Brown sugar contains from 3. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on castor sugar which has crystals of approximately 0. It is. with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. Products for industrial use (e. Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. for light brown sugar. The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odour and color differences will be covered by the molasses. The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane. however.35 mm. Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses.g. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals. 137 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience.5% molasses (dark brown sugar).com http://www. between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. Manufacture Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs.net/ . Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar. simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking.25% of the total volume).

apart from pure carbohydrate. dark brown sugar should be used only when specified. while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar.com http://www.[citation needed] This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes). History In the late 1800s. substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel. reproducing microscopic photographs of harmless but repulsive-looking microbes living in brown sugar.crazychefs.[1] However. mounted a smear campaign against brown sugar. which did not have full control over brown sugar production. in his studies (cited in "Pure. The effort was so successful that by 1900. Nutritional value Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories. Nutritionally.UK title) that rats fed brown sugar. brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar.[2] John Yudkin. In other applications. and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid in the World Health Organization and FAO study[3] on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar. much like adding molasses would do.When a recipe calls for "brown sugar" it is usually referring to light brown sugar. a best-selling cookbook warned that brown sugar was of inferior quality and was susceptible to infestation by "a minute insect. White and Deadly" . Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet. as opposed to white sugar. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar.net/ . suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar. though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar. the newly consolidated refined white sugar industry."[4] Natural brown sugar 138 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics. Revolution at the Table Berkeley: University of California Press.htm#sugarmade. Harvey. 7. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus "turbin-") to remove the excess juice.1. an island off Africa.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e07. light brown.wildernessfamilynaturals. cane sugar. on the right is a measuring cup containing regular (light) brown sugar. Some Demerara is still produced in South America. 2003. 139 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[7] Demerara (also spelled "demerera") sugar's name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana. References 1.net/ . 3.org ^ Levenstein.csrwire. which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup. it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. resulting in the characteristic large. Muscovado. There is more molasses in natural brown sugar.". ^ "Press release describes manufacturing process for organic turbinado sugar". 4. ^ "Organic Turbinado Sugar". Retrieved 2008-09-20.A measuring cup containing muscovado (left). ^ New Scientist. crystals. As such "natural brown sugar" is free of additional dyes and chemicals.[5][6] Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined.htm#bm07. Demerara is another unrefined. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 2.fao.com/PressRelease.crazychefs. largecrystalled.3 fao. 32-33 5. Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. Retrieved 2008-09-20.com http://www. and are sold as Turbinado sugar. or Demerara sugar. http://www. which is then crystallized. Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice. light brown. but most is now produced in Mauritius. I'm Sweet Enough 21 January 2006 ^ Sugar Association ^ http://www. giving it a higher mineral content. centrifuged. where sugar cane was grown. 6. ^ "This is how Muscovado Sugar is made. http://www.html. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed.com/muscovado_sugar.php?id=3026. http://www. dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifuging and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals.wholesomesweeteners.com/brands/Wholesome_Sweeteners/Organic_Tur binado_Sugar.

140 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt).com http://www. including high blood pressure. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself.net/ .[citation needed] Conversely. and iodized salt. Chloride and sodium ions. overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems. People's Republic of China Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life. but toxic to most land plants. including humans. the two major components of salt. pale pink or light gray in color. white. This salt shaker also contains grains of rice. refined salt (table salt).Salt Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl).crazychefs. normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. It is a crystalline solid. which some use to prevent caking.

in the millennia before then. the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire.000 tons of salt.[2]:18–19 Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC. making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks. the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar.[3] 141 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. In 1960.net/ .[1] The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi. glass. especially for meat.History Main article: History of salt Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Human beings have used canning and artificial refrigeration for the preservation of food for approximately the last two hundred years.crazychefs. as were salted birds and salt fish.com http://www.[2]:38 From about 2800 BC. but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure. the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). China dates back to at least 6000 BC. however. the caravans still transported some 15. and the dye Tyrian purple.[2]:44 Along the Sahara. salt provided the best-known food preservative.

) In the Sermon on the Mount. in which protesters made their own salt from the sea." and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables. Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it. as it avoided paying the "salt tax". seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. and Egyptian. the earliest being the story of Lot's wife.Salzburg. It is also used as a purifier of sacred space. and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle. a root for salt found in Celtic." a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. God sent down four blessings from the sky .[7] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt. which was illegal under British rule. who had heretofore mined for salt. In many Pagan religions esp. Greek. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water.net/ .[citation needed] The root hal(l). Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church.fire. water. In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah. Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork". and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete.[8] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. iron and salt" Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. the Hallstatt Celts. Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries. though incorrectly. Wicca salt is symbolic of the element Earth. and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria. During the first millennium BC. within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. (Judges 9:45.[4][5][6] Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC Around 400 BC. began open pan salt making. The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace. 142 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt. Hallstatt. This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people.[1] It is widely. Halych in Ukraine. there are forty-one verses which reference salt in the English translation of the King James Bible. taking their names from hal(l)-. 000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha". Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany.[2]:63 The word salad literally means "salted. salz. and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings.also gave us Gaul. who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city".[2]:64 Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100. In religion According to Strong's Concordance.crazychefs. the Roman exonym for the Celts.com http://www. Even widely-respected historical works repeat this error.

which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air. This is thought to be the origin of the Holy Water used in the Christian faith. Salt and other chloride-based chemicals eliminate snow and ice from road surfaces and sidewalks by lowering the temperature at which ice melts. to make travel easier and safer and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations.crazychefs.[9] In weather Clouds above the Pacific Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea. and Fleur de sel A commercial pack of sea salt 143 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. such as in Sumo Wrestling. Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water.net/ . In Aztec mythology. Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. In order to preserve the covenant between their people and God.[9] The Ancient Egyptians.[11] Forms of salt Unrefined salt Main articles: Sea salt.In the native Japanese religion Shinto. salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people. Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.[10] Salt is used for Snow removal. Halite.

Today. 144 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Purification usually involves recrystallization. Refined salt. it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. and the making of soaps and detergents.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes.[16] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water. and thus is rarely eaten. and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected.[15] The majority is sold for industrial use. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[14]) although worldwide. giving each one a unique flavor. food uses account for 17. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases.[13] Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. is mainly sodium chloride.[19] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals. One example are bath salts.com http://www. natural sea salt harvested by hand. Refined salt Salt mounds in Bolivia. a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts). Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. In recrystallization. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper. completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds. and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight. which is most widely used presently.[17] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt. setting dyes in textiles and fabrics.[12] However.net/ .5% of salt production. which are kiln-dried. Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is healthier than refined salts. The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. Fleur de sel. has a unique flavor varying from region to region. most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt.Different natural salts have different mineralities. After the raw salt is obtained. Injected water dissolves the salt.[18] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water.

[20] Sodium ferrocyanide has been banned in the United States and a similar ban has been discussed in the United Kingdom.net/ . calcium or magnesium carbonates. Single-serving salt packets. silicon dioxide. Some people also add a desiccant.[27] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough.154 g/cm3.Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park. keeping the salt crystals from sticking together.[29] However. and calcium aluminosilicate. however. Some anti-caking agents used are tricalcium phosphate.com http://www. ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1. fatty acid salts (acid salts). Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed] . but was determined to be unnecessary. for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.165 g/cm3. magnesium oxide. both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use. and a bulk density (dry. which may be as little as 60% or as high as 99% sodium chloride. condiments such as soy sauce.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity.[24][25][26] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. sodium aluminosilicate. salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and 145 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[21][22] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide. Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine in the United Kingdom. such as a few grains of uncooked rice. calcium silicate.[23] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. Table salt has a particle density of 2.crazychefs.[28] Salty condiments In many East Asian cultures. Table salt Table salt is refined salt. this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals.

cretinism in children. while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm. 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. puts a 146 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. specifically endemic goiter. as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. iodized salt is more common in the United States.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. In Canada.crazychefs. which can cause goitre. usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. potassium.[33] Drinking too much water. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter. especially important for pregnant women. Additives See also: Iodised salt Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems.net/ . or even an electrolyte disturbance. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. dizziness. is Folic acid (Vitamin B9). The reason for this is unclear. iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm. In France. Health effects SEM image of a grain of table salt. In the United States. In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced.fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101. a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland. magnesium. and myxedema in adults. neurological problems.[30] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). and calcium) are available in unrefined salt. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. fluorinated table salt is available. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps.com http://www. at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. which can cause severe.[32] Another additive. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium. with insufficient salt intake.[31] Today. Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. or sodium iodate. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. sodium iodide. even fatal. which gives the table salt a yellow color.

forced salt intake." ([44]. the risks have been exaggerated for most people. as adults' kidneys are able to remove excess salt. Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. It can exacerbate renal disease. Sea salt contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process. p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake." ([41]. A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products.com http://www.net/ . such as in treatment of dysautonomia. p18) However. or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways. since salt was quite valuable).[33] edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%. Salt solutions have been used in ancient China as a method of suicide (especially by the nobility.[37] Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real.person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). p3) Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium.crazychefs.[47] Some scientists believe that excess salt intake has no significant role in hypertension and coronary heart disease.[34] The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality.[35][36] Many (though not all scientists)[37] believe that excess salt consumption has been linked to: exercise-induced asthma. in Japan. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults. the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased.[40] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health.[38] heartburn. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. independently of blood pressure effects.[39] osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women. salt consumption is higher.[33][45] duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[46] Death.[42] hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994. combined with an inadequate intake of water. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. can cause hypernatremia." ([41] p3). 147 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[43] left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy." ([41] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy." ([41].

Some isolated cultures.Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy. "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels.[50].6 g or 70 mmol sodium).[48] Recommended intake Sea salt and peppercorns. SACN states. In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that.net/ . However. A salt mill for sea salt."[41] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets. the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1. average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium.com http://www. have been found to consume little salt. possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors.[49] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand. but achievable population goals. such as the Yanomami in South America. 148 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. for a typical adult.crazychefs.[44] Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium.

" In the UK. Low is 0.6g sodium). When other health claims are made about a food (e. low in fat. If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures.[56] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt Watch it". has issued an advisory statement[62] that those taking the following 149 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .3 g sodium = 5.[51] In the United States. which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day. Amber (Medium).com http://www.crazychefs.'[55] Campaigns In 2004.). without recourse to salt substitutes. One manufacturer.1g sodium). which will increase potassium intake.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0. Those who have kidney failure.[54] USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free". LoSalt.[61] Salt substitutes Main article: Salt substitute Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride. It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460-920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day. Australia.[52] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. "low".5g salt per 100g (or 0. actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt.g. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children.[53] Labeling UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1. calories. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair. a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving. Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[60] established in 1996.[57] In March 2007. foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‗traffic light‘ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High). the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation.8 g salt) per day. etc. then that is a medium level of salt. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2. heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia.[58] The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania.300 mg of sodium (= 2. maintains a website[59] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet. or Green (Low). it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).The NHMRC in Australia was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium.

such as brine wells and salt lakes. Answers.wikisource. 6. Production Salt output in 2005 Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources. and Hall in Austria. 8. Costs can reach staggering amounts.com. 2.answers.3 million tonnes). less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l).7). India (14. China (32. Salts that are trapped under a coating cause great problems in coating adhesion. ^ a b Barber 1999:136 ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002 ^ Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Doucan Gersi's travels) ^ Included among the other. 150 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. Retrieved 2008-12-14. The IMO regulation is mostly used and sets salt levels to a maximum of 50 mg/m2 soluble salts measured as sodium chloride. Germany (17. Catholic Encyclopedia. the top five producers being the United States (40. 7. http://www. Eplerenone and Inspra.5). 4. Dytac.in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany. and by mining rock salt. total world production was estimated at 210 million tonnes. (Barber 1999:137) ^ Barber 1999:135–137 ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55 ^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. called halite. 1913. In 2002.com/salary. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http://en. 4th edition". Triamterene. Maximum salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application. Naval authorities and ship builders keep a close eye on salt concentrations on surfaces during construction.com http://www.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Salt.3). Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone). ^ "Salt". 3.prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride. Notes 1. and Canada (12.[63] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general.9). Salt disturbance in coastal industries The omnipresence of salt posts a problem in any coastal coating application.net/ . 5. These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test.

^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds 36. J. Salt Institute.9.com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effe ct+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv 5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUStpAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. ^ Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1. ^ Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt 23. ^ Sea Salt is good for you 13. no. "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans".fr/Ftp/Afssa/26447-26448. 12.htm 15.google. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt.com/index3. ^ Nauticus .gov/askasci/gen01/gen01420. ^ Salt made the world go round 17. Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. ^ What is Salt?. Science.9% sodium by weight which equals 98. ^ Iodized Salt 31.eu-salt. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet 39.newton. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ISBN 9780309056663. ^ "Rice in Salt Shakers". Kuemmel (1994).saltsense. it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium 26. pp.com http://www. p. Fall/Winter 2006 10. Retrieved 2008-07-29. ^ HE-620 24. salt manufacture.htm.9% sodium chloride 25.htm 19. ^ References on food salt & health issues. ^ Table 27.co.co. salt manufacture. ^ a b http://news. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn 151 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.dep. http://books. 898 . ^ Gary Taubes.net/ . 5379. salt history. Retrieved 200907-08.pdf 33. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www.anl. Salt Institute. Ask a Scientist. Retrieved 2009-0708. "The (Political) Science of Salt". salt history. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 21. ^ B.Weather Curriculum 18. Epikouria Magazine. ^ Halen Môn sea salt information page 22. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. 10. Transportation Research Board. ^ http://www.roskill. salt uses. 11. 14 August 1998. http://www. 281.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/393201. ^ a b "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt".interscience. Mason (2006-12-19). ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www. 2008 29. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www.907 37. sodium.bbc. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page 35.com/journal/114028130/abstract.uk/aboutsaltwhat01. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine 30. 14. http://www3. from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38.wiley. sodium.stm 38.com/reports/salt 16. Vol. 28.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt). Key information on salt from the Salt Industry 20.afssa. Victoria) Salt 34. ^ David A. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023-2032. ^ Iodized Salt 32.crazychefs. salt uses.

co.net/ . Published online 2005. and S. 47-50.P.com http://www.uk/cash/. BMJ. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk' 43.. ISBN 0399239987—a children's book about salt. http://www.pub2 References Kurlansky. Norton & Co. Elizabeth Wayland (1999).40.healthandwellbeing. 2006. PMID 17449506 Free full-text 44. 61. Obarzanek E et al. ^ Understanding labels 55.2004. Inc. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF) 51. Cutler JA. Salt: A World History.1016/j. 62. Barber. 7. Mark. Sodium 52. New York: Walker & Co.1915040902051820. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls 41. ^ "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study. John Wiley & Sons. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk. ^ Susan R. The Story of Salt. Legal Medicine 2005. Victoria) Fluid retention 46. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF) 58. ^ Cook NR. ^ U. Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. Feldman.guardian.334(7599):885. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007 47. ^ Salt TV ads 59. NY: G. (accessed13 January 2007) 49. 152 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A 56. http://www. doi:10. D. Schindler. 2007. ISBN 0393320197. Mark (2002). ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) 42. New York. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack 57. ^ NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values.uk/society/2008/jan/28/foodanddrink. Further reading Kurlansky.. 28 January 2008. OCLC 48573453.crazychefs. ISBN 0802713734.ac. S. The Mummies of Ürümchi. Friedrich Schulz. OCLC 48426519. Erwin Koops. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes 50. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.005 48. New York: W. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases.a01. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt 53. ^ Salt Matters 60. Sodium chloride. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium" 54. Putnam's Sons. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF) 63.W. doi:10.06. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland 45.1002/0471238961. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia. ^ "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods".legalmed.hyp.

Arts and traditions of the table. Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4 February 2007) Salt industry EuSalt Position papers LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer) Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health Salt Institute Sodium and health ^ Bloch. 2001. Pierre. David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round. Salt: Grain of Life. Ireland: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health UK: Food Standards Agency Salt campaign UK: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) and Salt Subgroup minutes UK: Why 6g? A summary of the scientific evidence for the salt intake target Medical authorities The Cochrane Collaboration "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure" Menzies Research Institute Salt Matters Web Site Charities and campaigns British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet" Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity) Action on Salt and Health CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format) Journalism BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?" BBC medical notes "Salt" Guardian article The sceptic Ockham's Razor Salt matters . New York: Columbia University Press. Salt and health Government bodies Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above.crazychefs.talk by Dr Trevor Beard.Laszlo. Department of Health.net/ . Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy .com http://www. 153 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Stationery Office.

crazychefs. mainly Kerala. which only arrived in Thailand in the sixteenth century. found commonly in Thailand. as it is a literal translation of the Thai word for it. Indonesia. frutescens Thai pepper (Thai: . This term refers to the peppercorns used in many Thai dishes. as well as ground black or white pepper and derives from the distinction between peppercorns being traditionally Thai versus chili peppers. Non-pungent "Thai Pepper" "Thai pepper" can also refer to black pepper. mouse dropping chili)) refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper. such as Cambodia. where it is used in traditional dishes of the Kerala cuisine (pronounced in Malayalam as kanthari mulagu). It can also be found in India. as well as in neighbouring countries. 154 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. the Philippines and Singapore. Malaysia. phrik thai.net/ . Vietnam.Thai pepper Thai pepper / Bird's Eye Chili Bird's Eye Chili Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum C.com http://www. phrik khi nu(lit.

often times surprising people who are unaware that such a small pepper can be much hotter than the larger ones.net/ .000 on the Scoville pungency scale. "Big things come in small packages. These tiny fiery chilis characteristically point upward from the main plant. Although small in size compared to other types of chili. Proverb Bird's eye chili can be found in South-East Asian markets alongside larger chilies.000 to 100.Cultivars Bird's eye chili pepper The main Thai pepper seen in South-East Asian cuisine. 155 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. but are more frequently seen in Thailand and Cambodia." which can best be described by the English equivalent." " " Thai "Kecil-kecil cili padi" Malaysian "Kecil-kecil cabe rawit" Indonesian Common Names A basket of Chilli Padi displayed in supermarket The chilies may also be referred to as cili padi (cili pronounced "chili") in Malay because their small size reminds people of the small grained rice eaten as a staple in the region.com http://www. the chili padi is relatively strong at 50. and can be found with colors maturing from green to red. This is the source of a proverb heard in many South-East Asian countries that roughly translates to "small like the bird's eye chili.crazychefs. They can commonly be found in many South-East Asian countries.

and go from green to yellow. annuum Aleppo · Anaheim · Ancho · Banana pepper · Bell pepper · Cascabel · Cayenne · Chilaca · Chiltepin · Cubanelle · De árbol · Dundicut · Fresno · Guajillo · Hungarian wax · Italian sweet · Jalapeño · Japanese · Mirasol · Macho · Mulato · New Mexico (Anaheim) · Pasilla · Pepperoncini · Piquín · Pimento · Poblano · Puya · Serrano · Tien Tsin C. Siling Labuyo (Filipino). essentially the same but less pungent and starting with purple fruit. creating a rainbow effect. v•d•e Capsicum Cultivars C. Ladâ.crazychefs. but slightly less pungent variety. These peppers can grow wild in places like Saipan and Guam. Adjuma · Ají Limo · Ají dulce · Datil · Fatalii · Habanero · Red Savina · chinense Madame Jeanette · Naga Jolokia · Scotch bonnet C. and among the group of capsicum annuum. Thai hot. and boonie pepper (the Anglicized name).As well as the Malay word. and then red. It is the basis for the hybrid Numex twilight. Thai chilies can also be referred to as cabe rawit (Indonesian). phrik khii nuu ( .org/wiki/Thai_pepper" 156 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. African birdseye · Malagueta · Thai pepper · Tabasco · Demon Red frutescens C Ají · Piquanté baccatum C. Rocoto pubescens Retrieved from "http://en. The more decorative. sometimes known as Thai Ornamental. The Chinese in SE Asia call this pepper 'the chili that points to the sky'. has peppers that point upward on the plant. Thai dragon (due to its resemblance to claws). Thai Ornamental Thai Ornanmental hot peppers growing wild on Saipan.net/ . Thai).com http://www. orange.wikipedia.

or used in casseroles. 157 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. It is a kind of celery. furrowed. which store a large amount of starch. about the size of a large potato. grown as a root vegetable for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in diameter. Celeriac may be used raw or cooked. usually mashed.net/ . graveolens Cultivar Group Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) is also known as 'celery root. and is often used as a flavouring in soups and stews.' 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'. it can also be used on its own.com http://www. Celeriac has a celery flavour.Categories: Spices | Chili peppers | Thai ingredients | Malaysian ingredients | Indonesian ingredients | Filipino ingredients | Singaporean ingredients | Indian ingredients Celeriac Celeriac Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Apiales Apiaceae Apium A. gratins and baked dishes. It has a tough. outer surface which is usually sliced off before use because it is too rough to peel. Unlike other root vegetables. celery root is only about 5-6% starch by weight.

Among them are 'Prinz'. perhaps because it is harder to prepare and clean.2 g .crazychefs.5 oz) Energy 40 kcal 180 kJ Carbohydrates . Celeriac normally keeps well and should last three to four months if stored between 0°C (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and 5°C (41 degrees Fahrenheit) and not allowed to dry out. 'Diamant'.com http://www. Celeriac is not as widely used as some other root vegetables. The tomato juice is lightly flavoured with celery as it passes through the stalk. Celeriac soup. Celeriac. 'Ibis'. rinsed. Source: USDA Nutrient database 158 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Sugars 1. There are a number of cultivars available. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.3 g 1.The hollow stalk of the upper plant is sometimes cut into drinking straw lengths.net/ .8 g Fat Protein Water Vitamin K 41 μg 0. and used in the serving of tomato-based drinks such as the Bloody Mary cocktail.Dietary fiber 1. especially in Europe. which all received Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit designation in the trial in 2000.6 g 9.5 g 88 g 39% Phosphorus 115 mg16% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. and 'Kojak'.

com http://www. As a nightshade. with large coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. or brinjal (Solanum melongena). it is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India. Synonyms Solanum ovigerum Dunal Solanum trongum Poir.Eggplant Eggplant / Aubergine Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall. melongena Binomial name Solanum melongena L. 159 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It bears a fruit of the same name. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The stem is often spiny. aubergine.net/ . (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger. The flowers are white to purple. and see text The eggplant. is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum.crazychefs. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual.

from Arabic al-badinjan. with their distinctive br-jn or brn-jl aspects. and Canada refers to the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. from Persian bad'en-j'aan. from Sanskrit vatin-ganah). The name eggplant. and contains numerous small. The name aubergine. an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 CE. is an adoption from the French word (derived from Catalan albergínia." Aubergine and brinjal. Australia.crazychefs.net/ . The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one variety. History Solanum melongena. less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants. but are bitter because they contain (an insignificant amount of) nicotinoid alkaloids. 160 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is used in British English. which are edible. it also goes by the Latin derivative "meloongen". In Indian and South African English.with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. flower The plant is native to India. 1500 CE. New Zealand. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qí mín yào shù. used in the United States.com http://www. along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names. unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. derive from Persian and Sanskrit. the fruit is known as a "brinjal. the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely dangerous. indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. but much larger in cultivated forms.[1][2] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory[citation needed] but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry. The fruit is fleshy. In the Caribbean Trinidad.[3] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it. soft seeds.

and were sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America. There are even orange varieties.Cultivated varieties Three varieties of eggplant In Thai cuisine small and round varieties are preferred. Pingtung Long. slightly pendulous cucumber. shape and color. whiteskinned. Black Magic.crazychefs. especially purple. Dusky. Classic. Slim cultivars in purpleblack skin include Little Fingers. in green skin Louisiana Long Green and Thai (Long) Green. Colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. and Black Beauty.com http://www. or white. Burpee Hybrid. from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid. Some cultivars have a color gradient. Traditional. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower. sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Bicolored cultivars in striping include 161 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include Harris Special Hibush. Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size. A much wider range of shapes. 12–25 cm wide (4 1/2 to 9 in) and 6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin. in white skin Dourga. green. egg-shaped cultivars include Casper and Easter Egg. Ichiban. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include Rosa Bianca and Violetta di Firenze.net/ . and Tycoon.

As a native plant. rice. braised (紅燒茄子). A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti Gulla is grown in Matti village of Udupi district in Karnataka state in India. or other fillings and then baked. and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes.Listada de Gandia and Udumalapet. complex flavor. for example in sambhar. Some modern varieties do not need this treatment. Salting and then rinsing the sliced fruit (known as "degorging") can soften and remove much of the bitterness though this is often unnecessary. it is widely used in Indian cuisine. In one dish.com http://www. it can be blended with whey as kashk ebademjan. miniature varieties (most commonly called Vengan) are popular. is used to cook a famous wedding dish[citation needed]. as they are far less bitter. the Arabian moussaka. tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan.crazychefs. Slices of eggplant are marinated with salt and chilli powder. tahini. Cooking The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste. The plant is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. curries. it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables'. 162 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and spices it makes the Indian dish baingan ka bhartha. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine. In Iranian cuisine. In some parts of India. In the Caucasus. or Eggplant Parmesan. peanuts. the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. The fruit can also be stuffed with meat. but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich. and garlic. It can be sliced. allowing for very rich dishes. It. as in the related tomato. so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients such as lemon. for example. It is often stewed. Brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut. it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. and deep-fried. but the salting process will reduce the amount of oil absorbed. stewed (魚香茄子) or stuffed (釀茄子). the Italian melanzane alla parmigiana. as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. tahini. chutney. and masala and then cooked in oil. battered. In Bangladesh. along with the fish Hilsa. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food. it is called Begun ( ). The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces. and achaar. so that peeling is not required. as in the French ratatouille. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred. or tamarind. Grilled and mashed and mixed with onions. Melanzane alla Parmigiana. The fruit flesh is smooth. tomatoes.net/ . The thin skin is also edible. then served with various sauces which may be based on yoghurt.

and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables. and spider mites. and potato. flea beetle. [4] Statistics A purple eggplant which has been sliced in half.) between plants. showing the inside. the most serious of which is Verticillium.net/ . The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. are also troublesome to eggplants. Common North American pests include the potato beetle. depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. pepper (capsicum). containing both female and male structures. Egypt. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. (Adults can be removed by hand. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). depending on cultivar. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases.crazychefs. This is called Beguni ( ). Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. Flowers are complete. with 85 percent of output coming from three countries. For this reason. Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in.) to 60 cm (24 in. Turkey and Indonesia round out the top producing nations. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed.com http://www. Cultivation In tropical and subtropical climates. eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. Production of eggplant is highly concentrated. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. More than 4 million acres 163 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and 60 cm to 90 cm (24 to 36 in. though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control.covered with a batter of bashone and deep-fried and eaten as a snack. such as tomato. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and will turn brown just minutes after slicing. aphids. China is the top producer (56% of world output) and India is second (26%). Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease.) between rows.

P = official figure.043.[5] In the United States.4 g Fat Protein Thiamine (Vit. semi-official or estimates).35 g .037 mg 2% 164 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. B2) 0. F = FAO estimate.crazychefs.039 mg 5.(2. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. B1) 0.Dietary fiber 3. Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision[not in citation given] Health properties Eggplant. New Jersey is the largest producing state.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates .01 g 3% Riboflavin (Vit.19 g 1.Sugars 2.com http://www. Top ten eggplant/aubergine producers — 11 June 2008 Country People's Republic of China India Egypt Turkey Indonesia Iraq Japan Italy Sudan United Kingdom World Production Footnote (Tonnes) 18 033 000 8 450 200 1 000 000 791 190 390 000 380 000 375 000 271 358 230 000 198 000 32 072 972 F F A F F F F F No symbol = official figure. * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data.788 hectares) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.7 g 0. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official.net/ .

2 mg Calcium 9 mg Iron 0.[8] On average. which may be due to the fact that eggplant is high in histamines. Source: USDA Nutrient database 6% 6% 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5% 2% Studies of the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University. 20lbs (9 kg) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens.084 mg Folate (Vit.Niacin (Vit. but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. B9) 22 μg Vitamin C 2. Allergies Case reports of itchy skin and/or mouth after handling and/or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome).crazychefs.[9] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[10] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[11] have also been reported. with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0.4% showed symptoms in less than 2 hours. B3) 0. the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible compared to passive smoking.[7] Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant. 165 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. such as hayfever) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant.281 mg 6% Vitamin B6 0.649 mg 4% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.[12] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals. would have shown that eggplant is effective in the treatment of high blood cholesterol[citation needed]. A recent (2008) study of a sample of 741 people in India (where eggplant is commonly consumed) found that nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant.net/ . Another study from Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found no effects at all and does not recommend eggplant as a replacement to statins.24 mg Magnesium 14 mg Phosphorus 25 mg Potassium 230 mg Zinc 0. Brazil.01 mg/100g).25 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.[6] It helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. However. while 1. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to hypersensitivity.16 mg Manganese 0.com http://www.

[14] 166 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Names for various eggplant types. other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni respectively. edule. oblongo-cylindricum. Solanum album Noronha Solanum insanum L. ruber. aethiopicum. such as agreste. mainly by Dikii. depressum dwarf eggplant Solanum melongena var. Schuhmacher & Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. were occasionally considered eggplant varieties.[14] Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii—but unlike the tomato which back then was generally put in a different genus—the eggplant was also described as S. in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. luteum. capsicoides). tongdongense. known as gilo and nakati and described by Linnaeus as S. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. album.F. divaricatum. insanum. variegatum. On the other hand. Scopoli's S. globosi. and (invalidly) by Sweet. ovigerum and S. which used to include Dunal's S. subrepandum. giganteum. esculentum. A list of other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[14] Melongena ovata Mill. S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant. racemosum. ovigera. Similarly.net/ . The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. Solanum incanum and Cockroach Berry (S. stenoleucum. But this is not correct. are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. inerme.C. multifidum. inerme and subinerme at that time. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. serpentium snake eggplant Synonyms The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. racemiflorum. trongum. Solanum oviferum Salisb.[14] The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the Scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants. Solanum melanocarpum Dunal Solanum melongenum St. esculentum common eggplant (Ukrainian Beauty)[13] Solanum melongena var. Solanum longum Roxb. He also recognized varieties aculeatum. violaceum. Dunal.com http://www. esculentum. which is also a junior synonym of Sticky Nightshade (S sisymbriifolium). An inordinate number of subspecies and varieties have been named. sinuatorepandum. an unrelated plant described by Ortega.Varieties Solanum melongena var. lasiocarpum.crazychefs. that of Blanco to S. leucoum. There is an actual S. aethiopicum. brownii.-Lag. H. rumphii. violaceum and viride.

ISBN 1574445510. common. ^ Doijode. Footnotes 1. ^ Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology".Image gallery Matti Gulla Japanese eggplant Japanese eggplant flower fruit Purple eggplants Eggplant flower The flowers of the Thai eggplant The fruit of the Thai eggplant. Haworth Press: ISBN 1560229012 167 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. (2001). Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157).com http://www. S. Hui (2006). D. Handbook of Food Science.net/ . and Engineering by Yiu H.crazychefs. 2. CRC Press. The white A long slender residue on the leaves is eggplant. Technology.

Domino.pdf. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. ^ Health24. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. Miyachi Y. 6. ^ Westerfield. 202 4.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. Ebury Press. Bruno Caramelli. http://faostat.3.fao. 2008 10. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 38(11):1795-1802. The New England Journal of Medicine. ^ a b c d Solanaceae Source [2008] References SOLANACEAE SOURCE [2008]: Solanum melongena. Andréa Thomaz. Vol. 1993 Number 6 9. Retrieved 2007-04-24. ^ B. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25.net/ . 5. Allergy to Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by a Putative Secondary Metabolite.133(42):2081-3 12. esculentum 'Ukrainian Beauty' PlantFiles 14.Aubergine 8. Categories: Eggplants | Flora of the Maldives | Native crops of India | Tropical fruit | Fruits originating in Asia 168 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tsenge Demana. Dieges PH. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant Contact Dermatitis 2004. ^ Edward F. ^ Juliana Marchiori Praça.) reveals female predominance. ^ SN Pramod. "Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels". 2004. ^ Fuchsia Dunlop (2006). ^ Gerth van Wijk R. ^ Solanum melongena var. volume 82 (nº 3).crazychefs. http://pubs. ^ Kabashima K. pp. Robert (2008-11-14). Toorenenbergen AW. 273-6. FAO. 2008-11-11. The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. Erich Hornbach.com http://www. P. Venkatesh * A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L.* YP Venkatesh. Harish Babu * .com . J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008. N.edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/C934.50(2):101-102 11. Arq Bras Cardiol. 7.caes.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. "Pollination of Vegetable Crops" (pdf). Retrieved 2009-07-01. Volume 329:437 August 5. P.uga. 18(1): 59-62 13. Mahesh † and Y. A. ^ "FAOSTAT".

they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. It is a perennial. often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. was transported to Mexico where it 169 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0.4–0. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru.8 in) across. Tomato plants typically reach to 1– 3 metres (3–10 ft) in height.net/ . Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.Tomato Tomato Cross-section and full view of a ripe tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S. lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. with a serrated margin.crazychefs. see section Fruit or vegetable below).com http://www. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long. odd pinnate. syn. The tomato is native to South America. woody stem that often vines over other plants.[3] These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. Solanum lycopersicum. the fruit of most varietals ripens to a distinctive red color.[2] each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum[1]) is a herbaceous. usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that is typically cultivated for the purpose of harvesting its fruit for human consumption. Savory in flavor (and accordingly termed a vegetable. and have a weak. with 5–9 leaflets on petioles. with five pointed lobes on the corolla. One species. yellow.

in certain areas of Italy. an Italian physician and botanist. and later ɬ called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. lycopersicum. Aztecs and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking. In Britain Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. Spanish distribution After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. They also took it to the Philippines. the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico[citation needed]. originated and was encouraged in Mesoamerica.[5] According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived. means "wolf-peach". and cultivation began in the 1540s. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. such as Florence.[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃ iˈˈtomat ]). meaning plump thing with a navel. and was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. cerasiforme. who named it pomo d‘oro. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. The exact date of domestication is not known.[5] the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. corn and salt. published in 1597 and 170 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[4] The large. smaller vegetable . a barber-surgeon. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by 500BC. one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato. lumpy tomato. However.was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers.net/ . However.[6] Gerard's Herbal. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. now Mexico City in 1521. ancestor of L. according to Smith. likely to be the original salsa recipe.com http://www. tomatl. the other by currant tomatoes. a mutation from a smoother. was the first European to take back the tomato. Two modern tomato cultivar groups. earlier in 1493. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli.crazychefs. an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy. The specific name. The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language. golden apple. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent.

Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton. ―within the last forty years.[6] Nonetheless. North America The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers.com http://www. One route was through Turkey and Armenia and the second route was through the Qajar royal family's frequent travels to France.net/ . monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. particularly Florida and California. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. the British tomato industry has declined as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain.crazychefs. Rick. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. British consul in Aleppo c. The University of California. Currently. 1799 – c. who ate tomatoes in Paris. and before the end of that century. Because of their longer growing season for this heat-loving crop.M.largely plagiarized from continental sources. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. but the fruit is safe). they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. is called "Istanbuli Polao" (Istanbul Pilaf) by Iranians. In Victorian times. Charles M.[6] But by the mid-1700s. In 1881 it is described as only eaten in the region. Paella. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a genebank of wild relatives. Middle East The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. Thomas Jefferson. the name used for tomato in Iran is "Gojeh Farangi" (Foreign Plum). sent some seeds back to America.[10] The Center is named for the late Dr. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. California. The early name used for tomato in Iran was "Armani Badenjan" (Armenian Eggplant). The C.[11] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. and as a garnish. Over the past 15 years. cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses. and to the market gardens south of Chichester. and in general. he believed that it was poisonous[6] (tomato leaves and stems actually contain poisonous glycoalkaloids. Production trends 171 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. most famously in Worthing. they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food.‖[9] The tomato entered Iran through two separate routes[citation needed]. broths. Davis (UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. By the mid-18th century. In California tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. The Spanish tomato dish. 1825[7][8] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. Gerard's views were influential.

It may be deleted after Friday. China. and have a lower water content. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from tomberries.net/ . or white fruit are also available. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated. production and 35% of world production.crazychefs.6–2.125 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2008. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2007 were: Top Tomato Producers — 2007 (in tonnes) 33 645 000 China United States Turkey India Egypt World Total 11 500 000 9 919 673 8 585 800 7 550 000 126 246 708 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13] Cultivation and uses This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. about 5mm in diameter.0–2. but a number of cultivars with yellow. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento 172 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 7–9 centimetres (3– 4 in) long and 4–5 centimetres (1. about the same 1–2 centimetres (0.4 in) diameter range. purple.8 in) size as the wild tomato. For processing tomatoes.com http://www. pink. through cherry tomatoes. 18 September 2009. the largest producer.0 in) diameter. green. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. orange. followed by United States and Turkey. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types. Most cultivars produce red fruit.S.[12] According to FAOSTAT. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 centimetres (2. they are known as plum tomatoes.4–0. accounted for about one quarter of the global output. black. up to "beefsteak" tomatoes 10 centimetres (4 in) or more in diameter. The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. California accounts for 90% of U.

based mostly on shape and size.[17] Varieties See List of tomato cultivars There are many (around 7500) tomato varieties grown for various purposes. and are shaped like large strawberries. there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce.crazychefs. A variety of heirloom tomatoes Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories.Valley where a 120-acre Morning Star cannery handles 1. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular.[16] Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower.[18] and productivity. along with zucchini. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well. globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. all are self-pollinators who have bred true for 40 years or more. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers. are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong. 173 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful[citation needed] crops at the cost of disease resistance.[15] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and. as well as heirloom tomatoes.net/ .their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life. but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed[citation needed].2 million pounds[14] of tomatoes an hour during the harvest season where the fields yield about 40 tons to the acre. to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes.com http://www. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague. plum tomatoes. since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. As in most sectors of agriculture. but unlike commercial hybrids. beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications .[19] Hybrid plants remain common. oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks.

but must be bought as seed. Black Krim (lower left corner). they are bigger then cherry tomatoes. there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate".cherry tomatoes are small and round. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes which keep for months in storage. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing. and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. although some determinate heirlooms exist.especially heirlooms . Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. As an intermediate form. et cetera. low acidity.[21] Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. multiple colors (Hillbilly. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. disease and pest resistance. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time.com http://www. Red Boar).produce fruit in colors other than red.net/ . pink. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. orange. often via mail-order. Green Zebra (top right). Determinate. these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. 174 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape. home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. they are often good choices for container growing. ivory.crazychefs. including Brandywine (biggest red). or bush.[20] There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. white. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. including yellow. brown. and purple. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). Lucky Cross). black. or home growers interested in canning. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. some tomato cultivars . which usually discourages fruit set. a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. and lack of mealiness. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. etc. but are smaller than plum tomato. Burracker's Favorite. A variety of specific cultivars.

often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer can be used for extra growth and production. tomatoes required cross-pollination.alternaria. but manure or compost work well.net/ . and remain. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus.[24] and Colorado potato beetles.and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. slugs.crazychefs. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. As the name implies. [22] Tomatoes grow well with 7 hours of sunlight a day. the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. cutworms. their traditional pollinators. red spider mite. although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. T . Pollination The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. original state. A fertilizer with the ratio 5-10-10. Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top.verticillium wilt. cabbage loopers. The most commonly home grown tomato is the Beefsteak variety.tobacco mosaic virus. carried by the beet leafhopper. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs.fusarium wilt strain I. aphids. which interrupts the lifecycle. flea beetles. The most common letters are: V . as well as their ability to be picked before fully ripening. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) 175 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www. too. whiteflies. F .fusarium wilt strain I & II. tomato fruitworms. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. As a floral device to reduce selfing.[23] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. FF . N nematodes. In the wild. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. The stamens were. entirely within the closed corolla. and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes. Diseases and pests Main article: List of tomato diseases Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. they were much more selfincompatible than domestic cultivars. and A .

depending on variety. They may be recognized by their color. or more often today. However. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually).crazychefs.com http://www.became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind. In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. In an outside setting. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. Unripe tomatoes are firm. Hydroponic tomatoes are also available. by cultured bumblebees. with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator.net/ . 176 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. as with most species. This is not the same as self-pollination. The pollen moves through pores in the anther. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. In more temperate climates. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier. Picking and ripening Unripe tomatoes Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene.

anthocyanin.crazychefs. They contain lycopene. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor. and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. especially in cooked tomatoes. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. Though it is botanically a berry. especially Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines. Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer[25] but other research contradicts this claim.Dietary fiber 1 g Fat Protein Water 0.Sugars 2. a subset of fruit.[26] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. as tomato sauce. 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97).net/ . one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. or paste. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). and other antioxidants.com http://www.6 g 4g . Modern uses and nutrition Red tomatoes. high levels of anthocyanin (P20 Blue). which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine".5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 80 kJ Carbohydrates .Recently. In some studies lycopene. but still may not be the equal of local garden produce. Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine.[27] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic treasure trove of genes that produce lycopene. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium). in pieces. this acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. used to 177 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. The tomato is acidic. carotene. Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term.2 g 1g 95 g Vitamin C 13 mg 22% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. or pickled. They are bred to continue ripening.[29] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept at room temperature. the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol. Tomato plants are dicots.make salsa. But some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin.5 °F). today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor (see Rotten Tomatoes). which are 178 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. whether because of pruning or flowering. lateral buds take over and grow into other. vines. Reynoldsburg Ohio City Council dedicated a plaque commemorating a proclamation from the Franklin County Historical Society that named Reynoldsburg as the birthplace of the commercial tomato Storage Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripened. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials. These hairs facilitate the vining process. with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands). Cultural impact The town of Buñol.5 °C (54. initially decumbent. it will not continue to ripen. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor but will still be edible. Botanical description Tomato plants are vines. generally three feet tall or shorter. Of regular leaves. meaning covered with fine short hairs. Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature. often by sun. there are variations. and sold either in bags or in jars in oil. Most tomato plants have compound leaves. Embracing it for this protest connotation. but the enzyme[clarification needed] that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12.net/ . such as rugose leaves. and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century.crazychefs. typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported.com http://www. The fruit is also preserved by drying. annually celebrates La Tomatina. and grow as a series of branching stems.[30] Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent. and are called regular leaf (RL) plants. Spain. turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture. although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root. When that tip eventually stops growing. fully functional. the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo.[citation needed] Once fully ripe.[28] In October 1965. although erect bush varieties have been bred. Known for its tomato growth and production. Determinate types are annual in all climates. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests.

The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture. As a true fruit. i. or other external forces that present in the Americas. among cultivated species. and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). moths. Such hybrids provide conclusive evidence of the close relationship between these genera. the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. peach.Karst. many plants of the Americas are self-fertilizing. which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum.g. Similarly.crazychefs. eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. Flowers tend to be self-fertilizing. chili peppers. but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs.. would be more correct.deeply grooved. while paste tomatoes have very few. However. Botanical classification In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. variegated. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry. in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus. The seeds need to come from a mature fruit. However. making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum. it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come. This is because they are native to the Americas. beefsteak tomatoes have a great number of smaller cavities. according to type. it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization. "wolf-peach"). wolf. The 179 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.e.com http://www. where there were no honeybees (which are native to the old world). Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants.. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum).) H. 'lyco'. other insects. very small cavities.net/ . have the anthers fused along the edges. (derivation. butterflies.[31] Their flowers. Other species in that family are potatoes. genetic evidence (e. forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five. angora leaves. its flesh comprising the pericarp walls.[33] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. Despite this. with both names found in the literature. appearing on the apical meristem. making the Linnaean name correct. The tomato can with some difficulty be crossed with a few species of diploid Potato with viable offspring that are capable of reproducing. These vary. that made it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination. Some smaller varieties have two cavities. Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules.[1] if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum. tobacco. Technically.[32] while others are pollinated by flies. which frequently used it and still do). and be dried/fermented before germination. Therefore. called locular cavities. plus 'persicum'.

and several other states as well as in numerous countries worldwide. Breeding Active breeding programs are ongoing by individuals.S. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. corporations. U. that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. 304)). Bejoseed. and organizations.S. from a culinary standpoint. citing both its culinary and botanical classifications.net/ . the term vegetable has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)[2]. 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable. universities. size. in April 2009 a new form of the bill passed. a tomato is the ovary. but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. together with its seeds. rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. University breeding programs are active in Florida. nutritional value.W. shape. Due to the scientific definition of a fruit. the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture related corporations. However. This argument has had legal implications in the United States. 1883. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center. it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal. played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law. Livingston. A. Hedden (149 U.S. In 1887. based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use. the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and. Corporations including Heinz. In 2006.com http://www. Fruit or vegetable? Botanically. and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purpose. Ohio. and numerous seed banks around the world store seed representing genetic variations of value to modern agriculture. As noted above. and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity.[34] The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3. making the tomato the official fruit of the state of Ohio. as are vegetables. Originally the controversy was that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices. have breeding programs that attempt to improve production.crazychefs. AVRDC. 180 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids such as the Mountain series from North Carolina. etc. the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit. the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. disease tolerance.S. BHNSeed. color. flavor. of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit. Oregon. The U.genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. cucumbers. Tomatoes are acidic enough to be processed in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as "vegetables" require. New York. and numerous other traits. U. Supreme Court settled the controversy on May 10. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. North Carolina. of Reynoldsburg. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results. However. Monsanto. These seed stocks are available for legitimate breeding and research efforts. pest tolerance. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants.

Massachusetts. Rhode Island. the U. stems. Tennessee. however. Georgia.Pronunciation The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries. while most American and Canadian speakers usually say ɑ ʊ /təˈme ɾ oʊ /. North Carolina. which is toxic to humans and animals. Virginia. The fresh fruit is. New Hampshire. ɪ The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pə‫ر‬te toʊ / and I like /pə‫ر‬t ‫ر‬to / / You like ɪ ɑ ʊ /tə‫ر‬me toʊ / and I like /tə‫ر‬m ‫ر‬to /) and have become a symbol for nitpicking ɪ ɑ ʊ pronunciation disputes. contain the poison Solanine. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network). and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant. North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak.[37] 2008 181 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Maine.[35] 2006 A sign posted at a Havelock.[36] The affected states included Arkansas. Speakers from the British Isles. Indiana. Children have been poisoned by a tea produced from the leaves of the tomato plant. harmless. Vermont and Wisconsin. the two most common variants are /təˈm ˈto / and /təˈme toʊ /. 2006. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might have been the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states.com http://www. təˈm ˈto / when presented with two choices can mean ɪ ɑ ʊ "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me. Minnesota. Michigan. Kentucky. and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈm ˈto /. most ɑ ʊ ɪ of the Commonwealth.[35] as a member of the plant genus Solanum (Nightshade). Pennsylvania.net/ ."[original research?] Safety Plant toxicity The leaves. Ohio. On October 30. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈme toʊ . Connecticut.crazychefs.S.

000 kilograms (250. and it may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death. the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1017 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 41 states throughout the United States.8 m (65 ft) length. 2007. The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3. Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. It is the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985. and fresh cilantro. It yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz). the U. The greatest number of reported cases occurred in Texas (384 reported cases). such as raw tomato. fresh jalapeño pepper. Illinois (100). respectively.6:1).crazychefs.1 reported cases per million. Food and Drug Administration suspected that the contaminated food product was a common ingredient in fresh salsa. French and Germans.S. Epcot's manager of agricultural science. from April 10.[39] There were at least 203 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak. with a harvest of more than 32. it caused at least one death. China.000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1. fresh serrano pepper.84 pounds (522 kg). The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond. the District of Columbia.151.com http://www. and Arizona (49). UK. New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit by far. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. As of July 2008.net/ . 2008.[40] The CDC maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported. On August 30." Applying a previous CDC estimated ratio of non-reported salmonellosis cases to reported cases (38. and Canada.273 illnesses from this outbreak. Oklahoma in 1986. 40. Yong Huang. Lake Buena Vista. Lancashire.000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British.[42] 182 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley.A 2008 salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19.[citation needed] The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista. with 49. 2008. of the cultivar 'Delicious'.[38] As of July 8. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. Florida.000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. one would arrive at an estimated 40.7 and 16. New Mexico (98). in 2000. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder.[41] Tomato records The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot. discovered the unique plant in Beijing.

indeterminate.Varieties commonly grown by home gardeners include[citation needed]: 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium.crazychefs. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato) 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type) 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety) 'Juliet' (an oblong cherry tomato) 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France. indeterminate cherry tomato) 'Yellow Pear'' (a yellow. Sudduth strain) 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak) 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak) 'Earl‘s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak) 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak) 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type) 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak) 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain) 183 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U. and parts of southeast Asia) 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales) 'Sungold F1' (orange cherry variety with distinctive candy like sweetness) 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific. as UglyRipe) 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain) Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit) 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens) 'Purple Haze' (large cherry.S. indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains) 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. pear-shaped heirloom cultivar) 'Cherry' Small.[12] Heritage and heirloom varieties include: 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type) 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety) 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak) 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type) 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry) 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak) 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak. but just five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes.net/ . cherry shaped Many varieties of processing tomatoes are grown commercially. Brandywine and Black Cherry) 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets) 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom) 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy) 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.S. Derived from Cherokee Purple.com http://www. Fusarium. and Nematodes) 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States) 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea) 'Brandywine' (a pink.

'P20 blue tomato from Vine Ripened Tomato OSU' Culinary uses 184 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Young tomato plant. Tomato plants in the garden. Tomato slices. various strains) 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor) 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type) 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety) Gallery Unripe tomatoes on a Small cherry tomatoes vine.crazychefs. pickling.net/ . Tomato Flower.com http://www. in Korea.'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange) 'Marianna‘s Peace' (red beefsteak) 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak. Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo. Tomato fruit. good for Tomatoes on a vine.

crazychefs.net/ .Pa amb tomàquet Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) Barbecue sauces Bloody Mary Bruschetta Fried green tomatoes (food) Gazpacho (Andalusian cuisine) Insalata Caprese Neapolitan cuisine Ketchup Pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine) Pizza Esqueixada Salsa Tomato juice Tomato paste Tomato pie Tomato purée Tomato sauce (common in Italian cuisine) Tomato soup References 185 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com http://www.

UC Davis Tomato Geneticist Charles Rick Dies at 87. Yourarchives. ^ a b Hartz.crazychefs.. 6.html". ^ "http://www. ^ The Friend. Wettst. 12." See: Natural History Museum. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center. Normania.net/ .com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.C. ISBN 0252-07009-7. et al. and Cookery. Footnotes 1.uk. Appletons' journal Published by D. Retrieved December 11 2009. Retrieved December 11 2009. During the three months of the local harvest.five tons to the acre.easthamptonstar. it handles more than 1. Universityofcalifornia. p. A.uk/index. ^ Acquaah. G.edu. page 57: ". Horticulture: Principles and Practices.gov. http://www. 13.fao. E. http://www. ^ Tomato history 4. I.html". USA: University of South Carolina Press. & Spooner. T.aspx.html. (2001). or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre.ucdavis. Retrieved 2009-04-02. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine.17. Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L.Your Archives". Peralta. Solanaceae Source: Phylogeny of the genus Solanum." 186 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. ISBN 1-57003000-6. 2. 1876. http://www.The East Hampton Star .edu/news/article/4319. Easthamptonstar. ^ a b c d The Tomato in America: Early History. ^ Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans. Andrew F. (2002-0508)".com/dnn/Archive/Home20080814/FoodWine/Seasons/ta bid/6280/Default. 3. http://www. webpage: books-google-TTp17. ^ "http://www. 5. 2008. ^ "Killer Tomatoes . Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center". University of Illinois Press.aspx?PageID=567 14. http://tgrc. ^ a b "Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established that the formerly segregate genera Lycopersicon. and cookery. http://yourarchives..edu/.Food & Wine". 7.. Retrieved 2009-04-02.universityofcalifornia.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. The tomato in America: early history.html.com http://www.com. ^ "UC Newsroom. Processing Tomato Production in California.org/site/567/DesktopDefault. Retrieved 2009-04-02. Cyphomandra. p. Culture.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.edu. F. Andrew F (1994). Retrieved 2008-10-27. American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online). The Tomato in America. 1994. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. and Triguera are nested within Solanum. page 56: "This 120-acre facility is the largest of its type in the world.smithsonianmag. D. p. S. (2002). 11. section Lycopersicon Mill.smithsonianmag. 8.nationalarchives." 15. Tgrc. ^ http://faostat. ^ a b Smith. October 26. culture. 2002-05-08. ^ "C. Subsection Lycopersicon).gov.M. 2009-01-26. Columbia.2 million pounds of tomatoes every hour. 1881. and all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum.php?title=British_Consuls_in_Alep po. M. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. ^ "British Consuls in Aleppo .smithsonianmag. Smith. (1994). Appleton and Co.Smith. 519 [1] 9. 223 10.nationalarchives.ucdavis.

Retrieved 200705-24.html". http://www.osu. Storing and Serving Ohio Tomatoes. 31. http://www.mx.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=44.ucdavis. page 60: "The definition of an heirloom is somewhat vague. http://faq.com/genpage. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Sinaloa".umn.sinaloa. ^ "Tomato Anatomy Home".smithsonianmag. Ncsu. 30.gob. 27.smithsonianmag. 32. ^ "Tomato dishes 'may protect skin'".smithsonianmag.html 23. Retrieved December 11 2009.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. 28.com.kr.uk/2/hi/health/7370759.html. http://www. Retrieved 2009-04-02. HYG-5532-93".html". Ohioline. Retrieved 200810-27.plants.html.html. ^ http://www." 19.edu/stories/Jan07/SolanacaeNSF. http://www.html. News. ^ "No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention". Retrieved December 11 2009. ^ "Selecting.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.am/wiki/Tomato#Novelty_tomatoes 22. http://www.com/faq/lists/tomato/2004111539004321. ^ "A Passion for Tomatoes | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine".mx.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. Retrieved 2008-10-27.html. Retrieved 2007-05-24. ^ "http://www.edu/labs/rost/Tomato/tomhome.edu.Tomato". 17. ^ "Are there different types of tomato leaves?".gob. fungi such as fusarium and verticillium.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5532.bbc. http://ohioline.edu/sustainable/profiles/bot_tom.org/pub_releases/2007-05/aafc-nmt051607.html. http://www.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.edu. http://www.ucdavis.com/science-nature/passion-fortomatoes. Sinaloa. 26. and Brait will be happy if they yield as little as five tons to the acre. http://www. 2006.osu.edu.edu.am/wiki/Tomato#Early_tomatoes 21.whfoods. page 57: "The plants are still growing.html"." 20.gardenweb." 18.net/ .smithsonianmag.edu.co. Retrieved 2008-10-27. which are carried in the wind.ufseeds. page 56: "The Heinz 2401 is also bred for resistance to tomato pathogens.edu.eurekalert. Retrieved December 11 2009.html. ^ "Crop Profiles . Retrieved 2008-10-27. and viruses such as yellow leaf curl and spotted wilt. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. "Tomato genome project gets $1. Retrieved June 30.crazychefs.php. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. 2006. 33. Faq.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes. of which there are many: beetles and nematodes. but all are self-pollinators that have been bred true for 40 years or more. Plb. http://news.smithsonianmag. Retrieved July 14. ^ "Health benefits of tomatoes". Retrieved 2008-10-27.smithsonianmag. they require fewer applications of pesticides than do fresh-market varieties. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension. Smithsonianmag. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 24.gardenweb.html.com/All-About-Tomatoes_a6fd3933f91c4.8M".news.cornell.ncsu.umn. In the August 2008 issue of Smithsonian magazine. Because it doesn't really matter what processing tomatoes look like. ^ "http://www.html. ^ http://www. ^ "http://www. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension. http://www.stm. The Romas I saw being harvested had been sprayed only once. 187 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 29.16. ^ Krishna Ramanujan (30 January 2007). 25.smithsonianmag. http://wwwplb.cornell.com. ^ http://www. or about one-eighth of a Morning Star harvest from one acre. the soil or the mouths of pests such as whitefly and thrips.com http://www.plants.com/science-nature/passion-for-tomatoes.

(2004-04-15). Itn. Foodsafetynetwork.uchicago. 37. Cdc.CBS News". 2008: Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul | Salmonella CDC". p. http://www. ^ "August 8. 2007-08-30. United States.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/. 40. 2004. (2002).html.ca.journals. by state".34.shtml. ^ "Tomatoes taken off menus".com. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 38:S3.html?id=585498.crazychefs. ^ "Food Safety Network: Researchers > From the Food Safety Network > Food Safety Network Publications and Documents &gt Articles > A selection of North American tomato related outbreaks from 1990-2005". ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul.co. ^ a b Pittenger. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 39.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/map. Health Officials Say Bacteria May Have Spread Through Some Form Of Produce . Tomato Recipe". http://itn. Dennis R. http://www. Retrieved 2008-1027. http://www. http://www.edu/doi/full/10. Nutmeg Nutmeg 188 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 41.gov.com/highestperch8. ^ "Vegetarians in Paradise/Tomato History. 9781879906549.uk/news/9a5a1671ceba4f43741dc008f237c1ea. ISBN 1879906546. ^ "CDC Probes Salmonella Outbreak.nationalpost.uk.foodsafetynetwork. ^ "ITN.cdc. http://www. 38.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. http://www. 36. http://www. 42. Retrieved 2009-0402.1086/381578.co. ANR Publications. Cbsnews. ^ Voetsch.co.com.com/news/canada/story.com. Retrieved 2008-10-27. California Master Gardener Handbook. 643.net/ . Vegparadise.com/stories/2006/10/30/national/main2138331.cdc. http://www. "Spain's tomato fighters see red"". 35. Tomato Nutrition.google. Retrieved 200904-02. Retrieved 2008-10-27. "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States".ca/en/article-details. et al.html. Retrieved 2009-0721.com/books?id=WhWjHB1Zjf8C&pg=PA643.com http://www. Nationalpost.html.vegparadise.uk.cbsnews.

The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0. cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). 189 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. It also grows in Kerala.crazychefs. Species About 100 species. The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. and Bombay Nutmeg M. or sliced finely. including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica inutilis Myristica malabarica Myristica macrophylla Myristica otoba Myristica platysperma Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia. the fruit is also made into jam. roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.2 and 0.4 oz) dried.6 to 0.[1] Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree.7 in) wide. called selei buah pala. including essential oils. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees.Myristica fragrans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Family: Genus: Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica Gronov. malabarica from India. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. especially in Grenada. both are used as adulterants of M.com http://www.net/ .8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0. fragrans products. called Jaiphal in Hindi. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit. nutmeg and mace. The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans. a state in the south part of India. extracted oleoresins. it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. and nutmeg butter (see below). argentea from New Guinea. In Indonesia. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. or Spice Islands. native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed.

It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India and as Jatipatri and Jathi seed in Kerala. nutmeg grounds are often used as a spice for savoury dishes.net/ . green. and baked goods. nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker. In Arabic. It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. and Barbados rum punch. cauliflower. sauces. Nutmeg is also blended (creating a fresh. In Dutch cuisine nutmeg is quite popular. nutmeg is made into pickles and these pickles are even shredded as toppings on the uniquely Penang Ais Kacang. Typically it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. In Greece and Cyprus nutmeg is called μοστοκάρσδο (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut") and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. Essential oils Nutmeg seeds 190 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. nutmeg is called Jawzt at-Tiyb. "Lau Hau Peng". In Penang cuisine. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange. it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider. tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make Iced Nutmeg juice or as it is called in Penang Hokkien. In European cuisine. In Indian cuisine. mulled wine. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient. In the Caribbean. and string beans. and eggnog. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. saffronlike hue it imparts.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine. Painkiller. nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products. nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour.Culinary uses Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities. nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine).com http://www. Nutmeg is a tasty addition to cheese sauces and is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater).crazychefs. they are also used in soups.

used as flavourings. in toothpaste. beverages.com http://www. a 14-carbon fatty acid which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter. for instance. preserving agents.Nutmeg The essential oil is obtained by the steam distillation of ground nutmeg and is used heavily in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. and sweets. although this is disputed. which can be turned into myristic acid. and smells and tastes of nutmeg. It replaces ground nutmeg as it leaves no particles in the food. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. reddish brown in colour. and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods.crazychefs. Nutmeg butter Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil. that were at the time highly valued in European markets. and has applications as an industrial lubricant. syrups. Saint Theodore the Studite ( ca. and tastes and smells of nutmeg. and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. In traditional medicine nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for illnesses related to the nervous and digestive systems. The oil is colourless or light yellow. medicines. 758 – ca. It is known to have been used as a prized and costly spice in medieval cuisine. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry. It is semi-solid. History Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit There is some evidence to suggest that Roman priests may have burned nutmeg as a form of incense.net/ . Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin. 826) was 191 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

famous for allowing his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times it was believed that nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg was very popular. The small Banda Islands were the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for exorbitant prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[2] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.[3] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. But full control of this trade was not possible and they remained largely participants, rather than overlords since the authority Ternate held over the nutmeg-growing centre of the Banda Islands was quite limited. Therefore, the Portuguese failed to gain a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The British and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run in exchange for the British controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch managed to establish control over the Banda Islands after an extended military campaign that culminated in the massacre or expulsion of most of the islands' inhabitants in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. Today, a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit is found on the national flag of Grenada. Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud) [2].

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World production

Commercial jar of nutmeg mace World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons) per year with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products with a world market share of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St. Vincent. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. At one time, nutmeg was one of the most valuable spices. It has been said that in England, several hundred years ago, a few nutmeg nuts could be sold for enough money to enable financial independence for life. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting and the trees reach their full potential after 20 years.

Psychoactivity and toxicity
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response. Large doses can be dangerous (potentially inducing convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain).[4] In large amounts it is reputed to be a strong deliriant.[5] Users report both negative and positive experiences, involving strong hallucinations, and in some cases quite severe anxiety. Users may feel a sensation of blood rushing to the head, or a strong euphoria and dissociation.[citation needed] Nutmeg contains myristicin, a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

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Speculative comparisons between the effects of nutmeg intoxication and MDMA (or 'ecstasy') have been made.[6] However, nutmeg contains amphetamine derivatives and such are formed in the body of a significant number of people from the main chemical components of nutmeg.[7] Use of nutmeg as a recreational drug is unpopular due to its unpleasant taste and its possible negative side effects, including dizziness, flushes, dry mouth, accelerated heartbeat, temporary constipation, difficulty in urination, nausea, and panic. In addition, experiences usually last well over 24 hours making recreational use rather impractical.[citation
needed]

A risk in any large-quantity ingestion of nutmeg is the onset of 'nutmeg poisoning', an acute psychiatric disorder marked by thought disorder, a sense of impending doom/death, and agitation. Some cases have resulted in hospitalization.[citation needed]

Toxicity during pregnancy
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[8]

In popular culture
In a Beavis & Butthead episode featuring a music video for the song "Dang" by John Spencer Blues Explosion, Beavis asks Butthead at the end of the video if he "has any more nutmeg." This refers to nutmeg's psychoactive properties, as the strange video intentionally makes no sense yet greatly appeals to the two music video critics. In his autobiography, Malcom X mentions incidences of prison inmates consuming nutmeg powder, usually diluted in a glass of water, in order to become inebriated. The prison guards eventually catch on to this practice and crack down on nutmeg's use as a psychoactive in the prison system.

See also
Run (island): Seventeenth-century British-Dutch rivalry for a source of nutmegs.

Footnotes
1. ^ [1] 2. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7; Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. pp. 5 and 7. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. 3. ^ Hannard (1991), page 7 4. ^ "BMJ". http://emj.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/22/3/223. 5. ^ "Erowid". http://www.erowid.org/plants/nutmeg/. 6. ^ "MDMA". http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=5469. 7. ^ Beyer J., Ehlers D., Maurer H.H. (2006). Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans houtt.) : Studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 28(4):568-575. 8. ^ Herb and drug safety chart Herb and drug safety chart from BabyCentre UK
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References
Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T. W., & Naranjo, C. (1967). Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. United States Public Health Service Publication 1645: 202–214. Gable, R. S. (2006). The toxicity of recreational drugs. American Scientist 94: 206– 208. Devereux, P. (1996). Re-Visioning the Earth: A Guide to Opening the Healing Channels Between Mind and Nature. New York: Fireside. pp. 261–262. Milton, Giles (1999), Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How One Man's Courage Changed the Course of History Erowid Nutmeg Information

Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate

IUPAC name CAS number PubChem EC-number SMILES ChemSpider ID

[show] Identifiers 142-47-2 85314 205-538-1 [show]

76943 Properties Molecular formula C5H8NNaO4 Molar mass 169.111 g/mol Appearance white crystalline powder Melting point 225 °C, 498 K, 437 °F Solubility in water 74g/100mL (what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

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Crystalline monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. It has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, and Accent. It was once predominantly made from wheat gluten, but is now mostly made from bacterial fermentation; it is acceptable for celiacs following a gluten-free diet.[1][2][3][4] Although traditional Asian cuisine had often used seaweed extract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, MSG was not isolated until 1907 by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder; when immersed in water or saliva, it rapidly dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid).

Production and chemical properties
MSG is normally obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates, using bacterial or yeast species from genera such as Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, and Corynebacterium. Yields of 100 g/litre[citation needed] can be prepared in this way. From 1909 to the mid 1960s, MSG was prepared by the hydrolysis of wheat gluten, which is roughly 25% glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is one of the least soluble amino acids, which facilitates its purification.[5] Like the sodium salts of other amino acids, MSG is a stable colourless solid that is degraded by strong oxidizing agents. It exists as a pair of mirror image stereoisomers (enantiomers), but only the naturally occurring L-glutamate form is used as a flavour enhancer.

Commercialization
The Ajinomoto company was formed to manufacture and market MSG in Japan; the name 'Aji no moto' translates to "essence of taste". It was introduced to the United States in 1947 as Ac'cent flavor enhancer.[6]

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[12] While many people believe that MSG is the cause of these symptoms.[9][not in citation given] Examples include: Pre-prepared stocks often known as stock cubes or bouillon cubes.5 million tonnes were sold in 2001. MSG is now used by most fast food chains and in many foodstuffs." However." The food additives disodium 197 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. or dried prepared food Common snack foods such as flavoured jerky.[11] Subsequent research found that while large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG.[10] Health concerns Main article: Glutamic acid (flavor)#Research into health effects MSG as a food ingredient has been the subject of health studies. based on anecdotal reports. frozen.6% of the naturally predominant L-glutamate form.com http://www. glutamate in these brewed products may have 5% or more of the D-enantiomer. in large part because glutamic acid is pervasive in nature. including hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. and Worcestershire sauce have levels of glutamate similar to foods with added MSG. About 1.[12][13][14][15] Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a placebo-controlled double-blinded experimental design and the application in capsules because of the strong and unique after-taste of glutamates. not reproducible. a statistical association has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions.[10] Manufactured MSG contains over 99. Canned. any one of which may appear as "spices" or "natural flavorings.net/ . steak sauce. it also said that. hydrolyzed yeast.[13] United States Monosodium glutamate is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods. even in studies with people who were convinced that they were sensitive to it. sugar cane. with 4% annual growth expected. and protein isolate. However. yeast extract. which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ions of naturally occurring foods. or molasses. particularly processed foods. the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent. soy extracts. being an amino acid. A report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) compiled in 1995 on behalf of the FDA concluded that MSG was safe for most people when "eaten at customary levels. Glutamic acid and its salts can also be present in a wide variety of other additives.crazychefs. Fermented products such as soy sauce. Although once associated with foods in Chinese restaurants.Modern commercial MSG is produced by fermentation[7] of starch. Seasoning mixtures Only the L-glutamate enantiomer has flavour-enhancing properties. autolyzed yeast. and were not observed when MSG was given with food. flavoured potato chips and flavoured tortilla chips. some people may have an MSG intolerance which causes "MSG symptom complex" — commonly referred to as Chinese restaurant syndrome — and/or a worsening of asthmatic symptoms. sugar beets.[8] MSG is used commercially as a flavour enhancer. Condiments such as barbecue sauce and salad dressing.

flavour enhancer). Currently most of the world production of [monosodium glutamate] is by bacterial fermentation.7% women). [monosodium glutamate]. even in large amounts.g. and converted to its monosodium salt. In 1993. The label must bear the food additive class name (e. 373-375. the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids.html 2. "Monosodium glutamate can generally be produced by three methods: (1) hydrolysis of proteins such as gluten or proteins present in sugar beet wastes. New York: Wiley. The glutamic acid is separated from the fermentation broth by filtration. purified.". In the hydrolysis method. a nitrogen source such as ammonium ions or urea.[16] Australia and New Zealand Standard 1. dextrose or citrate).celiac. MSG. Foster.crazychefs." Asia The INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group conducted a study of 752 healthy Chinese (48. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food. food scientist Harold McGee states that "[after many studies]. and provide a likely indicator of the presence of monosodium glutamate in a product. acidification. 621.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires the presence of MSG as a food additive to be labeled. Albert Y.com http://www. such as hydrolyzed protein. The bacteria selected for this process have the ability to excrete glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the medium and accumulate there. For this reason. "Monosodium Glutamate". the FDA proposed adding the phrase "(contains glutamate)" to the common or usual names of certain protein hydrolysates that contain substantial amounts of glutamate. concentration. This used to be the major method of [monosodium glutamate] manufacture. Steven (August 2003). toxicologists have concluded that MSG is a harmless ingredient for most people.2. followed by conversion to its monosodium salt [monosodium glutamate]. pp. and crystallization.. and Cosmetics (2nd ed. Drugs. 198 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.com/articles/181/1/Safe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-SafeIngredients/Page1.. ^ Leung.inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used along with monosodium glutamatecontaining ingredients.). the FDA considers labels such as "No MSG" or "No Added MSG" to be misleading if the food contains ingredients that are sources of free glutamate. followed by either the name of the food additive. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture. ^ http://www. randomly sampled from three rural villages in north and south China and determined that MSG intake may be positively correlated to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index). age 40–59 years. and mineral ions and growth factors. (2) synthesis. or its International Numbering System (INS) number. References 1. and (3) microbial fermentation.g. On Food and Cooking. In this method bacteria (especially strains of Micrococcus glutamicus) are grown aerobically in a liquid nutrient medium containing a carbon source (e.net/ . In the 2004 version of his book.

jstor. doi:10. ^ a b Rundlett. Martha L. Sano. "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study".1111/j.5. Daviglus. Chirality 6 (4): pp. Linda. Guo. Ka. "A Short History of MSG". Julia (2008-03-05).2006. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18 (10): 482–6. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S. MSG. "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review". Van Horn. 277–282. "Yes. Liancheng.net/ .4. Garside. http://www. Pharmacol.html 4. doi:10. Nutr.html. Chiaki. Zhou. ^ "Production process".. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.crazychefs. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. ^ a b Tarasoff L.ajinomoto. the Secret Behind the Savor".gov/~lrd/msg.celiac. 13.1016/02786915(93)90012-N. Regul. doi:10. ^ http://www. Alan R.a16 711. 15. Gastronomica 5 (4): pp. Jeremiah (August 2008). Beifan. (October 2006). 31 (12): 1019–1035.1038/oby.1002/14356007. Food Chem. ^ a b Geha RS. et al.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10736382. Anjimoto Co. doi:10. Linguang. Zhu.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. ^ Moskin. http://jn. doi:10. ^ http://vm. "The significance of excursions above the ADI.274. Shizuko (2005). http://www. Shigeru.cfsan.ncbi. New York Times. Obesity (The Obesity Society) 16 (8): pp.com/amino/eng/product.1525/gfc.x. Daniel W (1994).nlm. Takehara. PMID 16999713. Daniel.html 12. Armstrong. 6. Shioya. Jordan (2005). Ren C. Toxicol. Zhao.org/stable/3421360 5.1337. Yamaguchi. Kelly M.F.fda. 16. 10. Wu. ^ Walker R (October 1999). PMID 18497735.17457599. J. 7. ^ http://www. 11. ^ http://www. PMID 8282275. ^ Kawakita. http://www.2008.2005. PMID 10736382.nytimes. "Monosodium Glutamate".ajinomoto. "Evaluation of free Dglutamate in processed foods". ^ Sand..gov/entrez/query. Tetsuya.3. (1993).ca/Articles/Fall1990-1.jp/ajinomoto/ACompany/company/zaimu/pdf/fact/food_biz. Inc. Case study: monosodium glutamate". 1875–1880. PMID 10597625. 8. ^ Freeman M. Stamler. 199 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 38–49.nih.00160. doi:10. Yangfeng.1006/rtph.530060410.nutrition.1999. doi:10.com http://www.1002/chir. ^ He. Masahiro. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–S121.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid s=7915127&dopt=Abstract. Kimber L.38.co. Toxicol. Dongshuang. 14. Beiser A.pdf 9.com/2008/03/05/dining/05glute. (April 2000). "Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study". Dyer.

crazychefs. Chinese name Traditional Chinese 1. 酱油 2. 荳油 3. 豉油 Simplified Chinese 1.com http://www.Soy sauce Soy sauce A bottle of Japanese soy sauce. 豉油 [show]Transliterations Filipino name Tagalog toyo Japanese name Kanji Hiragana 醤油 しょうゆ [show]Transliterations Korean name Hangul 간장 [show]Transliterations 200 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 豆油 3.net/ . 醬油 2.

this was amongst the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version.crazychefs. Japan to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2.Thai name Thai Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ xì dầu or nước tương Soy sauce (US and UK). Europeans of that time were unable to make soy sauce because they didn't understand the function of a crucial ingredient – kōji.[3] In the 18th century.500 years. [4] By the mid-19th century. In its various forms.com http://www. Although many earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West. and salt. "soy sauce" became synonymous with the Chinese product. The volume of Chinese production overwhelmed all other competitors in the Western market. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were forwarded by ship to the Netherlands. water. History Soy sauce originated in China and spread from there to East and Southeast Asia. when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima.[5] 201 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce or shōyu (醤油 shōyu?) in Japan. Soy sauce was invented in China.[2] Records of the Dutch East India Company first list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737. soya sauce (Commonwealth) is produced by fermenting soybeans with the molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus soyae[1] along with roasted grain. it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods.

but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada. Today. Some artificial soy sauces pose potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality. Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University.2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces 202 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Although there are many types of soy sauce.Production Soy sauce is made from soybeans.net/ . sojae) and other related microorganisms. which was believed to contribute to additional flavours.crazychefs. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (旨味. and are exported to Asian markets around the globe[citation needed]. and are popular in Southeast Asia and China. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions. literally "delicious taste"). all are salty and "earthy"-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. most of the commerciallyproduced counterparts are instead fermented under machine-controlled environments. Artificially hydrolyzed Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. Traditional Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (麹. the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce ("化學醬油" in Chinese).com http://www. such as in giant urns and under the sun.

Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight. Despite their rather similar appearance. and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. Dark/old soy sauce (老抽 lǎochōu) : A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping. 203 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ . shuānghuáng (雙璜). It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning. Another type. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition. the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Since it is lighter in color. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish. is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour.crazychefs. which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. It has a richer. ): A thin (nonviscous). it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese. Chinese soy sauce Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese: 酱油.came under scrutiny for possible health risks due to the unregulated 1. An additional classification of light soy sauce. Korean. Types Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. like extra virgin olive oil. is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. Thai. soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste. with relatively low amounts of other grains. opaque. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce (生抽 shēngchōu. pinyin: jiàngyóu. one of the two types. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish. fragrance and saltiness. but it also adds flavour. or a mixture of both.3-dichloro-2propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [6]. slightly sweeter. traditional Chinese: 頭抽). and Chinese cuisine. thick soy sauce (醬油膏 jiàngyóugāo). or 豉油 chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans. since it is saltier. or 酱清 "jiàng qing".com http://www. Touchōu is sold at a premium because. traditional Chinese: 醬油. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽. In traditional Chinese cooking. lighter brown soy sauce.3-DCP (1. consistency.

as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable. this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り). It contains little or no wheat. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake. lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. for example sashimi. which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce. where it is known as "shōyu". is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. Technically. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. Shiro (白?. due to the addition of alcohol in the product. its usage eventually spread all over Japan. "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean. Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient. "light flavor") Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi.[citation needed] Koikuchi (濃口?. Usukuchi (淡口?. that is used in its production. The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate". it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi.Japanese soy sauce Koyo organic tamari sauce Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. Japan is the leading producer of tamari.com http://www.[citation needed] Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu (しょうゆ.net/ . In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce. "strong flavor") Originating in the Kantō region. a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. Tamari (たまり?) Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan.crazychefs. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized. "white") A very light colored soy sauce. or 醤油). It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food. 204 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

205 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Tennen jōzō (天然 醸造?) Means no added ingredients except alcohol. it is much darker and more strongly flavored. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu". All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:[citation needed] Honjōzō hōshiki (本醸造 方式?) Contains 100% naturally fermented product. Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[citation needed] Gen'en (減塩?. Shinshiki hōshiki (新式 方式?) Contains 30–50% naturally fermented product. "sweet flavor") Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it.com http://www. Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman. but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce. All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hyōjun (標準?) Standard pasteurized.crazychefs. 1 litre bottles. "twice-brewed") This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. Consequently. this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce. Amakuchi (甘口?.Saishikomi (再仕込?. since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce. Tokkyū (特級?) Special quality.net/ . "reduced salt") Low-salt soy sauces also exist. not pasteurized.

206 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Tokusen (特選?) Premium quality. which has a thick. which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce. but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor. it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in. Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:[citation needed] Hatsuakane (初茜?) Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring. usually implies limited quantity. it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes. It is a unique variety. Chōtokusen (超特選?) Used by marketers to imply the best.crazychefs. Two main varieties exist: Kecap asin Salty soy sauce. powder. Kecap manis Sweet soy sauce.com http://www. treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. in a pinch. soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap or kicap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. Indonesian soy sauce Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses. almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet. In Indonesia.net/ .

soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油). Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. Joseon ganjang. thin and dark brown in color. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea. which has language and cultural links with Indonesia. WuanChuang(丸 莊) is the oldest brand in Taiwan today and is the only one that maintains major production for both soybean/wheat and black bean soy sauces. which has a less thick consistency and a more saline taste than Manis. traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1. and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce. Korean soy sauce Korean soy sauce. 조선간장. when China ceded Taiwan to Japan.com http://www. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce. Taiwanese soy sauce is perhaps most markedly known for its black bean variant. (called Joseon ganjang. Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan such as KimLan(金蘭).[8][9][10] Vietnamese soy sauce 207 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce. which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). WanJaShan(萬家香). TaTung(大同) and RueiChun(瑞春) make black bean soy sauce. Later. Malaysian soy sauce In Singapore and Malaysia. Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"). in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste).[7] Taiwanese soy sauce The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China. O'Long(黑龍). uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. A few other makers such as WuanChuang(丸莊). President-Kikkoman(統萬) make exclusive soybean and wheat soy sauce.crazychefs. Founded in 1909. brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895.4% of soy sauce purchases. lit. is made entirely of soy and brine. Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin. called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭간장). or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. Malaysia. Some of the top Taiwanese makers have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well. known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油).net/ .

the latter unregulated chemical can cause genetic damage to be passed on to offspring who never consumed the sauces. rather than being naturally fermented) that some 22% of samples contained a chemical called 3-MCPD (3monochloropropane-1. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking. China. and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. Philippine toyo A type of soy sauce based product which is a popular condiment in the Philippines. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second chemical called 1. The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of ingredients made from soybeans. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts.net/ . [12][13] Negative Soy sauce does not contain a level of the beneficial isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame[14]. but it is impossible to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt. and caramel. having a salt content of between 17%-19%[15] so it may not be a suitable condiment for people on a low sodium diet.[6] Furthermore. salt. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced.[16] Britain's Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued a Public Health Advice leaflet[17] in June 2001 to warn against a small number of soy sauce products having been shown to contain high levels of potentially cancer-causing chemicals. it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh).2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the European Union. is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts—possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. it is also a table condiment. pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar. It can also be very salty. Carcinogens in artificial soy sauces In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in tests of various lowgrade soy sauces (those made from hydrolyzed soy protein. Hong 208 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce. or sometimes simply tương.Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu derived from Cantonese name 豉油. The leaflet singled out brands and products (some by batch numbers) imported from Thailand.3-DCP (1.crazychefs. wheat. Health Positive A study by National University of Singapore shows that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine.[11] Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential.3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided.com http://www. and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). pronounced SOO-kah). nước tương.

III.uk/news/pressreleases/2001/jun/soysaucerecall.net/ . Retrieved 2008-01-07. 7. the leaflet does include oyster sauce.asp?id=7598 10.000 times more 3-MPCD than permitted. http://www. marinades and other types of sauces. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application. Pearl River Bridge. Isaac.com. ^ Tanaka. Press release.smartfood.tcoc. "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"). 4. Soon Teck• and Kang. along with formaldehyde in the national dish Pho.tw/60anniversary/century-gofun.gov. Celiac disease. "Shōyu:The Flavor of Japan. Norio. some Australian soya sauces were found to contain carcinogens and consumers were advised to avoid consumption.000 to 18. ^ a b Food Standards Agency (2001-06-20).co.com http://www. A prominent newspaper Thanh Nien Daily commented: "Health agencies have known that Vietnamese soy sauce. pp.htm. Jammy Chai.food. OCLC 9752305 5. 2 (January 2000). Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy). ^ http://www. 7.jp/science/kouenkai/kouenkai. XXVII.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce. ^ http://www. "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea".miyajimasoy. (1781). ^ Tanaka.tw/web/SG?pageID=21609 9. ^ Titsingh. Individuals with a wheat allergy.) In March 2008. Tung Chun and Wanjasham. Although the leaflet primarily looked at soy sauce. they are the dominant brands in their respective nations. 3. p. Retrieved 200801-07.tw/newsdetail.[citation needed] In Vietnam. No." The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. Vol.gmp. p. http://www. Sinsin."[19] (See 2007 Vietnam food scare.317 2. 8. Golden Swan. 2nd edition. or a gluten intolerance should avoid soy sauce that is made with wheat. Kimlan. 2. ^ Jung.Kong and Taiwan.org. 6. the country's second most popular sauce after fish sauce. Golden Mark.crazychefs.[1] Notes 1. Despite these being small in number in the UK. and banned pesticides in vegetables and fruits. that affected the brands Golden Mountain.aspx# 209 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. has been chock full of cancer agents since at least 2001.org. 6. p. Lee Kum Kee.644 times in 2001) [18] in soy sauces there in 2007. ^ Tanaka. an increase over 23 to 5. including six samples with up to 11. King Imperial. 3-MCPD was found in toxic levels (In 2004. "Some Soy Sauce Products To Be Removed". Seong-Gook (2002). ^ http://www.[20] Soy sauce and allergies Further information: Soy allergy Most varieties of soy sauce also contain wheat. the HCM City Institute of Hygiene and Public Health found 33 of 41 sample of soya sauce with high rates of 3MCPD.

Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Society for Biotechnology. Retrieved 2008-01-07. Edition 2. chemical veggies -. ^ UK UK Food Standards Agency: Soy advice leaflet. http://books.nutraingredients. ^ Toxic soy sauce. ^ 'Cancer chemical' in soy sauce 210 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Daniells. ISBN 1587161389. Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. Fereidoon.1263/jbb.com/news/ng. "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand".com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC 15. Somboon (2002-06-18). ^ Tanasupawat. Naczk. Marian (2003). Kentucky: CRC Press. ^ Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public 19. p. "Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce: Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce".48. 186. ^ Bamford. PMID 16198255. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (The Microbiology Research Foundation) 48 (4): 201–209.com http://www.food scares hit Vietnam 20.2323/jgam. Japan) 1 (2): 144–151.144. ISBN 0632059877. Florence. ^ barchronicle(Philippine government) 17. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. http://www. Makio (2005-04-18). et al. ^ Shahidi. Stephen (2006-06-06).100. doi:10. Food. Hoboken. nutraingredients. 12.crazychefs.net/ . p.11. Charles W (2005).com.asp?id=68196-soy-sauce-cvd-isoflavones. doi:10. 14. PMID 12469319. fermentation and micro-organisms. "Antioxidant-rich soy sauce could protect against CVD". 103.201. 13.google. 18. 16. ^ Kobayashi.

crazychefs.3% Myristic acid: <0.0% Arachidic acid: <0.700 kJ (880 kcal) −6 °C (21 °F) 300 °C (572 °F) 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin) 210 °C (410 °F) (refined) 0.9180 (@ 15.0% Stearic acid: 0.5–5.0–83.5 °C) 84 cP 1.5–20.4677–1.4705 (virgin and refined) Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.8% Behenic acid: <0.net/ .0% yes Oleic acid: 55.5–21.1% Lignoceric acid: <1.Olive oil Olive oil A bottle of olive oil Fat composition Palmitic acid: 7.com 211 | P a g e http://www.0% Palmitoleic acid: 0.9150–0.3–3.0 % Linolenic acid: <1.5% Linoleic acid: 3.5% Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Properties Food energy per 100g Melting point Boiling point Smoke point Specific gravity at 20 °C Viscosity at 20 °C Refractive index 3.

In 2006. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees.[3] Of the European production.4680–1. the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands.6 million tonnes. which receives about three-quarters of total exports.crazychefs. this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. North Africa and the Near East. production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small coöperatives. 93% comes from Spain. with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production. but especially in the Mediterranean. oil from olives that are slightly unripe. Market Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported. in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual. Hojiblanca. similar to the Spanish province of Jaén alone. Australia. and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit.net/ . Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country.Iodine value Acid value Saponification value Peroxide value 1. principally Italy. Koroneiki.6 (refined and pomace) 0. Turkey accounted for about 5% of world production. in 212 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio.[2] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. as well as in Crete. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone. and Manzanilla de Jaén. World production in 2002 was 2. of which 82% is extra-virgin[4] (see below for an explanation of terms). pharmaceuticals. 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region.4707 (pomace) 75–94 (virgin and refined) 75–92 (pomace) maximum: 6. Alberquina.[1] It is commonly used in cooking. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor and spread from there as far as southern Africa. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki. well known for the biggest olive groves in the world. Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. family Oleaceae). Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio. in Greece. in France. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe. originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. Olive oil is used throughout the world. Olives are grown for oil in Greece. a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product{fact}.000 tons of olive oil annually. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield. cosmetics. Italy and Greece. Japan and China. the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. Leccino Pendolino.com http://www.6 (extra-virgin) 184–196 (virgin and refined) 182–193 (pomace) 20 (virgin) 10 (refined and pomace) Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea. Picholine. which produce approximately 350. and Moraiolo.

Galega. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life). in Portugal.com http://www.000 m3) came from Italy.[6] Regulation and adulteration Main article: Olive oil regulation and adulteration International Olive Oil Council building The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid. called pomace. The USDA uses a different system. defining quality standards. often in "prestige" packaging. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced. but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). with production increasing to meet demand.800. IOOC terminology is precise. After extraction the remnant solid substance. and by its flavor. a private trade group. still contains a small quantity of oil.000 US gallons (181.[5] The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate.000 US gallons (131.California. 213 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). A large part of US olive oil imports come from Italy. In North America.600.crazychefs. by its chemistry. Croatia and Greece are sold at high prices.[8] The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. in Croatia. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production.000 m3) of olive oil in 1998. which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. and top-quality extravirgin oils from Italy.[7] The United States is not a member of the IOOC. Spain.net/ . Spain. The US imported 47. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known. Spain. Mission. is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules. Oblica and Leccino. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils. The California Olive Oil Council. and monitoring authenticity. with 23 member states. of which 34. and Turkey.

but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome). colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. measured by weight.US Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label. for blended oils. as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used.[14] In February 2008.[18] Commercial grades The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as: Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). of free oleic acid it contains. Almost 700 people died. stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil. defined as the percent. as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant. olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.com http://www. is extremely lax and corrupt.[17] Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior. and for genuine Italian producers to compete. particularly in Italy. it is believed. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section). another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. and by heat.[13] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil. mostly hexane. product as superior olive oil. Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents." arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity.crazychefs. however. but safe. 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation. under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced. An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13. This practice makes it difficult for high quality.net/ . lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the US market.000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation. Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil.[15] Under EU rules. but there are no guarantees. EU officials took issue with the new law.[9][10] Yet most major US brands continue to put ―imported from Italy‖ on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. as 214 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[12] In some cases.[16] In April 2008.[11] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. both in Italy and abroad. 25.[14] In March 2008. 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil. then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer.

increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market.3 grams per 100 grams (0. olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food. the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country.crazychefs. and are based on acidity. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil. expressed as oleic acid.com http://www. This is also called its organoleptic quality. Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil. It commonly lacks a strong flavor. Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail. contains no more than 0. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. but may not be described simply as olive oil. Retail grades in IOOC member nations In countries which adhere to the standards of the IOOC[19] the labels in stores show an oil's grade. terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions. and is judged to have a superior taste. of not more than 0. Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only. absence of defects. Used on salads.net/ . The US is not a member. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil.S. It is fit for consumption. and is judged to have a good taste. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils which have a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. It has a free acidity. added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping. has an acidity less than 2%. The U. odor and flavor:[20] 215 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.8% acidity. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level. lampante comes from olive oil's longstanding use in oil-burning lamps. which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized. In order to classify it by taste. of no more than 1. Pure olive oil. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil" Retail grades in the United States from the USDA As the United States is not a member.the oil degrades. Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. These grades were established in 1948. another cause of rancidity.5% acidity.

U. "cold" does not define any precise temperature.net/ .0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U. U. (34 kJ/ml). U.5% and is "reasonably free from defects".0% and is "fairly free from defects". Grade C or U.[citation needed] In cooler regions like Tuscany or Liguria the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating.S. These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis. since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.[citation needed] "Light olive oil" means refined olive oil. Grade D or U.crazychefs. Grade B or U.S. "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2.[20] Label wording A cold press olive oil machine in Israel. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.S. A certain exception is made for the European regulation which requires that the processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed".[citation needed] "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality.S.S. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used.4% and is "free from defects". Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3.[citation needed] "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. Grade A or U. which may be as low as 10-15 °C.S. in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully. All olive oil has 120 kcal/tbsp.com http://www.S.[citation needed] "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. First of all. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold 216 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Grade C". This is incorrect. with less flavour.S. U.S. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.

[11] Global consumption Olive tree in Portugal Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide. over 26 liters per year. around 0.2 7 1. Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil. Northern Europe and North America consume far less.35 23. around 8 l. Spain and Italy. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country. Portugal and Lebanon.8 7.crazychefs. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label. so the term "first press" is meaningless.7 11.pressed".62 12.56 Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.7 l.com http://www. but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country.1 1. around 14 l. Tunisia.net/ .1 0. Global market The main producing and consuming countries are: Country Spain Italy Greece Tunisia Turkey Syria Morocco Portugal United States 217 | P a g e Production (2005)[21] 36% 25% 18% 8% 5% 4% 3% 1% 0% Consumption (2005)[21] 20% 30% 9% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 8% Annual per capita consumption (kg)[22] 13.

The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. not in the oil mills. the olive paste is spread on fiber disks. which are stacked on top of each other in a column. no or very little organoleptic defects). Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). Green olives produce bitter oil. suggesting a different taste. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before. The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing but only with chemical solvents. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". The paste is then pressed by centrifugation.com http://www. 3. This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation. so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. The sometimes found term "first press" is technically meaningless as there is no "second" press. The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor.18 Extraction Main article: Olive oil extraction Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. If ground with mill stones. After grinding. 4. 2. Constituents 218 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste. then placed into the press. After grinding. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity.crazychefs. First the olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method). 1. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect. which is much faster and more accurate. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered.net/ .France Lebanon 0% N/A 4% 3% 1. the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by micro organisms.34 1. and overripe olives produce rancid oil. This is done in specialised chemical plants. the paste will then be stirred slowly for another 20–30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation). where the microscopic oil drops unite to bigger drops which facilitates the mechanical extraction.

Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.5-21 g Protein 0g Vitamin E 14 mg 93% Vitamin K 62 μg 59% 100 g olive oil is 109 ml Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. To achieve this possible benefit.omega-3 fat <1.5 g . Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids. time of harvest. including oleocanthal and oleuropein.saturated 14 g 0g 100 g . altitude.7%) and sterols (about 0. The composition varies by cultivar. along with traces of squalene (up to 0.5 oz) Energy 890 kcal 3700 kJ Carbohydrates Fat .monounsaturated 73 g .[23] Nutrition Olive oil Nutritional value per 100 g (3.[24] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats.net/ . olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.crazychefs.polyunsaturated 11 g . region. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil.[25] 219 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and extraction process.omega-6 fat 3. producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels: Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. most notably oleic acid.com http://www.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). In the United States.

in the long term. For example. at least in part. olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats. and oleuropein. oleic acid which has antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids. The study was conducted in two stages.[citation needed] As they are the least processed forms of olive oil. olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols. During the second phase. they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. It is theorized that. leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.net/ . explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil.[27] But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content.[32] and may be a factor in preventing cancer. During the first stage. antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans.[26] There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation. increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. and that it exerts antiinflamatory. that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits.com http://www.This decision was announced November 1. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants.[30] Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat. a clinical trial published[28] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil.[31] Research indicates olive oil prevents peptic ulcers and is effective in treatment of peptic ulcer disease. 2004. they exhibited increased arterial elasticity. Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed. while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. This could.[29] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure. rather than its fatty acid profile. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser.[33] 220 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.crazychefs. antithrombotic.[citation needed] Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet. This way. while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols.

Uses Culinary use Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. etc. Also.net/ . as available in an oil producing region. In time. cookware.com http://www. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °C (662 °F). Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. blenders.) Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g) Butter Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) Olive Oil Lard Total Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein Fat Fat Fat Fat 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g 71g 100g 100g 23g 14g 39g 8g 73g 45g 37g 11g 11g 0g 0g 0g 221 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olive oil has more uses than just consuming. not for foods to be eaten cold. the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. It is also used for sauteing ingredients. the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on. Used cold. but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground. This leads to deteriorated taste and even toxicity[citation needed]. An important issue which is often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. like salads.crazychefs. it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated.[citation needed]. A very fresh oil. The flavor of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking. oils deteriorate and become stale. but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. its strong flavor is able to stick out while not being compromised by heat. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste. For example. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses. lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders. tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. Extra-virgin olive oil is mostly used for salad dressings and foods to be eaten cold. Also. people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils. the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils.

and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil.net/ . It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. and mild laxative properties.Skin care In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil.[38] Medicinal use Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin. castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. it is also a good natural anti-inflammatory agent. History 222 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[34] Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products. Other Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil.com http://www. which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin.crazychefs. topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. It does have demulcent properties.[35] Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer.[36][37] Jeanne Calment. It is also good for the management of pain. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup. acting as a stool softener. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions. OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil. who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan. Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen.

from Anglo-Fr. oleum "oil.Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD) Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman.Fr.Fr.net/ . probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time.N. olive oil" (cf. from Gk. from O. and O. soap-making. an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. magical. as a fuel in oil lamps.crazychefs.Fr." In ancient Greece.com http://www. athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. olio).Turkey The Manufacture of Oil. It. from L. olive oil. and skin care application. elaion "olive tree". huile).[39] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior". The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. Homer called it "liquid gold. medicines. oile (12c. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. 223 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olie. drawn and engraved by J. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal. 1175. Mod.. olive oil has been used for religious rituals. Besides food.

An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.com http://www. In the centuries that followed. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs 224 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[40] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium.[44] Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.[citation needed] Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC).net/ . Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. olive presses became common. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times).[43] A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. Bodrum.[citation needed] Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete.[45] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region.[citation needed] Eastern Mediterranean Over 5.000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[42] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium. though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC.crazychefs. and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. Turkey Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations. which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo.[40] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[41] in modern Turkey.

Lebanon. According to legend. and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense.com http://www. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC.[46] Until 1500 BC. a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization.crazychefs. the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential. and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. when the oil had risen to the top. drained the water from the bottom. and Israel. The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt. Sinuhe. the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. oil containers are preferred. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete. to 225 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC. when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to.[citation needed]. the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. "the best in the Mediterranean".000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. wrote of abundant olive trees.000 and 3.[48][49] Religious use In Jewish observance.000 tons of olive oil per season.. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests. According to the historian Pliny. the fertile crescent.[dubious – discuss] During this time. allowing more time for more oil to be made. Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1. together with naked appearance of athletes. stored in special containers. then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. and area consisting of present day Palestine.[47] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy.net/ . he maintained. the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC). olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC. which is where the expression pure olive oil originates. where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia.over 4. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. during the 13th century BC. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and. where it is thought to have represented wealth. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron). preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff).

"Agricultural Statistics 2005" (PDF). in the consecration of altars and churches. Retrieved 2008-07-04. Steven Sibbett. light upon light. References 1. http://findarticles. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. ^ USDA. which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit)." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases.com http://www.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047. the tourch is in a glass bulb. The Origin and Expansion of the Olive Tree". ^ USDA.PDF. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. at which point the rest of the cotton burns out. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch. neither Eastern nor Western. Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism. originating from King David.jsp?vnu_co ntent_id=1003540888. even without fire touching it. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. To douse the flame. and the Mount of Sinai. in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops.gov/nass/pubs/agr05/05_ch3. olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. 5. Retrieved 2007-05-25.com/gourmetretailer/headlines/article_display. Margaret Lindstrand (2005).html. http://www. 2. and. the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree. ^ G.org/web/aaingles/oliveWorld/olivo. p. http://www.net/ . "Agricultural Statistics 2005". ^ "findarticles. ANR Publications. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table."[50] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree. in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. Retrieved 2007-05-25. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. In Islam. Olive Production Manual. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries. home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. Louise Ferguson. 158.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_34_18/ai_92084047". Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel.imitate the original Menorah. http://www.usda. Joann L Coviello. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed. Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches.internationaloliveoil. the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. traditionally." The Qur‘an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive.gourmetretailer. "The Olive Tree. ^ International Olive Oil Council. 4.[citation needed] Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. its oil almost glows. 3. 226 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath.crazychefs. and this secure city.

co.jp. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 8. http://www.org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling. 16. Alan (1989-05-21). http://www. S.2007.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. United States Department of Agriculture. Epidemiol. Dennis. Pharmacol.com/gst/fullpage.nytimes.1079/NRR200495 24. 18. Karvonen MJ.telegraph. 17. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.com". 23. Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil. Giammanco.Scotsman.htm. ^ Mueller.23/. http://www.html". PMID 3776973.010. The New York Times (H. 227 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ Keys A. US Customs Department. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site 9. http://news.6.23/. Retrieved 2008-11-16.internationaloliveoil. ^ "www. http://aje. Retrieved 2008-11-16. and Maurizio La Guardia.46.gov/AMSv1.telegraph. Slippery Business The New Yorker.eubusiness. 1998 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28. 10.com/news-eu/1204304521.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889.co.xml.com".xml. Tripoli.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aainstitution-ini.htm.info/business/trade/export/olive-oil-270705. 55 (3): 175–86. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site 26. J. 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10. http://query.html?res=950DE0DC1630F932A15756C0A96 F948260. Giammanco. ^ a b McGee. biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. 12. Tom.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/05/witaly105.uk/news/main. http://www.). ^ Durant. 7. November 2. http://www.01. 124 (6): 903–15.com http://www. Raymond & Co. "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar".uk/news/main. 19 CFR 134. 2004. ^ United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site 22. 11. 19. J. ^ "www. "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study".com News". Nutrition Research Reviews 18. "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". Res.southafrica.ams. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure.com/news-eu/1204304521.oxfordjournals.phrs. "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label" 27.usda. ^ "EUbusiness. D.net/ .crazychefs.Telegraph". ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". Tabacchi. http://www. doi:10.southafrica. 25. M. John. 20. G.internationaloliveoil. PMID 17321749.1016/j.com/world/Forty-arrested-in-new-39fake39. ^ New York Times.eubusiness. ^ "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam .scotsman. http://oliveoilonly. 13. ―imported by‖ language 2000-09-05.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3776973. Menotti A. ^ a b "Telegraph article". et al. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). Retrieved 2008-11-09.html. ^ "Eubusiness.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institutionini. (December 1986). "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". ^ Riding.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/05/07/nfood07. Di Majo. 21.4005000. 14. ^ "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud . 2007-08-13.htm". 15. http://www. Am.

^ Turner R.v. Brenes M. PMID 15830923.html". ^ Romero C. PMID 17263460. Poulsen HE. PMID 10737284. ^ Rosenblum. André Bervillé. ^ Mayo Clinic 32. 21. No. Vargas J. says the 6th millennium in Jericho. 2000. http://www. 1S45-50. "[10 INSERT TITLE]". Michel Tersac and André Bervillé. 2000.1021/jf0630217. ^ http://www. An Wu. "New Year's Resolution No. (January 2005)." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. (January 2007). 34. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council 42. ^ "Quite Interesting . J Agric Food Chem. De Castro A (February 2007).. p. doi:10.org 31.1096/fj. 39. Israel".1024/0300-9831. ^ [2] Ichihashi. but cites no source. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?.uk/portal/main.co. pp.61. p. et al. Toshihiko Osawa. Nov. Olives 41. T. Guida L. doi:10. "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice". Olea europaea L. A : Bito. Faseb J. s.ama-assn. M : Osawa. ssp. d'Episcopo L.xml. Masamitsu Ichihashi. Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837-842. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70.net/ . 2085-2090. ^ Guillaume Besnarda. "[19 INSERT TITLE]". Mar.28. M : Ahmed. "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast. 35. 1: Prevent Cancer.crazychefs. 19 November 2007 30. 38. et al. Catherine Breton. Vol. A : Wu. 37. Medina E. ^ Mayo Clinic. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms".html. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997). ^ Ferrara LA. "olive" and "oil" 40. 55 (3): 680–6. "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications. Suppl. 19.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. ^ Pagnol. 19. s. ^ "www. Vol. ^ Ehud Galili et al. Ahmed.videojug. "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. doi:10.06-6328com. 29. Raimondi AS. JDermatol-Sci. "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease. http://www. 23.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/portal/2 007/08/04/nosplit/ftqi104. Nazim U. "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans".75. T : Ueda." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007 33. Masato Ueda. Marotta T.tchain. Toshinori Bito. Dello Russo A. 21 (1): 45–52. N U : Budiyanto. Use Olive Oil. ^ a b Davidson. Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte.telegraph.com/otoneurology/disorders/hearing/wax2. 44. Pagnol. (27 March 2000). ". "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis". 10.com http://www. Etienne N. PMID 17110467.".v." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000). Carcinogenesis.1. 45. p. 43. "Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster.. Gruendel S.com/film/how-to-shave-with-olive-oil 36. Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006) 228 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Osamu Nikaido.Telegraph".tchain. 11. "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". ^ Machowetz A. Alonso MG. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary.

^ Thomas F.46. "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. http://www.il/ad/egypt/texts/sinuhe.htm".htm.youngmuslims.). ^ Nigel M. 47.crazychefs. pp119–33 50. Kennell.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95. ed. In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland. v•d•e Edible fats and oils Bacon fat • Butter • Clarified butter • Cocoa butter • Dripping • Duck fat • Ghee • Lard • Fats Margarine • Niter kibbeh • Salo • Schmaltz • Shea butter • Smen • Suet • Tallow • Vegetable shortening Almond oil • Argan oil • Avocado oil • Canola oil • Cashew oil • Castor oil • Coconut oil • Colza oil • Corn oil • Cottonseed oil • Fish oil • Grape seed oil • Hazelnut oil • Hemp oil • Linseed oil (flaxseed oil) • Macadamia oil • Marula oil • Mongongo nut oil • Oils Mustard oil • Olive oil • Palm oil (palm kernel oil) • Peanut oil • Pecan oil • Perilla oil • Pine nut oil • Pistachio oil • Poppyseed oil • Pumpkin seed oil • Rapeseed oil • Rice bran oil • Safflower oil • Sesame oil • Soybean oil • Sunflower oil • Tea seed oil • Walnut oil • Watermelon seed oil 229 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. ^ "www. 2001. http://www. Verstraete and V. Provencal. Processing methods. "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece". Harrington Park Press.reshafim. "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its Byproducts in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed. Riley.youngmuslims.org.com http://www. C. ^ F. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". Scanlon. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002) 48.net/ .htm.R. B. in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". 2005 49.ca/online_library/tafsir/syed_qutb/Surah_95.

sativus flower with red stigmas Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Asparagales Iridaceae Crocus C. Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf.com http://www. sativus flower bears three stigmas.[2][3] Saffron is marked by a bitter taste and an iodoform. these result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.crazychefs. ən] / [ˈsæf. crocin. a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ɒ n]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron ɹ ɹ crocus (Crocus sativus).Saffron Saffron crocus C.[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia. A C.net/ . for decades the world's most expensive spice by weight. sativus Subfamily: Crocoideae Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent.or hay-like fragrance.[4][5] A carotenoid dye. each the distal end of a carpel. 230 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Saffron has further medicinal applications. allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles.

sativus) is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. It is a sterile triploid form.net/ . A corm survives for one season.[8] Corms are small brown globules up to 4. as was once generally believed. underground bulb-like starch-storing organs. reproducing via this division into up to ten "cormlets" that yield new plants.[6] Safranum derives from the Arabic word aṣ far ( ). broken apart.98–1. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas." via the Persian paronymous [5][7] za‫ر‬farān( ).com http://www. the plant's purple flowers fail to produce viable seeds. In autumn. Biology The domesticated saffron crocus (C. the plant sends up five to eleven narrow and nearly vertical green leaves. in Central Asia.[12] A threepronged style emerges from each flower. plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height. Morphology → Stigma → Stamens → Corolla → Corm After aestivating in summer.crazychefs. Safranum is related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.[11] Upon flowering. after most other flowering plants have released their seeds. purple buds appear. Only in October.2 in) in length.The word saffron stems from the Latin word safranum via the 12th-century Old French term safran. which means "yellow.8 in) in diameter and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibers.[8] 231 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0. Being sterile.5 centimetres (1. and replanted. do its brilliantly hued flowers develop. possibly of the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus[8][9][10] that originated in Crete—not. reproduction depends on human assistance: corms. they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve.[5] The saffron crocus resulted when C. each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. must be dug up.

Greek. The plant can nonetheless tolerate cold winters by surviving frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover. Only in mid-autumn do they flower.500 mm (39–59 in). Saffron crocuses grow best in friable. Afterwards—and with no further manure application— corms were planted. to produce 12 g of dried saffron (72 g freshly harvested). and corm rot pose other threats.9 in) deep. maximizing sun exposure. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn.[17] Approximately 150 flowers yield 1 gram (0. where corms are lodged 7 to 15 centimetres (2.. saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier. dry summer breezes blow across arid and semi-arid lands. whereas planting depths of 8–10 cm optimizes flower and corm production. Moroccan. Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm crops.net/ . Mother corms planted more deeply yield higher-quality saffron.[14] as do the digging actions of rabbits. are critical factors affecting yields. they fare poorly in shady conditions. rats. well-watered. Rainfall timing is key: generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal.crazychefs. saffron crocuses bloom within a period of one or two weeks.Cultivation Saffron crocus flowers in Osaka Prefecture. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20– 30 tonnes of manure per hectare. Planting is thus best done in fields that slope towards the sunlight (i. in concert with climate. Raised beds are traditionally used to promote good drainage. Planting depth and corm spacing.000–1. and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content.e.[15] After a period of dormancy through the summer. the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. loose. 1 kg of flowers are needed (1 lb for 232 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.9 in) deep and in rows spaced 2–3 cm apart optimizes thread yields.035 oz) of dry saffron threads.[8][13] Irrigation is required if not grown in moist environments such as Kashmir. where hot. and birds.com http://www. though they produce fewer flower buds and daughter corms. rainy or cold weather during flowering spurs disease and low yields. and Spanish growers have devised different depths and spacings to suit their local climates. where annual rainfall averages 1.8–5. Japan Saffron crocus thrives in climates similar to that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral. Plants grow best in strong and direct sunlight. Nematodes. low-density. south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. Italian growers have found that planting corms 15 centimetres (5. leaf rusts.[16] Furthermore. flowers quickly wilt as the day passes.

8-diapo-8. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses (which are sugars).[19] Crocins themselves are a series of hydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin. One fresh-picked flower yields an average 30 milligrams (0.0.8-carotenoic acid).com http://www. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (systematic (IUPAC) name: 8.and β-carotenes. It also has many nonvolatile active components. including zeaxanthin. crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acid that is hydrophobic. a product results that is itself water-soluble.46 gr) of fresh saffron or 7 milligrams (0. saffron's golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin. The resultant αcrocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron's mass. However.[19] many of which are carotenoids.[20] 233 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.2 oz of dried saffron).crazychefs.net/ .[15] Chemistry Crocin Esterification reaction between crocetin and gentiobiose — β-D-gentiobiose — Crocetin Picrocrocin and safranal Chemical structure of picrocrocin[18] — Safranal moiety — β-D-glucopyranose derivative Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. lycopene. and thus oil-soluble. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based (non-fatty) foods such as rice dishes. and various α.11 gr) of dried saffron. This means that the crocin underlying saffron's aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.[19] Meanwhile.

Chemical composition Component carbohydrates water polypeptides cellulose lipids minerals miscellaneous non-nitrogenous Mass % 12.5 40.com http://www.0 234 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.0 0.0 Source: Dharmananda 2005 Proximate analysis Component Water-soluble components → Gums → Pentosans → Pectins → Starch → α–Crocin → Other carotenoids Lipids → Non-volatile oils → Volatile oils Protein Inorganic matter ("ash") → HCl-soluble ash Water Mass % 53.0 9.0–7.0–8.0 1.0 1.0 8.0 2.0 12.0 10.0 6.0 3.0–13.0 12.5 10.0 6.0 4.0 1.0–15.0 11.net/ .0–1.0 6.0 6.0–14.crazychefs.

[4][22] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples. The reddishcoloured[21] zeaxanthin is.[21] A second element underlying saffron's aroma is 2-hydroxy-4. a volatile oil.[23] Chemists found this to be the most powerful contributor to saffron's fragrance despite its being present in a lesser quantity than safranal.6.6-trimethyl-2. gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma. Significantly.[23] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels.[18] Safranal. Santorini. and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light and oxidizing agents. systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2.5-cyclohexadien-1-one.net/ . The fresco is one of many dealing with saffron that were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri.4.com http://www. p. the heat. 235 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. combined with enzymatic action.3-diene-1. one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye. Picrocrocin (chemical formula: C16H26O7. picrocrocin is a truncated version (produced via oxidative cleavage) of the carotenoid zeaxanthin and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal.carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate.6. two active ingredients are crocin and safranal. incidentally. the scent of which has been described as "saffron.0 Source: Goyns 1999. and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron.6.crazychefs. Crocus sativus has been shown to have antidepressant effects.Fiber (crude) 5. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties. splits picrocrocin to yield D-glucose and a free safranal molecule. It must therefore be stored away in air-tight containers in order to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen.6-trimethylcyclohexa-1. 46 The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron's flavour.trimethylcyclohex-1ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2.[24] History Main article: History of saffron A detail of the "Saffron Gatherers" fresco from the "Xeste 3" building. When saffron is dried after its harvest. dried hay like". Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat.

sativus.com http://www. cartwrightianus. cough. physicians in Gaza. adventurers hoped to procure what they believed was the world's most valuable saffron.[31] Ancient Mediterranean peoples—including perfumers in Egypt. a sterile mutant form of C. mascaras. Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia.000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered. and in the mithridatium. where it was extensively cultivated until Rome's fall.[33] potpourris. documentation of saffron's use over the span of 4.[30] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax. and medical treatments. townspeople in Rhodes.[38] 236 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.[35] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levant cities as Sidon and Tyre. Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas. emerged in late Bronze Age Crete. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD. C.net/ .[36] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds.[26] Experts believe saffron was first documented in a 7th century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. and scabies. whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the original saffron crocus.[28][29] Later.The history of saffron cultivation reaches back more than 3.[34] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments. Thus. ointments.[32] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans— used saffron in their perfumes. There. Crete shows a man (stooped blue figure) gathering the saffron harvest.crazychefs.[33] This ancient Minoan fresco from Knossos.[37] Such was the Romans' love of saffron that Roman colonists took their saffron with them when they settled in southern Gaul. In late Hellenistic Egypt.000 years. Since then. showing saffron's use as a therapeutic drug.[25] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus was Crocus cartwrightianus. colic. divine offerings.[27] Mediterranean Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1500–1600 BC.

Traditionally attributed to the legendary Yan ("Fire") Emperor (炎帝) Shennong. Isfahan. At such sites.[42] ritually offered to divinities. it documents 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders. For example.[44] From there. including the forty-volume Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經—"Shennong's Great Herbal".[39][40] Later. saffron threads were woven into textiles.[52] Some historians believe that saffron first came to China with Mongol invaders by way of Persia. the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. a less expensive dye. Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions.[44] During his Asian campaigns. saffron threads would be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. Wan Zhen. reported that "[t]he habitat of 237 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.Asia The 17. Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50.[53] On the other hand. Traditional Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 900–2500 years ago. the Sumerians used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions.crazychefs. saffron use in foods and dyes spread throughout South Asia.[41] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture's 2nd millennium BC peak. Alexander's troops mimicked the practice and brought saffron-bathing back to Greece.[51] However. historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC.net/ . perfumes. dating to 978–993 AD. and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. the robes were not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric. a Chinese medical expert. medicines.[49] attributing it to either Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks[50] or to a Persian invasion and colonization of Kashmir. also known as Pen Ts'ao or Pun Tsao) pharmacopoeia. and baths as a curative for battle wounds. and body washes. saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts.[46][47][48] Meanwhile.[51][54] Yet around the 3rd century AD. or jackfruit. is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy.[43] Thus. a tome dating from 200–300 BC. Buddhist monks in India adopted saffron-coloured robes after the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama's death. NonPersians also feared the Persians' usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac.[45] Theories explaining saffron's arrival in South Asia conflict.000 year-old depictions of prehistoric beasts in what is today Iraq. and used in dyes.8 metres (58 ft) monolith of Gomateshwara.com http://www. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus 'Hausknechtii') in Derbena. rice.

an influx of more exotic spices such as chocolate. and much saffron had to be imported via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands[56] such as Rhodes. where epidemic levels of saffron adulteration brought on the Safranschou code.[55] During the 14th century Black Death. demand for saffron-based medicine skyrocketed. imprisoned.crazychefs. named for its new specialty crop. under which saffron adulterators were fined.[57] Cultivation and trade then spread to Nuremberg.com http://www.[58] Soon after.[56] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred significant saffron cultivation in Basel. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week long "Saffron War". However. In Europe. France. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour."[48] Europe Medieval European illuminated manuscripts. often used saffron dyes to provide hues of yellow and orange. indeed. tea. coffee. where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha. which grew prosperous. saffron cultivation spread throughout England. saffron cultivation declined steeply following the Roman Empire's fall. It can be used to aromatise wine. especially Norfolk and Suffolk.[62] By 1730. Saffron was reintroduced when the Islamic civilization "Al-Andalus" spread to Spain.[59][60] Only in southern France. and executed. Italy. such as this 13th century depiction of Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket's assassination.saffron is in Kashmir.[64] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to 238 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. when many saffrontransporting merchant vessels were destroyed. and Spain. and high demand ensured that saffron's list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was set equal to that of gold.[61] Europeans brought saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing saffron corms. The Essex town of Saffron Walden. emerged as England's prime saffron growing and trading center. the Pennsylvania Dutch were cultivating saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. and vanilla from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline. did significant cultivation endure.[63] The trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812." Wan also reflected on how saffron was used in his time: "The [saffron crocus] flower withers after a few days. and then the saffron is obtained. many Schwenkfelders had widely grown saffron in Europe. and Italy.net/ .

Saffron is widely used in Iranian (Persian). Pennsylvania. Medicinally. Arab. Turkish.[65] American saffron cultivation survived into modern times mainly in Lancaster County. European. Confectionaries and liquors also often include saffron. which is often sold as "Portuguese saffron" or "assafroa") and turmeric (Curcuma longa). saffron has a long history as part of traditional healing.grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes.net/ . immunomodulating. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods.[62] Trade and use Main article: Trade and use of saffron Saffron is one of the three essential ingredients in the Spanish paella valenciana. and antioxidantlike properties. while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and somewhat bitter. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. and is responsible for its characteristic brilliant yellow colouring.[71] World saffron cultivation patterns — Major growing regions — Major producing nations 239 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. modern medicine has also discovered saffron as having anticarcinogenic (cancersuppressing).[68][69][70] Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye. noodles.com http://www. and chicken or trout dishes.[19][66][67] Early studies show that saffron may protect the eyes from the direct effects of bright light and retinal stress apart from slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa.crazychefs. particularly in China and India.[19] anti-mutagenic (mutation-preventing). Central Asian. and Cornish cuisines. Saffron's aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes. and in perfumery. Indian.

100–11. India. In Western countries. Morocco. A pound of dry saffron requires 50. around 300 tonnes of saffron are produced worldwide.[72][73] Some forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish.com http://www. Cultivars Saffron threads (red-coloured stigmas) mixed with styles (yellow) from Iran Several saffron cultivars are grown worldwide.000 flowers. while the most intense varieties tend to be Iranian in origin.000-170. Switzerland. flavour.200/£1.000 per pound (US$1. Vivid crimson colouring.100/€1. elasticity.[2] A pound comprises between 70.500 per kilogram. in decreasing order of production.[5] Iran.— Minor growing regions — Minor producing nations — Major trading centres (current) — Major trading centres (historical) Most saffron is grown in a belt of land ranging from the Mediterranean in the west to Kashmir in the east. slight moistness.000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2. and other countries.[74] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers. Azerbaijan. are generally mellower in colour. Aside from these. India has banned the export of high-grade saffron abroad.crazychefs. including the tradenames 'Spanish Superior' and 'Creme'. the equivalent of a football field's area of cultivation (110.500/€7. and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron. and Italy. Greece. Annually.000/kg)— equivalent to £250/€350 per pound or £5. 240 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. various "boutique" crops are available from New Zealand.000 flowers. Spain's varieties. are the major producers of saffron. Westerners may face significant obstacles in obtaining saffron from India.000 flowers or two football fields for a kilogram).[75] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5.000–75.000 threads. For example. they are graded by government-imposed standards.net/ . Spain. France.000 and 200. the United States.550 per kilogram). England. and aroma. the average retail price is $1.

among the world's darkest. a federation of 241 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Actual length is about 20 millimetres (0. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. shape. it also has very high crocin. near L'Aquila. and safranal (fragrance) content.S. Consumers regard certain cultivars as "premium" quality. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. and intense colour—is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy's Abruzzo region. and colourative effect.net/ . combined with an Indian export ban. Another is the Kashmiri "Mongra" or "Lacha" saffron (Crocus sativus 'Cashmirianus'). Repeated droughts.[62][76] Close-up of a single crocus thread (the dried stigma). and crop failures in Kashmir.. unusually pungent aroma. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its extremely dark maroon-purple hue.crazychefs. for quality and quantity. which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain.79 in).some organically grown. But in Italy the biggest saffron cultivation. The "Aquila" saffron (zafferano dell'Aquila)—defined by high safranal and crocin content. contribute to its high prices. picrocrocin. aroma. which suggests the saffron's strong flavour. Grade Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632) ISO Grade (category) I II III IV Crocin-specific absorbance (Aλ) score (at λ=440 nm) > 190 150–190 110–150 80–110 Source: Tarvand 2005b Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour). Sardinia. and safranal content. is in San Gavino Monreale. In the U. blights.com http://www. Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its earthy notes—is marketed in small quantities. picrocrocin (taste). Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization. There. saffron is grown on 40 hectares (60% of Italian production).

when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. and other traits in a fashion similar to that practiced by practised wine tasters.crazychefs.[77] However.[78] Despite such attempts at quality control and standardisation.net/ . these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron. with Aλ as absorbance (Beer-Lambert law) and indicates degree of transparency (I / I0.national standards bodies. and consumers reject such lab test numbers. powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration. traders. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages. many growers. aroma. II.[79] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets. with turmeric. red-dyed silk fibers. or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odorless yellow stamens. III. revealed by measurements of crocinspecific spectroscopic absorbance. They prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of thread for taste. high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold mixed with cheaper Iranian imports. paprika. an extensive history of saffron adulteration—particularly among the cheapest grades—continues into modern times. the ratio of light intensity exiting the sample to that of the incident light) to a given wavelength of light. and other powders used as diluting fillers.com http://www. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. and I (finest quality). However.[80] Thus. in India. Absorbance is defined as Aλ = − log(I / I0). a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income. Other methods included dousing saffron fibers with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil. The world's finest samples (the selected most red-maroon tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive absorbance scores in excess of 250.[81][82] Notes 242 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. These colour grades proceed from grades with absorbances lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 190 or greater (for category I). Spanish national saffron grading standards Grade Coupe La Mancha Río Standard Sierra ISO score > 190 180–190 150–180 145–150 < 110 Source: Tarvand 2005b For saffron. absorbance is determined for the crocin-specific photon wavelength of 440 nm in a given dry sample of spice. Samples are assigned grades by gauging the spice's crocin content. pliability. pomegranate fibers. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest). Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabeled mixes of different saffron grades.[77] Higher absorbances at this wavelength imply greater crocin concentration. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO scores. and thus a greater colourative intensity.

2. 3–4. 20. ^ Harper 2001. ^ Willard 2001. p. 24. p. p. ^ a b c Hill 2004.asp?AcNo=20043148643. 243 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. crocin and safranal. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 3. 2. 7. ^ a b Leffingwell 2001. 1. Japan A saffron crocus flower 1.google. 21. p. 6. ^ Kumar V (2006). 3. 13. p. www. ^ Deo 2003. ^ Willard 2001. ISBN 1-8455-7585-7. 16. 17. 4.com/books?id=AaTpWEIlgNwC. ^ Grigg 1974. ^ a b c d Deo 2003. 53. Grilli Caiola .cababstractsplus. ^ a b McGee 2004. http://books. p. p. ^ a b Deo 2003. http://www. ^ Willard 2001. p. Kansai. ^ a b c d e Abdullaev 2002. ^ Willard 2001. 1.crazychefs.Saffron reproductive biology 11. 2–3. ^ Rau 1969. pp. 4. 19. Retrieved 2007-12-01. ^ a b c d Katzer 2001. 5. 23. stigma extracts and their constituents. ^ M. ^ DPIWE 2005. p. 1. 272. ^ McGee 2004. Honshū. 3. ^ a b Deo 2003. p. 103. ^ DNA analysis in Crocus sativus and related Crocus species 10. Retrieved 2008-03-02. p. 22. 8. The Secret Benefits of Spices and Condiments.Saffron crocuses flowering in a garden in Osaka Prefecture (大阪府). 287.cababstractsplus. Sterling. 15. p.org. 422. ^ "Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L.". 14.net/ . pp.com http://www. p. 4. 3.org/google/abstract. 18. p. 12. 423. in mice. ^ Dharmananda 2005. 9. pp.

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com/classification. Retrieved on January 10. Retrieved on January 10.usda.htm>. Beacon Press.html>. SR (1969).reconstructinghistory.gov/usda_supplement/supplement_detail_b. Willard. 247 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.google.". 2006. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. B Pannikar & KR Panikkar (1991). <http://books. "Returning war-torn farmland to productivity". Reconstructing History. Retrieved on January 10. Scribner. "What is Saffron?". <http://www. F (2005).com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=WsUaFT7l3QsC>. Tarvand Saffron Company.com http://www. Retrieved on January 10. PMID 2025883 Park. ISBN 0-8094-0069-3 Tarvand (2005). 2006. Nair.000. K (2003). 2006. McGee.tarvandsaffron. P (2001). <http://www. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Retrieved on January 10. Tarvand Saffron Company.htm>.com/channel/earth/mg18524831. Pearce. 2006.McGann. Rau.net/ .cfm?chemic al_id=140>. <http://www. Tarvand (2005b).google. Cancer Letters 57 (2). JB (2005).com/saffron. USDA Phytochemical Database. 2006.barc.crazychefs. New Scientist. <http://books. "Saffron". H (2004).html>. Retrieved on January 10. "What the Irish Wore: A Few Arguments on the Subject of Saffron". The Cooking of India. Time Life Education. ISBN 0-8070-5008-3. <http://www.com/books?ie=UTF8&hl=en&id=iX05JaZXRz0C>. <http://www.pl. Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice. 2006. 2006[dead link]. "Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus).tarvandsaffron. SC.newscientist. "Grading and Classification".com/irish/saffron. Retrieved on January 10.

crazychefs.Olive Olive Tree Olea europaea.com http://www. Dead Sea. Jordan Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Oleaceae Olea O.net/ . europaea Binomial name Olea europaea L. 19th century illustration 248 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

which he describes as very simple: "As for me. olives.53ff) is a metaphoric description of a lone olive tree in the mountains. Syria and the maritime parts of Turkey and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. the olive suckers readily from the stump. endives. 249 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. from Lebanon. Asia and parts of Africa. Its fruit. ca 170 AD. along with cheese-making and bee-keeping. they were reverently preserved for centuries. two stamens and bifid stigma.[5] he mentions that the very olive tree of Athena still grew on the Acropolis. In Homer's Odyssey.[3] It was purely a matter of local pride that the Athenians claimed that the olive grew first in Athens. but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits.[1] and in the Iliad.crazychefs.net/ .The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae.[4] In an archaic Athenian foundation myth. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. Theophrastus. thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars.[2] Olive was one of the woods used to fashion the most primitive Greek cult figures.[9]. Description The olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean. measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock. The Roman poet Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet. native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. according to the 4th-century BC father of botany. Greek myth attributed to the primordial culture-hero Aristaeus the understanding of olive husbandry. in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. and smooth mallows provide sustenance.(XVII. It is short and squat. are borne generally on the last year's wood. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). which in Greece invariably means up mountain slopes. Though. and the great age of some existing olive trees shows that it was perfectly possible that the olive tree of the Acropolis dated to the Bronze Age. he reported "Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down."[7] indeed.com http://www. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2."[8] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods. and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height.5 cm long. with ten-cleft calyx and corolla. the Greeks observed that the olive rarely thrives at a distance from the sea. by a spring. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape. the olive. History See also: Olive oil#History The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. The small white flowers.[6] and when Pausanias was shown it. Athena won the patronship of Athens from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. it was still to be seen there in the second century AD. called xoana. is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. referring to their wooden material. Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. olive trees ordinarily attained an age of about 200 years. The olive was sacred to Athena and appeared on the Athenian coinage.

Chile and Argentina. and the vast majority of these are found in Mediterranean countries.[10] The olive is praised in the Quran as a precious fruit. Peru. Theophrastus reports how the bearing olive can be grafted on the wild olive. It is estimated that there are about 800 million olive trees in the world today. and its cultivation began in Mexico. olives were grown commercially in Crete.the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance.10) that the cultivated olive must be vegetatively propagated. it was an olive branch that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. kotinos. spread far and wide by birds. The olive tree itself. and then in the 18th century in California. they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible.com http://www. fertility.The leafy branches of the olive tree . As far back as 3000 BC. in regard to the scattering and gathering of Israel. they may have been the source of the wealth of the Minoan Civilization. the Europeans brought the olive to the New World.[12] After the 16th century. in both the New and Old Testaments.crazychefs. The Book of Jacob 5. and one of the most significant. the olive has been the symbol of peace. As emblems of benediction and purification. play an important role in the Bible.16.[11] The ancient Greeks used to smear olive oil on their bodies and hair as a matter of grooming and good health. wisdom. It is estimated the cultivation of olive trees began more than 7000 years ago. the pits give rise to thorny. Olive oil has long been considered sacred. for which the Greeks had a separate name. For example. The olive tree seems to have been native in the Mediterranean region and Western Asia and spread to nearby countries from there. it is still used in many religious ceremonies. Over the years. but he makes clear (in 1. indeed. power and pureness. wild-type olives.net/ . as well as olive oil and olives. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. It was burnt in the sacred lamps of temples as well as being the "eternal flame" of the original Olympic Games. in On the Nature of Plants. glory and peace . it was used to anoint kings and athletes in ancient Greece. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible. glory. some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. Victors in these games were crowned with its leaves. does not give as systematic and detailed an account of olive husbandry as he does of the vine. compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. Today. Theophrastus.were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars.[citation needed] 250 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

crazychefs.000 years old. Montenegro.Old olive trees Olive tree ―Olea europea‖ on Bar. which is made into top quality olive oil. was rumored to be a remnant of the grove within which Plato's Academy was situated. drought-. Istria in Croatia. Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. has been calculated to be about 1.[15] Another well-known olive tree on the island of Brijuni (Brioni).com http://www. claimed to be over 2.net/ . although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. named "Plato's Olive Tree". and in some cases this has been verified scientifically. Many olive trees in the groves around the Mediterranean are said to be several centuries old. Its root system is very robust and capable of regenerating the tree even if the latter is destroyed. has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis.and fire-resistant.[16] An olive tree in west Athens. The older an olive tree is. the broader and gnarlier its trunk appears. Greece that is claimed to be over 1500 years old Olive trees are very hardy.[13] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times. which would date it to approximately 251 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. is claimed to be over 2000 years old [14]. disease. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year). Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus. and can live for very long. Montenegro which is over 2000 years old Olive tree on Ithaca. One olive tree in Bar.600 years old. The age of an olive tree in Crete.

and is said to be a remnant of an olive grove planted by Athenian tyrant Peisistratos in the 6th century BC.[17] A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia.com http://www. Specifically. there are tens of ancient olive trees throughout Biblical Israel.net/ . though showing a preference for the coast. All seven trees continue to produce olives. According to a recent scientific survey. when a traffic accident caused a bus to fall on and uproot it.400 years ago. and the olive fruit. and. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea. have been determined to be over 3000 years old. called the "Peisistratos Tree". Italy. in the municipality of Agioi Anargyroi. 1600-2000 years old. olive leaf. Since then the trunk is preserved and displayed in the nearby Agricultural University of Athens. Cultivation and uses For more details on this topic. Israel The olive tree has been cultivated for olive oil. the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. A supposedly even older tree.2. In the same natural garden. An example of black olives A selection of olives in a market in Tel Aviv.[17] from even before the rise of Islam. fine wood. The tree was a cavernous trunk from which a few branches were still sprouting in 1975. Modern experience does not always confirm this. it 252 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. see Olive (fruit). both in Galilee region. two giant olive trees in the Arab town of Arraba and five trees in Deir Hanna. While it is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region. a few other millenary trees can be admired. Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55.crazychefs. is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. is located by the banks of the Cephisus River.6 km) as the limit.

using waste produced from the olive plants as an energy source that produces 2. The smoke released has no negative impact on neighbors or the environment. laperrinei (Algeria. and the ash left in the stove can be used for fertilizing gardens and plants.crazychefs. under irrigation in the Cuyo region in Argentina which has a desert climate. the Mediterranean Basin.com http://www. They are also grown in the Córdoba Province. Chile. Sudan. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas.has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates.5 times the energy generated by burning the same amount of wood. olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). The process has been patented in the Middle East and the US. europaea (Europe) Olea europaea subsp.[19] Considerable research supports the health-giving benefits of consuming olives.[20] Subspecies There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. northwest Africa) where winters are mild.[18] The climate in Argentina changes the external characteristics of the plant but the fruit keeps its original characteristics. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa. such as South Africa. Palestinian Territories and California and in areas with temperate climates such as New Zealand. Olive plantation in Andalucia. Australia. Argentina. Israel. India) 253 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. also in Iran to China) Olea europaea subsp. Spain Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climates. Niger. Olives are now being looked at for use as a renewable energy source. guanchica (Canaries) Olea europaea subsp. maroccana (Morocco) Olea europaea subsp. particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia.net/ . which has a temperate climate with rainy summers and dry winters (Cwa).

crazychefs.com http://www.Cultivars Small olive tree Large olive tree Olive tree leaves 254 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.net/ .

Olive tree trunk Olive flowers A young olive plant.crazychefs.net/ .com http://www. germinated from a seed 255 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.

Southern Italy There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. grown around the world. efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease. but only a few are grown to a large extent. Rich taste and thick pulp. originating in Dos Hermanas. None of these can be accurately identified with ancient descriptions. they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. rounded-oval fruit. Seville. or other fillings) and packed in brine in jars or tins.200. A prolific bearer.crazychefs. excellent quality Greek table olive grown in Amfissa.net/ . The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten. Some particularly important cultivars of olive include: 'Amfissa'. which consists of 1. 256 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. in southern Spain. It is used mostly for oils. a large. with purple-green skin.com http://www. 'Manzanilla'. stuffed (with pickled pimento. the most common olive grown on Sardinia. quick growth and larger or more consistent crops. with an olive harvest net on the ground Monumental tree in Apulia Region . often after being pitted. Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so.000 olive trees is a part of a protected natural landscape. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated. anchovies. The olive grove of Amfissa. Central Greece near the oracle of Delphi. In recent times. though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive.Cailletier cultivar. Amfissa olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status and are equally good for olive oil extraction. 'Bosana'.

round. around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. 'Picual'. Due to their highly valued flavour. is considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world. good for eating and for oil. They are green. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. 'Souri'. large. originating in Lebanon(the town of Sur (Tyre)) and widespread in the Levant.[23] 'Barnea'. medium size. originating in the province of Córdoba. and elongated. These olives are usually preserved in vinegar or olive oil. Spain.[citation needed] 'Lucques'.com http://www. has a high yield of olive oil of exceptional quality. Greece. particularly in Australia and New Zealand. It is green. They grow in any light soil. flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags.crazychefs. a medium-sized black olive grown in Spain. 'Picholine' or 'pecholine'. comprising about 50% of Spain's olive production and around 20% of world olive production. 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. disease-resistant. these cultivars are now grown in other countries. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour. Kalamata olives enjoy PDO (Protected designation of origin) status. [24] Growth and propagation Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils. It is mainly used for oil. a small. which. a large. originating in the south of France. though difficult to cultivate. They are black and generally used for table consumption. comprises about 12% of Spain's production. originating from the southern Peloponese. originating in the south of France (Aude département). It has a strong but sweet flavour. and elongated. a Palestinian cultivar[22] also known locally as 'Baladi'. The stone has an arcuated shape[clarification needed]. 'Nabali'. named after the city of Kalamata. It is used both for oil and for table olives. another modern Israeli. Their flavour is mild and nutty. They are celebrated at Olive Festivals throughout the state of California. even on clay if well drained. Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. its oil has some of the best chemical properties found in olive oil. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. The olive is medium sized. and coastal climate conditions.net/ . black olive with a smooth and meatlike taste. Spain. has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production. 'Kalamata'. along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi'. and is widely used in Spain as a table olive. 'Cornicabra'.[21] 'Koroneiki'. Moreover. Spain. originating in Toledo. it is the most widely cultivated olive in Spain. originating in southern Spain (province of Jaén). 'Arbequina'. its oil is widely appreciated for its slightly bitter flavour. being the richest in oleic acid and E vitamin. This small olive.'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. but in rich soils they are predisposed to disease and produce poorer oil than in 257 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. 'Hojiblanca'. 'Empeltre'. used as a table olive. The flavour is mild and nutty. brown olive grown in Catalonia. a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease-resistant and to produce a generous crop. 'Maalot' (Hebrew for merits). good for eating and for oil.

The preferred ways are cuttings or layers. while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height. Branches of various thickness cut into lengths of about 1 m and planted deeply in manured ground. if they are pruned correctly and regularly. embryonic buds.net/ . grafting the cultivated tree on the wild tree is a common practice. Olive trees can live exceptionally long. Olives grow very slowly. as workers must take care not to damage the fruit. Another method uses an electric tool. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. green olives are picked at the end of September to about the middle of November. thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. Fruit harvest and processing Olives are harvested in the fall. or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution. and in many cases a large harvest occurs every sixth or seventh season. In Greece. large branches are marched[clarification needed] to obtain young trees. Olives are propagated in various ways. However. where they soon form a vigorous shoot. which form small swellings on the stems. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. the oliviera.) Olives like hot weather. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous. that has large tongs that spin around quickly. removing fruit from the tree. 114). yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor. Where the olive is carefully cultivated.com http://www. Shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches and. They tolerate drought well. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year. A. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint. but the time varies in each country. harvesting is done for several weeks in winter. rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. olives are harvested by hand 258 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.poorer soil.[citation needed] A third method uses a device called an oli-net that wraps around the tree trunk and opens to form an umbrella-like catcher from which workers collect the fruit. In southern Europe. More specifically. P. In Italy. In some places in Italy and Greece. and temperatures below 14 °F (-10 °C) may injure even a mature tree. it is valued by woodworkers. being very hard and close-grained. the trees are regularly pruned. (This was noted by Pliny the Elder. as in Languedoc and Provence. soon vegetate. and can remain productive for as long.crazychefs. but they seldom bear well two years in succession. baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used. to facilitate germination. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. and with the season and the cultivar. Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. and over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. Blond olives are picked from the middle of October to the end of November and Black olives are collected from the middle of November to the end of January or early February. up to several centuries. the oily pericarp is first softened by slight rotting. when covered with a few centimetres of soil. are carefully excised and planted under the soil surface. and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. Occasionally. The olive is also sometimes grown from seed. This method is used for olives used for oil. the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker.

the creation of lactic acid.com http://www.net/ . 7 litres (7 kg) of room temperature water is added to a container. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those flora that ferment the fruit. Typical yields are 1. through to full purple black ripeness. which can be eaten fresh.2 kg of oil per tree per year.5-2. 800 g salt and 300 ml of vinegar. [25] The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly by cultivar. American black ("California") olives are not fermented. a glycoside which makes the fruit too bitter although not unhealthy. the fruit is not bruised. then drained. The ratio is 10 kg olives to 7 liters of water.[26] Traditional fermentation and curing Green & Black Olive Olives are a naturally bitter fruit that is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. a bitter carbohydrate.g. Green olives and black olives are typically washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein.because the terrain is too mountainous for machines. ripe green (a yellower shade of green. which leads to a superior finished product.[25] (One exception is the Thassos Olive. One basic fermentation method involves a 10% solution of salt and vinegar in water. which is why they taste milder than green olives. and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. the pericarp is usually 60– 70% oil. Each olive is slit deeply with a small knife. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. The olives are soaked in water to wash.) There are many ways of processing olives for eating. large fruit (e. Olives should be selected for general good condition and for firmness if green. or green with hints of colour).. Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. the 259 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Olives can be used green. Fresh are often sold at markets. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. After some weeks. Freshly picked olive fruit is not palatable because it contains phenolic compounds and oleuropein. The method also involves sawing off branches.crazychefs. which is healthy for future production. plus 800 g of sea salt and one cup (300 g) of white wine or cider vinegar. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds. which is a natural preservative. As a result. 60 fruit per kg) should be slit in multiple places.

Curing can be done by several methods: lye-curing. A pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug.[29] Cultivation area tripled from 2. They can be tasted at any time because the bitter compounds are not poisonous. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. feta.6 to 8. In France and north-central Italy. brine-curing and fresh watercuring. Cycloconium oleaginum. chili. of which the water is changed daily. More serious damage is caused by olive-fly attacks to the fruit. juniper berries and anchovies.crazychefs.com http://www. leaving sawtooth damage.net/ . garlic cloves. wine. 260 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. olives suffer occasionally from frost. Lye-curing. induces tumour growth in the shoots. according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. Production Olives are the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world. causing great damage to plantations. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. an unnatural method. capsicum (pimento). This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste. and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. spices. but not as critical as when fermenting grapes to produce wine. especially to young trees. A species of bacterium. olive oil. diseases. The exclusion of oxygen is helpful.[25] Green olives are usually firmer than black olives. results in the worst taste as it leeches much of the fruits' flavor.salinity drops from 10% to around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives.[28] Rabbits eat the bark of olive trees and can do considerable damage. are all located in the Mediterranean region and produce 95% of the world's olives. the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. or removing the pit and stuffing them.5 million hectares between 1960 and 2004. and weather A fungus. Salt-curing (also known as dry-curing) involves packing the olives in plain salt for at least a month. vinegar. Olives can also be flavoured by soaking them in various marinades. Pests. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. but can be left to cure for up to three months. lemon zest. which produces a salty and wrinkled olive. their main predators are wasps. Popular flavourings are herbs. Sometimes. salt-curing. can infect the trees for several successive seasons. lemon juice. Brine-curing involves placing the olives in a salt water solution for a few days or more. It is possible to use a plastic bag partially filled with water. The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month. and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. The gases of fermentation should be able to escape. oleae[27]. If the bark is removed around the entire circumference of a tree it is likely to die. Gales and longcontinued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. The ten largest producing countries. Certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers. Fresh-water curing involves soaking the olives in a succession of baths. The curculio beetle eats the edges of leaves. a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot.

140. 1).149.Rank — 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Main countries of production (Year 2003) Production Cultivated area Yield Country/Region (in tons) (in hectares) (q/Ha) World Spain Italy Greece Turkey Syria Tunisia Morocco Egypt Algeria Portugal Lebanon 17.000 594.which is still shown in the Pandroseion" (pseudo-Apollodorus. ^ Towards the end of the second century AD the traveler Pausanias saw many such archaic cult figures. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.300. On the Causes of Plants. ^ "He learned from the Nymphai how to curdle milk.crazychefs. 1.597. 5.988 500.000 49.100 3. ^ "Indeed it is said that at that [ancient] time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens.000 430. 4. 81.000 1. 1 ). Ancient Greek Agriculture. the olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation.000 550." (Herodotus.317.1).339 300..888 178.830 2.8 16.6 31. 3. Odyssey.160.net/ .000 280. ^ Pausanias. 38. ^ Homer. 6.000 498. 1992.5 As an invasive species Since its first domestication.1 25.000 470. and was the first to instruct men in these matters. 4." (Diodorus Siculus. 82.9 6. 2. An introduction.3 8.. 5.000 250.3 20. 261 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail.400.000 275. Description of Greece 1.5 63.800.[31] References 1. 27.089 6. 7. ^ ".5 6.0 3.981 1.7 27. to make bee-hives.13.[30] In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced.com http://www.000 1.4 30. noted by Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard.064 2. ^ Theophrastus..685 765. In South Australia its seeds are spread by the introduced red fox and by many bird species including the European starling and the native emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees. and to cultivate olive-trees.000 8. Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves. book 5".000 998.14. p. Bibliotheke. most notably South Australia. 4. 3..000 318.500.5.000 20.

13. Number 4). Apps3. Rackham.jsp.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". The Making of the Cretan Landscape.net/ . ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope. E. Volume 18:27-35 20. John Hutton. M Bauza & R. pp 110–113. ^ Belaj et al. me cichorea levesque malvae.Near the Old Bar in Tombi. the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. ^ Lewington.. Masuelli. Brijuni National Park.W. Kislew. http://www. ^ Isager and Skydsgaard 1992. Elena "Unusual Olives". ISBN 84-239-4-500-6 (Complete Encyclopedia) and ISBN 84-239-4-5154 (Volume 15 ) 19. Processing methods. & Ouazzani. Y. 105. ^ http://www. 1996.org. "A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine"..com/content/dlb533pw9cbwc59e/. ^ Fotiadi. 27.279 18. Nature 413: 700 262 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. cited in F. Volume 15. A. 2001. ^ Burr. ^ Riley. ^ Lumaret. ^ "Me pascunt olivae. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 17. vol.cit. Spring/Summer 2006 26. J. 69. Cavagnaro P. J. 24. J. 1982. ^ Enciclopedia Universal Europeo Americana. Retrieved 2007-08-31. nom. & Parker. ^ Gooch. 28. ca 30 BC 9. "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. ^ Muncipality Bar. "10+1 Things you may not know about olive oil". J." Horace.brijuni.fao. Int. 23. N. EspasaCalpe S. Available through Google Books 11. Odes 1. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) (vol. Syst. 4th edition. ISBN 1-85585-704-9 14. Zatoun. Juárez. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75 16.crazychefs. Madrid. Fall/Spring (2005) 12.org/wiews/olive/intro. 1779. Ellen. (September 2002). Pseudomonas syringae subsp.hr/Home. 29 April. A guide for growers and producers of virgin oils. http://www.com/study.htm.8. and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. 1981. ^ a b c "Unusual Olives". Leshonenu (Hebrew). D.fao. 1999.. ^ "Old Olive Tree". Simhoni. 29.zatoun. ^ Balfour. London: Collins & Brown Ltd.pasoroblesolivefestival. Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties. (1999) Ancient Trees. 32:166–169. http://apps3.31. Epikouria Magazine.springerlink. 30. nov. ^ [1] 21. Epikouria Magazine. Tabak & O. ^ O. Epikouria Magazine (Spring/Summer 2006) 22. there is an olive tree which is 2000 years old 15. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. Retrieved 2007-03-10. AGRISCIENTA. op.A.. M. Retrieved 2009-05-18. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. 2004". R. reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1855062070 10. 35. ^ Discriminación de variedades de olivo a través del uso de caracteres morfológigos y de marcadores moleculares.. ^ Janse.15. Bacteriol. "Kod Starog Bara u Tombi (Mirovica) nalazi se maslina stara više od 2000 godina".com/ 25. p. p. Moody. R.aspx?PageID=151. Australian Olives. rev. "Plants of the Bible" 1885.com http://www. http://www. ^ a b M. Identifying the Names of Fruits in Ancient Rabbinic Literature. ^ "FAO. Riley (2002).

The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2-4 mm diameter. Tarragon Tarragon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Species: Asterales Asteraceae Anthemideae Artemisia A. L." It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India. 2-8 cm long and 2-10 mm broad. glossy green. with slender branched stems. each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. seldom produces flowers.net/ . Tarragon or dragon's-wort (Artemisia dracunculus L.crazychefs. dracunculus Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L.) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood.31. (French tarragon.R. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. western North America. however. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901. Tarragon grows to 120-150 cm tall.com http://www. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen. The leaves are lanceolate. The North American populations may however be naturalised from early human introduction. a common term for the plant is "dragon herb.[1]) 263 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. with an entire margin. and south to northern Mexico. Corresponding to its species name.

due to the presence of estragole. The drink—named Tarhun (թարխուն. which is the Armenian. The young stems in early spring can be cooked as an asparagus substitute. a known carcinogen and teratogen in mice. and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. sunny spot. Fresh. Grow indoors from seed and plant out in the summer.crazychefs. Persian and Russian word for . Spreading plant can be divided easily.com http://www. Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and vigorous plant. tarragon—is made out of sugary tarragon concentrate and colored bright green. It is normally purchased as a plant.[2] Usage Culinary use Tarragon is one of the four fines herbes of French cooking. dracunculoides L.Cultivation Dried tarragon leaves French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen. Tarragon is one of the main components of Béarnaise sauce. Health Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise.net/ .[1] It likes a hot. but cannot be grown from seed. by extension. fish and egg dishes. but it produces many more leaves from early spring onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. A perennial. This tarragon actually prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. lightly bruised sprigs of tarragon may be steeped in vinegar to impart their flavor. without excessive watering.) can be grown from seed but is much weaker in flavour when compared to the French variety. It is not as strongly aromatic and flavoursome as its French cousin. Russia and Ukraine. spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. pronounced [tarˈxuˈn] Тархун). and particularly suitable for chicken.[1] However. The European Union investigation revealed that the danger of estragole is minimal even at 100-1000 times the typical consumption seen in humans. Tarragon is used to flavor a popular carbonated soft drink in the countries of Armenia. 264 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Georgia and.[1] Russian tarragon (A. it normally goes dormant in winter.

Rose Marie Nichols. Machinek A.net/ . Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation. Krammer G. officinalis Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. The Bountiful Container. Ley JP. 233.[3] In Slovenia. 3.Cis-Pellitorin. pp. ^ Gatfield IL.com http://www. ISBN 9783527607891. References 1. Johannes Panten (2006). ^ Surburg. tarragon is used as a spice for sweet pastry called potica. World Patent WO2004000787 A2 Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis Flowers Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Family: Genus: Species: Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. Workman Publishing. 2.crazychefs. an isobutylamide eliciting a pungent taste. Properties and Uses. Maggie (2002). 265 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Wiley-VCH. Foerstner J. Horst. Production of cispellitorin and use as a flavouring. ^ a b c d McGee. Stuckey. has been isolated from Tarragon plant.

In the United States. and blue to purplish flowers. In the Balkans and the Middle East. Sage is sautéed in olive oil and butter until crisp. Purple sage. grayish leaves. Common sage. and sage forms the dominant flavoring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Uses Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe. Broadleaf sage.Salvia officinalis (Sage. sage is used with onion for poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces.net/ . Britain and Flanders. Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub. and some drinks. it is used when roasting mutton.com http://www. Dalmatian sage. Culinary sage. Lamiaceae. sage has a slight peppery flavor. Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887) Culinary As an herb.crazychefs. The word sage or derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species. 266 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). Sage is also common in Italian cooking. In French cuisine. cheeses (Sage Derby). Kitchen sage. Germans often use it in sausage dishes. with woody stems. sage is used for cooking white meat and in vegetable soups. In Western cooking. it is used for flavoring fatty meats (especially as a marinade). It is a member of the mint family. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. Garden sage. especially the Balkans for distillation of an essential oil. though other species. It is native to the Mediterranean region and commonly grown as a kitchen and medicinal herb or as an ornamental garden plant.

which contains cineole. flavones. cornsolic acid.[1] 267 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. The Latin name for sage. flavonoid glycosides. antifungal. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. fumaric acid. it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment.crazychefs. means ―to heal". and thujone. oleic acid.trichomes are visible. estrogenic. niacin. astringent. caffeic acid. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic. antispasmodic. and estrogenic substances. The underside of a sage leaf . Sage leaf contains tannic acid.net/ . chlorogenic acid. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate.com http://www. antibiotic. ursolic acid. cornsole. nicotinamide.[1] In a double blind. and tonic. salvia. randomized and placebo-controlled trial.more trichomes are visible on this side.[2] The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. hypoglycemic.Medicinal Sage leaves The top side of a sage leaf . borneol. ursonic acid.

Ohadinia S. J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9.net/ .[3] Cultivars There are a number of cultivars. and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. 'Berggarten'. Pliny the Elder said that the latter plant was called "Salvia" by the Romans. a small leaved cultivar.1365-2710. especially in sunny dry environments. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt. emmenagogue. a styptic. 2. snakebites. and more.[3] The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs. 'Alba'. a purple-leafed cultivar. ^ Akhondzadeh S. 'Tricolor'. PMID 12605619. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages. Named cultivars include: 'Purpurascens'.appliedhealth. hemostatic. and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar. a local anesthetic for the skin. monastery gardens were cultivating the plant. and tonic. a cultivar with large leaves. An "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor" promotes the availabilty of Acetylcholine. References 1.com http://www.[4] It was sometimes called S. Dioscorides. and used as a diuretic.x. (2003). considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages.2003. a white-flowered cultivar. and for low ground cover. Khani M. a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. a wild undershrub he called sphakos. has leaves with higher oil concentrations. History Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil. OBeWise Nutriceutica. increasing women's fertility. salvatrix (Sage the Savior).Caution is indicated when used in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants.1046/j. 'Extrakta'. Noroozian M. Applied Health. During the Carolingian Empire of the early Middle Ages. doi:10. ^ a b c "Sage". Retrieved 2008-02-04. 'Icterina'.00463. 'Lavandulaefolia'. with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. Jamshidi AH. http://www. and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic. a cultivar with white. a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves.crazychefs. randomized and placebo-controlled trial".com/nutri/page8453. Pliny. "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind. yellow and green variegated leaves. Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it Lelifagus. and for other uses.php. 268 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Mohammadi M.[1] Sage is used as a nootropic for its acetylcholinesterase inhibitor properties. with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value.

^ a b Kintzios. 10 Sources The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. 2001) 269 | P a g e Cooking Ingredients/at3585@gmail. Sage: The Genus Salvia. 10-11.crazychefs. Deni Bown (New York: DK. CRC Press. p. 4. ISBN 9789058230058.net/ .com http://www. ^ An anglo-saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios. Spiridon E. pp.3. (2000).

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